ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: biofuels; greenhouse gas; ghg; abatement cost; modelling; competition
Online: 18 December 2017 (11:47:05 CET)
Transport biofuels derived from biogenic material are used for substituting fossil fuels, thereby abating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Numerous competing conversion options exist to produce biofuels, with differing GHG emissions and costs. In this paper analysis and modelling of the long-term development of GHG abatement and relative GHG abatement cost competitiveness between crop-based biofuels in Germany is carried out. Presently dominant conventional biofuels and advanced liquid biofuels were found not to be competitive compared to the substantially higher yielding options available: sugar beet based ethanol for the short to medium term least-cost option and Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) for the medium to long term. The competitiveness of SNG was found to depend highly on the emissions development of the power mix. Silage maize based biomethane was found competitive on a land area basis, but not on an energetic basis. Due to land limitations as well as cost and GHG uncertainty, a stronger focus on the land use of crop-based biofuels should be laid in policy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0125.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: conservation agriculture; soil greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes; soil tillage
Online: 10 April 2018 (10:02:25 CEST)
Conservation Agriculture (CA) alters soil properties and microbial processes compared to conventional agriculture. These changes can affect soil-atmosphere greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. In this overview, we summarized the results of global literature and the gaps in measuring and understanding of GHG fluxes in CA systems and conventional agriculture. Some studies compared soil carbon sequestration and soil respiration in conservation agriculture and no-tillage system with conventional agriculture and the results were not consistent in all experiments. Interactions between CA pillars and soil factors such as soil moisture, temperature, texture can determine the rate of respiration rate and soil-atmosphere CO2 fluxes. The majority of studies reported larger N2O emissions in no-tillage treatment compared with conventional tillage while some other studies reported no difference between no-tillage and conventional tillage systems. In the majority of CA studies, there is lack of required information which is necessary to understand the mechanisms and processes that affect soil GHG fluxes. Determining factors like climate, amount of plant residues, soil type, crop types included in crop rotation and cover crops and duration of the study are not considered. Static chamber method was used for measuring soil-atmosphere GHG fluxes in the majority of studies. Spatial and temporal changes in GHG flux rates are high and missing part of highly episodic events by using static chamber method may result over- or under-estimation in flux balance calculation. Applying standard techniques for measuring continuous fluxes can help to calculating accurate GHG balance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0433.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: nitrogen; livestock feeding; biochar; greenhouse gas; sustainability; agriculture; game changer; environment
Online: 7 September 2023 (03:24:34 CEST)
Agriculture (crop production, land use, and livestock) is the second most important greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting sector after the energy sector. Agriculture is also recognized as the source and sink of GHGs. Evidence demonstrates that the application of high amounts of nitrogen-rich fertilizers enhances methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, which are potent GHGs with a high global warming potential (GWP). Considering its global contribution to the climate crisis, reducing GHG emissions in agriculture would considerably lower its share of the global GHG emission records, which may lead to enormous benefits for the environment and food production systems. Several diverging and controversial views questioning the actual role of plants in the current global GHG budget continue to nourish the debate globally. We must acknowledge that considering the beneficial roles of major GHGs to plants at a certain level of accumulation, implementing GHG mitigation measures from agriculture is indeed a complex task. This review seeks to provide key approaches for GHG mitigation in the literature (environmentally friendly crop cultivation and residue management practices, improvement of plants nutrients/fertilizer use efficiency, exploring the genetic diversity for low GHG emission, soil methane-producing bacteria, integrated soil fertility management, improved livestock feeding efficiency, and production, etc.). This work gathers key approaches from 275 peer-reviewed publications, including experimental research papers, review articles, and books, discussing greenhouse gas emissions mechanisms and mitigation to unravel effective strategies for GHG mitigation, proven to be effective or carry the potential to mitigate GHG generation from agriculture. This review also discusses in depth the significance and the dynamics of strategies regarded as game changers with a high potential to enhance, in a sustainable manner, the resilience of agricultural systems. Agricultural GHG mitigation approaches discussed in this work can serve as game changers in global efforts to reducing GHG emissions and alleviating the impact of climate change through sustainable agriculture and informed-decision making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0146.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Amazon rainforest; forestry degradation; greenhouse gas emission; remote sensing application.
Online: 7 December 2020 (12:25:25 CET)
This work presents the dynamics of forest clearing in the Brazilian Amazon during the period 2006–2019 in which includes the approval of the new Brazilian Forest Code in 2012. The study was carried out in the Brazilian Amazon, Pará State and in the municipality of Novo Progresso (Pará State). The analysis was based on deforestation and fire hotspot datasets issued by the Brazilian Institute for Space Research (INPE), produced based on optical and thermal sensors onboard different satellites. Deforestation data was also used to assess greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the slash-and-burn practices. The work showed a good correlation between the occurrence of fires in the newly deforested area in the municipality of Novo Progresso and the slash-and-burn practices. The same trend was also observed in the Pará State, suggesting a common practice along the deforestation arch. The study indicated positive coefficients of determination of 0.72 and 0.66 between deforestation and fire occurrences for the municipality of Novo Progresso and Pará State, respectively. The increased number of fire occurrences in the primary forest suggests possible ecosystem degradation. Deforestation reported for 2019 surpassed 10,000 km2, a significant intensification comparatively higher than the previous ten years which was on an average of 6,760 km2. The steady increase of deforestation in the Amazon after 2012 has been a worldwide concern because of the forest loss itself as well as the massive GHG emitted in the Brazilian Amazon (295 million tons of net CO2 equivalent in the year 2019). Better correlation of deforestation and fires occurrences reported from satellite images confirmed the slash-and-burn practice and the secondary effect of deforestation, which degrades primary forest surrounding the deforested areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0508.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: craft brewery, greenhouse gas accounting, carbon regulation, carbon footprint, cap and trade, institutional theory
Online: 22 October 2018 (15:40:11 CEST)
A growing number of companies in the brewery industry have made commitments to measure and reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, many brewers, particularly craft brewers with relatively low rates of production, have struggled to meet these commitments. The purpose of this research was to investigate the challenges and benefits of measuring and reducing GHG emissions in the craft brewery industry. The research was conducted in Ontario, Canada, which has seen strong recent growth in the craft brewery industry. A case study and semi-structured interviews among Ontario Craft Brewers were conducted. The case study found that indirect (scope 3 emissions under the WBCSD & WRI GHG Protocol) GHG sources accounted for 46.4% of total GHGs, with major sources from barley agriculture, malted barley transportation, and bottle production. Direct emissions (scope 1) accounted for only 14.9% of GHGs, while scope 2 emissions, comprised mainly of energy consumption, accounted for 38.7% of GHGs. The case study and interviews found that the main challenges in calculating brewery GHGs are secondary data availability, technical knowledge, and finances. The study also found that the main benefits for Ontario breweries to measure their GHGs include sustainability marketing and preserving the environment. The interviews also found a poor understanding of carbon regulation among Ontario Craft Brewers, which is interesting considering that Ontario implemented a provincial cap and trade program in 2017.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0397.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: methane emissions; coal seam mining; gas engines; greenhouse gas
Online: 30 November 2019 (14:27:52 CET)
During the extraction of hard coal in Polish conditions, methane is emitted, which is referred to as mine gas. As a result of the desorption of methane, a greenhouse gas is released from coal seams. In order to reduce atmospheric emissions, methane from coal seams is captured by a methane drainage system. On the other hand, methane, which has been separated into underground mining excavations, is discharged into the atmosphere with a stream of ventilation air. For many years, Polish hard coal mines have been capturing methane to ensure the safety of the crew and the continuity of mining operations. As a greenhouse gas, methane has a significant potential, as it is more effective at absorbing and re-emitting radiation than carbon dioxide. The increase in the amount of methane in the atmosphere is a significant factor influencing global warming, however, it is not as strong as the increase in carbon dioxide. Therefore, in Polish mines, the methane-air mixture captured in the methane drainage system is not emitted to the atmosphere, but burned as fuel in systems, including cogeneration systems, to generate electricity, heat and cold. However, in order for such use to be possible, the methane-air mixture must meet appropriate quality and quantity requirements. The article presents an analysis of changes in selected parameters of the captured methane-air mixture from one of the hard coal mines in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in Poland. The paper analyses the changes in concentration and size of the captured methane stream through the methane capturing system. The gas captured by the methane drainage system, as an energy source, can be used in cogeneration, when the methane concentration is greater than 40%. Considering the variability of CH4 concentration in the captured mixture, it was also indicated which pure methane stream must be added to the gas mixture in order for this gas to be used as a fuel for gas engines. The balance of power of produced electric energy in gas engines is presented. Possible solutions ensuring constant concentration of the captured methane-air mixture are also presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0165.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: oil and gas production; atmospheric emissions; greenhouse gases; gas flaring; H2S
Online: 26 November 2017 (12:21:40 CET)
This paper addresses the atmospheric emissions from oil and gas extraction and production in Greece. The study was carried out in 2014 in the Kavala gulf, which currently is the only location of oil and gas production in Greece and where the exploration activities for hydrocarbons started in the late ‘60’s. This study presents the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of atmospheric emissions, in relation also to the emissions’ control management system. Particular reference is made to sulphur compounds since the existence of volcanic rocks results to increased amounts of H2S. The results shows that, currently, atmospheric emissions of pollutants during extraction and production of hydrocarbons in Greece are very low and do not have any significant effect on air quality and climate change. Since it is expected that exploitation of hydrocarbons and oil and gas extraction and production will increase in the future, appropriate measures should be taken to ensure environmental protection, such as the development of integrated monitoring systems and the use of up to date emission control technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1771.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: software; gas flux estimation; data processing; automatic chamber; greenhouse gases
Online: 26 September 2023 (10:23:08 CEST)
OpenToolFlux is an open-source software to estimate soil gas fluxes from gas concentration time-series data generated by automatic chamber systems. This paper describes the physical equipment used as well as software design and workflow. The software is a command-line application that imports tabular time-series data from the analyzer following the instructions specified in a configuration file by the user, performs configurable data-cleaning operations, and outputs a data file with volumetric flux estimates as well as diagnostic plots. The software can be configured according to the specifics of physical equipment and experimental setup and is therefore applicable in a wide range of studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0966.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: carbon sequestration; emission; greenhouse gas; landfill gas; methane; municipal solid waste; Phnom Penh.
Online: 26 April 2023 (07:28:45 CEST)
This study assesses the biomethane (CH4) generation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions resulting from municipal solid waste landfilling in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, with a focus on the impact of fugitive CH4 emissions and operation processes in four landfilling scenarios: simple dumping (S1), improved management with leachate treatment (S2), engineered landfill with flaring (S3), and engineered landfill with energy recovery (S4). The study also considered the environmental benefits of carbon sequestration and landfill gas utilization. The LandGEM and IPCC FOD models were used to calculate CH4 generation over the period of 2009-2022, and it was found that approximately 18 and 21 M kg/year of CH4 are released, respectively. The energy potential from CH4 recovery was 51–61 GWh/year. Overall GHG emissions in S2 were the highest, amounting to 409–509 M kg CO2-eq/year, while S1 had lower emissions at 397–496 M kg CO2-eq/year. Flaring captured CH4 in S3 could reduce GHG emissions by at least 55%, and using captured CH4 for electricity production in S4 could mitigate at least 83% of GHG emissions. Electricity recovery (S4) could avoid significant amounts of GHG emissions (˗104.5 kg CO2-eq/tMSW). The study suggests that landfill gas-to-energy could significantly reduce GHG emissions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0435.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Electric Vehicles; Greenhouse Gas; Climate Change; Transportation; Energy; Renewables; Lifecycle Assessment; Electricity Grid
Online: 17 December 2020 (15:52:28 CET)
An indisputable fact about our planet is that its atmospheric temperature has risen dramatically during the past century. Combustion of fossil fuels and their subsequent greenhouse gas emissions are thought to be the main contributors to recent changes within the Earth’s ecosystem. The transportation sector and electricity generating power plants are each responsible for approximately one-third of these emissions. Shifting towards a cleaner and renewable resources to generate electricity is believed to omit a big portion of polluting substances. Improvements in vehicles’ fuel efficiency and the introduction of alternative fuels besides strategic plans to control travel demand are among the most promising approaches to alleviate emissions from the transportation sector. Recent technology advancements, however, drew much attention to the production and manufacturing of alternative fuel vehicles, electric vehicles in particular. Since these vehicles use electricity as part of or all their powertrain, assessing the amount of emissions they produce is closely tied to the cleanliness of the electricity source. In order for a valid comparison to be made between internal combustion and electric vehicles, hence, a life cycle assessment procedure needs to be followed from production stages to terminal life of vehicles. Involvement of numerous affecting factors during the lifetime of a vehicle on one hand, and the ambiguity in the exact source of electricity used to charge electric vehicles on the other hand bring about more complexities. The latter case is more commonly known as the marginal grid problem, which deals with how a combination of sources used to generate electricity can influence the life cycle emissions. There are also other concerns regarding the growth in fuel-efficient and electric vehicles. Transportation planners argue that new developments in the vehicle industry may attract more people to owning and driving cars. This phenomenon which is better known as a rebound effect not only will result in increased traffic congestion, but it can also outpace the environmental benefits from utilizing electric vehicles. Moreover, since fuel taxes comprise the majority of Highway Trust Funds, alternative ways to compensate for state and federal revenues should be devised. This paper is an attempt to review the existing literature to better elaborate on the role of the transportation sector in controlling climate change threats. More specifically, issues around the use of electric vehicles and how they can contribute to more environmentally friendly communities are discussed.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: systematic review; community intervention; greenhouse gas emissions; climate change
Online: 3 September 2020 (02:54:04 CEST)
This paper reviews research on community efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. We conducted a systematic search of relevant literature and supplemented our findings with an analysis of review papers previously published on the topic. Results indicate that there have been no peer-reviewed experimental evaluations of community-wide interventions to reduce greenhouse gases involving electricity, refrigeration, or food. The lack of findings limits the conclusions which can be made about the efficacy of these efforts. As a result, we are not accumulating effective interventions and some communities may be implementing strategies that are not effective. We advocate the funding of experimental evaluations of multi-sector community interventions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Such interventions would attempt to engage every sector of the community in identifying and implementing policies and practices to reduce emissions. Comprehensive multi-sector interventions are likely to have synergistic effects, such that the total impact is greater than the sum of impact of individual components. We describe the value of interrupted time-series designs as an alternative to randomized trials because these designs confer particular advantages for evaluating strategies in entire communities.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: climate change; greenhouse gas emissions; methane; nitrous oxide; cow manure; anaerobic digestion
Online: 4 December 2020 (13:45:39 CET)
Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions from dairy farms are significant contributors to global warming. However much of the published work on GHG reduction is focused on either Methane (CH4) or Nitrous Oxide (N2O), with few, if any, considering the interactions that changes to farm systems can have on both gases. This paper takes the raw data from a year of activity on a 300 cow commercial dairy farm in Northern Ireland to more accurately quantify the GHG sources by use of a simple predictive model based on IPCC methodology. Differing herd management policies are examined together with the impact of integrating Anaerobic Digestion (AD) into each farm system. Whilst significant success can be predicted in capturing CH4 and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) as biogas and preventing N2O emissions, gains made can be lost in a subsequent process negating some or all of the advantage. The process of extracting value from the captured resource is discussed in the light of current farm parameters together with indications of other potential revenue streams. However, this study has concluded that despite the significant potential for GHG reduction, there is little incentive for widespread adoption of manure based farm scale AD in the UK at this time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1320.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: circular economy; platinum recycling; greenhouse gas emission reduction; resource saving; life cycle assessment
Online: 22 November 2023 (02:28:07 CET)
When disposing of waste metal resources in landfills, environmental issues such as soil contamination may arise. Recycling these resources not only recovers valuable metals but also mitigates environmental pollution. Platinum (Pt), a valuable metal used in fuel cells for its high water production activity, will see increased future demand as a fossil fuel alternative. This study analyzes the environmental and resource reduction effects of recycled Pt, considering the growing emphasis on its recycling for stable supply and demand of Pt. The environmental impact and resource consumption of recycled Pt with primary Pt (from natural mines) were compared and analyzed using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) technique. Results revealed that resource consumption for primary Pt was 8.25E+01 kg Sb-eq./kg, significantly more than the 5.45E+00 kg Sb-eq./kg for recycled Pt. This represents an environmental reduction effect of approximately 93%. In the case of greenhouse gas emissions, primary Pt emitted 1.35E+04 kg CO2-eq./kg, while recycled Pt emitted 6.94E+02 kg CO2-eq./kg, resulting in an environmental reduction effect of approximately 95%. In conclusion, recycling Pt, compared to primary extraction, offers substantial environmental and resource reduction benefits. This study underscores the significance of recycling and highlights the potential environmental improvements achievable through sustainable practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0315.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: biochar; greenhouse gas emissions; incubation; soil; corn; switchgrass; CO2; N2O; cropping system; diversity
Online: 15 October 2018 (13:10:52 CEST)
Biochar application to soil has been proposed as a means for reducing soil greenhouse gas emissions and mitigating climate change. The effects, however, of interactions between biochar, moisture and temperature on soil CO2 and N2O emissions, remain poorly understood. Furthermore, the applicability of lab-scale observations to field conditions in diverse agroecosystems remains uncertain. Here we investigate the impact of a mixed wood gasification biochar on CO2 and N2O emissions from loess-derived soils using: (1) controlled laboratory incubations at three moisture (27, 31 and 35%) and three temperature (10, 20 and 30°C) levels, and (2) a field study with four cropping systems (continuous corn, switchgrass, low diversity grass mix, and high diversity grass-forb mix). Biochar reduced N2O emissions under specific temperatures and moistures in the laboratory and in the continuous corn cropping system in the field. However, the effect of biochar on N2O emissions was only significant in the field, and no effect on cumulative CO2 emissions was observed. Cropping system also had a significant effect in the field study, with soils in grass and grass-forb cropping systems emitting more CO2 and less N2O than corn cropping systems. Observed biochar effects were consistent with previous studies showing that biochar amendments can reduce soil N2O emissions under specific, but not all, conditions. The disparity in N2O emission responses at the lab and field scales suggests that laboratory incubation experiments are not reliable for predicting the impact of biochar at the field scale.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2087.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: carbon emissions; greenhouse gas emissions; global catastrophic risk; climate change; energy policy; human mortality; climate genocide
Online: 31 July 2023 (10:54:43 CEST)
When attempting to quantify future harms caused by carbon emissions and to set appropriate energy policies, it has been argued that the most important metric is the number of human deaths caused by climate change. Several studies have attempted to overcome the uncertainties associated with such forecasting. In this article, approaches to estimating future human deaths tolls from climate change are compared and synthesized, and implications for energy policy are considered. Several studies are consistent with the “1000-ton rule,” according to which a future person is killed every time 1000 tons of fossil carbon are burned (order-of-magnitude estimate). If warming reaches or exceeds 2°C this century, mainly richer humans will be responsible for killing roughly 1 billion mainly poorer humans through anthropogenic global warming. Such mass manslaughter is clearly unacceptable. On this basis, relatively aggressive energy policies are summarized that would enable immediate and substantive decreases to carbon emissions. The limitations to such calculations are outlined and future work is recommended to accelerate the decarbonization of the global economy while minimizing the number of sacrificed human lives.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0103.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Treatment wetlands; Greenhouse gas emission; clogging; water quality; Phragmites australis
Online: 6 December 2022 (11:39:32 CET)
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of solids accumulation on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, substrate, plant growth and performance of a horizontal flow (HF) treatment wetland (TW) planted with Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. sub sp. australis. The study was carried out in an eight-year-old full-scale HF-TW located in the Mediterranean region (Sicily, Italy). To collect data inside the HF unit, nine observation points (besides the inlet and the outlet) along three 8.5 m long transects (T1, T2, and T3) were identified. The first transect (close to the inlet zone) showed hydraulic conductivity (Ks) reduction of about one order of magnitude higher than the other two. Results highlighted GHG emissions increasing during the summer when temperature and solar radiation were higher than in the rest of the year. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emis-sions decreased from T1 to T3, with maximum monthly values in T1 (21.4 g CO2 m-2 d-1) about double with respect to T2 (12.6 g CO2 m-2 d-1) and T3 (10.7 g CO2 m-2 d-1) observed in July. The CO2 seasonal trend was similar to that of P. Australis growth. Theoretical me-thane (CH4) emissions followed the trend of volatile solids (VS), which was about 3.5 and 4 times in T1 to T2 and T3. The highest CH4 emissions in T1 were probably due to anaerobic bacteria (methanogens) that proliferated in the waterlogged, anoxic part of TW. The pore-clogging affected the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency which de-creasing from T1 to T3 for the observation period. Notwithstanding this behaviour, the final effluent quality was very satisfactory with the average value of COD removal efficiency above 90%.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0471.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: large ruminants, molasses blocks, greenhouse gas emissions, abatement, climate change
Online: 25 November 2022 (07:03:24 CET)
Large ruminant production in developing countries is inefficient with low growth rates and likely high greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe) per unit of meat or milk produced. Trials conducted in Lao PDR from 2017-2020, studied ad-libitum supplementation for 12 weeks with 20kg high quality molasses nutrient blocks (MNB; Four Seasons Pty Ltd, Brisbane, Australia), that were either: non-medicated (NMB); fenbendazole-medicated (FMB5, Panacur100®, Coopers Australia, @ 5g/kg); triclabendazole-medicated (TMB5 or TMB10, Fasinex®, Novartis Australia, @ 5g/kg or @ 10g/kg, respectively); or formulated with urea (UMB8 or UMB10 @ 8% or 10% urea, respectively). Average daily gains (ADG) were determined for access to all MNB’s and compared with access to NMB’s, no supplementation, or previously determined free-grazing baseline ADG’s (55–84g in cattle; 92–106g in buffalo). ADGs were significantly improved following access to all MNBs for periods up to 12wks. ADGs following access to UMB8 or NMB were calculated for three age cohorts of cattle: young calves <8m (238-298g), growing cattle (143-214g) and lactating cows (179-191g). Modelling using IPCC Inventory software model V 2.69 of published data demonstrated a conservative net abatement of 350kg CO2e was achievable over a 200 day feeding period. An additional trial of Emissions control blocks (EMB’s, n = 200) distributed to farmers (n = 60) and two educational institutions, was conducted. Consumption rates (156g/day) and farmer and institutional acceptance of EMB’s were similar to published findings with other MNB’s, confirming all MNB’s and EMB’s improved animal productivity and body condition score, with healthier animals that were easier to manage. Modelling of changes in GHGe intensity identified an abatement of 470kg CO2e per EMB consumed, delivering a total project emissions abatement of 94t CO2e. Provision of MNBs and EMBs in smallholder large ruminant production systems is likely to achieve impressive abatement of GHGe due to improved efficiency of rumen fermentation and productivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0319.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: YOLOv4; Faster RCNN; Deep-SORT; pig posture detection; object tracking; greenhouse gas; animal welfare
Online: 21 October 2021 (23:06:30 CEST)
Pig behavior is an integral part of health and welfare management, as pigs usually reflect their inner emotions through behavior change. The livestock environment plays a key role in pigs' health and wellbeing. A poor farm environment increases the toxic GHGs, which might deteriorate pigs' health and welfare. In this study a computer-vision-based automatic monitoring and tracking model was proposed to detect short-term pigs' physical activities in a compromised environment. The ventilators of the livestock barn were closed for an hour, three times in a day (07:00-08:00, 13:00-14:00, and 20:00-21:00) to create a compromised environment, which increases the GHGs level significantly. The corresponding pig activities were observed before, during, and after an hour of the treatment. Two widely used object detection models (YOLOv4 and Fast-er R-CNN) were trained and compared their performances in terms of pig localization and posture detection. The YOLOv4, which outperformed the Faster R-CNN model, coupled with a Deep-SORT tracking algorithm to detect and track the pig activities. The results showed that the pigs became more inactive with the increase in GHG concentration, reducing their standing and walking activities. Moreover, the pigs also shortened their sternal-lying posture increasing the lateral lying posture duration at higher GHG concentration. The high detection accuracy (mAP: 98.67%) and tracking accuracy (MOTA: 93.86% and MOTP: 82.41%) signify the models’ efficacy in monitoring and tracking pigs' physical activities non-invasively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0297.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: ecophysiological modelling; boreal agriculture; greenhouse gases; model evaluation; DNDC; soil organic carbon; net-zero
Online: 20 October 2022 (06:59:59 CEST)
With global warming, arable land in boreal regions is tending to expand into high latitude regions in the northern hemisphere. This entails certain risks; such that inappropriate management could result in previously stable carbon sinks becoming sources. Agroecological models are an important tool for assessing the sustainability of long-term management, yet applications of such models in boreal zones are scarce. We collated eddy-covariance, soil climate and biomass data to evaluate the simulation of GHG emissions from grassland in eastern Finland using the process-based model DNDC. We simulated gross primary production (GPP), net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) with fair performance. Soil climate, soil temperature and soil moisture at 5 cm were excellent, and soil moisture at 20 cm was good. However, the model overestimated NEE and Reco following crop termination and tillage events. These results indicate that DNDC can satisfactorily simulate GHG fluxes in a boreal grassland setting, but further work is needed, particularly in simulated second biomass cuts, the (>20 cm) soil layers and model response to management transitions between crop types, cultivation, and land use change.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1922.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: system of rice intensification; alternate wetting and drying; greenhouse gas emissions; agricultural methane emissions; food security; climate-smart agriculture
Online: 2 November 2023 (10:48:51 CET)
Rice provides ~20% of human dietary energy and, for many people, a similar share of their protein. Rice cultivation, however, produces significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, comparable to those from the aviation sector. The main GHG from rice production is methane, mostly a result of conventional rice cultivation (CRC) keeping rice fields continuously flooded during the crop cycle. There is extensive evidence that alternate wetting and drying (AWD) of rice fields substantially reduces methane emissions. AWD is one component of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), an agroecological approach to the management of plants, water, soil and nutrients practiced by millions of farmers in both lowland irrigated rice and upland rainfed cultivation. Thirteen countries have included SRI in their Nationally Determined Contributions to GHG reduction or climate change mitigation. This article reviews 16 field studies of the net reduction in GHG emissions from the adoption of AWD, eight from the adoption of SRI, and two that compared SRI and AWD. Where available, the review includes data on yield and therefore on carbon dioxide-equivalent GHG emissions per kilogram of rice produced. The evidence indicates that AWD and SRI offer a similar and substantial reduction (~35–41%) in GHG emissions per hectare compared with conventional rice cultivation. However, SRI offers ~66% greater yield than CRC, and therefore greater reduction in emissions per kilogram of rice, ~54% more than AWD. The limited data directly comparing SRI and AWD support this finding. SRI also appears to have greater potential to sequester carbon in the soil. SRI lowers rice farmers’ costs of production, adds to their income and can make climate-friendly methods more attractive. Both AWD and SRI are greatly preferable to current conventional practices, but SRI offers opportunities to contribute to food security while directly addressing the drivers of climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0292.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: environmental monitoring; greenhouse gases; multi-sensor system; combined fiber optic sensors; fiber Bragg grating; addressed fiber Bragg structure; Fabry-Perot resonator; Carunen-Loeff transforms
Online: 21 June 2022 (10:26:11 CEST)
The design and usage of the addressed combined fiber-optic sensors (ACFOS) and the multisensory control systems of the greenhouse gas concentration on their basis are investigated. The main development trend of the combined fiber-optic sensors (CFOS), consisting of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and the Fabry-Perot resonator (FPR), which are successively formed at the optical fiber end, is highlighted. The addressed fiber Bragg structures (AFBS) usage instead of the FBG in the CFOS leads not only to significant cheapening of the sensor system due to microwave photonics interrogating methods, but also to increasing its metrological characteristics. The structural scheme of the multisensory gas concentration monitoring system is suggested. The suggested scheme allows detecting four types of the greenhouse gases (СО2, NO2, CH4, OX) depending on the material and thickness of the polymer film, which is the FPR sensitive element. The usage of Karunen-Loeff transform (KLT), which allows separating each component contribution to the reflected spectrum according to its efficiency, is proposed. In the future, it allows determining the gas concentration at the AFBS address frequencies. The estimations have shown that the ACFOS design in the multisensory system allows measuring the environment temperature in the range of −60…+300 °C with an accuracy of 0.1–0.01 °C, and the gas concentration in the range of 10…90% with the accuracy of 0.1–0.5%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0401.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: gas separation; lattice dynamic; mixed gas hydrates, greenhouse gases, computer modeling
Online: 16 November 2018 (10:51:20 CET)
In this contribution, a method based on a solid solution theory of clathrate hydrate for multiple cage occupancy, host lattice relaxation and guest-guest interactions has been presented to estimate hydrate formation conditions of binary and ternary gas mixtures. We have performed molecular modeling of structure, guest distribution, and hydrate formation conditions for the CO2 + CH4, and CO2 + CH4 + N2 gas hydrates. In all considered systems with and without N2, at high and medium content of CO2 in the gas phase we have found that CO2 is more favorable to occupy clathrate hydrate cavities than CH4 or N2. Addition of N2 to the gas phase increases ratio concentration CO2 in compressing with concentration CH4 in clathrate hydrates and makes gas replacement more effective. The mole fractions of CO2 in CO2 + CH4 + N2 gas hydrate rapidly increases with the growth of its content in the gas phase. And the formation pressure of CO2 + CH4 + N2 gas hydrate rises in comparison with the formation pressure of CO2 + CH4 gas hydrate. Obtained results agree with the known experimental data for simple CH4, CO2 gas hydrates and mixed CO2 + CH4 gas hydrate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0175.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Sub-Saharan Africa; FTIR spectroscopy; fertilizer microdosing; African leafy vegetables; greenhouse gas mitigation; sustainability; tropical agriculture; soil fertility
Online: 17 January 2020 (04:23:44 CET)
Fertility management techniques being promoted in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) seek to grow indigenous vegetables economically and sustainably. This study was conducted in a phytotron chamber and compared yield, soil carbon (C) speciation and greenhouse gas (nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2)) emissions from SSA soils of two ecoregions; the dry savanna (lna, Republic of Benin) and rainforest (Ife, Nigeria) cultivated with local amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) under manure (5 t/ha) and/or urea (80 kg N/ha) fertilization. Vegetable yield ranged from 1753 kg/ac to 3198kg/ac in the rainforest, RF, soils and 1281 kg/ac to 1951 kg/ac in the dry savanna, DS, soils. Yield in the urea treatment was slightly higher compared to the manure+urea treatment, but the difference was not statistically significant. Cumulative CO2 emissions over 21 days ranged from 497.06 to 579.47 g CO2 in the RF, and 322.96 to 624.97 g CO2 in the DS, while cumulative N2O emissions ranged from 60.53 to 220.86 mg N2O in the RF, and 24.78 to 99.08 mg N2O in the DS. In the RF samples, the combined use of manure and urea reduced CO2 and N2O emissions but led to an increase in the DS samples. ATR-FTIR analysis showed that the combined use of manure and urea increased the rate of microbial degradation in the soils of the DS, but no such effect was observed in soils of the RF. We conclude that combining manure and urea fertilization has different effects on soils of the two ecoregions, and that RF farmers can reduce agricultural emissions without compromising soil productivity and yield potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1046.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing; Life Cycle Assessment; carbon footprint; solid waste; greenhouse gas emissions; energy consumption; environmental impact; sustainable development
Online: 17 October 2023 (12:02:04 CEST)
Additive Manufacturing (AM) has been proving suitable to support or even replace traditional manufacturing in several industries, offering many advantages such as delivery time and reduction in terms of material waste, energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study aimed to carry out a comparative assessment of the life cycle, from gate to gate, in the production of a low alloy carbon steel flange part using ER-90 wire. The methods utilized were Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) and conventional manufacturing (CM) by forging, and comparative factors were energy demands, GHG emissions and generated solid waste. The total energy consumption in WAAM was 10,239.40 MJ, total carbon footprint in CO2 equivalent (CO2e) was 714.1 kgCO2e kg-1, and generated solid waste was 68.6 kg, respectively, 90%, 95% and 76% lower than consumption calculated in conventional manufacturing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0064.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Greenhouse , microclimate , Modelling , fuzzy controller , Optimization , Solar Energy , Energy saving , Climate Model ,Greenhouse effect , Temperature
Online: 21 July 2016 (09:44:16 CEST)
Agricultural greenhouse is largely answered in the agricultural sphere, despite the shortcomings it has, including overheating during the day and night cooling which sometimes results in the thermal inversion mainly due to its low inertia. The glasshouse dressed chapel is relatively more efficient than the conventional tunnel greenhouse. Its proliferation on the ground is more or less timid because of its relatively high cost[14-22]. Agricultural greenhouse aims to create a favorable microclimate to the requirements of growth and development of culture, from the surrounding weather conditions, produce according to the cropping calendars fruits, vegetables and flower species out of season and widely available along the year. It is defined by its structural and functional architecture, the quality thermal, mechanical and optical of its wall, with its sealing level and the technical and technological accompanying[12-13]. The greenhouse is a very confined environment, where multiple components are exchanged between key stakeholders and them factors are light, temperature and relative humidity. This state of thermal evolution is the level sealing of the cover of its physical characteristics to be transparent to solar, absorbent and reflective of infrared radiation emitted by the enclosure where the solar radiation trapping effect otherwise called "greenhouse effect" and its technical and technological means of air that accompany. The socio-economic analysis of populations in the world leaves appear especially the last two decades of rapid and profound transformations These changes are accompanied by changes in eating habits, mainly characterized by rising consumption spread along the year. To effectively meet this demand, greenhouse-systems have evolved, particularly towards greater control of production conditions (climate, irrigation, ventilation techniques, CO2 supply, etc ...). Technological progress has allowed the development of greenhouses so that they become increasingly sophisticated and of an industrial nature (heating, air conditioning, control, computer, regulation, etc ...). New climate driving techniques have emerged, including the use of control devices from the classic to the use of artificial intelligence[10-11] such as neural networks and / or fuzzy logic, etc... As a result, the greenhouse growers prefer these new technologies while optimizing the investment in the field to effectively meet the supply and demand of these fresh products cheaply and widely available throughout the year.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0897.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: dairy cow; greenhouse gas; macroalga; methane
Online: 11 August 2023 (07:10:44 CEST)
Researchers have been exploring seaweed to reduce methane (CH4) emissions from livestock. This study aimed to investigate the potential of a red alga, Bonnemaisonia hamifera, as an alternative to mitigate CH4 emissions. B. hamifera, harvested from the West coast of Sweden, was used in an in vitro experiment using a fully automated gas production system. The experiment was a ran-domized complete block design consisting of a 48-h incubation that included a control (grass si-lage) and B. hamifera inclusions at 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5% of grass silage OM mixed with buffered rumen fluid. Predicted in vivo CH4 production and total gas production were estimated by ap-plying a set of models to the gas production data and in vitro fermentation characteristics were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the inclusion of B. hamifera reduced (P = 0.01) predicted in vivo CH4 and total gas production, and total gas production linearly decreased (P = 0.03) with higher inclusion of B. hamifera. The molar proportion of propionate increased (P = 0.03) while isovalerate decreased (P = 0.04) with inclusion of B. hamifera. There was a tendency for increased (0.06 ≤ P ≤ 0.10) total volatile fatty acid production, as well as lower proportions of butyrate, isobutyrate, and 2-methylbutyrate. Chemical analyses revealed that B. hamifera had moderate concentrations of polyphenols. The iodine content was low and there was no detectable bromo-form, suggesting quality advantages over Asparagopsis taxiformis. Additionally, B. hamifera exhib-ited antioxidant activity comparable to the positive control Resveratrol. The findings of this study indicated that B. hamifera harvested from temperate waters in Sweden possesses capacity to mitigate CH4 in vitro.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0451.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Smart Greenhouse; Optimization; Control; Zero energy
Online: 4 August 2023 (19:16:18 CEST)
The global agricultural sector is increasingly pressured to adopt sustainable practices and reduce its environmental impact. In this context, greenhouses play a crucial role in enabling year-round crop production, ensuring food security, and minimizing reliance on traditional open-field farming. However, the energy consumption associated with greenhouse operations poses a significant challenge to achieving sustainability goals. As a result, there is a growing emphasis on transitioning greenhouses towards near-zero energy consumption. Near-zero energy consumption in greenhouses refers to the ambitious objective of minimizing energy usage to the greatest extent possible while maintaining optimal growing conditions for crops. This goal encompasses reducing energy consumption for heating, cooling, lighting, and other operational needs, as well as exploring renewable energy sources to power greenhouse operations. This review article offers a comprehensive overview of greenhouse energy consumption, with the main goal of analyzing the present situation, identifying key challenges, exploring potential opportunities, and proposing future perspectives for decreasing energy usage in greenhouse environments. As the focus on sustainable agricultural practices grows, the need to reduce energy consumption in greenhouses becomes increasingly important. The review critically examines current technological models and strategies applied in smart greenhouse applications, as well as the monitoring of microclimatic conditions inside the greenhouse, encompassing factors such as temperature, humidity, CO2 levels, soil quality, and crop cultivation. Moreover, it aims to present existing literature that investigates the advancement of greenhouses toward achieving significant reductions in energy consumption.
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: greenhouse gas; optimization; IPCC; constraint method
Online: 21 January 2021 (13:20:57 CET)
60\% of the global population is expected to be in cities by 2050. At the same time the climate is changing at an accelerated rate. In this short paper we discuss the conflation of these two phenomena and how it may change the cities of the future. We formulate this as an optimization problem that could help answer important questions such as where are they likely to be located? How are they to be powered? What would be their demand for mobility and how might this be met? How over or under ground might these cities be? This paper first looks at a historical paradigm of cities in the absence of the climate crisis and then proposes the new paradigm to look at cities of the future faced by the challenge of the climate change crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0111.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: conservation agriculture; greenhouse gases; soil health
Online: 10 April 2018 (06:30:15 CEST)
Conservation Agriculture (CA) is capable of improving soil health and ecosystem functions. Soil carbon sequestration is one of the ecosystem processes that is of importance in sustainable land management involving reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation to climate change. In this study, we wanted to determine, during the first year of the process of establishing a CA cropping system in rain-fed areas in Madhya Pradesh state of India, which soil health indicators show measurable signs of improvement. Four field trials were selected, each comprising two neighboring plots. One plot (15×15 m) was managed conventionally under farmer practice and was tilled before sowing seeds, and in the adjacent plot Conservation Agriculture practices were applied. No mineral fertilizers or pesticides were applied in both treatments. Soil health indicators of soil aggregate stability, soil-atmosphere CO2 fluxes, water infiltration, soil moisture, potentially mineralizable nitrogen, soil organic content and bulk density were measured. Results demonstrate that soil CO2 emissions in CA soils decreased and soil aggregates stability improved in the first year. Generally, in CA soils, there were measurable improvements in all soil health indicators but only some of them were statistically significant.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0019.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: sustainable agriculture; greenhouse; innovative heating; infrared; microwaves
Online: 1 June 2023 (03:47:05 CEST)
For the agricultural sector to develop sustainably in the future, progress toward more environmentally friendly technologies and methods is crucial. It is necessary to increase output while reducing the demand for energy, agrochemicals, and water resources. Although greenhouses can be utilized successfully for this purpose, significant technical advancements are required, especially when it comes to heating, to lower the use of fossil fuels and boost energy efficiency. Infrared waves and microwaves, for instance, can warm plants without having to heat the entire greenhouse volume, which takes a significant amount of energy to compensate for heat loss to the outdoor environment. In this paper, through a thorough examination of the state of the art, a general overview of novel greenhouse heating systems based on radiation is reported. First, infrared heating of greenhouses is analyzed, then the strengths and weaknesses of microwave and dielectric heating are discussed, and finally the use of microwaves for soil sterilization is examined. All outcomes suggest these irradiation-based technologies can contribute significantly to an agriculture that is energetically sustainable.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0010.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Greenhouse gases; methanogenesis; meat production; algae; microorganisms
Online: 1 October 2021 (11:39:15 CEST)
Ruminant mammals extract nutrients from plant-based food through fermentation in the rumen; fiber and starch are pre-digested by microorganisms and methane is produced as a by-product, which released into the atmosphere acts as a potent greenhouse gas. In an effort to reduce enteric methanogenesis, dietary additives for ruminants have been investigated, and marine macroalgae have proven particularly promising, e.g., the inclusion of 0.2% dry matter of the red alga A. taxiformis into cow feed decreased in vivo methane production by up to 98%. Thus, if globally applied, the addition of algae in ruminant diets could revolutionize the management of greenhouse gas emissions across the livestock sector. However, the ozone-depleting nature of halogen compounds produced in Asparagopsis sp. and the reported adverse health impacts on humans, along with impracticability issues and the difficulty to produce, commercialize and distribute algae widely, has sown some doubt on the feasibility of using macroalgae as methane mitigation instruments. To circumvent such obstacles, and taking into account the paradigm that eukaryotic hosts cannot be understood without considering interactions with their associated microbiome, the exploration of marine algae associated microorganisms is anticipated. Following the notion that in the close and intimate relationships between algae-hosts and their microbiota the origin of chemical response mechanisms is often unclear, and that compounds initially assigned to algae have previously been shown to stem from host-associated microbes, it is not unreasonable to think that these may be involved in the antimethanogenic effects of marine algae in the rumen. Once identified, such microorganisms could lead to antimethanogenic feed additives, and reduce enteric methanogenesis from livestock ruminants substantially. This review is three-fold: it provides a brief, historic overview of macroalgae as feed supplements for ruminants, sums up the difficulties related to using whole-macroalgae as large-scale antimethanogenic feed additives, and describes the macroalga microbiome, including its potential to serve as an antimethanogen for enteric fermentation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0545.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: LCIA; plant protection; compost; sustainable greenhouse production
Online: 22 December 2020 (09:32:12 CET)
Italian floriculture is facing structural changes. Possible options to maintain competitiveness of the involved companies include promotion of added values, from local productions to environmental sustainability. To quantify value and benefits of cleaner production processes and choices, a holistic view is necessary, and could be provided by life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Previous studies on ornamental products generally focused on data from one company or a small sample. The aim of this study was a gate-to-gate life cycle assessment of two ornamental species (Cyclamen persicum Mill. and Pelargonium ×hortorum Bailey) using data from a sample of 20 companies belonging to a floriculture district in Treviso, Veneto region. We also assessed the potential benefits for the environmental impact of the selected species of alternative management choices regarding plant protection and reuse of composted waste biomass. Life cycle impact assessment showed the higher impact scores for the zonal geranium, mainly as a consequence of greenhouse heating with fossil fuels. This factor, along with higher uniformity of production practices and technological level of equipment, translated in lower variability observed in comparison with cyclamen production, which shows a wider results range, in particular for eutrophication, acidification and human toxicity potentials. The application of integrated pest management had significant benefits in terms of impact reduction for acidification and human toxicity of cyclamen, while reduced use of mineral nutrients through compost amendment of growing media resulted in a reduced eutrophication potential. The achievable benefits for zonal geranium were not observable because of the dominant contribution of energy inputs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0365.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: carbon budget, greenhouse gases, decarbonization, climate change
Online: 16 November 2018 (14:23:30 CET)
The Global Carbon Budget is the cumulative carbon emissions that human activities can generate while limiting the global temperature increase to less than 2°C. On this basis, most countries ratified the Paris Agreement 2015, pledging to reduce national emissions and the impacts of climate change. The European Union has planned to reduce emissions by 80% of their 1990 value by 2050 but such a target needs to be coupled with a further constraint on the cumulative greenhouse gases released along the path to 2050. The aim and the novelty of this study are to propose, for the first time, a carbon budget for the European Union, which represents the most significant physical characteristic to assess the feasibility of current EU-28 greenhouse gas reduction objectives under the goals of the 2015 Paris treaty
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0600.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: emission inventory; livestock; greenhouse gases; air pollutant
Online: 30 September 2018 (06:04:22 CEST)
Livestock farming is a major source of greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions. In this study, we estimate methane, nitrous oxide and ammonia emission from livestock sector in the Red River Delta region from 2000 to 2015 and projection to 2030 using IPCC 2006 methodologies with the integration of local emission factors and provincial statistic livestock database. Methane, nitrous oxide and ammonia emissions in 2030 are estimated at 132 kt, 8.3 kt and 34.2 kt, respectively. Total global warming potential is 9.7 MtCO2eq in 2030, accounts for 33% greenhouse gas emissions from livestock in Vietnam. Pig farming is responsible for half of both greenhouse gases and ammonia emissions in the studied region. Other major livestock for greenhouse gas emission is cattle and for ammonia emission is poultry. Hanoi contributes for the largest emissions in the region in 2015 but will be caught up and surpassed by other provinces in 2030.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0009.v3
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: cave; greenhouse gas; karst; methane; methanogenesis; methanotrophy
Online: 5 December 2017 (07:17:57 CET)
The air in subterranean karst cavities is often depleted in methane (CH4) relative to the atmosphere. Karst is considered a potential sink for the atmospheric greenhouse gas CH4 because its subsurface drainage networks and solution-enlarged fractures facilitate atmospheric exchange. Karst landscapes cover about 14% of earth’s continental surface, but observations of CH4 concentrations in cave air are limited to localized studies in Gibraltar, Spain, Indiana (USA), Vietnam, Australia, and by incomplete isotopic data. To test if karst is acting as a global CH4 sink, we measured the CH4 concentrations, δ13CCH4, and δ2HCH4 values of cave air from 33 caves in the USA and three caves in New Zealand. We also measured CO2 concentrations, δ13CCO2, and radon (Rn) concentrations to support CH4 data interpretation by assessing cave air residence times and mixing processes. Among these caves, 35 exhibited subatmospheric CH4 concentrations in at least one location compared to their local atmospheric backgrounds. CH4 concentrations, δ13CCH4, and δ2HCH4 values suggest that microbial methanotrophy within caves is the primary CH4 consumption mechanism. Only 5 locations from 3 caves showed elevated CH4 concentrations compared to the atmospheric background and could be ascribed to local CH4 sources from sewage and outgassing swamp water. Several associated δ13CCH4 and δ2HCH4 values point to carbonate reduction and acetate fermentation as biochemical pathways of limited methanogenesis in karst environments and suggest that these pathways occur in the environment over large spatial scales. Our data show that karst environments function as a global CH4 sink.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0703.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: enteric fermentation; cattle population; agriculture; greenhouse gas emissions
Online: 10 May 2023 (08:06:31 CEST)
Methane (CH4) emissions from agricultural sources make a significant contribution to the total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. According to the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines for calculating greenhouse gas emissions, agriculture is responsible for approximately 10% of total CH4 emissions from anthropogenic sources. CH4 is mainly emitted from livestock farming, especially from cattle production during enteric fermentation and from manure. The article describes the results of multivariate statistical analyzes carried out on data collected in 1961–2020 based on the data for 30 countries with the largest cattle population. The trends of temporal changes in cattle population were evaluated and groups of countries with similar patterns in the study period were distinguished. Variables which are correlated with changes in the number of cattle were indicated. Forecasts of cattle population and CH4 emission related to cattle for the coming years are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0066.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: greenhouse; biomass; carbon dioxide; capture carbon dioxide; gasification
Online: 16 May 2022 (04:50:47 CEST)
The gasification of sugarcane cutting residues (RAC) is a process that occurs in a gasifier where the transformation of this raw material into a solid-state and a gasifying agent with a moderate calorific value occurs, thanks to the application of heat. And under restricted oxygen levels, we can say that there are several styles of gasifiers for air, steam, oxygen, and hydrogen, all of which have a performance that can be analyzed and categorized by their performance to avoid damage to the environment. (1) The objective of this article is based on the mathematical development using simulation of the gasification of cane cutting residues. (2) In the methodology, the simulation of the gasification and CO2 capture process was developed from the biomass residues of the sugarcane cutting residues; it was carried out as a transformation of the primary fuel into a gas stream whose main components are CO2 and H2, which can be separated relatively easily by their concentrations, available pressures and in some cases, their temperatures; (3) According to the kinetic data obtained, the second-order reaction in the transformation and improvement of the process was identified; applying to the optimization of development in the capture of CO2, contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gases. (4) The gasification simulation process results in a biomass conversion corresponding to 93% of its feed and the formation of volatiles whose molar fraction corresponds to 37% H2, 12% CH4, 37% CO and 12 % CO2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0225.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Greenhouse; Environmental suitability; Mushroom pest; Black fungus gnats
Online: 9 July 2021 (13:44:47 CEST)
Lycoriella species (Sciaridae) are responsible for significant economic losses in greenhouse production (e.g. mushrooms, strawberry, and nurseries). Current distributions of species in the genus are restricted to cold-climate countries. Three species of Lycoriella are of particular economic concern in view of their ability to invade across the Northern Hemisphere. We used ecological niche models to determine the potential for range expansion under climate change future scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) in distributions of these species of Lycoriella. Stable suitability under climate change was a dominant theme in these species; however, potential range increases were noted for key countries (e.g. USA, Brazil, and China). Our results illustrate the potential for range expansion in these species in the Southern Hemisphere, including some of the highest greenhouse production areas in the world.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0583.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: greenhouse gases; climate sensitivity; rapid adjustments; Bayesian analysis
Online: 24 May 2021 (15:13:18 CEST)
Equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) is the change in global mean temperature expected to result from doubling atmospheric CO2 concentration from pre-industrial levels. Extensive research during the past 40 years has not reduced the uncertainty associated with ECS. Sherwood et al.  applied Bayesian statistics to evidence from climate-process physics, historical observations and earlier proxies to reduce the range of ECS from 1.5 – 4.5 K to 2.6 – 4.1 K. This paper examines their methods and many of the assumptions they made. It also evaluates two additional periods in the Holocene to show that factors other than CO2 drove recent climate change. It identifies potential systematic errors resulting from adding non-equilibrium short-term adjustments to the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases and from underestimating the effects of solar irradiance, ocean currents and aerosols. These factors have resulted in estimates of the forcing by CO2 that far exceed the apparent effects in paleoclimate data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0569.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: COVID-19; greenhouse; MSMEs; renewable energy; solar energy
Online: 23 March 2021 (12:50:36 CET)
This study aimed to focus on how to design a low-cost greenhouse for the cultivation of crops, to propose the cost-effectiveness analysis of small agribusiness, and to promote sustainable agricultural production during and after the COVID-19 crisis for helping grassroots and anyone who lost their job. This article is qualitative engineering research, studying of literature reviews of greenhouse farming concept and Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, then, designing low-cost greenhouse model which was preliminarily adapted for hot climate countries. Three plants that were selected as representative plants of this model include sunflower, water spinach, and wheat. The greenhouse model, measuring 5 x 7 x 4 m (W x L x H), was designed for this mission. The total cost of one building is approximately 97,994 THB. For the worthiness of the investment, farmers should build at least three greenhouse buildings, which will return total income to farmers approximately 34,666.09 THB per month. The suggestion includes further knowledge and financial supports from the government sectors among farmers, then, boost them up using high-level technology and also planting high-price agribusiness production to promote the local economy to be strong and sustainable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0164.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: Polycarbonate; plastic; greenhouse; heating requirement; geothermal energy; Turkey
Online: 8 October 2020 (09:05:06 CEST)
Greenhouse have to provide optimal climate conditions for healthy plant growth and high production. Heating of greenhouses is required for an efficient and reliable production specially during winter time in Turkey. However, even in the temperate zones, heating costs has a great portion in the total production costs. Coal is preferred as a fuel in the greenhouse heating in provinces of Turkey where there is no geothermal energy. In this study, the heating requirements and fuel cost (fossil and geothermal energy) for Antalya, Afyon, Kütahya, Denizli, and Aydın provinces in the Aegean and Mediterranean region have been identified based on long term meteorological data. The calculations were made for two model greenhouses located in an area with 1 ha representing modern greenhouses of the regions. The first is a gothic roofed plastic model greenhouse and the second is a gable roofed polycarbonate model greenhouse. According to the results of calculations, total annual heatingrequirement values ranged from 6,096,283 (for Antalya) to 20,359,946 MJ/ha (for Afyon) for the plastic greenhouse wheras these values ranged from 3,187,074 (for Antalya) to 10,643,972 MJ/ha (for Afyon) for the polycarbonate greenhouse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0417.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Greenhouse agriculture; Lactuca sativa; spectral optimization; energy efficiency
Online: 29 March 2020 (03:35:34 CEST)
With the dramatic increase in world population, continued advances in modern greenhouse agriculture and plant growth practices are expected to help overcome the global problem of future food shortages. Next generation greenhouse design practices will need to address a range of issues, ranging from energy and land use efficiency to providing plant-optimised growth techniques. In this paper, we focus on investigating the optimum irradiation spectra matched to the lettuce species (Lactuca sativa, L.), which is commonly grown in greenhouse environments, in order to develop low-emissivity glass panes that maximize the biomass productivity of glass greenhouses. This low-emissivity glass passes the solar spectral components needed for crop growth, while rejecting other unwanted radiations, leading to significant energy savings and other beneficial effects related to greenhouse climate control, in a range of climates. This is due to reducing both the solar heat gain and photosaturation, which can raise the temperature of the crops to harmful levels. Experimental results show that substantial biomass productivity improvements in lettuce (up to ~14.7%) can be attained using spectrally optimized illumination, compared with white light irradiation. We also report on the development of advanced metal-dielectric thin-film filters that produce the optimum illumination spectrum when exposed to sunlight.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0178.v4
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: nutrition; children; greenhouse gas emissions; school meals; sustainability; Agenda 2030
Online: 8 July 2019 (14:52:09 CEST)
There is great potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) from public sector meals. This paper aimed to develop a strategy for reducing GHGE in the Swedish school food supply without compromising nutritional adequacy, affordability, and cultural acceptability. Amounts, prices and GHGE-values for all foods and drinks supplied to three schools over one year were gathered. The amounts were optimized by linear programming. Four nutritionally adequate models were developed: Model 1 minimized GHGE while constraining relative deviation (RD) from observed food supply; Model 2 minimized total RD while imposing stepwise GHGE reductions; Model 3 additionally constrained RD for individual foods to an upper and lower limit; and Model 4 further controlled how ratios between food groups could deviate. Models 1 and 2 reduced GHGE by up to 95% but omitted entire food categories or increased the supply of some individual foods by more than 800% and were deemed unfeasible. Model 3 reduced GHGE by up to 60%, excluded no foods, avoided high RDs of individual foods, but resulted in large changes in food group ratios. Model 4 limited changes in food group ratios but resulted in a higher number of foods deviating from the observed supply and limited the potential of reducing GHGE. Cost was reduced in almost all solutions. An omnivorous, nutritionally adequate, and affordable school food supply, with considerably lower GHGE is achievable with moderate changes to the observed food supply. Trade-offs will always have to be made between achieving GHGE reductions and preserving similarity to the current supply.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0379.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: chlorophyll fluorescence; fog system; greenhouse; energy flux; OJIP; photosynthesis
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:48:01 CET)
The low relative humidity (RH) levels in a greenhouse during the daytime in a strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch) cultivation period negatively affect the growth of strawberry related to photo-physiology. Therefore, this study was conducted to confirm an efficient RH management method by analyzing the phenotypic characteristics related to photo-physiology by controlling the RH in a greenhouse during the daytime with a fog system. Strawberry plants were grown respectively in a greenhouse affected by natural RH changes (control) and in a greenhouse with 40% ~ 50% RH adjusted during the daytime using a fog system. In the greenhouse, with controlled RH, the temperature decreased, and the RH was higher in the initial growth stage of strawberry planting than the control. It was observed a significant increase in the survival rate of the strawberry plant, as well as the incidence of powdery mildew, was lowered. In addition, the photosynthetic rate and OJIP chlorophyll a fluorescence transients related to photosystem II efficiency of strawberry leaves were significantly higher in the fog treatment than in the control. In winter, during the day, the number of days on which the temperature dropped below 20℃ has increased, the greenhouse temperature with controlled RH was lower due to the fog system. When the yield per strawberry plant in January and February was investigated, the control was higher than the RH treatment. Therefore, RH management using a fog system must be controlled at a level where a temperature range is adequate for plant growth, in which the efficient control of these parameters increases strawberry productivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0376.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Cucumis sativus L.; Tobamovirus; greenhouse sanitization; disease resistance; grafting
Online: 19 October 2020 (11:28:37 CEST)
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) is a re-emerging threat to greenhouse cucumber and other Cucurbitaceae crop productions worldwide. This seed-borne virus can easily spread from a contaminated seed to seedlings and to adjacent plants through mechanical contact of the foliage of diseased and healthy plants causing extensive yield losses. Additionally, infection may not be limited to the current crop but may also affect subsequent crops due to the long-term persistence of the virus on contaminated crop residues, greenhouse hard surfaces and soil or soil-less greenhouse substrates. In the present work, three greenhouse trials were conducted to develop an integrated pest management strategy towards controlling CGMMV in commercial cucumber greenhouses, by implementing an effective sanitization program and using resistant and grafted cucumber varieties. Results of sanitization trial highlighted that pressure washing and cleansing with an alkaline foam cleanser has eliminated CGMMV on some of the most heavily infested areas. However, three successive applications of cleanser and disinfectants were essential to completely eliminate CGMMV on porous and uneven surfaces, such as cement alleyway, tray gutter and floor mats. The varietal trial revealed that out of 15 cucumber varieties evaluated, two Mini (‘Katrina’ and ‘Khassib’) and three Long English (‘Sepire’, ‘Bomber’ and ‘LC13900’) had reduced or delayed CGMMV infection spread in the greenhouse but were intermediate in yield. The varieties ‘Sunniwell’ and ‘Bonbon’ were the most tolerant to CGMMV. They showed a high CGMMV infection level without compromising yield. These results proved the need for new productive cucumber varieties with CGMMV resistance. Grafting experiment showed only yield increase in case of grafted ‘Picowell’ over ‘Bonbon’ and not marked CGMMV resistance, which is a much desirable result when the grafting experiments are evaluated for their economic potential. In all, the current experimental trials unfold unique methodologies on CGMMV management in commercial greenhouses that are recommended to the growers to be followed for reducing crop losses and get benefitted on revenue compromise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0297.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: cattle straw manure; bedding additives; ammonia; greenhouse gases; Zeolite
Online: 25 January 2020 (15:48:15 CET)
We studied the influence of lava meal, zeolite and top layer of sandy soil as bedding additives on gaseous C and N losses from a sloping-floor barn of naturally ventilated animal housing. We selected four barn units where eight young bulls’ group was reared in each barn. Chopped straw of wheat and barley applied daily at the rate of 5 kg per livestock unit (LU) in bedding areas where one LU consisted of 500 kg body mass of live bulls. Zeolite, lava meal and sandy soil (18% clay + silt) applied in barn at the rate of 10, 20 and 30% of straw dose, respectively. Static flux chamber was used to measure gases emissions from the barn unit and mass balance calculation was used to calculate straw manure total N (TN) losses during housing phase. On an average, all bedding additives decreased 85% of the NH3 emission compared to control; however, they did not influence CH4 emission. Zeolite decreased CO2 (35%) and N2O (37%) emission rates. Subsequently, lava meal, sandy soil and zeolite decreased 23, 37, and 50% of TN losses from barn manure, respectively. Overall, measured N emissions through NH3-N and N2O-N from the barns was 11% of calculated TN losses while remainder 89% was most probably attributed to di-nitrogen (N2), a harmless gas. Hence, in straw-based cattle housings, zeolite could be a promising additive for reduction of CO2, N2O and NH3 emissions and sandy soil can be considered as cheap and readily available resource for reducing NH3 emission.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0169.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: greenhouse gases; operating profit; mitigations; carbon price; environmental footprint
Online: 15 November 2019 (03:51:03 CET)
Between 2011 and 2016 small-scale farm trials were run across three dairy regions of New Zealand (Waikato, Canterbury, Otago) to compare the performance of typical regional farm systems with farm systems implementing a combination of mitigation options most suitable to the region. The trials ran for at least three consecutive years with detailed recording of milk production and input costs. Nitrate leaching per hectare of the milking platform (where lactating cows are kept) was estimated using either measurements (suction cups), models, or soil mineral nitrogen measurements. Post-trial, detailed farm information was used in the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory methodology to calculate the emissions from all sources; dairy platform, dairy support land used for wintering non-lactating cows (where applicable) and replacement stock, and imported supplements. Nitrate leaching was also estimated for the support land and growing of supplements imported from off-farm using the same methods as for the platform. Operating profit (NZ$/ha/year), nitrate leaching (kg N/ha/year), and greenhouse gas emissions (t CO2-e/ha/year) were all expressed per hectare of milking platform to enable comparisons across regions. Nitrate leaching mitigations adopted in lower-input (less imported feed and N fertiliser) farm systems reduced leaching by 22 to 30 percent, and greenhouse gas emissions by between nine and 24 percent. The exception was the wintering barn system in Otago where nitrate leaching was reduced by 45 percent but greenhouse gas emissions were unchanged due to greater manure storage and handling. Important drivers of a lower environmental footprint are reducing nitrogen fertiliser and imported feed. Their effect is to reduce nitrogen surplus and feed flow through the herd and drive down both greenhouse gas emissions and nitrate leaching. Emission reductions in the lower-input systems of Waikato and Canterbury came at an average loss of profit of approximately NZ$100/t CO2-e (three to five percent of industry average profit per hectare).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0227.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: artificial neural network; carbon dioxide; greenhouse gases; GMDH; GDP
Online: 22 June 2019 (16:17:02 CEST)
Increase in the emission of Greenhouse Gases (GHS) is among the significant concerns of government, societies, and policymakers. Due to the highest share of carbon dioxide in the produced GHGs, it is necessary to assess the factors that influence its emission. Energy systems and economic activities noticeably influence the amount of carbon dioxide production of countries. In this article, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) in addition to a linear correlation used to predict carbon dioxide emission of four CIS countries, including Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Azerbaijan based the consumption of various energy sources and GDP, as the economic indicator. According to the obtained data by the proposed models, carbon dioxide emission can be accurately estimated by utilizing the mentioned input data. Models’ R-squared value are 0.9997 and 0.9999 in the cases of applying the correlation and ANN-based model. Moreover, the average absolute relative deviations by utilizing the correlation and GMDH ANN are approximately 1.05% and 0.61%, respectively. These statistical values demonstrate more proper performance of the ANN-based model compared with the applied linear correlation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0597.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: global energy budget; simple greenhouse model; infrared-opaque limit
Online: 27 November 2018 (03:47:23 CET)
Earth atmosphere is almost opaque in the infrared: about 374 W/m2 is absorbed by the atmosphere out of 396 W/m2 surface upward longwave radiation, and only about 22 W/m2 leaves the system unabsorbed in the atmospheric window. This makes rise to the idea to approximate the annual global mean energy flow system from a simple idealized greenhouse model, where the surface is surrounded by a single-layer shortwave (SW) transparent, longwave (LW) opaque, non-turbulent atmosphere. The energy flows in this geometry can be described by elementary arithmetic relationships. Starting from this model, the realistic Earth’s atmosphere can be achieved by introducing partial atmospheric SW opacity, partial atmospheric LW transparency and turbulent fluxes during the course of the deduction. The resulted global mean energy flow system is then compared to several data sets such as satellite observations from the CERES mission; estimates using direct surface observations and climate models; global energy and water cycle assessments; and independent detailed clear-sky radiative transfer computations. We find that the deduction from this idealized model approximates the real values in Earth energy budget with reasonable accuracy: the deduced fluxes and the observed ones are consistent within the acknowledged error of observations; while fundamental features of the initial geometry like special ratios and definite relationships between the fluxes are preserved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0129.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: feasibility; solar thermal energy; heat process; greenhouse gas emissions
Online: 17 March 2017 (04:05:07 CET)
This paper evaluates the potential of solar concentration technologies—compound parabolic collector (CPC), linear Fresnel collector (LFC) and parabolic trough collector (PTC)—as an alternative to conventional sources of energy for industrial processes in Latin America, where high levels of solar radiation and isolated areas without energy supply exist. The analysis is addressed from energy, economic and environmental perspective. A specific application for Argentina in which fourteen locations are analyzed is considered. Results show that solar concentration technologies can be an economically and environmentally viable alternative. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) ranges between 2.5 and 16.9 c€/kWh/m2 and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions avoided range between 33 and 348 kgCO2/(m2·year). CPC technology stands out as the most recommendable technology when the working fluid temperature ranges from 373K to 423K. As the working fluid temperature increases the differences between the LCOE values of the CPC and LFC technologies decrease. When 523K is reached LFC technology is the one which presents the lowest LCOE values for all analyzed sites, while the LCOE values of PTC technology are close to CPC technology values. Results show that solar concentration technologies have reached economic and environmental competitiveness levels under certain scenarios, mainly linked to solar resource available, thermal level requirements and solar technology cost.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0057.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Scientific mapping; greenhouse effect; renewable energy; energy generation; forecasting; review
Online: 2 October 2023 (11:59:51 CEST)
Higher concentrations of greenhouse gases resulting from anthropogenic actions associated with energy generation are one of the causes of climate change. In view of this, several efforts have been undertaken in the search for more sustainable alternatives, and photovoltaic (PV) technology has stood out among the different possibilities. However, PV generation is highly sensitive to future climate variability, which is a source of uncertainty that can complicate energy planning and compromise the viability of systems. This theme has received attention from the academic community, but some challenges to map and identify relevant literature have been encountered. Therefore, this study was conducted to analyze and identify relevant aspects of international scientific production on the impacts of climate change on the potential of photovoltaic production, CC-PVP, through bibliometric techniques. For this, 3900 articles from the Web of Science and Scopus databases, published between 1960 and 2021, were retrieved and analyzed through a bibliometric approach, using the SciMAT tool. Among the results obtained, it is worth pointing out that the CC-PVP research field (i) has moderate maturity, (ii) is concentrated in the areas of energy, fuels and technology, as well as environmental sciences and meteorology, (iii) has the most studied themes currently related to energy and the forecasting of photovoltaic energy production and electric energy consumption in the world, especially when considering climate change, and (iv) is more researched by Chinese, North Americans and Australians.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1253.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Greenhouse gas; Paris Agreement; Social Cost of Carbon; Livestock; Beef
Online: 18 July 2023 (15:11:49 CEST)
Among all Brazilian economic sectors, the livestock sector stands out due to its large production and high export volume. However, beef production is associated to significant environmental impacts, such as deforestation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. The Paris Agreement was settled to avoid that global mean temperature rise up to 1.5 – 2º C by 2100. In 2020, Brazil committed in its nationally determined contribution (NDC) to reduce its GHG emission by 43% until 2030. This study aims to identify the association of beef production and beef cattle emissions, as well as assess predictive GHG emission scenarios for 2030 and value these emissions. To translate the environmental impacts of beef production into economic impacts, and thus amplify the discussion, we valued GHG emissions using the social cost of carbon (SCC). The results showed that the business as usual (BAU) GHG emission derived from beef production would range between 0.423 and 0.634 GtCO2e in 2030, whereas the maximum emission estimated to meet the NDC should be 0.257 GtCO2e. The SCC revealed the opportunity to reduce between US $18.8 and $42.6 billion in the cost of BAU emissions from beef production in 2030 if the NDC is met. Lastly, assessing a scenario where climate targets and beef exports are prioritized, between 2-10 kg of beef per capita would be available in the domestic market in 2030. Our results reveal the need and urgency of changes in livestock production to emit less GHG per kg of beef produced, and the avoided monetary cost of reducing emissions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0899.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Grid independent test; Large-scale greenhouse; Natural ventilation; Ventilation efficiency
Online: 13 July 2023 (09:33:12 CEST)
To address the challenges of climate change and food security, the establishment of smart farm complexes is necessary. While there have been numerous studies on the productivity and environmental control of individual greenhouses, research on greenhouse complexes is considerably limited. Conducting environmental studies during the design phase of these complexes poses financial constraints and practical limitations in terms of on-site experiments. To identify potential issues that may arise when developing large-scale greenhouse complexes, it is possible to utilize modeling techniques using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to assess environmental concerns and location issues before constructing the facilities. Consequently, simulating large-scale CFD models that incorporate multiple greenhouses and atmospheric conditions simultaneously presents significant numerical challenges. The objective of this study was to develop a guideline for verifying CFD models for a large-scale Venlo greenhouse, where acquiring field data before construction is not feasible for designing a greenhouse complex. The verification processes of the CFD models were conducted using 2D and 3D iterative simulations of a 2-hectare greenhouse model, using the improved Grid Independence Test (GIT) and wall Y+ approaches. Subsequently, the aerodynamic characteristics were analyzed in a 3D greenhouse model to access its performance when the wind direction was 90° in summer season. The findings revealed that a grid resolution of 0.8 meters and a first layer height of 0.04 meters were suitable for developing large-scale greenhouse models, resulting in a low Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 3.9% and a high coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.968. This process led to a significant reduction of 38% in the number of grid cells. These results will serve as design standards for large-scale greenhouses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1197.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Clustering; Machine Learning; Greenhouse Gas; Finite-time Thermodynamics; Climate Change
Online: 16 June 2023 (08:30:10 CEST)
Several sun models suggest the radioactive balance where the concentration of greenhouse gases and the albedo effect are related to the Earth's surface temperature. There is a considerable increment of greenhouse gases due to anthropogenic activities. Climate change correlates with this alteration in the atmosphere and an increase in surface temperature. Efficient forecasting of climate change and its impacts of 1.5°C global warming above pre-industrial levels could be helpful to respond to the threat of c.c. and develop sustainably. Many studies have predicted the temperature change in the coming years. The global community has to create a model that can realize good predictions to ensure the best way to deal with the warming. Thus, we propose a finite-time thermodynamic (FTT) approach in the present work. The FTT can solve problems such as the faint young sun paradox. In addition, we use different machine learning models to evaluate our method and compare the experimental prediction and results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1745.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: fluorinated greenhouse gas; emission trend analysis; regulatory policy; abatement technology
Online: 25 May 2023 (05:45:34 CEST)
Due to their excellent physicochemical properties, fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-gases), including hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3), are used in a variety of applications, but they are potent greenhouse gases. Therefore, they have been blanketed into the list of phase-out under the international protocols or treaties. In this work, the updated statistics of the Taiwan’s national inventory report (NIR) were used to analyze the trends of F-gases (i.e., HFCs, PFCs, SF6 and NF3) emissions during the period of 2000-2020. Furthermore, the regulatory strategies and measures for reducing the emissions of the four F-gases will be summarized to be in accordance with the national and international regulations. With the progressive efforts by the regulatory requirements and the industry’s voluntary reduction, the total F-gases emissions indicated a significant increase from 2,462 kilotons of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2eq) in 2000 to the peak value (i.e., 12,643 kilotons) of CO2eq in 2004, but sharply decreased from 10,284 kilotons of CO2eq in 2005 to 3,906 kilotons of CO2eq in 2020. It was also found that the most commonly used method for controlling the emissions of F-gases from the semiconductor and optoelectronic industries was based on the thermal destruction-local scrubbing technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0043.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Grass; Greenhouse Gases; Ruminal Degradation; Secondary Metabolites; Tropical Livestock Systems
Online: 4 October 2021 (10:40:05 CEST)
Enteric methane (CH4) emitted by ruminant species is known as one of the main greenhouse gases produced by the agricultural sector. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, in vitro gas production, dry matter degradation (DMD), digestibility, CO2 production and CH4 mitigation potential of five tropical tree species with novel forage potential including: Spondias mombin, Acacia pennatula, Parmentiera aculeata, Brosimum alicastrum and Bursera simaruba mixed at two levels of inclusion (15 and 30%) with a tropical grass (Pennisetum purpureum). Crude protein content was similar across treatments (135 g kg-1 DM), while P. purpureum was characterized by a high content of acid detergent fiber (335.9 g kg-1 DM) and B. simaruba by a high concentration of condensed tannins (20 g kg-1 DM). Likewise, A. pennatula and P. aculeata were characterized by a high content of cyanogenic glycosides and alkaloids respectively. Treatments SM30-PP70 (30% S. mombin + 70% P. purpureum) and BA30-PP70 (30% B. alicastrum + 70% P. purpureum) resulted in superior digestibility than P. purpureum, while in the AP30-PP70 (30% A. pennatula + 70% P. purpureum) was lower than the control treatment (P≤0.05). At 24 and 48 h, treatments that contained P. aculeata and B. alicastrum produced higher CH4 ml g-1 DOM than P. purpureum (P≤0.05). The inclusion of B. simaruba at 30% reduced CH4 at 25% compared to P. purpureum. Tropical tree species can improve the nutritional quality of ruminant rations and reduce CH4 emissions to consequently contribute to the development of sustainable ruminant production systems that generate diverse ecosystem services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0085.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: climate change; energy policy; exergy analysis; exergetic intensity; greenhouse gases
Online: 5 September 2018 (05:11:11 CEST)
Diverse factors may have an impact in Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions; thus, three main contributors, energy consumption, exergy indicator and gross domestic product (GDP) are examined in this work. This study explores the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption by means of the hypothesis postulated for the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). Panel data for 10 countries, from 1971 to 2014 have been studied. Despite all this wide gamma of research, the role of an exergy variable has not been tested to find the EKC; then exergy analysis is proposed. Exergy analyses were developed to propose an exergetic indicator as a control variable and a comparative empirical study is developed to study a multivariable framework with the aim to detect correlations between them. High correlation between CO2, GDP, energy consumption, energy intensity and trade openness are observed, conversely not statistically significant values for trade openness and energy intensity. The results do not support the EKC hypothesis, however exergy intensity opens the door for future research once it proves to be a useful control variable. Exergy provides opportunities to analyze and implement energy and environmental policies in these countries, with the possibility to link exergy efficiencies and the use of renewables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0318.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: input efficiency use; Kosovar greenhouse vegetable industry; tomatoes and peppers
Online: 20 June 2018 (09:40:52 CEST)
This study evaluates the input efficiency of greenhouse tomato and pepper farms in Kosovo. Using data collected from farm surveys, we conduct an input-oriented data envelopment analysis (DEA) to empirically assess input efficiency. Secondly, linear regression analysis is used to investigate which farm variables predict greenhouse tomato and pepper technical efficiency (TE). The DEA results indicated that among the seven regions in Kosovo, Prizren emerged as the most efficient greenhouse tomato producing region with a mean efficiency of 0.83 (on a scale of 0 to 1). Prishtina followed with a mean efficiency of 0.80. In the production of greenhouse peppers, Prishtina was the most efficient region with a mean efficiency of 0.99. Ferizaj followed with a mean efficiency of 0.93. Conclusions about farm characteristics that explain differences in efficiency were sensitive to model specification. Nevertheless, depending on the structural and operational characteristics of the greenhouse tomato and pepper farms, there is an opportunity for the technically inefficient farms and regions to improve their use of inputs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0391.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: low-tech greenhouse; tomato; soilless cultivation; soil-based cultivation; water productivity
Online: 7 November 2023 (10:36:14 CET)
Water scarcity challenges have necessitated the adoption of water-saving techniques in protected and nom-protected farming. This study aimed to assess the performance of a water-saving soil-less cultivation technique and to compare it with conventional soil-based cultivation in protected farming. The soilless technique used local gravel and a mixture of peat-moss, humin-substrate, and perlite in ratios of 4:3:1.5. Three irrigation regimes were imposed using emitters 8Lh-1 design discharge (D1) emitters with 6Lh-1 design discharge (D0.75) and 4Lh-1 de-sign discharge (D0.5) for the two cultivation methods during the growth cycle of tomato by drip irrigation. The vegetative growth, fruit yield and water consumption were measured and water productivity was determined. Moreover, an economic assessment was carried out by estimating and comparing economic coefficients for the two cultivation methods. Estimated coefficients include revenues, net profit, benefit-cost ratio, break-even levels of production and prices, revenues over variable cost, and revenues on investment. The tomato fruit yield under soil-based cultivation overtopped the yield under soilless cultivation. The water productivity under the soilless cultivation was almost twice that (24.3 kg m-3) of the soil-based cultivation (15.5 kg m-3). The soilless cultivation saved 50% of irrigation water applied by the conventional soil-based method, saving energy and soil from deterioration. Revenues and net profits stimulated by higher yield coupled with lower variable cos supported the soil-based cultivation. The economic assessment showed that both cultivation methods were economically viable. However, the soil-based cultivation method was more profitable due to its higher fruit yield. Overall, the results of this study suggest that the soilless cultivation technique is a viable option for wa-ter-saving cultivation. However, the soil-based cultivation method is still more profitable due to its higher fruit yield
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0605.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Renewable energy; Greenhouse gas emissions; sustainable energy system; clean energy; sustainability
Online: 10 October 2023 (08:36:23 CEST)
Solar photovoltaic (PV) technology is a cornerstone of the global effort to transition towards cleaner and more sustainable energy systems. This paper explores the pivotal role of PV technology in re-ducing greenhouse gas emissions and combatting the pressing issue of climate change. At the heart of its efficacy lies the efficiency of PV materials, which dictates the extent to which sunlight is transformed into electricity. Over the last decade, substantial advancements in PV efficiency have propelled the widespread adoption of solar PV technology on a global scale. The efficiency of PV materials is a critical factor, determining how effectively sunlight is transformed into electricity. Enhanced efficiency, achieved through a decade of progress, has driven the global expansion of solar PV. Multi-junction photovoltaic materials have now exceeded 40% efficiency in lab tests. China leads the world in solar PV installations, boasting over 253 GW of installed capacity by the end of 2021. Other prominent countries in this sector are the United States, Japan, Germany, and India. Supportive policies like feed-in tariffs, net metering, tax incentives, and cost reductions in PV modules have made solar PV increasingly competitive against fossil fuel-based power generation. Solar PV technology holds immense potential for creating a cleaner, reliable, scalable, and cost-effective electricity system. To expedite its deployment and foster a more sustainable energy future, continued investment in research and development, along with supportive policies and market mechanisms, is essential. This paper underscores the pivotal role of solar PV technology in the global energy transition and advocates for a concerted effort to unlock its full potential in achieving a more sustainable and resilient energy future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1611.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: methane emission; littoral lake; lotus; carbon sink; greenhouse gases; Yangtze River
Online: 25 September 2023 (06:04:52 CEST)
Freshwater lakes represent a potential source of methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. However, the CH4 emission contribution to the total emission in the littoral zones of lakes, especially emergent macrophytes (e.g., lotus), are poorly known. Lotus, has been cultivated in almost all provinces in China, is not only an aquatic plant but also a kind of vegetables. Two sampling zones (lotus plant and open water) were established in the lake of the middle reaches of Yangtze River. The CH4 emission was measured using a floating opaque chamber and gas chromatography between April to December of the years 2021 and 2022. The results indicated that the flux of CH4 emissions ranged from 0.10 to 59.75 mg m-2 h-1, with an average value of 5.61 mg m-2 h-1 in the open water, while ranged from 0.19 to 57.32 mg m-2 h-1, with an average value of 17.14 mg m-2 h-1 in the lotus plant zone. The maximal CH4 emissions occurred in July and August for the open water, which was highly related to the air and water temperature; whereas it happened in September for the lotus plant zone, due to the fresh organic matter inputting to sediments, CH4 transportation by lotus plant, high soil organic carbon content, and the lower dissolved oxygen concentration. Considering the carbon emissions (both CH4 and CO2) and plant productivity, although the greater CH4 emission occurring in lotus plant zone, it could still represent a potential carbon sink (213 g m-2 yr-1), compared to the open water.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0020.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: greenhouse gases; climate changes; Hyrcanian forests; global warming; NDVI; remote sensing
Online: 1 November 2022 (06:55:17 CET)
The increase in the production and entry of greenhouse gases into the earth's atmosphere has disturbed the balance of the environment. The signs of climate change (caused by global warming) are clearly visible and its effects are tangible. According to the United Nations, if the current trend continues, the global average temperature will increase by 3.2°C by the end of the century, which will have terrible consequences if it happens. This research aimed to investigate the effects of greenhouse gases and climate changes resulting from them on Hyrcanian forests. The Hyrcanian forests, as one of the oldest forest areas (remaining from the Paleogene era), were studied by telemetry from 2013 to 2021. The analysis of the images taken from the Landsat 8 satellite showed that during 9 years, the NDVI index decreased by 0.6 units and the average air temperature increased by 0.5°C. Although the average relative humidity has only increased by 2%, the average annual rainfall has recorded an increase of 25mm. The analysis of the statistics showed that the rains occur irregularly and are often torrential. Therefore, it is predicted that as the average temperature continues to increase, the NDVI index will further decrease, and as a result, the forest cover will become weaker and the soil will lose more water absorption power, and due to the increase in average rainfall. successive floods will occur. Therefore, soil erosion increases and the extinction and migration of plant and animal species increase significantly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2040077
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: temperature; global warming; greenhouse gases; atmospheric CO2 concentration
Online: 20 October 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
It is common knowledge that increasing CO2 concentration plays a major role in enhancement of the greenhouse effect and contributes to global warming. The purpose of this study is to complement the conventional and established theory that increased CO2 concentration due to human emissions causes an increase of temperature, by considering the reverse causality. Since increased temperature causes an increase in CO2 concentration, the relationship of atmospheric CO2 and temperature may qualify as belonging to the category of “hen-or-egg” problems, where it is not always clear which of two interrelated events is the cause and which the effect. We examine the relationship of global temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration at the monthly time step, covering the time interval 1980–2019, in which reliable instrumental measurements are available. While both causality directions exist, the results of our study support the hypothesis that the dominant direction is
T → CO2. Changes in CO2 follow changes in T by about six months on a monthly scale, or about one year on an annual scale. We attempt to interpret this mechanism by involving biochemical reactions, as at higher temperatures soil respiration, and hence CO2 emission, are increasing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0041.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Children; diet; greenhouse gas emission; intervention; linear programming; optimization; sustainable development
Online: 2 September 2020 (10:37:18 CEST)
Introducing children to sustainable and healthy school meals can promote a long-term dietary shift to lower climate impact and improve population health. The aim of the OPTIMAT study was to optimize meals for minimum deviation from the current food supply while reducing greenhouse gases and ensuring nutritional adequacy without increasing cost. Optimized menus were tested in four primary schools in Sweden and effects on daily food consumption and waste evaluated. Pupils received their usual menu plan for three weeks and then the isocaloric optimized menu plan for another three weeks. Nutritional recommendations for a school lunch and a maximum of 500 grams of CO2eq/meal were applied as constraints during linear programming. Pulses, Cereals, Meat and Eggs increased, while Fats and Oils, Dairy, Sauces and Seasonings decreased. The amount of ruminant meat was reduced in favor of other meat products. The new menu was 28% lower in greenhouse gas emissions and slightly less costly than the original. No significant changes in mean food consumption or plate waste were found in interrupted time series analysis between the two periods. This pragmatic approach for combining linear optimization with meal planning could accelerate sustainable development of the meal sector in Sweden and abroad.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0175.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: greenhouse gasses; carbon reduction; energy efficiency; motion sensor; automatic light switch
Online: 13 April 2018 (07:40:05 CEST)
High electricity demand for consumption at current supply level in Indonesia led to the rising cost of electricity bills. This factor is compounded by the fact that many electric generators in Indonesia still use fossil fuels, which contributes to the high basic generation cost. UBL is one of the universities that aim to be a green campus. Our research explores the possibility of installing motion sensor to contribute on the energy efficiency. Although mostly common in developed countries, the use of motion sensor for energy efficiency is still rare, especially in Indonesia. despite rising cost and supply shortages, Indonesian buildings are still of high energy consumption. our experiment shows that simple installation of commercially available motion sensors can contribute to reduce the electricity bill from the increase of energy efficiency. One of the efforts to lower energy demand in consumer side is to use the electricity efficiently, such as turning off lights in a room when it's not in use. This method can be simply done by turning the light switches for office and classrooms, but difficult to do in public spaces such as toilets and corridors. Our experiment shows that simple installation of commercially available motion sensors can contribute to reduce the electricity bill from the increase of energy efficiency. Automatic light switches experimentally installed in sample toilet room prove that electricity consumption from the lamps can contribute to the reduction of total weekly energy that translates into Green House Gas emission reduction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0430.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: maize yield; nitrogen management; life cycle assessment; greenhouse gas; agricultural net profit
Online: 8 October 2023 (10:06:31 CEST)
Quantification of the trade-offs among greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, yield and farmers’ incomes is essential for proposing economic and environment nitrogen (N) management strategies for optimizing agricultural production. A four-year (2017–2020) field experiment (including four treatments: control experiment (CK), suitable utilization of fertilization (SU), emission reduction treatment (ER), and high fertilization (HF)) was conducted on maize (Zea mays L.) in the North China Plain. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method was used in this study to quantify the GHG emissions and farmers’ incomes during the whole maize production process. The total GHG emissions of CK, SU, ER and HF treatments in the process of maize production are 10,755.2, 12,908.7, 11,950.1, and 14,274.5 kg CO2-eq ha−1 respectively, of which the direct emissions account for 84.8%, 76.8%, 74.9%, and 71.0%, respectively. Adding inhibitor significantly reduced direct GHG emissions, and the N2O and CO2 emissions from the maize fields in the ER treatment decreased by 30.0% and 7.9% compared to those in the SU treatment. Insignificant differences in yield were found between the SU and ER treatments, indicating that adding fertilizer inhibitors did not affect farmers’ incomes while reducing GHG emissions. The yield for SU, ER and HF treatments all significantly increased by 12.9%–24.0%, 10.0%–20.7% and 2.1%–17.4% compared to CK, respectively. In comparison with CK, both SU and ER significantly promoted agricultural net profit (ANP) by 16.6% and 12.2% with the mean ANP values of 3,101.0 USD ha-1 and 2,980.0 USD ha-1, respectively. Due to the high agricultural inputs, the ANP values in the HF treatment was 11.2%, 16.6% and 12.4% lower than those in the SU treatment in 2018–2020. In conclusion, the combination of N fertilizer and inhibitors was proved to be an environmentally friendly, high-profit and low-emissions production technology while sustaining or even increasing maize yields in the North China Plain, which was conducive to achieving agricultural sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1311.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: green podiatry; health; climate emergency; climate change; healthcare; greenhouse gases; sustainability; environment
Online: 20 September 2023 (04:48:03 CEST)
Introduction The climate crisis is essentially a public health crisis. Response is imperative to prevent economic and social crises associated with the growing burden of climate impacts on human health and the health care sector. Green Podiatry Pillars By adopting the three pillars of Exercise, Evidence, and Everyday changes, podiatrists can contribute to more sustainable health and health care. Discussion Educating our patients to use their feet for low carbon active transport, eliminating interventions not supported by evidence, and reducing fossil fuel driven supply chains and energy use, are three impactful measures that all podiatrists, and indeed, all health and medical personnel, need to adopt. The avoidable suffering, enormous and costly use of resources for diabetic foot disease, is a scourge that must realise its preventable potential. It is too late, too costly, too polluting, and too sad, to continue to direct health care and research efforts and budgets, to an expensive modifiable diabetes disease process, potentiated by poor food and physical inactivity. Affected patients require skilled support, to avert such chronic disease processes, often not of their making. Conclusions Healthcare contributes 5 to 8% of green house gases (GHG), and non-communicable diseases (NCD) are increasing, so healthcare must lead on primary health. As citizens and health professionals, we must advocate for better community health, and educate our patients. Future Directions All health and medical personnel need to consider planetary health and sustainable healthcare within their daily work. Healthcare must act to address climate change, and realise benefits for people and planet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1396.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: combine harvesting; effective field capacity; greenhouse gas emission; manual harvesting; reaper harvesting
Online: 19 May 2023 (07:41:15 CEST)
In this study, three paddy harvesting systems; manual harvesting of paddy (MHP), reaper harvesting of paddy (RHP), and combine harvesting of paddy (CHP) were evaluated considering field capacities, field efficiencies, time and fuel consumption, mechanization indices, greenhouse gas emissions, straw availability, and direct and indirect costs. Field experiments were conducted in North central province of Sri Lanka. The effective field capacity, field efficiency and fuel consumption of the combine harvester were 0.34 hah-1, 60.8%, and 34.1 Lha-1, respectively, and those of the paddy reaper were 0.185 hah-1, 58.2%, and 3.8 Lha-1, respectively. The total time consumed by MHP, RHP, and CHP were 76.05 hha-1, 39.76 hha-1, and 2.94 hha-1, respectively. The highest energy utilization was recorded by the CHP, at 1851.09 MJha-1, while MHP recorded the lowest at 643.20 MJha-1. The direct cost of the MHP was 1.50 and 1.52 times higher than those of the CHP and RHP, respectively. MHP recorded the lowest greenhouse gas emissions (32.94 kgCO2eqha-1), while CHP recorded the highest (176.29 kgCO2eqha-1). The RHP exhibited an intermediate level in all aspects. Although the CHP has higher field performance and direct costs, it brings higher GHG emissions and indirect costs. Therefore, an optimum level of mechanization should be introduced for the long-term sustainability of both the environment and farming.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0063.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Native shrubs; In vitro fermentation; volatile fatty acids; greenhouse gases; hill country
Online: 5 July 2022 (07:40:50 CEST)
Information on the nutritive value and in vitro fermentation characteristics of native shrubs in New Zealand is scant. This is despite their potential as alternatives to exotic trees and shrubs for sup-plementary fodder, and mitigation of greenhouse gas and soil erosion on hill country sheep and beef farms. The objectives of this study were to measure the in vitro fermentation gas production, predict parameters of in vitro fermentation kinetics and to estimate in vitro fermentation of volatile fatty acids (VFA), microbial biomass (MBM) and greenhouse gases of four native shrubs (Coprosma robusta, Griselinia littoralis, Hoheria populnea and Pittosporum crassifolium) and an exotic fodder tree species, Salix schwerinii. Total in vitro gas production was higher (p<0.05) for natives than S. schwerinii. Prediction using the single pool model resulted in biologically incorrect negative in vitro total gas production from the immediately soluble fraction of the native shrubs. However, the dual pool model better predicted in vitro total gas production and was in alignment with measured in vitro fermentation end products. In vitro VFA and greenhouse gas production from fermentation of leaf and stem material were higher (p<0.05), and MBM lower (p<0.05), for native shrubs com-pared to S. schwerinii. The lower in vitro total gas production, VFA and greenhouse gases produc-tion, and higher MBM of S. schwerinii may be explained by the presence of condensed tannins (CT), although this was not measured and requires further study. In conclusion, results from this study suggests that when consumed by ruminant livestock, the browsable native shrubs can provide adequate energy and microbial protein, and that greenhouse gas production from these species is within ranges reported for typical New Zealand pastures.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0337.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: pollutant emissions; hydrogen combustion; alternative fuels; CFD; NOx emissions; greenhouse gasses; aviation
Online: 25 February 2022 (13:37:28 CET)
The present is a study of the CFD simulations intended to simulate the emissions of pollutants that are generated after the combustion of proposed alternative aircraft fuels (Hydrogen, Ethanol and Methane) to compare with the emissions generated after the combustion of Kerosene and Benzene in a 2D cylindrical combustion chamber. Given that air traffic is a main contributor to not only 3% of man-made greenhouse effects but also of the generation of smog over heavy air traffic urban areas generating an impact on the air quality and the population of those areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0499.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: greenhouse gas balance; wood products; forest management; climate change mitigation; carbon storage
Online: 31 December 2021 (10:32:16 CET)
The global carbon neutrality challenge places a spotlight on forests as carbon sinks. However, greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of wood for material and energy use often reveal GHG emission savings in comparison with a non-wood reference. Is it thus better to increase wood production and use, or to conserve and expand the carbon stock in forests? GHG balances of wood products mostly ignore the dynamics of carbon storage in forests, which can be expressed as the carbon storage balance in forests (CSBF). For Germany, a CSBF of 0.25 to 1.15 t CO2/m³ wood can be assumed. When the CSBF is integrated into the GHG balance, GHG mitigation substantially deteriorates and wood products may even turn into a GHG source, e.g. in the case of energy wood. Here, building up the forest carbon sink would be the better option. We conclude that it is vital to include the CSBF in GHG balances of wood products if the wood is extracted from forests. Only then can GHG balances provide political decision-makers and stakeholders in the wood sector with a complete picture of GHG emissions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0346.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Artificial Neural Network; Greenhouse gases; GMDH; Middle Eastern countries; Carbon dioxide emission
Online: 29 May 2019 (10:17:43 CEST)
Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emission has considerable impact on global warming and climate change. Since energy systems and their features noticeably influence on the amount of GHGs emission, it can be modeled based on the specifications of energy sources utilized by the countries. In addition, economic activity is another factor which should be considered in GHG emission modeling. In this work, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is used for estimating carbon dioxide emission, as one of the most abundant GHGs, on the basis of shares of various energy sources used as primary energy supply and GDP as an indicator for economic activities. Five countries including Iran, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates (UAE) are considered as case studies. Comparing between the estimated data by the achieved model and actual quantities showed acceptable precision of the ANN model for prediction of carbon dioxide emission. The average absolute relative error and the R-squared values of the GMDH model are approximately 2.28% and 0.9998, respectively. The obtained values for the mentioned statistical criteria show the precision of the model in forecasting the emission of Co2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0793.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: swine farms; circulation system; greenhouse gas emission; bioreactor; manure treatment; oxida-tion-reduction potential
Online: 13 November 2023 (10:45:58 CET)
The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of the developed real-time controlled bio-liquor circulation system (BCS) on a farm-scale to optimize bioreactor operation for manure treatment, and to subsequently reduce both manure-related malodor and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from slurry pits. The BCS was operated sequentially as per swine manure inflow (anoxic, aerobic, and settling) circulation to the slurry pit. The duration of each operational phase was self-adjusted in real-time using a novel algorithm for detecting the control point on the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and pH (mV)-time profiles, the nitrogen break point (NBP), and the nitrate knee point (NKP) in the aerobic and anoxic phases, respectively. The NH4-N in the slurry manure was thoroughly removed (100%) in the bioreactor, optimizing the duration of each operational phase by accurately detecting real-time control points. The newly-developed real-time BCS decreased the nitrogen and organic matter content in the slurry pit manure by > 70%, and the potential ammonia and methane emissions by 75% and 95%, respectively. This study highlights that the this improved BCS that utilizes ORP tracking and pH (mV)-time profiles can effectively optimize BCS operation, and thereby reduce malodor and GHG emissions from swine farms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0108.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: soil organic matter; greenhouse gases; climatic change scenarios; adaptation; long-term experiment; black fallow
Online: 4 September 2023 (15:45:06 CEST)
Arable Сhernozems with high SOC contents have the potential to be significant sources of GHGs, and climate change is likely to increase SOC losses, making the issue of carbon sequestration in this region even more important. The prospect of maintaining SOC stock or increasing it by 4% an-nually under planned management practice modifications for the period up to 2090 was evaluated using a long-term experiment on Haplic Chernozem in the Rostov Region, Russia. In this study, we used the RothC model to evaluate SOC dynamics for three treatments with mineral and organic fertilization under two adaptation scenarios vs. business as usual, as well as under two climate change scenarios. Correction of crop rotation and the application of organic fertilizers at high rates are essential tools for maintaining and increasing SOC stocks. This can maintain SOC stock at the level of 84–87 Mg∙ha-1 until the middle of the 21st century, as the first half of the century is con-sidered the most promising period for the introduction of adaptation measures for the additional accumulation of SOC on Chernozems. Part of the additional accumulated SOC is expected to be lost before 2090.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1776.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: forest management; forest carbon; carbon sequestration; greenhouse gas (GHG); sustainable forestry; inventory; grid modeling
Online: 26 June 2023 (09:56:01 CEST)
Visual data on the geographic distribution of carbon storage helps policy maker to formulate countermeasures on global warming. However, Taiwan, as an island showing diversity in climate and topography, had lacked valid visual data in distribution of forest carbon storage between the last to forest surveys (1993-2015). This study established a model to achieve an estimation that capable to demonstrate the distribution of forest carbon storage. This model uses land use, stand morphology, carbon conversion coefficient databases accordingly for 51 types of major forest in Taiwan. An estimation on 2006 was conducted and shows an overall carbon storage of 165.65 Mt C, with forest carbon storage per unit area of 71.56 t C ha–1, where natural forests and plantations respectively contributed of 114.15 Mt C (68.9%) and 51.50 Mt C (31.1%). By assuming no change in land use type, the carbon sequestration from 2006 to 2007 by the 51 forest types was estimated to be 5.21 Mt C yr–1 using historical tree growth and mortality rates. The result reflects the reality of the land use status and event of coverage shifting with time by combining to the two forest surveys in Taiwan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2236.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Circular economy; greenhouse gas; carbon capture; endogenous striping agents; biogas upgrading; slow-release fertilizer
Online: 31 May 2023 (11:27:31 CEST)
With the current increase in the demand from animal and agricultural products, management of agrowaste has become critical to avoid greenhouse gas emissions. The present article investigates the applicability of ammonium bicarbonate synthesis via flash distillation to valorize and stabilize several types of anaerobic digestate produced from individual fermentations of amino acids. Prior to the development of the model in Aspen Plus v12, the description of the system aqua-ammonia-carbon dioxide provided by the electrolyte non-random two-liquid property method was validated with empirical data available in the literature. The content of CO2 in the digestate was found to be responsible of the OH alkalinity (0.4 equivalents of acid/kg digestate), while the partial and total alkalinities (0.8 eq/kg digestate) were essentially derived from the content of NH3. The most suitable conditions for the flash distillation were 95 ⁰C and 1 bar with the condensation occurring at 25 ⁰C. However, in order to attain the precipitation of NH4HCO3 in the distillate, it was necessary to consider digestates with a moisture content of 50 wt.%, since the minimum levels of inorganic nitrogen and inorganic carbon were not attained otherwise. Even under these conditions, few amino acids (i.e. arginine, glycine, and histidine) were able to provide an anaerobic digestate, upon fermentation, that would be suitable for NH4HCO3 stabilization. Despite alanine digestate and glutamine digestate presented sufficient concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and inorganic carbon, the NH4HCO3-stabilization was not feasible due to the limited volatilization of NH3. The process of stabilization with a capacity of a tonne of digestate per hour was improved by adding hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide at rates 44 kg/h, leading to production of 34 kg NH4HCO3/h. The economic viability of this process needs to be investigated considering not only the market value of the isolated inorganic fertilizer but the carbon credits saved, resulting from handling a more stabilized organic manure. Furthermore, given the role of the volatile elements of the biogas as endogenous stripping agents, it is recommended to use a fresh and saturated digestate as feed for the flash distillation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0176.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: soil health; soil organic matter; greenhouse gases; climatic change scenarios; Chernozems; long-term experiment
Online: 8 September 2020 (06:11:53 CEST)
Organic carbon (OC) accumulation in soil mitigates greenhouse gases emission and improves soil health. We aimed to quantify the dynamics of OC stock in soils and to justify technologies that allow annual increasing OC stock in the arable soil layer by 4‰. We based the study on a field experiment established in 1936 in the 9-field crop rotation with a fallow on Chernozem in European Russia. The RothC version 26.3 was used for the reproducing and forecasting OC dynamics. In all fertilizer applications at FYM background, there was a decrease in the OC stock with preferable loss of active OC, except the period 1964-71 with 2-5‰ annual OC increase. The model estimated the annual C input in the arable soil layer as 1,900 kg·ha-1. For increasing OC stocks by 4‰ per year, one should raise input to 2400 kg·ha-1. Simulation was made for 2016-2090 using climate scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Crop rotation without fallowing provided an initial increase of 3‰ and 6‰ of stocks in the RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios accordingly, followed by a loss in accumulated OC. Simulation demonstrates difficulties to increase OC concentration in Chernozems under intensive farming and potential capacity to rise OC stock through yield management.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1495.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: greenhouse gas emissions; methane abatement; Asiatic swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), dairy; beef; concentrate supplement; tannins
Online: 22 May 2023 (10:05:32 CEST)
Large ruminant production is associated with high greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe) intensity, with the highest in southeast Asia being Laos at 102.9 CO2eq/kg meat produced, compared with average global meat emissions intensity of 33 CO2eq/kg. As recent studies in Laos identified emissions control molasses blocks (ECBs) achieved abatement of 470kg CO2eq/20kg block consumed, a study was conducted with a supplement mix with reported methane reducing properties, containing plant tannins and citral extract, salt, molasses and water. Groups of housed dairy buffalo (n=7) and pasture-fed grazing beef cows (n=11) were randomly selected, body condition scores estimated (BCS:1-5) and baseline nasa-oral methane eructation measured daily for 2 weeks. All animals were offered 300-400g/day of the mix for a month, with buffalo accessing abundant fresh cut forages whereas the grazing cows accessing rice straw and pasture declining in quality and quantity due to severe drought. The buffalo consumed all of the mix and retained their BCS of 3, whereas the cattle consumed between 200-300g/day of the mix and their BCS declined from 1.5 to 1.0 during the trial. Analysis of data points (buffalo n=309; cattle n=378) found average methane concentration (AMP) per animal of both cohorts increased over the 2 week baseline period, then declined during the supplementation period by 36% in the buffalo and 18% in cattle cohorts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0382.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: environmental assessment; novel LCEA model; electricity generating supply systems; lifecycle greenhouse gas grid emission factor
Online: 25 June 2018 (11:03:05 CEST)
Environmental assessment is a concept that has been designed to facilitate the present generation to meet their needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs as well. Thus, this concept has drawn significant attention from various scholars, researchers and industrial practitioners around the world over the past three decades. Life Cycle Environmental Assessment (LCEA) is a widely metric used to assess the potential ecological impacts, which can be caused by electricity generating supply systems or by other systems than power production plants. However, the current LCEA model is biased and ineffective. Because, its omits factors that are increasingly contributing to the ecological degradation. This study has identified the omitted factors through a critical analysis of a set of previous journal articles conducted in the energy sector. In light of this, this study has developed a novel LCEA framework addressing those blind spots. The framework developed in this study is holistic in nature including all the life cycle stages of a power supply system such as Extraction of the Raw Material (ERM), Transport of Raw Material (TRM), Conversion of Raw into Electricity (CRE), and Transmission and Distribution of Electricity (TDE) to the end users. The novel developed LCEA model has been tested and applied to nine power generation plants such as coal, gas, nuclear, biomass, geothermal, hydro, solar thermal, wind onshore and wind offshore. The results have demonstrated that of conventional technologies including coal, gas, and nuclear, coal energy generating source has got the highest life cycle greenhouse gas Grid Emission Factor (GEF) of 2866 kg CO2e/MWh, followed by gas with 728 kg CO2e/MWh, and nuclear has got the least GEF of 35 kg CO2e/MWh. Whereas of renewable energy sources biomass has got the highest GEF of 1508 kg CO2e/MWh, followed by solar thermal with 46.6 kg CO2e/MWh, hydro 39 kg CO2e/MWh, wind offshore 25.25 kg CO2e/MWh, wind onshore 10.1 kg CO2e/MWh, and geothermal closes the ranking with 6.23 kg CO2e/MWh.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1642.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: light quality; photomorphogenesis; seed germination; seedling de-etiolation; shoot-root develop-ment; leaf development; greenhouse horticulture
Online: 22 June 2023 (15:56:43 CEST)
It is well-established that plants are sessile and photoautotrophic organisms that rely on light throughout their entire life cycle. Light quality (spectral composition) is especially important as it provides energy for photosynthesis and influences signaling pathways that regulate plant devel-opment in the complex process of photomorphogenesis. During past years, significant progress has been made in the physiological and biochemical effects of light quality on crops. However, understanding how light quality modulates plant growth and development remains a complex challenge. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of light quality in regulating early development of plants, encompassing processes such as seed germination, seedling de-etiolation, and seedling establishment. These insights can be harnessed to improve production planning and crop quality by producing high-quality seedlings in plant factories and improving the theoretical framework for modern agriculture.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0496.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids; high tunnel; greenhouse; plant factory; non-dormant; substrate; container; evergreen; high density
Online: 24 August 2020 (02:56:10 CEST)
Southern highbush blueberry plantations have been expanded into worldwide non-traditional growing areas with elite cultivars and improved horticultural practices. This article presents a comprehensive review of current production systems – alternatives to traditional open field production – such as production in protected environments, high-density plantings, evergreen production, and container-based production. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each system and compare their differences to the open field production. In addition, potential solutions have been provided for some of the disadvantages. We also highlight some of the gaps existing between academic studies and production in industry, providing a guide for future academic research. All these alternative systems have shown the potential to produce high yields with high quality berries. Alternative systems, compared to the field production, require higher establishment investments and thus create an entry barrier for new producers. Nevertheless, with their advantages, alternative productions have potential to be profitable.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Azerbaijan sustainable development; water electric heating; energy efficiency; green buildings; fuzzy logic temperature control; greenhouse gas emission.
Online: 12 April 2021 (15:13:45 CEST)
This paper discusses domestic problem of waiting hot water for the shower use till it reaches satisfactory temperature, which result a lot of wastage in fresh water. The outcome from research survey shows that there is no satisfactory solution till now as all solutions were either expensive or with no effective results. Local small inline electric heater equipped with fuzzy logic controller is proposed in this paper to be installed just before the showerhead to measure the water temperature and flow before the showerhead, as control input-variables, and decide the operating voltage of the heater, as control output-variable (MISO). MATLAB Simulink is used to model the proposed system. Different test cases are simulated to prove the performance and the safe operation of the system. Techno-economic study is carried out to determine the “Direct Benefits” and “Indirect Benefits” that can be achieved if such system is implemented in wide range. Azerbaijan data is taken as an example to calculate the economic benefits. The results show important benefits not only for economy but also for climate and the reduction of CO2 gas emission. Different economic indices are provided to be an easy reference for decision makers and project managers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1080.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: greenhouse gas; healthcare; sustainability; environmental justice; carbon emissions; hospital; climate change; quality improvement; greening; environmental stewardship; planetary health
Online: 15 September 2023 (12:02:07 CEST)
(1) Background: Human-generated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are the largest contributor to climate change worldwide. Climate change negatively impacts human and planetary health threatening the existence of life on earth. The healthcare industry is responsible for approximately 8.5% of carbon emissions in the United States. Measuring baseline GHG emissions is the first step in emissions reduction. However, very few models of measurement exist for health care organizations. This project aimed to develop and implement a program to measure and track GHG emissions at a Midwestern Academic Medical Center (MAMC) and to educate staff to manage the process. (2) Methods: A Plan, Do, Study, Act (PDSA) cycle and Quality Improvement methodology was used to develop, implement, and assess a standardized GHG emission inventory process to measure Scope 1 and Scope 2 baseline emissions, and provide virtual training and education to the accountable staff. A pre- and post-survey design was used to measure the knowledge and readiness of the staff after the implementation of the GHG inventory training. (3) Results: The GHG inventory process was validated through an external verification process and the measurement of Scope 1 and Scope 2 baseline GHG emissions was completed and verified for accuracy through a data comparison review. The pre-post-training survey showed an increase in the knowledge and readiness of staff in maintaining a GHG inventory. (4) Conclusions: This work shows the feasibility of obtaining baseline GHG emissions data at large medical centers. It represents the initial phase of the overarching goal to develop site-wide and system-wide carbon reduction strategies and a climate action plan within this health system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0367.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: daily light integral (DLI) maps; LED grow lights; greenhouse integrated PV; adaptive lighting control; year-round cultivation; agrivoltaics
Online: 21 September 2021 (14:31:23 CEST)
High efficacy LED lamps combined with adaptive lighting control and greenhouse integrated photovoltaics (PV) could enable the concept of year-round cultivation and become a feasible option even in the harsh climate of the Nordic countries. Meteorological satellite data of this region was analyzed in a parametric study to evaluate the potential of these technologies. The generated maps showed monthly average temperatures fluctuating from -20°C to 20°C throughout the year. The natural photoperiod and light intensity also changed drastically, resulting in monthly average daily light integral (DLI) levels ranging from 45-50 mol·m-2·d-1 in summer and contrasting with 0-5 mol·m-2·d-1 during winter. To compensate, growth room cultivation independent from outdoor conditions could be used in winter. Depending on the efficacy of the lamps, the electricity required for sole-source lighting at 300 µmol·m-2·s-1 for 16 hours would be between 1.4 and 2.4 kWh·m-2·d-1. Greenhouses with supplementary lighting could help start the cultivation earlier in spring and extend it further into autumn. The energy required for lighting highly depends on several factors such as the natural light transmittance, the light threshold settings and the lighting control protocol, resulting in electric demands between 0.6 and 2.4 kWh·m-2·d-1. Integrating PV on the roof or wall structures of the greenhouse could offset some of this electricity, with specific energy yields ranging from 400 to 1120 kWh·kWp-2·yr-1 depending on the region and system design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0201.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Rice-rice system; crop establishment methods; System of Rice Intensification; modified System of Rice Intensification; greenhouse gases; climate-resilience
Online: 2 August 2023 (10:10:42 CEST)
Initial evaluations of the System of Rice Intensification in India and elsewhere have mainly fo-cused on its impact on yield and income and have usually covered just one or two seasons. Re-searchers at the ICAR-Indian Institute of Rice Research conducted a more comprehensive evalua-tion of SRI methods over six years (six wet and six dry seasons), comparing these methods with three other rice crop management systems: modified, partially mechanized SRI (MSRI); direct-seeded rice (DSR); and normal transplanting with inundated fields (NTP). SRI grain yield was found to be about 50% higher than with NTP (6.35 t ha-1 vs 4.27 t ha-1), while the MSRI yield was essentially the same (6.34 t ha-1) and 16% higher than with DSR (5.45 t ha-1). Compared to NTP, SRI methods significantly enhanced soil microbial populations over time, bacteria by 12%, fungi by 8%, and actinomycetes by 20%. Indicators of biological activity in the rhizosphere were also higher, dehydrogenase by 8.5% and FDA enzymes by 16%. Glucosidase activity, an indicator of soil organic matter, was 78% higher. Relative to normal transplanting methods, SRI reduced GHG emissions by 21%, while DSR reduced them by 23% and MSRI by 13%, which indicated pos-itive effects of the alternate and improved methods over normal transplanting. Economic analy-sis showed that both gross and net economic returns to be higher with SRI than with MSRI and the other management systems evaluated. While the six-year study documented many ad-vantages of SRI crop management, the MSRI version evaluated is a promising adaptation that provide similar benefits but with lower labor requirements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0015.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Cement Industry; Homer Pro Optimization; Techno-Economic Analysis; Sensitivity Analysis; Net Present Cost; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Levelized Cost of Electricity
Online: 1 August 2022 (08:56:53 CEST)
Cement manufacturing is one of the most energy-intensive industries in the world. Most of the cost of producing cement is accounted by fuel consumption and power expenditures. Thermal power plants are the major source of electricity in Pakistan. But they are not efficient and environmentally friendly. This study simulates four different models for five cement plants of Pakistan on Homer Pro software and compares the optimal solutions based on the net present cost (NPC), levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Model-1 consists of solar panels, electrolyzer, hydrogen tank, hydrogen generator and converter. Model-2 has only a diesel generator and acts as a base case in this study. Model-3 has solar panels and a battery-converter system. In Model-4, diesel generators, solar panels and converters are considered. Based on NPC, the most optimal model is Model-4, having a 0.249 $/KWh LCOE in islanded systems. The NPC and operating costs are US$540 million and US$ 32.5 million per year, respectively, with a 29.80% reduction in CO2 emissions when compared to the base case. Based on GHG emissions, Model-1 and Model-3 are the best models with 0% GHG emissions. Sensitivity analyses is also performed using the parameters of load, inflation rate and discounted rate. The results prove that the proposed hybrid micropower systems (HMS) can sustainably provide electricity for 24 hours a day to the sites under consideration with minimum objectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0254.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Anaerobic digestion (AD); cross-flow; greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; harvesting; Membrane photobioreactor (MPBR); microalgae; ultrafiltration (UF); water resource recovery facility (WRRF).
Online: 5 December 2023 (15:09:12 CET)
A cross-flow ultrafiltration harvesting system of a pre-concentrated microalgae culture was tested in an innovative anaerobic-based WRRF. The microalgae culture was cultivated in a membrane photobioreactor fed with the effluent from an anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating sewage. These harvested microalgae biomass was then anaerobically co-digested with primary and secondary sludge from the water line. Depending on the needs of this anaerobic co-digestion, the filtration harvesting process was evaluated intermittently over a period of 212 days for different operating conditions, mainly the total amount of microalgae biomass harvested and the desired final total solids concentration (up to 15.9 g·L1 with an average of 9.7 g·L1). Concentration ratios of 15-27 were obtained with average transmembrane fluxes ranged from 5 to 28 L·m2·h1. Regarding membrane cleaning, both backflushing and chemical cleaning resulted in transmembrane flux recoveries that were, on average, 21% higher than those achieved with backflushing alone. The carbon footprint assessment shows promising results as the GHG emissions associated with the cross-flow ultrafiltration harvesting process could be less than the emissions savings associated with the energy recovered from the biogas production from the anaerobic valorisation of the harvested microalgae.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0614.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: air quality; air pollution; sustainable animal production; livestock and poultry; waste management; odor, ammonia; hydrogen sulfide; greenhouse gases; volatile organic compounds
Online: 26 October 2020 (09:33:12 CET)
Environmental impact associated with odor and gaseous emissions from animal manure is one of the challenges for communities, farmers, and regulatory agencies. Microbe-based manure additives treatments are marketed and used by farmers for mitigation of emissions. However, their performance is difficult to assess objectively. Thus, comprehensive, practical, and low-cost treatments are still in demand. We have been advancing such treatments based on physicochemical principles. The objective of this research was to test the effect of the surficial application of a thin layer (¼"; 6.3 mm) of biochar on the mitigation of gaseous emissions (as the percent reduction, % R) from swine manure. Two types of biochar were tested: highly alkaline and porous (HAP) biochar made from corn stover and red oak (RO), both with different pH and morphology. Three 30-day trials were conducted with a layer of HAP and RO (2.0 & 1.65 kg∙m-2, respectively) applied on manure surface, and emissions of ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), greenhouse gases (GHG), and odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured. The manure and biochar type and properties had an impact on the mitigation effect and its duration. RO significantly reduced NH3 (19-39%) and p-cresol (66-78%). H2S was mitigated (16~23%), but not significantly for all trials. Significant (66~78%) reductions for p-cresol were observed for all trials. The phenolic VOCs had relatively high % R in most trials but not significantly for all trials. HAP reduced NH3 (4~21%) and H2S (2~22%), but not significantly for all trials. Significant % R for p-cresol (91~97%) and skatole (74~95%) were observed for all trials. The % R for phenol and indole ranged from (60~99%) & (29~94%) but was not significant for all trials. The impact on GHGs, isobutyric acid, and the odor was mixed with some mitigation and generation effects. However, larger-scale experiments are needed to understand how biochar properties and the dose and frequency of application can be optimized to mitigate odor and gaseous emissions from swine manure. The lessons learned can also be applicable to surficial biochar treatment of gaseous emissions from other waste and area sources.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1257.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Climate Change; Net Zero Emissions; Dairy Farming; Big Data; Artificial Intelligence (AI); Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Sustainable Agriculture; Technological Innovation; Policy Framework; Environmental Sustainability
Online: 20 November 2023 (16:16:51 CET)
This paper provides an in-depth exploration of the role of Big Data and Artificial Intelligence (AI) in advancing dairy farming towards net zero emissions, a critical goal in the face of the global climate crisis. The study emphasizes how these technologies significantly enhance the management of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and optimize resource use, thereby contributing to environmental sustainability in agriculture. A key aspect of this transition is the alignment with international climate commitments, such as the Paris Agreement, which are instrumental in steering global efforts toward emission reduction and mitigating climate change. The integration of Big Data and AI in dairy farming emerges as a powerful tool to reduce the sector's environmental impact while sustaining economic growth. The paper delves into the specific applications of these technologies in emission management, including predictive analytics for feed optimization, manure management, and energy efficiency enhancements. It also addresses the broader implications of technological integration in dairy farming, considering aspects like benchmarking standards, data privacy, and the role of policy in fostering sustainable practices. The study underscores the challenges inherent in adopting these advanced technologies, including the need for improved farmer training, data quality, and compatibility with existing systems. It also advocates for enhanced policy frameworks that support sustainable practices, encourage technological adoption, and balance economic viability with environmental responsibility. This comprehensive analysis offers valuable insights into harnessing digital technologies for climate change mitigation and delineates a path for the dairy industry towards achieving net zero emissions, thereby contributing significantly to global environmental sustainability efforts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0142.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Urban Agriculture; Urban Farming; Hardscape; Hydroponics; Aquaponics; Human Health; Food Waste; Public Private Partner-ship (PPP), Greenhouse Gas Emission Avoidance; Income Supplement; Nepal
Online: 9 January 2023 (06:43:18 CET)
This paper responds to the research question, “can urban farming help Nepali cities become more sustainable”? Especially after the Covid-19 pandemic, urban residents have begun to realize that food transported from long distances could not always be reliable. Urban farming can help produce fresh food locally and avoid long-distance transportation, and refrigeration. This practice also helps reduce greenhouse gases through plant carbon use efficiency (CUE). Urban farming not only helps city-dwellers towards achieving self-reliance in food production but also in vegetation carbon dynamics (VCD) while supporting the circular economy. Urban farming consists of edible landscapes, which can also be an aesthetic public space. As urban lands command higher prices than agricultural land, urban farming usually happens on residential yards, roofs, balconies, community gardens, and dedicated areas in public parks. Rainwater harvesting, and redirecting can help irrigate urban farms which can be part of rain gardens. The national census of 2021 (CBS 2022, p5) identifies that 66 percent of Nepal’s population live in urban areas. However, the World Bank (2018), shows that only 21 of Nepal’s population was projected to live in urban areas in 2021. It is not debatable that the urbanization process in Nepal is on the rise. Thus, urban agriculture can play an important role to supplement the residents’ food needs. Many cities in Nepal have already successfully adapted to urban farming where residents grow food on their building site, balconies, and rooftop often growing plants on pots, vases, and other types of containers. The UN-Habitat, with the support of European Union and local agencies, has published a rooftop farming training manual (2014) showing the feasibility of urban farming in Nepal.The paper discusses how Public Private Partnership (PPP) can promote urban agriculture and make the process more effective and attractive to urban farming households. It also analyzes how a PPP approach also facilitates the use of better technology, advisory support, and use of research extension activities. This paper draws on literature review, secondary data (e.g., from National Census Nepal 2021) and authors’ professional experiences related to best practices in the areas to analyze the benefits and challenges related to urban farming in Arizona, USA. The paper will provide recommendations for Nepali cities to maximize the benefit provided by urban farming. It is expected to be useful to Nepali policy makers, and government agencies, and nonprofit organizations which promote sustainability, and organic farming.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0222.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: cement industry; depth of discharge; HOMER Pro Optimization; techno-economic analysis; net present cost; greenhouse gas emissions; levelized cost of electricity; battery technology
Online: 11 November 2022 (09:43:05 CET)
Cement industry is one of the highest energy consuming industries. The quantity of fuel and energy needed accounts for most of the cost of cement manufacturing. Thermal power plants generate electricity but are harmful and ineffective by nature. As a backup mechanism to account for main grid failures, batteries can be utilized. In this paper the first ever investigation on battery’s depth of discharge (DOD) for four different kinds of battery technologies is carried out in the framework of cement industry. The intended battery technologies are the lead-acid battery (LA), lithium-ion battery (Li-ion), vana-dium redox battery (VR), and nickel–iron battery (Ni-Fe). Four hybrid energy generation models (HEGMs) for five cement plants of Pakistan using the HOMER pro software are proposed. Cement plants includes Askari Cement Plant, Wah (ACPW); Bestway Cement Plant, Kalar Kahar (BCPKK); Bestway Cement Plant, Farooqia (BCPF); Bestway Cement Plant, Hattar (BCPH); and DG Cement Plant, Chakwal (DGCPC). HEGM-1 comprises of a diesel generator (DGen), a photovoltaic system (PV), a converter, and a battery system. HEGM-2 comprises of a PV system, a converter, and a battery system. HEGM-3 is the grid-connected version of HEGM-1 and HEGM-4 is the grid-connected version of HEGM-2. A base-model consisting of grid only is used as a reference. A multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is performed by formulating a cumulative objective function (COF) which includes net present cost (NPC), levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The principal objective is the maximization of COF while simultaneously minimizing the objectives (NPC, LCOE and GHG emissions), based on optimal battery technology and DOD. The results reveal that VR is the most suitable battery technology with 10% DOD. It is achieved for DGCPC with HEGM-3 with 61.49% of NPC, 78.62% of LCOE and 84.00% of GHG emissions reduction as com-pared to the base model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0399.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Renewable energy; Life cycle analysis; Wind energy; Life cycle assessment; Wind turbine; Carbon footprint; Water consumption; Greenhouse gases; non-conventional renewable sources; Carbon and water footprints.
Online: 27 October 2021 (11:00:58 CEST)
Wind technology is considered to be among the most promising types of renewable energy sources, and due to high oil prices and growing concerns about climate change and energy security, it has been the subject of extensive considerations in recent years, including questions related to the relative sustainability of electricity production when the manufacturing, assembly, transportation and dismantling processes of these facilities are taken into account. The present article evaluates the environmental impacts, carbon emissions and water consumption, derived from the production of electric energy of the Villonaco wind farm, located in Loja-Ecuador, during its entire life cycle, using the Life Cycle Analysis method. Finally, it is concluded that wind energy has greater environmental advantages, since it has lower values of carbon and water footprints than other energy sources. Additionally, with the techniques Cumulative Energy Demand and Energy Return on Investment, sustainability in the production of electricity from wind power in Ecuador is demonstrated; and, that due to issues of vulnerability to climate change, the diversification of its energy mix is essential considering the inclusion of non-conventional renewable sources such as solar or wind, this being the only way to reduce both the carbon footprint and the water supply power.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Electric Vehicle; internal combustion engine; greenhouse gas; optimization techniques; Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV); Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV); Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV); Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV).
Online: 10 May 2017 (17:44:51 CEST)
Electric vehicles (EV) are getting more commonplace in the transportation sector in recent times. As the present trend suggests, this mode of transport is likely to replace the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in near future. Each of the main EV components has a number of technologies that are currently in use or can become prominent in the future. EVs can cause significant impacts on the environment, power system, and other related sectors. The present power system can face huge instabilities with enough EV penetration; but with proper management and coordination, EVs can be turned into a major contributor to the successful implementation of smart grid. There are possibilities of immense environmental benefits as well, as the EVs can extensively reduce the greenhouse gas emission from the transportation sector. However, there are some major obstacles for EVs to overcome before replacing the ICE vehicles totally. This paper is focused on reviewing all the useful data available on EV configurations, energy sources, motors, charging techniques, optimization techniques, impacts, trends, and possible directions of future developments. Its objective is to provide an overall picture of the current EV technology and ways of future development to assist in future researches in this sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0012.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Building Information Modelling (BIM); Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA); Building process; Level of Development (LOD); Embodied environmental impacts; Greenhouse Gas emissions (GHG); LCA databases; LCA values; LCA benchmarks; cost estimation structure
Online: 1 March 2020 (13:16:52 CET)
The building sector has a big potential to reduce the material resource demand needed for building construction and therefore, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Digitalisation can help to make use of this potential and improve sustainability throughout the entire building’s life cycle. One way to address this potential is through the integration of Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) into the building process by employing Building Information Modelling (BIM). BIM can reduce the effort needed to carry out an LCA and therefore facilitate the integration into the building process. A review of current industry practice and scientific literature shows two main approaches to address BIM-LCA integration. Either the LCA is performed in a simplified way at the beginning of the building process, or it is done at the very end when all the needed information is available, but it is too late for decision-making. One reason for this is the lack of methods, workflows and tools to implement BIM-LCA integration over the entire building process. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to develop an integrated BIM-LCA workflow implemented into a method for the whole building process using an existing structure for cost estimation. A tool is created and used in a case study in Switzerland to test the developed approach. The results of this study show that LCA can be performed continuously in each building phase over the entire building process using existing BIM modelling techniques. The main benefit of this approach is that the re-work caused by the need for re-entering data and the usage of many different software tools that characterise most of the current LCA practices is minimised. Furthermore, decision-making, both at the element and building levels, is supported.