ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0002.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: soft texture rice; dietary fibre prediction; soluble dietary fibre; -glucan; pectin; arabinoxylan
Online: 1 September 2021 (09:20:53 CEST)
To date, most people prefer softer and stickier rice with high glycaemic index, which has led to the study of the association between the dietary fibre profile and the textural properties to balance between the eating quality, and health benefits. A slight variation was observed in the dietary fibre composition among rice varieties with different amylose content. The percentage of insoluble dietary fibre (IDF) in whole grain rice varied from 1.65–4.32 while the percentage of soluble dietary fibre (SDF) ranged from 0.26–1.37. We demonstrated that the SDF/IDF ratio was higher in soft texture rice with low amylose and it shared a negative correlation with hardness and chewiness of cooked whole grain rice determined by a texture analyser, which suggested that the distribution of SDF throughout the rice endosperm influences the reduction of the hardness of cooked rice. According to the importance of dietary fibre, we proposed a simple linear regression method to estimate the amount of IDF and total dietary fibre with r = 0.97 and 0.92, respectively, of whole grain rice based on its bran layer, determined by the alternative alkaline method. Furthermore, low amylose rice has higher content of -glucan and pectin, which are classified as soluble dietary fibre, than high amylose rice. The percentage of -glucan and pectin in whole grain rice ranged from 0.03 and 0.07 respectively, for high amylose rice to 0.14 and 0.27 respectively for low amylose rice,
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0118.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: dietary assessment; FFQ; recall; nutritional biomarker; validation
Online: 27 June 2017 (04:58:14 CEST)
The development of reliable Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs) requires detailed information about the level and variation of dietary food intake of the target population. However, these data are often limited. To facilitate the development of new high quality FFQs and validation of existing FFQs, we developed a comprehensive National Dietary Assessment Reference Database (NDARD) detailing information about the level and variation in dietary food intake of people 20-70 years old in the general Dutch population. This paper describes the methods and characteristics of the population included in the NDARD database. 1063 men and 985 women agreed to participate in this research. Dietary intake data were collected using different FFQs, web-based and telephone-based 24-hour recalls, as well as blood and urine-based biomarkers. The baseline FFQ was completed by 1647 participants whose mean BMI was 26±4 kg/m2; 1117 participants completed telephone-based recalls and 1781 participants completed web-based recalls. According to the baseline FFQ, the mean energy intake was 2051±605 kcal/day. The percentage of total energy intake from protein was 15±2 En%, from carbohydrates was 43±6 En%, and from fat was 36±5 En%. This database will enable researchers to validate existing FFQs and to develop new high quality dietary assessment methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0608.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Cape Verde; cereals; metals; dietary intake; risk evaluation
Online: 26 February 2021 (11:05:17 CET)
Cereals and their derivatives are the basis of human nutrition. However, cereals also contribute to the dietary exposure to toxic metals that may pose a risk. Strengthening food security and nutrition information is a high priority challenge for the Cape Verde Government. The toxic metals content (Cr, Ni, Sr, Al, Cd, Pb) has been determined in 126 samples of cereals and derivatives (rice, corn gofio, corn flour, wheat flour, corn, wheat) consumed in Cape Verde. Wheat flour samples stand out for registering the highest Sr (1.60 mg/kg), Ni (0.25 mg/kg) and Cr (0.13 mg/kg). The results show relevant Al levels (1.17 – 13.4 mg/kg) with its highest levels in corn gofio. The mean Pb average content in the cereals is 0.03 – 0.08 mg/kg with the highest level observed in corn gofio. The Al and Pb levels are lower in cereals without husks. A consumption of 100 g/day of corn gofio provide an intake of 1.34 mg Al/day (13.7% of the tolerable weekly intake established at 1 mg/kg bw/week) and 8 µg Pb/day (20% of the BMDL set at 0.63 µg/kg bw/day for nephrotoxic effects). The minimization of the dietary exposure of the Cape Verdean population to toxic metals is through the importation of higher quality cereals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0081.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: dietary assessment; food record; FFQ; biomarker; doubly labeled water; energy intake; validity; athletes; sports nutrition
Online: 12 October 2017 (09:43:35 CEST)
Dietary assessment methods recognized as appropriate for the general population are usually applied in a similar manner to athletes, despite knowledge that sport-specific factors can complicate assessment and impact accuracy in unique ways. As dietary assessment methods are used extensively within the field of sports nutrition, there is concern the validity of methodologies have not undergone more rigorous evaluation in this unique population sub-group. The purpose was to systematically review studies comparing two or more methods of dietary assessment, including dietary intake measured against biomarkers or reference measures of energy expenditure, in athletes. Six electronic databases were searched for English-language, full-text articles published from January 1980 until June 2016. The search strategy combined the following keywords: diet, nutrition assessment, athlete and validity; where the following outcomes are reported but not limited to: energy intake, macro and/or micronutrient intake, food intake, nutritional adequacy, diet quality, or nutritional status. Meta-analysis was performed on studies with sufficient methodological similarity, with between-group standardized mean differences (or effect size) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) calculated. Of the 1624 studies identified, 18 were eligible for inclusion. Studies comparing self-reported energy intake (EI) to energy expenditure assessed via doubly labelled water were grouped for comparison (n=11) and demonstrated mean EI was under-estimated by 19 % (- 2793 ± 1134 kJ/d). Meta-analysis revealed a large pooled effect size of - 1.006 (95% CI: -1.3 to -0.7; p<0.001). The remaining studies (n=7) compared a new dietary tool or instrument to a reference method(s) (e.g. food record, 24-h dietary recall, biomarker) as part of a validation study. This systematic review revealed there are limited robust studies evaluating dietary assessment methods in athletes. Existing literature demonstrates substantial variability between methods, with under and misreporting of intake frequently observed. There is a clear need for careful validation of dietary assessment methods, including emerging technical innovations, among athlete populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0283.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: 24-hour recall; nutrition assessment; technology assisted dietary assessment; gestational diabetes
Online: 16 July 2018 (12:12:42 CEST)
myfood24 is a comprehensive self-completed online 24-hour dietary recall tool currently used for nutritional assessments in epidemiological research. However, its clinical application has been unexplored. This mixed methods prospective observational study explores the acceptability and usability of myfood24 in a clinical population, women with gestational diabetes (GDM). Women were recruited at their first diabetes antenatal clinic appointment. To assess acceptability and usability, they were asked to complete five 24-hour dietary recalls using myfood24 over two weeks and a user experience questionnaire; with a subset invited to participate in a one-to-one semi-structured interview. Of the 199 participants, mean maternal age was 33 years, mean booking BMI 29.7kg/m2, 36% primiparous, 57% White, 33% Asian. Of these 121 (61%) completed myfood24 at least once and 73 (37%) completed the user questionnaire; 15 were interviewed. Usability of myfood24 was measured using the System Usability Scale (SUS) and found to be good (mean 70.9, 95%CI 67.1, 74.6). Interviews identified several areas for improvement, including optimising its use for mobile devices. myfood24 appears to be acceptable and have potential to support self-management and behaviour change for women with GDM but requires adaptation to record blood glucose results alongside real-time tracking of diet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0505.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: dietary intake; sport nutrition knowledge; dietary habits; energy availability
Online: 21 May 2021 (09:01:55 CEST)
Sport nutrition knowledge has been shown to influence dietary habits of athletes. The purpose of the current study was to examine relationships between sport nutrition knowledge and body composition and examine potential predictors of body weight goal in collegiate athletes. Participants included National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III women (n=42, height: 169.9 ± 6.9 cm; body mass: 67.1 ± 8.6 kg; fat-free mass: 51.3 ± 6.6 kg; body fat %: 24.2 ± 5.3%) and men (n=25, height: 180.8 ± 7.2 cm; body mass: 89.2 ± 20.5 kg; fat-free mass: 75.9 ± 12.2 kg; body fat %: 13.5 ± 8.9%) athletes. Body composition was assessed via air displacement plethysmography. Athletes completed a validated questionnaire designed to assess sport nutrition knowledge and were asked questions about their perceived dietary energy and macronutrient requirements, as well as their body weight goal (i.e. lose, maintain, gain weight). Athletes answered 47.98 ± 11.29 % of questions correctly on the nutrition questionnaire with no differences observed between sexes (men: 49.52 ± 11.76% vs. women: 47.03 ± 11.04%; p=0.40). An inverse relationship between sport nutrition knowledge scores and body fat percentage (r = -0.330; p=0.008), and fat mass (r = -.268; p=0.032) was observed for all athletes. Fat mass (β = 0.224), BF % (β = 0.217), and BMI (β = 0.421) were all significant (p<0.05) predictors of body weight goal in women. All athletes significantly (p<0.001) underestimated daily energy (-1,360 ± 610.2 kcal/d), carbohydrate (-301.6 ± 149.2 g/d), and fat (-41.4 ± 34.5 g/d) requirements. Division III collegiate athletes have a low level of sport nutrition knowledge, which was associated with a higher BF %. Women athletes with a higher body weight, BF % and BMI were more likely to select weight loss as a body weight goal. Athletes also significantly underestimated their energy and carbohydrate requirements based upon the demands of their sport, independent of sex.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0541.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Functional food components, Dietary miRNA, XenomiRs, dietary supplementation therapy
Online: 24 February 2021 (10:11:26 CET)
Exogenous miRNAs derived from dietary substances have been shown to be orally transferred to the mammalian system and proven to remain active to regulate host-gene expression. This way they have become an active area of research as functional food components and aspects for dietary supplementation. They are being studied as a new class of metabolically targeted therapeutics that work through diet manipulation and may hold promise for a therapeutic approach in reducing the risk of life-threatening diseases. However, a substantial amount of evidence also defies this dietary miRNA concept in terms of their absorption, bioavailability, cellular uptake and its physiological effects in the mammalian system. But recent advances in the identification of some unique sequence and structural characteristics of dietary miRNAs and a deeper understanding of their stability in host peripheral blood for its cellular uptake have strengthened the whole concept. The review comprehensively summarizes the mechanism for miRNA extracellular transport, absorption through the gastrointestinal tract (GI), stability in peripheral blood, and cellular uptake in mammalian cells. It recapitulates the shreds of evidence, related to the influence of dietary miRNAs on gene expression based on the source of the origin (plant vs animal), and compares their cross-kingdom behaviour in terms of their unique sequence and stem-loop structure properties that help them to get stabilized in the mammalian system. The review also summarizes the parameters required for maintaining the sustainable uptake and bioavailability of the dietary miRNAs with existing examples of successful in-vivo and in-vitro delivery of dietary miRNA for augmented therapy. Lastly, it provides an overview of the available and required databases, webserver, and tools that can be used for the successful identification of potential dietary miRNA candidates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0019.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: dietary patterns, food-frequency questionnaire, dietary, lifestyle practices, adolescents
Online: 5 September 2016 (14:46:56 CEST)
Abstract: Objective: The aim of the study was to identify dietary patterns and its association with socio-economic, dietary and lifestyle practices among adolescents in Malaysia. Methods: A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary patterns. Results: Multivariate analyses show that age and physical activity (PA) levels were emerged as positive determinants of healthy-based food pattern in Malay (All, p<0.001), whereas higher consumption of eating-out from home (EatOut) and fast food (All, p<0.05) were negative determinants. High weekly breakfast skipping (p<0.001) and EatOut (p<0.01) were positively associated with a western-based pattern, whereas age (p<0.001) and household income (p<0.05) were negative determinants. Higher frequency of daily snacking (p<0.05) was emerged as positive determinant of local-based food pattern. For Chinese adolescents, age (p<0.001), PA levels (p<0.001) and maternal education level (p<0.05) emerged as positive determinants for the healthy-based pattern, whereas high EatOut and fast food intakes (All, p<0.01) were negative determinants. Higher weekly consumption of EatOut (p<0.01), fast food (p<0.05) and carbonated beverages (p<0.05), and daily snacking practice (p<0.01) were positively associated with higher western-based food pattern, whereas age (p<0.01) was inversely associated. Conclusion: These findings suggest that unhealthy dietary and lifestyle practices could increase the risk of adherence to unhealthy western-based food pattern that is high in fat, sugar and salt contents, and consequently increase the risk of developing obesity and metabolic-related disorders during these critical years of growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0109.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Keywords: Breakfast; dietary intake; nutrition; dietary quality; NRF9.3 index; USDA HEI 2015 index
Online: 6 August 2018 (10:10:46 CEST)
Abstract: The contribution of breakfast to diet quality (DQ) can inform future dietary guidelines. This study examined breakfasts that were associated with highest-quality diets. Dietary data came from the first reported day of the National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2014 (n=14,488). DQ measures were the Nutrient Rich Foods Index (NRF9.3) and the USDA Healthy Eating Index 2015 (HEI 2015). Analyses of breakfast intakes were conducted by NRF9.3 tertiles and by age and socioeconomic groups. Four out of 5 NHANES participants ate breakfast. Breakfast provided 19-22% of dietary energy depending on age. Breakfast intakes of complex carbohydrates and total sugars were higher and intakes of protein and fats were lower relative to energy intakes. Breakfast provided more that 20% of daily intakes of B vitamins, vitamins A and D, folate, calcium, iron, potassium and magnesium. Eating breakfast was associated with higher NRF9.3d scores. Breakfasts associated with top tertile of NRF9.3d had more carbohydrates and less added sugars and fats. Such breakfasts had more fruit and juices, more whole grains, more milk and yogurt and less meat and eggs. Breakfast patterns that favored fruit, whole grains, and dairy were associated with healthiest diets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0531.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: dietary calcium intake; osteoporosis; fractures; bone mineral density
Online: 14 December 2020 (12:20:21 CET)
A low calcium intake is associated with an increased fracture risk. We assessed the dietary calcium intake in a cohort of Italian individuals evaluated for low bone mineral density (BMD). A 7-day food-frequency questionnaire was administered to 1793 individuals consecutively referred at a Centre of the Italian Society for Osteoporosis, Mineral Metabolism and Skeletal Diseases for low BMD. In 30.3% (544/1793) and 20.9% (374/1793) of subjects the calcium intake was inadequate ( <700 mg/day) and adequate (>1200 mg/day), respectively. Patients with calcium intake <700 mg/day showed a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus, idiopathic hypercalciuria and food allergy/intolerance (8.1%, 5.1%, 7.2%, respectively) than patients with calcium intake >700 mg/day (5.3%, 3.0%, 4.1%, respectively, p<0.04 for all comparisons), also after adjusting for age, gender and BMI. In 30.3% of fractured subjects the calcium intake was <700 mg/day. In Italy, a low calcium intake is highly prevalent in individuals at risk for low BMD. Importantly, an inadequate calcium intake is highly prevalent even in patients with history of fragility fractures. Only about a fifth of patients at risk for low BMD reported an adequate calcium intake
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0055.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: diet; dietary protein; dietary fibre; insulin sensitivity assessment; insulin sensitivity; insulin resistance; metabolic syndrome
Online: 8 November 2017 (16:20:47 CET)
Evidence shows that weightloss improves insulin sensitivity but few studies have examined the effect of macronutrient composition independently of weight loss on direct measures of insulin sensitivity. We randomised 89 overweight or obese women to either a standard diet (StdD) that was intended to be low in fat and relatively high in carbohydrate (n=42) or to a relatively high protein (up to 30% of energy), relatively high fibre (>30g/day) diet (HPHFib) (n=47) for 10 weeks. Advice regarding strict adherence to energy intake goals was not given. Insulin sensitivity and secretion was assessed by a novel method - the Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST). Although there were significant improvements in body composition and most cardiometabolic risk factors on HPHFib, insulin sensitivity was reduced by 19.3% (95% CI: 31.8, 4.5%; p=0.013) in comparison with StdD. We conclude that the reduction in insulin sensitivity after a diet relatively high in both protein and fibre, despite cardiometabolic improvements, suggests insulin sensitivity may reflect metabolic adaptations to dietary composition for maintenance of glucose homeostasis, rather than impaired metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0258.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Sports Nutrition; Dietary Supplements; Athletic Performance
Online: 16 January 2023 (01:29:53 CET)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effect of caffeine supplementation on performance in official soccer matches. In double-blind, randomized crossover design, 13 professional soccer players performed two complete matches, with Caffeine (CAF) (6 mg/kg) and placebo (PLA) supplementation. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA showed that there was no effect of supplementation on the total distance covered (p = 0.536; ŋp² =0.033) or the total distance covered at different speeds (p = 0.453; ŋp² = 0.048), acceleration or deceleration (p = 0.387; ŋp² = 0.063) number of sprints (p = 0.521; µ² = 0.035) Heart Rate mean (p = 0.484; ŋp² = 0.042) Heart Rate maximum (p = 0.110; ŋp² = 0.199), Rate Perceived Effort (p = 0.151) or efficiency index (p = 0.480). Therefore, acute caffeine supplementation not effective to increase the performance of soccer players in official matches.
Online: 23 August 2021 (13:51:54 CEST)
Excessive intake of fat and fatty acids is associated with major health hazards such as obesity or chronic diseases. The aim of this study is to provide the first data on total fat, SFA and TFA intakes and their major food sources in Tunisian children. A total of 1200 children, aged 3 to 9 years old, were randomly selected from primary schools and kindergarten under a cross-sectional design. The 24hour recall method and food frequency questionnaire were used to assess dietary intake. The energy percentages of total fat, SFA and TFA in Tunisian children were respectively 29.6, 11.4 and 0.15. No sex differences were found. The WHO recommendations for total fat, SFA and TFA were adopted by 58 %, 39 % and 89 % of the study population, respectively. The leading food groups of fat and fatty acids were ultra-processed foods, bread and cereals and dairy products. The meat, fish, eggs and fish alternatives were the fifth main contributors to the total fat and SFA intakes in Tunisian children. The implementation of a relevant strategy for fat reduction, especially from ultra-processed foods, considered as low nutrient energy-dense products, is needed to promote health among children and prevent diet-related chronic diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0334.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: ergogenic aid; dietary supplement; youth; athletes
Online: 18 January 2021 (12:36:24 CET)
Creatine is a popular ergogenic aid among athletic populations with consistent evidence indicating that creatine supplementation also continues to be commonly used among adolescent populations. In addition, the evidence base supporting the therapeutic benefits of creatine supplementation for a plethora of clinical applications in both adults and children continues to grow. Among pediatric populations, a strong rationale exists for creatine to afford therapeutic benefits pertaining to multiple neuromuscular and metabolic disorders, with preliminary evidence for other subsets of clinical populations as well. Despite the strong evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of creatine supplementation among adult populations, less is known as to whether similar physiological benefits extend to children and adolescent populations, and in particular those adolescent populations who are regularly participating in high-intensity exercise training. While limited in scope, studies involving creatine supplementation and exercise performance in adolescent athletes generally report improvements in a number of ergogenic outcomes with limited evidence of ergolytic properties and consistent reports indicating no adverse events associated with supplementation. The purpose of this article is to summarize the rationale, prevalence of use, performance benefits, clinical applications, and safety of creatine use in children and adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0541.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: antioxidant activity; dietary supplements; microalgal cultivation
Online: 25 August 2020 (08:41:14 CEST)
Microalgae production is expensive and demands high volumes of water and energy to meet all market demands and yet the production of secondary metabolites using alternative media needs deeper studies. Among alternative media, the use of sugar cane vinasse has gained attention for microalgae cultivation. In this work, we’ve compared the biomass yield and secondary metabolites of Chlorella sorokiniana grown in a commercial medium (Sueoka) and in alternative medium prepared with cane vinasse (0.1%) supplemented with N, P2O5 and K2O (commercial formula 20-5-20 g.L-1). The production of microalgae biomass grown in an alternative medium was 2.2% lower, but reached its maximum growth point 14 days faster than the commercial medium. The average level of Phenolic compounds on the commercial medium were 6.02 ± 0.13 mg GAE .g-1 and increased to 15.28 ± 0.32 mg GAE.g-1when C. sorokinianawere grown in the vinasse medium. Same how, Flavonoids contents varied from 13.12 ± 1.33 to 72.30 ± 5.28 mg QE. g-1 to commercial and vinasse medium, respectively. The maximum AOA of C. sorokiniana grown in vinasse medium was 88.05% at a concentration of 1500 µg.mL-1 of extract, with IC50 at 357.7 ± 27.35 µg.mL-1. Different factors seem to induce variances on secondary metabolites synthesis, mostly stress due to QOD and ions added to the medium by vinasse. The authors recognize there are more investigations to be done, but increasing a natural and low cost pathway for flavonoids yield open up an interesting field for the bioprospection of microalgae.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0154.v1
Online: 12 June 2020 (12:39:49 CEST)
Aim: This study was designed to understand the changes in dietary and lifestyle behaviours that are major determinants of health during the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted through an online questionnaire using a convenience sample of 415 adults living in Kuwait (age range 18-73 years). Results: The overall prevalence of being overweight and obesity among participants was 37.2% and 33.1% respectively. The study identified significant changes in the dietary habits and lifestyle behaviours of participants during COVID-19. In general, there was an increase in the percentage of participants that consumed four or more meals a day, skipped breakfast, and engaged in frequent late night snacking. Moreover, there was a drastic decrease in the frequency of fast food consumption and an increase in the percentage of participants who had their main meal freshly made. Furthermore, there was a great reduction in physical activity and an increase in the amount of screen time and sedentary behaviours. A notable increase was detected in day-time sleep and a decrease in night-time sleep among participants. Conclusion: This study indicates that due to the increased prevalence of habits conducive to increased rates of being overweight and obesity during the COVID-19 outbreak, there is a high likelihood that the pandemic will further exacerbate the already widespread problem of obesity and being overweight in Kuwait.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0228.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Obesity; Dietary practices; Diabetes; College students
Online: 13 May 2020 (15:26:52 CEST)
Obesity is an issue of public health concern as it contributes to chronic non-communicable diseases despite the fact that it is preventable. Dietary practices and environment have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, overweight and obesity among young people. This study aimed to assess the dietary patterns associated with obesity among Babcock University students. A descriptive cross-sectional study was used to obtain data from 391 participants. Results reveal respondent’s knowledge was 12.06 ± 2.3 translating to an 80% prevalence performance, level of perception was 37.23 ± 9.23 with prevalence of 59.0%, dietary practices was 19.6 ± 5.23 with 59% prevalence. Factors influencing dietary practices revealed mean score of 15.2 ± 4.5 with 72.3% prevalence performance. The factors identified in this study has a great influence on dietary practices of the study participants. In conclusion Babcock University students have an excellent knowledge of dietary practices related to obesity. They also had good dietary practices. The identified factors had a great influence on the study participants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0240.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: vitamin and mineral dietary supplements; mercury
Online: 29 March 2018 (03:52:58 CEST)
Dietary supplements are more and more often used to increase daily intake of essential vitamins and minerals. These preparations are classified as special category of foods and are subject to food law, not pharmaceutical regulations. As a result the requirements to dietary supplements are much less restrictive than to medications. Also simple and inexpensive procedure of registration causes that the number of dietary supplements is widely spread every year. On every manufacturing phases of dietary supplements, there is a risk of contamination. One of the pollutions might be mercury which is classified as heavy metal. Its inorganic compounds damage kidneys and liver and methylmercury is easily absorbed from gastrointestinal system. Methylmercury is distributed in all tissues, also in nervous system. The aim of study was to determine the level of mercury in multivitamins and multiminerals preparations and to analyze the results. The study included 22 dietary supplements containing vitamins and minerals available on Polish market. Mercury was analyzed with atomic absorption spectrometry using AMA 254. The concentrations of Hg was 0.22–5.85 µg/kg (the average content was 2.40 µg/kg). The highest average mercury content was 4.51 µg/kg, whereas the lowest one was 0.31 µg/kg. The results was also analyzed in individual groups depending on main component and indication for use as well as pharmaceutical formulation. Also according to manufacturer’s recommendation, the dose of mercury taken with a single medicine was estimated for time of a day, a week, a month, 3 months and also a year. The findings were compared to limits defined in regulations of European Union and PTWI set by JECFA to assess the health risk. The results presented in this study proved that the amount of mercury in tested dietary supplements is much lower than the value of valid regulations. Analyzed supplements as long as they are used with the recommendation of manufacturer, do not pose a threat to human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0171.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: prebiotic; microbiota; fermentation; dietary fiber; microbiome
Online: 27 October 2017 (15:33:12 CEST)
Prebiotic dietary fiber supplements are commonly consumed to help meet fiber recommendations and improve gastrointestinal health by stimulating beneficial bacteria and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), molecules beneficial to host health. The objective of this research project was to compare potential prebiotic effects and fermentability of five commonly consumed fibers using an in vitro fermentation system measuring changes in fecal microbiota, total gas production and formation of common SCFAs. Fecal donations were collected from three healthy volunteers. Materials analyzed included: pure beta-glucan, Oatwell (commercially available oat-bran containing 22% oat β-glucan), xylooligosaccharides (XOS), WholeFiber (dried chicory root containing inulin, pectin, and hemi/celluloses), and pure inulin. Oatwell had the highest production of propionate at 12 h (4.76 μmol/mL) compared to inulin, WholeFiber and XOS samples (p<0.03). Oatwell’s effect was similar to those of the pure beta-glucan samples, both samples promoted the highest mean propionate production at 24 h. XOS resulted in a significant increase in the genus Bifidobacterium after 24 h of fermentation (0 h: 0.67 OTUs; 24 h: 5.22 OTUs; p = 0.038). Inulin and WholeFiber increased the beneficial genus Collinsella, consistent with findings in clinical studies. All analyzed compounds were fermentable and promoted the formation of beneficial SCFAs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0099.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: aging; bioactive nutrients; dietary; nutrigenomics; Oxiinflammaging
Online: 19 December 2016 (09:37:23 CET)
The increase in the average lifespan and the consequent proportional growth of the elderly segment of society has furthered the interest in studying ageing processes. Ageing may be considered a multifactorial process derived from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors including lifestyle. There is ample evidence in many species that the maximum age attainable (maximum lifespan potential, MLSP) is genetically determined and several mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms are associated with longevity. Many studies have shown that most of the phenotypic characteristics observed in the aging process are the result of the occurrence, with age, of a low grade chronic pro-inflammatory status called "inflammaging", partially under genetic control. The term indicate that aging is accompanied by a low degree of chronic inflammatory, an up-regulation of inflammatory response and that inflammatory changes are common to many age-related diseases. Therefore, the theory of oxidation-inflammation was proposed as the main cause of aging. Accordingly, the chronic oxidative stress, that appears with age, affects all cells and especially those of the regulatory systems, such as the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems and the communication between them. This prevents an adequate homeostasis and, therefore, the preservation of health. It was also proposed that the immune system plays a key role in the aging process, specifically in the rate of aging, since there is a relationship between the redox state and functional capacity of immune cells and longevity of individuals. Moreover, the role of the immune system in senescence could be of universal application. A confirmation of the central role of the immune system in oxi-inflamm-aging is that the administrationintake? of adequate amounts of antioxidants in the diet improves immune function, decreases their oxidative stress, and consequently increases longevity. The promotion of healthy lifestyles is one of the major goals of governments and international agencies all over the world. Human molecular processes are influenced by both physiological pathways and exogenous factors which include, for instance, those originating from diet. Dietary intake has substantive effects on molecular processes of metabolic health. Nutrients can directly regulate physiological changes in human body. In fact, in addition to have an energetic and structural value, nutritional intake provides bioactive molecules which are selectively able to modulate specific metabolic pathways, noticeably affecting cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases development or progress. Numerous bioactive nutrients are being progressively identified and their chemopreventive effects are being described at clinical and molecular mechanism levels. Systematic analyses comprise all “omics” technologies (such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) and the goal is to investigate bioactive molecules effects derived from the diet. Nutrigenomic knowledge on physiologic status and disease risk will provide both developments of better diagnostic procedures and of new therapeutic strategies specifically targeted on nutritionally relevant processes. The present review was aimed to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying beneficial effects of bioactive nutrients and nutrigenomics on age-related diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0278.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: systematic review; meta-analysis; dietary pattern; prospective cohort; randomized controlled trial; cancer prognosis; cancer survival; dietary intervention
Online: 16 December 2021 (15:06:33 CET)
Cancer survival continues to improve in high-income countries, partly explained by advances in screening and treatment. Previous studies have mainly examined the relationship between individual dietary components and cancer prognosis in tumours with good therapeutic response (breast, colon and prostate cancers). The aim of this review was to assess qualitatively (and quantitatively where appropriate) the associations of dietary patterns and cancer prognosis from published prospective cohort studies, as well as the effect of diet interventions by means of randomized controlled trials (RCT). A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, and a total of 35 prospective cohort studies and 14 RCT published between 2011 and 2021 were selected. Better overall diet quality was associated with improved survival among breast and colorectal cancer survivors; adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated to lower risk of mortality in colorectal and prostate cancer survivors. A meta-analysis using a random-effects model showed that higher versus lower diet quality was associated with a 23% reduction in overall mortality in breast cancer survivors. There was evidence that dietary interventions, generally combined with physical activity, improved overall quality of life, though most studies were in breast cancer survivors. Further cohort and intervention studies in other cancers are needed to make more specific recommendations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0486.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: AFs; Edible seeds; Tocopherols levels; Dietary intake
Online: 18 November 2020 (23:07:40 CET)
A total of 779 samples of edible nuts (melon seeds, watermelon seeds, pumpkin seeds, and cantaloupe seeds) from southern cities of Punjab, Pakistan were collected from the summer and the winter seasons. The natural occurrence of aflatoxins (AFs) and vitamin E (tocopherols) levels were investigated using HPLC. The results have shown that 180 (43.4%) samples from the winter season and 122 (33.4%) samples from the summer season were found positive with AFs. The elevated average levels of total AFs (20.9±3.10 µg/kg) were observed in watermelon seeds without shell and the lowest average amount (15.9±3.60 µg/kg) were documented in melon seeds without shell samples from the winter season. The elevated average amount of total AFs 17.3±1.50 µg/kg were found in pumpkin seeds available as without shell. The results have documented a significant difference in total AFs levels in edible seeds available as shells versus without shells (α = 0.05 & 0.01). The highest dietary intake of 6.30 µg/kg/day was found in female individuals from pumpkin seeds (without shell) in the winter season and the value of 3.00 µg/kg/day were found in pumpkin seed without shell in summer season in female individuals. The highest amount of total tocopherol levels of 22.2 ± 7.70 ng/100g in pumpkin seeds samples from winter season and 14.5 ± 5.50 mg/100g were found in melon seeds samples from summer season. The variation of total tocopherol levels in edible seeds among the winter and summer seasons showed significant difference (p ≤ 0.0054), except watermelon seeds samples which shown non-significant difference (p ≥ 0.183).
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Indian pangolin; dietary; habitats; foraging intensity; faecal
Online: 10 December 2019 (03:06:05 CET)
Indian pangolins are insectivorous mammals with less-known ecology. Due to the lack of sufficient literature on their dietary ecology, captive raring of this species has become problematic. This article describes data on dietary composition and foraging habitats of the Indian Pangolin (Manis crassicaudata) in a tropical lowland forest-associated landscape in Southwest Sri Lanka. Five different types of habitats were investigated in this study: Forest, rubber plantation, cinnamon cultivation, oil palm plantation, and tea-dominated home gardens. Foraging preference of the Indian pangolin for each habitat was assessed using signs of foraging activities. To further observe the foraging habitat utilization of pangolins, photographic evidences were collected using Infrared (IR) active camera traps located in all the studied habitats. Faecal samples collected from same habitats were further examined to identify the dietary composition of Indian Pangolins. As termites and ants are major prey organisms of Indian pangolins, the digestibility of different body parts –heads, mouthparts, abdomens, and legs of termites and ants was also scrutinized. The findings of the study with regard to dietary ecology will be important for both captive feed preparation and future conservation planning of the species
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0011.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: cyclodextrin; postprandial glycemia; postprandial insulinemia; dietary fiber
Online: 2 December 2019 (10:54:32 CET)
Twelve overnight fasted, healthy, male volunteers received on separate days a test breakfast consisting of (A) 100 g fresh white bread (providing 50 g starch) and 250 mL drinking water, (B) the same bread with a supplement of 10 g alpha-cyclodextrin dissolved in the drinking water (250 mL), and (C) 250 mL drinking water containing 25 g alpha-cyclodextrin. Capillary and venous blood samples were collected before breakfast and at regular intervals for a period of 3 hours thereafter. Plasma glucose was determined in capillary blood and plasma insulin in venous blood samples. Breakfast (A) let to the expected rise in blood glucose and insulin concentrations. Breakfast (C) did not produce a significant glycemic and insulinemic response, demonstrating that alpha-cyclodextrin is not hydrolyzed to glucose in the human digestive tract. Mild intestinal symptoms after the ingestion of alpha-cyclodextrin were reported by 4 subjects. The postprandial rises of plasma glucose and insulin were significantly smaller after breakfast (B) than (A). Under the conditions of this study, alpha-cyclodextrin reduced the glycemic and insulinemic index of white bread by 57 and 55 %, respectively. The postprandial time profile of plasma glucose and insulin suggests that, in an initial phase, the digestion of starch is inhibited by alpha-cyclodextrin almost completely. Yet, despite the delayed and reduced digestion of starch, the intake of breakfast (B) was not associated with flatulence or any other gastrointestinal symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0030.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: walnuts; kidney disease; phytate; dietary intervention; phosphorous
Online: 4 November 2019 (02:59:12 CET)
The aim of this study of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is to assess the safety of daily consumption of walnuts on the physiological levels of phosphorous, potassium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), and to assess the short-term benefits of this intervention on risk factors associated with cardiovascular events. This led us to perform a prospective, randomized, cross-over, pilot clinical trial examined 13 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Subjects were randomly assigned to a diet of 30 g of walnuts per day or the control diet. After 30 days, each group was given a 30-day washout period, and then switched to the alternate diet for 30 days. Urinary and serum levels of phosphorous and potassium, multiple vascular risk factors, and urinary inositol phosphates (InsPs) were measured at baseline and at the end of the intervention period. Our results showed that the walnut dietary supplement led to reduced blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, and serum albumin, but had no effect on the physiological levels of phosphorous, potassium, PTH, and FGF23. This is the first report to show that daily consumption of walnuts by patients with CKD does not alter their physiological levels of phosphorous, potassium, PTH, and FGF23. Consequently, this dietary supplement may prevent cardiovascular events in patients with CKD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0125.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: adults; dietary pattern; fast food; KNHANES; obesity
Online: 11 September 2019 (14:59:00 CEST)
Background: Few studies have examined multifaceted aspects of fast food consumption and dietary patterns for their effects on obesity. We examined the independent associations of obesity with fast food consumption and dietary pattern in Korean adults. Methods: A total of 19,017 adults aged 19–64y participated from KNHANES 2010-2014. Fast food items were removed from diet and then dietary patterns were generated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the odds for overweight/obesity and central obesity according to fast food consumption and dietary patterns. Results: Fast food consumers were about 10% of Korean adults. Both of White rice and kimchi pattern and Meat and alcohol pattern were associated with low intakes of fiber, calcium, vitamin C, grains, fruit, and milk(p<0.05). Fast food consumers had higher the Meat and alcohol pattern and the Grains, fruit, and milk pattern, and they had lower the White rice and kimchi pattern than non-fast-food-consumers. Fast food consumer were not associated with overweight/obesity, whereas the participants with Meat and alcohol pattern had 14% higher overweight/obesity(95%CI:1.01,1.28) and 16% higher central obesity(95%CI:1.00,1.34). Conclusions: Fast food consumption was not directly associated with obesity, whereas the Meat and alcohol pattern had independent associations with overweight/obesity and central obesity among Korean adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Crohn’s disease, dietary intake, malnutrition, Mediterranean diet
Online: 18 October 2018 (12:03:28 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to (a) compare macro- and micronutrient intakes between male and female CD patients (b) compare micronutrient intakes of CD patients to a representative population of healthy individuals, and; (c) describe Mediterranean diet scores (P-MDS) of male and female CD patients in remission recruited from an IBD clinic in Calgary, AB. Consecutive patients with ileal and/or colonic CD in endoscopic remission were recruited for participation in this cross-sectional study. Sixty-seven patients were enrolled, with a mean age of 45, and a BMI ≥ 25. Compared with the healthy population, patients with CD had similar energy, protein, carbohydrate and total fat intake. However, PUFA, omega-6 and 3 and MUFA were lower in CD patients and dietary fibre intake was higher. Vitamins C, D, thiamin, niacin, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and potassium were all significantly lower in all CD patients compared to a healthy population. Few patients with CD met P-MDS criteria for olive oil, vegetable, legumes, and fish intake or consuming Sofrito sauce (mean 4.5, SD=1.1 in males and 4.7, SD=1.8 in females). Patients with CD in remission have suboptimal dietary intakes and patterns and targeted dietary interventions may be beneficial in this population to improve intake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0306.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19 Pandemic; Dietary patterns; BMI; Nutrition; Vitamins; Healthy Food; Dietary Supplements; Factor analyses; Internal Consistency; weight gain
Online: 17 November 2021 (12:09:58 CET)
Since its inception in 2019, COVID-19 has been associated with significant changes in lifestyle-related behavior, including physical activity, diet, and sleep, which are vital to maintaining our well-being. This study measures lifestyle-related behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown using a 21-item questionnaire. The responses were collected from March 2021 to September 2021. Four hundred sixty-seven participants were engaged in assessing the changes caused by the pandemic and their effect on BMI. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were tested for 71 participants. Cronbach's alpha values for the questionnaire all exceeded 0.7, demonstrating good validity and internal consistency for it. The effect of each question regarding physical activity and dietary habits over the BMI difference was studied using ANOVA. The study shows that more than half of the participants reported snacking more between meals and increased their sitting and screen time, while 74% felt more stressed and anxious. These indications were the cause of the increase in the BMI rate for individuals in the lockdown. In contrast, 62% of the participants showed more awareness about their health by increasing the intake of immunity-boosting foods, and 56% of the participants showed an increase in the consumption of nutrition supplements. Females and married individuals tended to be healthier, so their BMI showed stability compared to others based on their gender and marital status.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0125.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: urate; uric acid; cardiometabolic risk; fruit; sugar; sugar-sweetened soft drink; sugar-sweetened; beverage; dietary intake; dietary intervention; gout
Online: 18 December 2017 (14:18:33 CET)
High fructose and sugar-sweetened soft drink (SSSD) intakes are associated with elevated blood uric acid concentrations and increased risk of gout and cardiovascular disease. Fruits are naturally high in fructose but their effect on cardiometabolic risk is unknown. We examined the effect on serum uric acid and cardiometabolic risk factors of consuming fructose from either fruit or SSSD in overweight adults. 48 healthy, overweight (BMI≥ 28 kg/m2) men (n=21) and women (n=20) were randomised to either a fruit (n = 19) or SSSSD (n = 22) intervention for 4 weeks. The fruit group received 6 items of fresh and dried fruit per day and the SSSD group received 955ml of SSSD per day with treatments matched for energy and fructose content. Serum uric acid concentrations were significantly reduced in men in the fruit group compared to the SSSD group (difference 57.2 μmol/L [95% CI: 16.4, 98.0], p= 0.008) but there was no difference amongst women (1.3 μmol/L [95%CI: -9.5, 6.9], p= 0.295). There differences in weight change or other cardiometabolic risk factors. These findings suggest no need to restrict fruit intake in individuals with elevated serum uric acid concentrations, such as those with gout.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0563.v1
Subject: Nutrition, Medicine & Pharmacology Keywords: Dietary fiber; food frequency questionnaire; questionnaire screening; validation.
Online: 31 January 2023 (02:22:50 CET)
Dietary fiber has been associated with health benefits, therefore, the availability of validated tools to assess food consumption associated with high-fiber foods would allow the quantification of the intake of this functional nutrient, the identification of risk groups and target populations, and the development of public policies and/or programs aimed at improving the health of the population. In this study, a fiber intake short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was translated into Spanish and its content validity was determined by a group of experts, to subsequently conduct a pilot test including 198 subjects aged 36+12.5 years, residing in Chile (46 men and 150 women), with the purpose of quantifying dietary fiber intake. The global assessment of the FFQ revealed a validity coefficient of 0.98+0.02; after the application of the pilot, mean dietary fiber intake in adult Chilean residents was of 13 g per day, with similar results to those found in the National Food Consumption Survey 2010 (12.5 g per day in men, and 11.5 g in women). The FFQ is a quick and valid tool to classify people on the basis of their habitual dietary fiber intake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0445.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: household food waste; diets; food choices; dietary patterns
Online: 28 October 2022 (08:53:01 CEST)
Starting from an original survey conducted in eight countries in 2021 (Canada, China, Germany, Italy, Russia, Spain, UK, and USA), this research explores the relationship between household food waste and dietary habits in a cross-country comparative perspective. 8,000 questionnaires were recorded from samples representative of adult population of each country through an online survey conducted between the 13th and the 24th of August. The questionnaires were built on the work of Waste Watcher International Observatory on Food and Sustainability, an international observatory of social, behavioral and lifestyles dynamics behind household food waste. Relationship between per capita self-reported amount of food waste (expressed in kilocalories) and self-declared dietary habits (Traditional, Healthy and Sustainable, Vegetarian, Smart, Confused) was estimated using multiple linear regression models. Results show that Smart diets are associated with higher values of food waste in Canada, Spain, UK and USA. Vegetarian diets are associated to lower food waste values in China, Germany, UK and USA but not in Italy, Russia and Spain. Since the share of population adopting a Smart diet is on average 2.7% of the sample, interventions for food waste reduction should focus on this specific type of consumers, often associated to larger amounts of food waste.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Western diet; oxidative stress; cardiomyocyte; micronutrients; dietary fat
Online: 20 June 2022 (03:38:07 CEST)
Heart failure (HF) has become a public health problem, but exact pathophysiology is still unknown. Western diet characterised with high sugar, high fat, red meat and processed meat, eggs, fried foods and sweetened beverages, may cause oxidative stress and inflammation, leading to oxidative dysfunction and adverse effects on cardiac-ultra-structure. However, only little is known about oxidative function of the of the myocardium and how oxidative dysfunction predispose Ca-overloading resulting in to physio-pathological remodelling leading to HF. Antioxidants such as flavonoids and polyphenolics, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, minerals as well as essential and nonessential amino acids that are rich in Indo-Mediterranean type of diets, may have protective roles in maintaining oxidative functions of the heart. The cardiac cells use fatty acids and glucose for the metabolic functions depending upon physiological and metabolic requirements. Apart from glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity is also damaging to cardiac cells which worsen in presence of deficiency of endogenous antioxidants and lower exogenous antioxidants in the diet. There is increased production of ceramide, advanced glycation end products (AGE) and triamino-methyl-N-oxide (TMAO) due to high sugar and high fat diets, leading to oxidative dysfunction and Ca-overloading. The biological changes may begin with physiological remodelling to pathological remodelling due to oxidative damages. High fat diet in combination with inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOSi) via N-arginine methyl ester has been found to preserve ejection fraction in a mouse model of HF. It is possible that increased supplementation of High Exogenous Antioxidant Restorative Treatment (HEART) diet; polyphenolics and flavonoids, vitamins, minerals, arginine, with omega-3 fatty acids, and cessation of red meat and egg may further improve the oxidative function of cardiac cells, resulting in the prevention and improvement in the earliest of the Six Stages of HF. Cohort studies and randomised, controlled trials would be necessary for demonstration of the role of HEART diet in the management of HF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0295.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Cardiovascular Diseases; Sex differences; Pakistani; Dietary intake patterns
Online: 23 May 2022 (10:30:30 CEST)
Objective: To explore sex differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) related risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, and demographic, anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, and nutritional differences among 40-60 years old Pakistani CVD patients.Design: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study.Setting: The present study was conducted at the Mayo/King Edward Medical University (K.E.M.U) Hospital Cardiology Department (CCU-I & CCU-II), Lahore, from February 2020 to June 2020. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection.Participants: A random sample of 300 cardiac patients was included in the study. Patient records, food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour dietary recall was used to solicit information about demographic, anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical measurements; dietary intake parameters; and CVD risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes, and smoking. Results: Men CVD patients had higher BMI (33.43 kg/m2 vs. 28.69 kg/m2) and higher prevalence of hypertension (81.1% vs. 59%), hypercholesterolemia (82.4% vs. 54.5%) and smoked more cigarettes (72.6% vs. 9%) as compared to women while there was higher prevalence of diabetes among women as compared to men (59% vs. 29.4%). There were 85% women vs. 80% men consuming white bread, while half of the men reported using meat daily, as compared to only 16.6% women. There were 51.5% women and 17% men who reported consuming fruits and vegetables daily. There were 40% men and 16% women who reported consuming soft drinks. Conclusion: The study showed significant sex differences in the nutritional status and risk factors of patients with CVD.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: HMW adiponectin; leptin; dietary patterns; breast cancer survivors
Online: 20 August 2021 (15:30:06 CEST)
Dietary pattern (DP) and its relationship with disease biomarkers has received recognition in nutritional epidemiology investigations. However, DP relationships with adipokines (i.e., adiponectin and leptin) among breast cancer survivors remain unclear. Therefore, we assessed relationships between DP with high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and leptin concentration among breast cancer survivors. This cross-sectional study involved 128 breast cancer survivors who attended the oncology outpatient clinic at two main government hospitals in East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The serum concentration of HMW adiponectin and leptin were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Reduced rank regression method was used to analyze DP. Relationships between DP with HMW adiponectin and leptin were examined using regression models. Findings showed that a one-unit increase in the ‘energy-dense, high-saturated fat and low-fiber’ DP z-score was associated with a 0.41 µg/mL lower HMW adiponectin (95% CI: -0.806, -0.014) which was independent of age, BMI, cancer stage, duration since diagnosis, education level and occupation status. A similar relationship with leptin concentration was not observed. In conclusion, ‘energy-dense, high-saturated fat and low-fiber’ DP, which is characterized by high sugar-sweetened drink and fat-based spread but low intake of fruits and vegetables, is an unhealthy dietary pattern and unfavorable for HMW adiponectin concentration but not for leptin. These findings could serve as a basis in developing specific preventive strategies that are tailored to the growing population of breast cancer survivors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0245.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, fatigue, dietary supplements, vitamins, folic acids
Online: 11 May 2021 (14:11:39 CEST)
Despite recent advances in immune-modulatory drugs, pharmacological therapies have been proven ineffective in severe presentations of multiple sclerosis (MS), including secondary progressive MS. At present, therapeutic interventions' performance is primarily focused on ameliorating symptoms to improve the patient's quality of life. Among complementary treatments, nutrition has been considered a decisive factor to control symptoms and enhance the wellness of MS patients. Although no special diets are associated with MS, the impact of diet and dietary supplements on the course of progressive forms of the disease have been studied during the last years. Fatigue is among the most common and disabling symptoms reported by MS patients. Fatigue has been defined in the Multiple Sclerosis Council for Clinical Practice Guidelines (MSCCPG, 1998) as a "subjective lack of physical and/or mental energy that the individual perceives as an interference with habitual and desired activities". This study aimed to compare the psychometric functioning of the "Fatigue Severity Scale" (FSS) and the "Modified Fatigue Impact Scale" (MFIS) in our sample of people with MS. Specifically, during chronic treatment, the change in these two parameters with two vitamin-rich dietary supplements (Citozym® and Ergozym®) was evaluated. The impact of these nutritional supplements revealed differences in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory parameters between treatment groups with subsequent improvement in fatigue. In conclusion, the results obtained have confirmed the effectiveness of complementary nutritional therapies, evaluated essentially based on hematological biomarkers, through which it is possible to act on disability to improve the quality of life of MS patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0681.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: AFB1; AFs; vegetable seeds; vegetable oils; dietary intake
Online: 29 March 2021 (11:09:17 CEST)
A total of 744 samples of vegetable seeds and oil (soybean, sunflower, canola, olive, corn, and mustard) were collected for the presence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and total aflatoxins (AFs). The results have shown that 92 (56.7%) samples of branded and 108 (57%) samples of non-branded edible seeds were observed to be contaminated with AFs. The maximum mean of AFB1 and total AFs in non-branded soybean seeds was 21.01 ± 4.70 and 36.37 ± 6.10 µg/kg, respectively. Furthermore, all samples of edible seeds have concentrations of AFB1 greater than the proposed limit of European Union (EU, 2 µg/kg) and 12 (7.40%) samples of branded seeds and 14 (7.40%) samples of non-branded seeds were found in the range ≥ 50 µg/kg. About 78 (43.3%) samples of branded edible oil and 103 (48.3%) sample of non-branded edible oil were observed to be positive with AFs, and the elevated average of AFB1 (14.29 ± 2.51 µg/kg) and total AFs (25.61 ± 7.50) µg/kg were found in non-branded soybean oil samples. Furthermore, 16 (8.88%) and 6 (3.33%) samples of branded vegetable oil have levels of total AFs in a range (21 - 50 µg/kg) and ≥ 50 µg/kg, respectively. The findings have indicated significant difference of AFs levels between branded and non-branded vegetable oil samples (t = 22.274 and p = 0.000) at α = 0.05 and significant difference of AFs levels in vegetable seeds and oil samples ( t = -17.75, p = 0.000) at α =0.05. The highest dietary intake was found in non-branded sunflower oil sample (0.90 µg/kg/day) in female individuals (16-22 age group), followed by the dietary intake of 0.69 µg/kg/day body weight in male individuals (16-22 age group).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0336.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: aerobic capacity, dietary nitrates from amaranth, young persons
Online: 27 November 2019 (08:48:45 CET)
Over the past five years, the popularity of dietary nitrates as an ergogenic device among athletes has increased significantly. Hypoxic and acidic conditions that occur during exercise facilitate the conversion of nitrite to nitric oxide (NO) and increase the physiological efficiency of exogenously produced nitrite. After a few years of our team predicted experiments, as a nitric oxide precursor, amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) was identified as a source of dietary nitrates (concentrations 9-11%). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of single-dose and long- term doses of dietary nitrates from amaranth concentrate on the aerobic capacity of physically active young persons. Thirteen healthy and physically active young participants were randomized to experimental and placebo groups using a increasing cycling exercise (ICE) and placebo- controlled design. Pulmonary gas exchange recording (oxygen uptake (VO 2 ), pulmonary ventilation (VE), respiratory exchange ratio (RER)) and analysis of blood lactate samples were obtained. Our findings indicate that the single dose of dietary amaranth (400 mg) significantly improved only the power of the test performance. Long-term (6 days) intake significantly increased the power of the test performance, the maximum oxygen consumption and the power of the test for the first ventilation threshold value (from 37.7±2.7 mL/kg/min during the first test to 41.2±5.4 mL/kg/min during the third test, p <0.05).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0048.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: extruded cereals; flaxseed; amaranth; dietary fiber; extrusion-cooking
Online: 6 May 2019 (10:22:44 CEST)
The addition of flaxseed and amaranth on the physicochemical, functional and microstructural changes of instant-extruded cereals was evaluated. Six different mixtures were made with additions of amaranth (30%–50%) and flaxseed (10% and 15%) using maize grits and minor additives as supplementary ingredients and then extruded in a twin-screw extruder. The extrudates evaluated, had insoluble and soluble fiber contents increased with the proportion of amaranth and flaxseed. The mixture 4 (higher flaxseed content) presented highest soluble fiber percentage (1.9%). Extruded cereals had the lowest viscosity (<99.5 cp) and highest hardness values (5.2 N) whereas the dietary fiber content was highest. Fiber content increase, resulted in a higher water solubility index (WSI) (0.5) and decrease the water absorption index (WAI) (2.5). Amaranth and flaxseed incorporation increased crystallinity, resulting in a larger, and more compact laminar structure. Amaranth and flaxseed addition resulted in extruded cereals with acceptable physicochemical and functional properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0269.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: dietary intervention; multilevel intervention; diet & exercise; health outcomes
Online: 16 July 2018 (09:59:19 CEST)
There is a growing need to utilize community interventions to address modifiable behaviors that lead to poor health outcomes like obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Poor health outcomes can be tied to community-level factors such as food deserts (identified areas with low access to fresh fruit, vegetables, and other healthful whole foods) and individual behaviors like sedentary lifestyles, consuming large portion sizes, and eating high-calorie fast food and processed foods. Through a social ecological approach with family, organization and community, the Faithful Families Cooking and Eating Smart (FFCES) intervention was created to address these concerns in a rural South Carolina community. FFCES used gatekeepers to identify 18 churches and 4 apartment complexes in low-income areas. 176 participants completed both pre- and post- survey measures. Student’s t-test measures found statistically significant change in participant perception of food security (0.39, p-value=0.005), self-efficacy with physical activity and healthy eating (0.26, p-value=000), and cooking confidence (0.17, p-value=.01). There was not significant change in cooking behaviors as assessed through the Cooking Behaviors Scale. FFCES shows that a social ecological approach can be effective at increasing and improving individual healthy behaviors and addressing community-level factors in low-income rural communities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0062.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: microbiome; probiotics, dietary supplements; nutrition; HIV infection, inflammation
Online: 8 May 2017 (12:10:17 CEST)
Microbiota plays a key role in various body’s functions, physiological, metabolic and immunological processes, through different mechanisms such as the regulation of the development and/or functions of different types of immune cells in the intestines. Several evidences indicate that alteration in the gut microbiota can influence infectious and non-infectious diseases. Bacteria that resides on the mucosal surface or within the mucus layer participate in interactions with the host immune system, and a healthy gut microbiota is essential for the development of mucosal immunity. The immunomodulatory activity of probiotics has been proposed in several bowel disorders or in aging-related dysfunctions. In HIV infected patients, the intestinal immune system is affected and inflammation persists during ART therapy too. Several studies are in progress to investigate the ability of probiotics to modulate epithelial barrier functions, microbiota composition and microbial translocation in HIV infection. This mini-review aims to suggest how the use of probiotics is beneficial not only in maintaining a healthy status but also to improve conditions in HIV subjects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: dietary pattern; prostate cancer; systematic review; meta-analysis
Online: 6 August 2016 (12:30:38 CEST)
Dietary patterns were recently applied to examine the relationship between eating habits and prostate cancer (PC) risk. While the associations between PC risk with glycemic index and Mediterranean score have been reviewed, no meta-analysis is currently available on dietary patterns defined by “a posteriori” methods. Search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science) to identify studies reporting the relationship between dietary patterns and PC risk. Relevant dietary patterns were selected and the risk estimated were calculated by a random-effect model. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for a 1st-percentile increase in dietary pattern score were combined by a dose response meta-analysis. 12 observational studies were included in the meta-analysis which identified “Healthy pattern” and “Western pattern”. The Healthy pattern was not related to PC risk (OR=0.96; 95% CI: 0.88-1.04) while the Western pattern significantly increased it (OR=1.34; 95% CI: 1.08-1.65). In addition, a “Carbohydrate pattern”, identified in four articles, was positively associated with a higher PC risk (OR=1.64; 95% CI: 1.35-2.00). A significant linear trend between the Western (p=0.011) and the Carbohydrate (p=0.005) pattern and the increment of PC risk was observed. The small numbers of studies included suggest that further investigations are necessary to support these findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0377.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: diet; living environment; dietary patterns; characteristics of regions; Russia
Online: 21 December 2022 (02:50:22 CET)
The goal of our study was to examine the effect of regional characteristics of living environment on individual a priori and a posteriori dietary patterns of the Russian population. For the analysis, we used cross-sectional data from the Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases in the Regions of the Russian Federation study of 2013-2014. The sample included 18,054 men and women 25-64 years of age from 12 regions. Based on the frequency of consumption of basic foods, four a posteriori empirical dietary patterns (EDPs), along with an a priori cardioprotective dietary pattern (CPDP) were identified. To describe the regional living environment, 5 regional indices were used. The adherence to the meat-based EDP was directly associated with deterioration of social living conditions and the more northerly location of the region of residence. The probability of CPDP increased with deterioration of social living conditions, an aggravation of demographic crisis, higher industrial development of the region, as well as with a decline in the economic development of the region, income and economic inequality of the population. We detected some gender-dependent differences in associations. The revealed patterns reflect the national dietary preferences of Russians, and regional indices characterize the effect of living environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0454.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cancer, losing weight, interventions, physical activity, dietary restrictions, hormones.
Online: 24 November 2022 (06:30:03 CET)
(1) Background: Loss of weight is one of the practices which have been identified as key in reducing the risk of various forms of cancer. Therefore, this study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies related to the topic of loss of weight and risk of cancer and addresses the question, ‘does losing weight reduce the risk of cancer?’ Its purpose is to identify current high-quality evidence on such a question and synthesize such evidence before summarizing it given specific data attributes to improve decision-making processes on cancer management. (2) Methods: Research studies were identified from four main databases: PubMed, Science Direct, Google scholar, and Medline. A systematic review and meta-analysis of such studies were then conducted to reveal the most current evidence on the research topic. (3) Results: The studies showed that losing weight reduces cancer risk. Nonetheless, such intervention is not necessarily effective, especially in cases where patients may be at risk of developing cancer due to other risk factors. (4) Conclusions: The current study concludes that there is a need to implement effective interventions such as physical exercise, dietary restrictions, or both that can be effective in reducing weight to reduce the risk of cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0464.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: wheat aleurone; dietary fibre; extraction process; antioxidant; bread; arabinoxylans
Online: 29 September 2022 (09:00:46 CEST)
The wheat aleurone layer is, according to millers, the main bran fraction. It is a source of nutritionally valuable compounds, such as dietary fibres, proteins, minerals and vitamins, that may exhibit health benefits. Despite these advantages, the aleurone layer is scarce on the market, probably due to issues related to its extraction. Many processes exist with some patents, but a choice must be made between the quality and quantity of the resulting product. Nonetheless, its potential has been studied mainly in bread and pasta. While the nutritional benefits of aleurone-rich flour addition to bread agree, opposite results have been obtained concerning its effects on end-product characteristics (namely loaf volume and sensory characteristics), thus ensuing different acceptability responses from consumers. However, the observed negative effects of aleurone-rich flour on bread dough could be reduced by subjecting it to pre- or post-extracting treatments meant to either reduce the particle size of the aleurone’s fibres or to change the conformation of its components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0532.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Phosphatidylinositol; actin remodeling; phagocytosis; dietary fatty acids; Alzheimer’s disease
Online: 22 July 2020 (14:15:35 CEST)
Alzheimer’s disease is one of the neurodegenerative diseases, characterized by the accumulation of abnormal protein deposits, which disrupt the signal transduction in neurons and other glia cells. The pathological protein Tau and amyloid-β contributes to the disrupted microglial signaling pathways, actin cytoskeleton, and cellular receptor expression. The important secondary messenger lipids i.e., phosphatidylinositols are largely affected by protein deposits of amyloid-beta in Alzheimer’s disease. Phosphatidylinositols are the product of different phosphatidylinositol kinases and the state of phosphorylation at D3, D4, and D5 positions of inositol ring. PI 3, 4, 5-P3 involves in phagocytic cup formation and relates actin remodeling whereas PI 4, 5-P2-mediates the process of phagosomes formation and further fusion with early endosome. The necessary activation of actin-binding proteins such as Rac, WAVE complex, and ARP2/3 complex for the actin polymerization in the process of phagocytosis, migration is regulated and maintained by PI 3, 4, 5-P3 and PI 4, 5-P2. Dietary fatty acids depending on their ratio and types of intake influence secondary lipid messenger along with the cellular content of phaphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. The deposited Aβ deposits and extracellular Tau seed disrupt levels of phosphatidylinositol and actin cytoskeletal changes that hamper microglia signaling pathways in AD. We hypothesize that being a lipid species intracellular levels of phosphatidylinositol would be regulated by dietary fatty acids. We keen to understand different types of phosphatidylinositol species levels in signaling events such as phagocytosis and actin remodeling owing to the exposure of various types of dietary fatty acids.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0473.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Pregnancy; Iodine; Dietary habits; Iodine supplement, Urinary iodine concentration
Online: 21 July 2020 (03:42:20 CEST)
Background: The nutritional status of women during pregnancy can have a considerable effect on maternal and fetal health, and on perinatal outcome. The aim was to assess the changes occurring in dietary iodine intake, KI supplementation, and smoking habit, and the impact of these changes on the urinary iodine concentration (UIC) during pregnancy in a population of women in Catalonia (Spain). Methods: Between 2009-2011 an observational study including a cohort of women whose pregnancy was monitored in the publically-funded health system in a central region of Catalonia. Women received individual educational counseling imparted, a dietary questionnaire was completed, and a urine sample collected for iodine determination at each trimester visit. Results: 633 (67.9%) women answered the questionnaire at all 3 visits. The percentage of women with a desirable UIC (≥150μg/L) increased from the first to the second trimester and remained stable in the third (p<0.001). Analysis of the relationship between UIC≥150 μg/L and the women’s dietary habits showed that the percentage with UIC≥150 μg/L increased with greater consumption of milk, fresh vegetables, and fruit in the first trimester, and the same was true for iodized salt use in all three trimesters and iodine supplementation in all three. Conclusion: During pregnancy increased intake of milk, iodized salt, and iodine supplements was associated with an increase in the UIC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Asian Americans; child; diet; eating; feeding behavior; sodium, dietary
Online: 3 August 2018 (05:05:05 CEST)
Obesity has been identified as an emerging health concern for Chinese American children; however, very little is known about diets in Asian American children. The objective of our paper was to describe the dietary intakes of urban Chinese American schoolchildren using a state-of-the-art approach for dietary assessment. Data for this analysis come from the Food Journal Project 2017, a pilot and feasibility study conducted by a multi-sector collaboration. Children aged 8-12 (n=83) completed two dietary assessments using a food diary from January-June 2017. Children were then interviewed using the food diary as a guide and dietary data were entered into the online ASA24 system by study staff. Chinese American children were identified using surname, and were compared to non-Chinese peers with respect to nutrient intake and the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010). Chinese American children consumed more sodium dense diets, more protein, and less sugar compared to non-Chinese children. With regards to the HEI-2010, Chinese American children had less favorable whole grains and sodium scores; and more favorable seafood protein and empty calories scores compared to non-Chinese children. Sodium reduction and increasing whole grain intakes may be warranted in this group, but should be verified with additional studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0219.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: High-Fat Diet, Dietary Supplement, Oxidative stress, Inflammation, Neurodegeneration.
Online: 12 July 2018 (15:45:18 CEST)
Obesity and metabolic disorders can be risk factors for the onset and development of neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects on dysmetabolism and neurodegeneration of a natural dietary supplement (NDS), containing Curcuma longa, silymarin, guggul, chlorogenic acid and inulin, on the brains of high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. A decreased expression of FACL-4, CerS-1 and CerS-4, reduced cholesterol concentration, increased IR expression and insulin signaling activation, were found in brains of NDS-treated HFD mice, suggesting that NDS is able to prevent brain lipid accumulation and central insulin resistance. In the brains of NDS-treated HFD mice, the levels of RNS, ROS and lipid peroxidation, the expression of p-ERK, H-Oxy, i-NOS, HSP60, NF-kB, GFAP, IL-1β, IL-6, and CD4 positive cell infiltration were lower than in untreated HFD mice, suggesting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of NDS. The decreased expression of p-ERK and GFAP in NDS-treated HFD mice was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Lastly, a lower number of apoptotic nuclei was found in cortical sections of NDS-treated HFD. All these data indicate that NDS exerts neuroprotective effects in HFD mice by reducing brain fat accumulation, oxidative stress and inflammation and improving brain insulin resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0202.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: blueberries; bile acids; dietary supplements; polyphenols; LC-MS/MS profiling
Online: 10 August 2022 (11:57:59 CEST)
Cholesterol-derived bile acids (BAs) affect numerous physiological functions such as glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism and absorption, intestinal inflammation and immunity, as well as intestinal microbiota diversity. Diet influences the composition of the BA pool. The present study analyzes the impact of a dietary supplementation with a freeze-dried blueberry powder (BBP) on the fecal BA pool composition. The diet of 11 men and 13 women at risk for metabolic syndrome was supplemented with 50g/day of BBP for 8 weeks, and feces were harvested before (pre) and after (post) BBP consumption. BAs were profiled using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. No significant changes in total BAs were detected when comparing pre- vs post-BBP consumption samples. However, post-BBP consumption samples exhibited significant accumulations of glycine-conjugated BAs (p=0.04), glycochenodeoxycholic (p=0.01) and glycoursodeoxycholic (p=0.01) acids, as well as a significant reduction (p=0.03) of the secondary BA levels, when compared to pre-BBP feces (p=0.03). In conclusion, the fecal bileacidome is significantly altered after the consumption of BBP for 8 weeks. While additional studies are needed to fully understand the underlying mechanisms and physiological implications of these changes, our data suggest that the consumption of blueberries can modulate toxic BAs elimination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0482.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Dietary pattern; Mediterranean diet; healthy diet; pregnancy; lifestyle; sociodemographic factors.
Online: 18 March 2021 (12:34:28 CET)
The Mediterranean diet represents one of the most studied dietary patterns, however, there is no single tool for measuring the grade of adherence and no single criteria to adapting these indices to pregnant women. We characterized the adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MDA) of pregnant women participating in the NELA cohort and identified the sociodemographic determinants and lifestyle habits associated with a higher risk of a low MDA. Maternal diet during gestation was assessed by a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) (n=665). We estimated Relative Mediterranean Diet score (rMED), Alternative Mediterranean Diet score (aMED) and Alternate Healthy Index-2010 (AHEI-2010). Multivariate regression models were performed to identify the sociodemographic and lifestyle factors associated to each index. Mothers with lower age and more previous deliveries had a greater probability of low MDA (P <0.05). Only, for aMED index, mothers with university education and / or who practiced 2 or more hours per week sport activities had a lower probability of a low MDA (P <0.01). These results may be useful in order to design intervention strategies and dietary recommendation for pregnant women.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: nitric oxide; nitrates; dietary potassium nitrate; Drosophila melanogaster; longevity; lifespan
Online: 29 January 2021 (14:20:31 CET)
The recently defined and yet rather new topic of Healthy aging is gathering more attention on the global stage. With world’s population getting older - it is rapidly becoming very important to develop and maintain functional abilities in older age and develop mechanisms to protect senior population from chronic diseases. One of the most effective components, as well as, one may call - process involved in, and strongly associated with aging is recently discovered and Nobel prize awarded - nitric oxide as a signaling molecule, which followed by later discoveries showed to have a positive metabolic, immune and anti-inflammatory effects. One of the most debated topics of the last decade in the scientific community is nitrates, one of the pathways involved in nitric oxide production. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate effect of different potassium nitrate concentrate supplementation on Drosophila melanogaster longevity. 0,5-3% potassium nitrate medium was analyzed on the life span and motor function in different groups consisting of 100 females fruit flies each. In this assay, female fly species supplemented with potassium nitrate diet showed life span increase by 18.6% and 5.1% with 1% and 2% KNO3- respectively with a positive impact on locomotor function. In conclusion, we found that low concentration of potassium nitrate medium increased lifespan and locomotor function in Drosophila melanogaster.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0470.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Citrus fruits; patulin, dietary intake, variation in patulin; liquid chromatography
Online: 25 January 2021 (10:16:09 CET)
The research aims to discover the natural occurrence of patulin (PAT) in selected citrus fruits from the central cities of Punjab and Pakistan's Northern cities. Total 2970 samples of twelve citrus fruits; kinnow, orange, grapefruits, bitter orange, mausami, red blood, pineapple, sweet orange, rough lime, sweet lime, kagzi lime and lemon were examined using liquid chromatography fitted with UV detector. The limit of detection (LOD) and quantification limit was 0.04 and 0.12 µg/kg, respectively. The results have shown that 56% of samples of citrus fruits from Punjab's central cities, Pakistan, were discovered to be infected from PAT. The elevated amounts of PAT ranging from 0.04 to 1150 µg/kg were found in citrus fruit samples from Multan cities. Furthermore, 31.7% of samples of citrus fruits from Northern cities of Pakistan were discovered to be infected with PAT, and the elevated amounts were found ranging from 0.04-320 µg/kg from Swat city. About 22.1% of samples of citrus fruits have levels of PAT greater than the suggested limits established by the European Union (EU). PAT's dietary intake levels ranged from 0.10-1.11 µg/kg bw/day from the central cities of Punjab, Pakistan, and 0.13-1.93 µg/kg bw/day were documented from Northern cities of Pakistan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0456.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Citrus fruits; patulin; dietary intake; variation in patulin; liquid chromatography
Online: 22 January 2021 (14:33:10 CET)
The research aims to discover the natural occurrence of patulin (PAT) in selected citrus fruits from the central cities of Punjab and Pakistan's Northern cities. Total 2970 samples of twelve citrus fruits; kinnow, orange, grapefruits, bitter orange, mausami, red blood, pineapple, sweet orange, rough lime, sweet lime, kagzi lime and lemon were examined using liquid chromatography fitted with UV detector. The limit of detection (LOD) and quantification limit was 0.04 and 0.12 µg/kg, respectively. The results have shown that 56% of samples of citrus fruits from Punjab's central cities, Pakistan, were discovered to be infected from PAT. The elevated amounts of PAT ranging from 0.04 to 1150 µg/kg were found in citrus fruit samples from Multan cities. Furthermore, 31.7% of samples of citrus fruits from Northern cities of Pakistan were discovered to be infected with PAT, and the elevated amounts were found ranging from 0.04-320 µg/kg from Swat city. About 22.1% of samples of citrus fruits have levels of PAT greater than the suggested limits established by the European Union (EU). PAT's dietary intake levels ranged from 0.10-1.11 µg/kg bw/day from the central cities of Punjab, Pakistan, and 0.13-1.93 µg/kg bw/day were documented from Northern cities of Pakistan
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0466.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; dietary fiber; gut microbiota; prognosis; vegetable fiber
Online: 22 October 2020 (21:26:36 CEST)
The gut microbiota has been suggested as an important factor in the pathogenic mechanisms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This study aimed to investigate whether the intake of different kinds of dietary fiber was related to the disease progression rate (∆FS) and survival time. In total, 272 sporadic ALS patients diagnosed according to the revised EI Escorial criteria were recruited from March 2011 and were followed-up until the occurrence of events or the end of September 2020. The events included percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, tracheostomy, and death. Dietary fiber intake was calculated based on a 24-hour dietary recall and classified according to five major fiber-rich foods: vegetables, fruits, grains, legumes, and nuts/seeds. Among the total participants, the group with ∆FS values lower than the mean ∆FS (0.75) was noted in the highest tertiles of total and vegetable fiber intake. Participants with the highest tertile of vegetable fiber intake showed longer survival in the Kaplan–Meier analysis (p = 0.033). Notably, vegetable fiber intake was negatively correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) levels in the cerebrospinal fluid. This study showed that vegetable fiber intake could influence the disease progression rate and survival time. Further clinical trials are needed to confirm whether dietary fiber supplementation improves the prognosis of ALS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0256.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: nhanes; foodservice; nutrition assessment; dietary reference intakes; school lunch program
Online: 22 October 2019 (10:31:57 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to select target nutrients to be included in the nutritional standards of school lunches in Korea. The dietary intake data of children and adolescents aged 6-17 years old from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Ⅵ were analyzed for eight groups based on gender and age (6-8, 9-11, 12-14, and 15-17 years old). First, the usual intake of the 3,091 subjects was estimated and assessed to identify nutrients with insufficient or excessive intake prevalence. Along with the nutrients identified by the assessment, the energy and nutrients prioritized in the meal planning procedure of the 2015 Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans were the initial candidates: energy, the percentages of energy from carbohydrates, protein, and fat, vitamin A, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and iron. Phosphorus was excluded due to little evidence of clinical symptoms caused by insufficient intake. Sodium was excluded because reliable data on added salt were not available among the school lunch recipes in Korea. Therefore, energy, the percentages of energy from carbohydrates, protein, and fat, vitamin A, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, calcium, and iron were selected to be included in the nutritional standards of school lunches in Korea.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Dietary diversity; nutrient adequacy; metabolic syndrome; aging; PREDIMED-Plus study
Online: 18 March 2019 (09:25:48 CET)
Dietary guidelines emphasizes the importance of a varied diet to provide an adequate nutrient intake. However, the aging is often associated with consumption of monotonous diets that can be nutritionally inadequate, increasing the risk for the development or progression of diet-related chronic diseases such as the metabolic syndrome (MetS). To assess the relationship between dietary diversity (DD) and nutrient adequacy and to identify associated demographic variables related with DD. We analysed cross-sectional baseline data from the PREDIMED-Plus study: 6587 Spanish adults, aged 55–75 years, with overweight/obesity and MetS. Using a 143-item validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), we calculated an energy-adjusted score of DD (DDS). Nutrient inadequacy was defined as an intake below 2/3 of the recommended dietary intake at least of ≥4 of 17 nutrients. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between nutritional inadequate intakes and DDS. In the higher DDS quartile there were more women and less current smokers. Compared with subjects in the highest DDS quartile, those in the lowest DDS quartile had a higher risk of inadequate nutrient intake OR=28.56 (95% C.I. 20.80-39.21). When we estimated diversity for each one of the food groups, participants in the first quartile of diversity had a higher risk of nutrient deficiency: for vegetables, OR= 14.03 (IC 95% 10.55-18.65), fruits OR=11.62 (IC 95% 6.81-19.81), dairy products OR= 6.54 (IC 95% 4.64-9.22) and protein foods OR=6.60 (IC 95% 1.96-22.24). As DDS decreases, the risk of inadequate nutrients intake rises. Given the impact of nutrient intake adequacy on the prevention of non-communicable diseases, health policies should focus on the promotion of a healthy varied diet, specifically promoting the intake of vegetables and fruit among population groups with lower DDS such as men, smokers or widow people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0132.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Chinese adults; north region; south region; dietary pattern; metabolic syndrome
Online: 31 October 2016 (02:51:27 CET)
The geographical environment, food culture, and dietary habits are substantially different between the southern and northern regions in China. We investigated the associations with dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome between Chinese adult from the southern and northern regions (North: 1249; South: 1849) using data from the Chinese Health and Nutrition 2009 survey. Respectively, four dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis in the two regions. Each dietary pattern of factor score was calculated for three groups by tertile (T1<T2<T3). In the northern region, the association between the Alcohol and Western pattern and the risk of abdominal obesity (OR: 1.31; 95%:1.01, 1.68), hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 1.35; 95%:1.05, 1.74), high fasting blood glucose (OR: 1.37; 95%: 1.05, 1.80), and hypertension (OR: 1.55; 95%: 1.45, 1.99) was increased. In the southern region, the Convenience Food pattern was positively associated with hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 1.53; 95%: 1.03, 2.26), low HDL-cholesterol (OR: 1.96; 95%: 1.12, 3.43), and metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.79; 95%: 1.03, 3.11). The Alcohol dietary pattern was positively associated with high fasting blood glucose (OR: 1.83, 95%: 1.13, 2.97). There are some dietary pattern differences in the two regions. It is necessary to consider the factors of food culture and food intake habits in order to provide nutrition education to Chinese individuals from different regions in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0197.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: health literacy; food literacy; dietary intake; nutrition; office workers; health promotion
Online: 10 November 2022 (10:14:31 CET)
Widespread patterns of poor dietary behavior are a key factor causing the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases around the world. Research provides initial insights into the potential of food literacy (FL) to empower individuals to improve their dietary behavior. Yet, studies on FL interventions in working adults are scarce. This study aimed to investigate the short- and long-term effects of a comprehensive 3-week workplace health promotion program (WHPP) on FL and dietary intake (DI) and to examine the association between FL and DI in a sample of 144 German office workers (30.0% female). Using two random intercept mixed linear regression models, we found significant strong improvements for both FL (β = 0.52, p < .0001) and DI (β = 0.63, p < .0001) after the WHPP when compared to baseline. Significant long-term improvements at 18 months where strong for FL (β = 0.55, p < .0001) and small for DI (β = 0.10, p < .0001). FL showed a significant moderate effect on DI across all measurement time points (β = 0.24, p < .0001). Our study fills a gap of long-term findings in the literature on FL interventions, offers insights into underlying mechanisms, and provides recommendations for effective WHPPs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0172.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: PSNP; household food consumption; household dietary diversity; random effect; instrumental variable
Online: 11 October 2021 (17:15:51 CEST)
This study empirically investigates the effect of productive safety net programme (PSNP) on household food consumption and dietary diversity in Ethiopia. The study applied random effects with instrumental variable to estimate the effect of PSNP membership. The result of the study indicates that though PSNP membership improves household food consumption, it reduces household dietary diversity score. Household food consumption and dietary diversity are also significantly influenced by sex, age, education status of household head, household size, livestock ownership, distance to the nearest market and participation in non-farm activities. The findings of this study suggest that PSNP membership should be reinforced by building household awareness of the benefits of consuming a variety of foods. In addition, PSNP membership should be designed to endow the households to accumulate essential assets, especially livestock.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0015.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Metal oxide nanoparticles; Bioaccumulation; Recommended Dietary Allowances; Daily Values; Essential nutrients
Online: 2 August 2020 (11:18:19 CEST)
Understanding potential uptake and biodistribution of engineered nanoparticles in soil-grown plants is imperative for toxicity and risk assessment considering the oral exposure of edibles by humans. Herein, we assessed potential influence of particle size (25, 50, and 250 nm) and concentration (0, 50, 100, 200, and 500 mg/kg-soil) of Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) on: (1) the root system architecture, and the physicochemical attributes of soil at the soil-root interface, (2) leading to Cu transport and accumulation in root, stem, leaf and seed in soybean (Glycine max cv Kowsar) grown for entire lifecycle of 120 days, and compared with soluble Cu2+ ions and water-only controls, and (3) performed a comparative assessment of total seed Cu levels in soybean with other valuable food sources for Cu intake and discussed its human health implications. Our findings showed particle size- and concentration-dependent influence of CuONPs on Cu uptake and tissue distribution in root, stem, leaf and seed in soybean. Alterations in root architecture (root dry weight, root length, root volume, and root area) were dependent on the Cu compound type, Cu concentrations, and their interactions (p<0.05), except for root density. Concentration-response relationships for all three sized CuONPs, and Cu2+ ions, were linear. CuONPs and Cu2+ ions had inhibitory effects on root growth and development. Overall, soybean responses to smallest size CuONPs-25 nm were higher for all parameters investigated compared to two larger sized CuONPs (50 nm, 250 nm) or Cu2+ ions. Cu uptake/bioaccumulation differed among soybean tissues in the order: root > leaf > stem > seed. Despite reduced root architecture and seed yield, our smallest size CuONPs-25 nm led to increased total seed Cu uptake compared to the larger sized CuONPs and Cu2+ ions tested. Our findings also suggest that soil amendment by CuONPs, more so by the smallest size CuONPs-25 nm, could significantly improve nutritional Cu value in soybean seed as reflected by % Daily Values (DV), and are rated “Good” to “Very Good” according to the “World’s Healthiest Foods” rating. However, until the potential toxicity and risk from consumption of soybean seed is characterized in humans, caution should be exercised when the Cu fortified seeds are used for daily human consumption when addressing Cu deficiency and associated illnesses, globally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0291.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: food exchange list; sports foods; dietary supplements; dietetic practice; menu planning
Online: 24 June 2020 (09:41:43 CEST)
Food exchange lists have been widely used in dietary practice in health and disease situations, but there are still no exchange lists for sports foods. The aim of this study was to develop a sports foods exchange list based on previously published statistical criteria. A cross-sectional study of the nutritional composition of sports foods, regarding macronutrients and energy, was carried out. A total of 323 sports foods from 18 companies were selected and divided into seven groups: sports drinks; sports gels; sports bars; sports confectionery; protein powders; protein bars; and liquid meals. A sports foods composition database based on portion size was created. Food exchange groups, with the definition of the amounts - in grams - of each sports foods within each group, were designed using the same methodology and statistical criteria as previously published. The nutritional composition of the portions usually consumed by athletes and/or recommended in commercial packaging was used to calculate the mean energy and macronutrient values for each group. Within each sports foods group, different subgroups were defined due to differences in the main and/or secondary macronutrient. The mean nutrient values of each exchange group and the subgroups were determined according to previously established rounding criteria. This sports foods exchange list, made up of commercial sports products, is a novel tool for dietetic practice. Its management will allow dietitians to adapt dietary plans more precisely to the training and/or competition of the athlete.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: diet quality; socioeconomic status; inequalities; education, income; obesity; 24h dietary recall
Online: 21 June 2019 (09:56:57 CEST)
Socioeconomically disadvantaged people are disproportionally more likely to develop obesity and obesity-related diseases. However, it remains unclear to what extent diet quality contributes to socioeconomic inequalities in obesity. We aimed to assess the role of diet quality in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity. Data originated from the national nutrition survey, a cross-sectional sample of the adult Swiss population (N=1860). We used education and income as proxies for SES; calculated the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) as measure of diet quality; and used body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) as obesity markers. We applied counterfactual mediation modelling to generate odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and the proportion mediated by diet quality. Individuals with less than a tertiary education were two to three times more likely to be obese, regardless of the marker (OR; 95% CI: 3.36 (2.01, 5.66) using BMI; 2.44 (1.58, 3.75) using WC; 2.48 (1.63, 3.78) using WHR; and 2.04 (1.43, 2.96) using WHtR). The proportion of the association between educational level and obesity that was mediated by diet quality was 22.1% using BMI, 26.6% using WC, 31.4% using WHtR, and 35.8% using WHR. Similar findings were observed for income. Our findings suggest that diet quality substantially contributes to socioeconomic inequalities in obesity while it does not fully explain them. Focusing efforts on improving the diet quality of disadvantaged groups could help reduce social inequalities in obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0138.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: thyroid nodules; ultrasound; lifestyle; dietary; betel quid; red meat; nut; centenarians
Online: 16 January 2018 (10:04:38 CET)
Thyroid nodules (TNs) are common thyroid lesions in older population. Few studies focused on the prevalence of TNs and its relationship to lifestyle characteristics and dietary habits in centenarians. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of TNs in Chinese centenarians using high-resolution ultrasound equipment and investigate its relationship to lifestyles and dietary habits. The current study was part of China Hainan Centenarian Cohort Study (CHCCS) which conducted in Hainan, an iodine sufficient region in China. A total of 874 permanent residents aged 100 years or older (mean age, 102.8 ± 2.8 years) without any missing data were included in the analysis. Among the participants, 649 of them were detected at least one thyroid nodule under the ultrasound examinations. The overall prevalence rate of TNs was 74.3%. The prevalence of TNs was higher in participants who were females, hypertension, diabetes, and underweight than their counterparts. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that being female, hypertension, diabetes, betel quid consumption, red meat consumption were independent risk factors, while being underweight, and nut consumption were independent protective factors for TNs. Our findings indicate that the presence of thyroid nodules was highly prevalent in Chinese centenarians, particularly in females. In addition to gender, hypertension, diabetes, and underweight, the presence of TNs was independently associated with betel quid, red meat, and nut consumptions. Further prospective studies are warranted to verify these associations in population from different age strata, races, cultures, and iodine backgrounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0340.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: dietary plants; medicinal plants; extraction; solvent; phytoconstituents; antioxidants; anti-nutrients; radical scavenging
Online: 22 July 2022 (13:16:10 CEST)
Sesamum indicum is considered an underutilized oil-bearing seed in the semi-arid regions of Ghana. Nonetheless, it is a promising source of food with both nutritional and therapeutic benefits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties S. indicum seeds using different extraction solvents. The seeds were obtained from the local farmers and prepared for analysis. The bioactive compounds present in the seeds were extracted using hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water and their yields quantified. Total phenolic content (TPC), Condensed tannin content (TTC) and Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) , and DPPH radical scaveging assay were analyzed using standard methods. Antinutrients such as saponins, alkaloids, phytates and oxalates were also analyzed from the powdered seeds. Two chemometric methods; hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and Pearson correlation were employed to evaluate the interdependence of the various parameters to result in their antioxidant properties. The re-sults revealed that the solvents utilized had a significant impact on the extraction yield, phyto-chemical component concentration, and antioxidant activities. Hexane extracts of S. indicum seeds significantly exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (p < 0.05). It was marked with the highest TAC value of 232.6 ± 6.267 mg/g AAE and a strong DPPH scavenging activity with an IC50 of 52.81 ± 2.30 µg/mL. Correlations (p < 0.05) was established between TPC,CTC, TAC and DPPH radical scavenging activity) of the extracts. Antinutrients such as; phytate, oxalate, saponins and alkaloids were found to be 7.691 ± 0.8576, 1.501 ± 0.1375, 21.33 ± 4.619 and 317.33 ± 30.29 mg/g respectively. Data obtained suggest that S. indicum possess rich bioactive compounds that can be used in neutraceuticals and food products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0055.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: dietary intake; diet monitoring; digital receipts; purchase quality indicators; FSA-NPS DI
Online: 2 July 2021 (14:07:49 CEST)
In light of the globally increasing prevalence of diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs), new scalable and non-invasive dietary monitoring techniques are urgently needed. Automatically collected digital receipts from loyalty cards have the potential to serve as an objective and automatically traceable digital biomarker for individual food choice behavior and do not require patients to manually log each individual meal item. Until recently, such electronic purchase records were hard to collect for researchers and were only validated in national empirical studies. Multiple quantitative indicators for purchase quality have been suggested, but so far no comparison has validated the potential of these alternative indicators to discriminate between health-beneficial and -detrimental food choices. With the introduction of the General Data Privacy Regulation in the European Union, millions of consumers gained the right to access their purchase data in a machine-readable form, representing a historic chance to leverage purchase data for scalable monitoring of food choices. This study hence is the first study comparing the calibration capacity and validating the discrimination potential of previously suggested purchase indicators for the nutritional quality of purchased groceries, incl. HEI-2015, HETI, GPQI, and FSA-NPS DI. To assess the indicators' potential, 464 study participants were asked to complete a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and to donate their digital receipts from the loyalty card programs of the two leading Swiss grocery retailers, representing 69\% of the national grocery market. 89 participants fulfilled the eligibility criteria, i.e. completed the FFQ and were frequent users of the loyalty card systems. Compared to absolute food and nutrient intake, correlations between density-based relative food and nutrient intake and food purchase data are stronger. Counterintuitively, although the frameworks of the HETI and the GPQI are centered around food groups, both indicators do not capture food group intake such as vegetables or sweets very well. The FSA-NPS DI has the best calibration and discrimination performance in classifying participants' consumption of nutrients and food groups, and seems to be a superior indicator to estimate nutritional quality of a user's diet based on digital receipts from grocery purchases in Switzerland.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0067.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: acute kidney injury; ischemia-reperfusion injury; dietary restriction; nutrition; preconditioning; endocannabinoids; AEA
Online: 5 May 2021 (13:59:13 CEST)
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and critical complication in the clinical setting. In rodents AKI can be prevented effectively through caloric restriction (CR), which has also been shown to increase lifespan in many species. In Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) longevity studies revealed that a marked CR-induced reduction of endocannabinoids may be a key mechanism. Thus, we hypothesized that regulation of endocannabinoids, in particular arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA), might also play a role in CR-mediated protection from renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in mammals including humans. In male C57Bl6J mice, CR significantly reduced renal IRI and led to a significant decrease of AEA. Supplementation of AEA to near-normal serum concentrations by repetitive intraperitoneal administration in CR mice, however, did not abrogate the protective effect of CR. We also analyzed serum samples taken before and after CR from patients of three different pilot trials of dietary interventions. In contrast to mice and C. elegans, we detected an increase of AEA. We conclude that endocannabinoid levels in mice are modulated by CR, but CR-mediated renal protection does not depend on this effect. Moreover, our results indicate that modulation of endocannabinoids by CR in humans may differ fundamentally from the effects in animal models.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0712.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: dietary fibers; short chain fatty acid; gut microbiota; colorectal cancer prevention; epigenetics
Online: 29 March 2021 (22:22:00 CEST)
Dietary factors play an important role in shaping the gut microbiome which, in turn, regulates the molecular events in colonic mucosa. The composition and resulting metabolism of the gut microbiome have been implicated in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Diets low in dietary fibers and phytomolecules as well as other lifestyle-related factors may predispose to CRC. Emerging evidence demonstrates that the predominance of microbes, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, can predispose the colonic mucosa to malignant transformation. Dietary and lifestyle modifications have been demonstrated to restrict the growth of potentially harmful opportunistic organisms. In this study, we aim to present evidence regarding the relationship of dietary factors to the gut microbiome and development of CRC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0378.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: gastrointestinal tract; dietary antigens; metabolites; microbiota; macronutrients; gastrointestinal immunity; mucosal immune regulation
Online: 15 December 2020 (12:20:48 CET)
The gastrointestinal tract contains multiple types of immune cells that maintain the balance between tolerance and activation at the first line of host defense facing non-self antigens, including dietary antigens, commensal bacteria, and sometimes unexpected pathogens. Maintaining homeostasis at the gastrointestinal tract requires stringent regulation of the immune responses against various environmental conditions. Diet can be converted into gut metabolites which have unique functional activities through host as well as microbial enzymatic activities. Accumulating evidences demonstrate that gastrointestinal metabolites have significant impacts on the regulation of intestinal immunity and further integrate immune response of distal mucosal tissue. Metabolites, especially derived from microbiota, regulate immune cell functions by various ways including recognition and activation of cell surface receptors, controlling of gene expression by epigenetic regulation and integration of cellular metabolism. These mucosal immune regulations are key to understand underlying mechanism for the development of gastrointestinal disorders. Here, we review the recent advancement of our understanding on the role of gut metabolites in the regulation of gastrointestinal immunity with highlighting the cellular and molecular regulatory mechanisms by macronutrients-derived metabolites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0197.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Maternal diet; Dietary behaviour change intervention; Nutrition education; Balanced plate; Qualitative methods
Online: 9 July 2020 (16:15:13 CEST)
Social, cultural, environmental and economic factors closely regulate the selection, allocation and consumption of maternal diets. We developed a nutrition behaviour change intervention to promote a balanced diet in pregnancy through practical demonstration in rural Bangladesh and tested the impact with a cluster randomised controlled trial. This paper presents the findings of the process evaluation and describes the strategies that worked for intervention compliance. We conducted in-depth interviews with pregnant women, women who birthed recently, and their husbands; focus groups with mothers and mothers-in-law; key-informant interviews with community health workers, and observation of home visits. We identified six key areas within the intervention strategy that played a crucial role in achieving the desired adherence. These included practical demonstration of portion sizes; addressing local food perceptions; demystifying animal-source foods; engaging husbands and mothers-in-law; leveraging women’s social networks; and harnessing community health workers’ social role. Practical demonstration, opportunity to participate and convenience of making of the plate with the food available in their kitchen or neighbours’ kitchen were the most commonly mentioned reasons for acceptance of the intervention by the women and their families. The balanced plate intervention helped women through practical demonstration to learn about a balanced meal by highlighting appropriate portion sizes and food diversity. The women needed active involvement of community health workers in mobilising social support to create an enabling environment essential to bring changes in dietary behaviours. Programs to promote a nutritious maternal diet should focus on encouraging the use of healthy foods through practical demonstration of portion sizes and engagement of the women and family instead of replicating the traditional information-based counselling.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0311.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: functional food; dietary supplement; phytochemicals; nutritional neuroscience; gut microbiome; personalized nutrition; Bangladesh
Online: 26 June 2020 (12:23:14 CEST)
Plants and plant-derived food products have been used for medicinal purposes since the ancient. Medicinal Plant-based functional foods or plant-based dietary compounds are a re-emerged interest for their therapeutic benefits and nutritive supports which has implicated in healthcare systems across the world. Neurological disorders are one of the greatest threats to public health and according to the World Health Organization, about 100 million people are affected globally by several neurological and mental ailments. In a traditional medication system, medicinal plants have been applied as both neuro-therapeutic purposes and micro-macro nutrients provider for the wellbeing of psychological states e.g. anti-depressant, anti-anxiety, anti-convulsions, anti-dementia, anti-psychotic, etc. Herein, it is a topic of great interest to present a conceptual aspect by reviewing relevant scientific literature about the plant-based functional foods or bioactive phytochemicals for the prevention and treatment of mental and neurological disorders. From the literature assessment, we have found that nutritional neuroscience is becoming an advanced research discipline and there has been a growing pile of evidence concerning the therapeutic use of plant-based functional foods and/or plant-derived food compounds for the management of neurologic health, evolving with promising impact over the time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0109.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: dietary fiber; SCFA; growth period; chickens; gut microbiota; microbiotal diversity; age; cecum
Online: 9 February 2020 (16:24:29 CET)
Increasing numbers of researchers are interested in the importance of dietary fiber for the gut microbiota, microbiotal metabolite SCFA, energy metabolism and gut health of the host. However, studies have demonstrated that long-term and longitudinal observation may be needed to evaluate the effect of dietary fiber better, and few such works have been made in chickens. Therefore, we successively fed low-fiber, high--fiber and low-fiber diets to two breeds of chickens during different growth periods (1—8, 9—20 and 21—50 weeks), aiming to longitudinally observe the long-term effect of altered dietary fiber on the gut microbiota, SCFA and development of cecum of chickens with age. The results showed that the composition and function of the gut microbiota, SCFA and the development of the cecum were different during different periods, which was largly affected by dietary fiber. However, the causes of some effects were different during the different periods. For example, compared with that in low-fiber chickens at 8 weeks, dominant fiber-degradation bacteria such as Bacteroidetes, Alloprevotella and SCFA-producing bacteria such as Faecalibacterium increased due to a high-fiber diet at 20 weeks, while due to a high feed intake in 50 weeks. Moreover, the concentration of SCFA in 20 weeks was significantly higher than in 8 weeks and 50 weeks, but the causes of this difference were also distinct. It was proposed that a long-term observation was needed to evaluate the effect of dietary fiber better on chickens. The metabolite pathways of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters encoded by Firmicutes were enriched in 8 weeks, while a two-component system and β–glucosidase encoded by Bacteroidetes were enriched in 20 and 50 weeks. The trend was the same in two breeds of chickens except for Alloprevotella. In addition, the total content of SCFA in the contents of cecum was also affected by the size of the cecum. Surprisingly, the length of the cecum shortened from 20—50 weeks, maybe due to reduced dietary fiber.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0092.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: dietary patterns; tracking; stability; longitudinal change; generalized estimating equations; childhood; adolescence; adulthood
Online: 20 June 2017 (09:00:37 CEST)
Dietary patterns established during adolescence might play a role in adulthood disease. We examined the stability of dietary patterns (DPs) from childhood through adolescence and into young adulthood (from age 8 to 34 years). Data from 130 participants (53 females) of Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (aged 8-15 years, at baseline) were included. Multiple 24-hour recalls were collected annually from 1991 to 1997, 2002 to 2005 and 2010 and 2011. Using principal component analysis, “Vegetarian-style”, “Western-like”, “High-fat, high-protein”, “Mixed” and “Snack” DPs were derived at baseline. Applied DP scores for all annual measurements were calculated using factor loading of baseline DPs and energy-adjusted food group intakes. We analyzed data using generalized estimating equations. The tracking coefficient represents correlation between baseline dietary pattern scores and all other follow-up dietary pattern scores. We found a moderate tracking for the “Vegetarian-style” (ß=0.44, P<0.001) and “High-fat, high-protein” (ß=0.39, P<0.001) DPs in females and “Vegetarian-style” DP (ß=0.30, P<0.001) in males. Remaining DPs showed a poor-to-fair tracking in both sexes. No tracking for “Western-like” DP in females was observed. Assessing overall change in DP scores from childhood to young adulthood showed an increasing trend in adherence to “Vegetarian-style” DP and decreasing trend in adherence to “High-fat, high-protein” DP by age in both sexes (P<0.001). While “Western-like” and “Mixed” DP scores increased only in males (P<0.001). These findings suggest that healthy dietary habits established during childhood and adolescence moderately continue into adulthood.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Nutraceuticals; Personalized Medicine; Precision Medicine; Probiotics; Vitamins; Covid; Dietary Supplements; Adverse Drug Effects
Online: 3 November 2022 (06:27:25 CET)
Nutraceuticals have taken the spotlight during the past two decades as evidenced by the exponential publications on them. Long a part of routine in Traditional Medicine Systems, the rise of their mainstream use globally raises both safety concerns and need for better understanding of efficacious dosing. We attempt to answer these questions in this preliminary scoping review by an analysis of current literature on nutraceutical use as a personalized or prescription medicine. Using Covidence, Rayyan, and manual searches of PubMed, 598 unique publications were selected. 32 are systematic reviews, of which we overview the scope. We also overview 30 papers that address adverse drug reactions. To obtain an unbiased landscape of the 598 papers, we analyzed keywords using multiple methods. Expectedly, the most frequent keywords were probiotics and vitamins. Unexpectedly and remarkably, among the highest keyword yield was ‘COVID’. Further exploring this aspect, we review 15 pertinent papers, that not only provide robust evidence for nutraceutical benefits as part of SARS-CoV-2 treatment, but also amplify the notion that nutraceuticals are protective. Overall, the strident note is that further robust targeted research is needed in order to reap the full benefits of nutraceuticals in a safe and efficacious manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0495.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: pandemic; lockdown; physical activity; exercise; sport; well-being; dietary behavior; quality of life
Online: 19 March 2021 (08:59:58 CET)
Adolescents’ daily life has dramatically changed during the COVID-19 era due to the social restrictions that have been imposed, including closures of schools, leisure centers and sport facilities. The purpose of this study was to examine levels of well-being and mood and their relations with physical (in)-activity and eating behaviors in adolescents during a lockdown period in Greece. A total of 950 adolescents (Mean Age = 14.41years ± 1.63) participated in a web-based survey while education was online and organized sport activities were interrupted. Participants showed poor well-being, insufficient physical activity levels and moderate scores of healthy eating behavior. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that, after controlling for the effect of gender and body mass index, increased physical activity and healthier eating behavior predicted better well-being, whereas sedentariness predicted worse well-being. Furthermore, it was revealed that days of physical activity per week was a stronger predictor of well-being than minutes of physical activity per week, and that both in-house and out-of-house physical activity were beneficial. Considering that well-being was below the threshold recommended by the WHO as indicative of possible depressive symptoms, measures to increase physical activity and improve eating behavior should become a priority for communities and policy makers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0049.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: garcinia mangostana; inflammation; insulin resistance; metabolic syndrome; diabetes; xanthones; mangostin; phytotherapy; dietary supplements
Online: 4 April 2018 (06:19:44 CEST)
Insulin resistance is the most important underlying cause of obesity and type 2 Diabetes (T2DM), and insulin sensitizing treatments have proved effective in preventing diabetes and inducing weight loss. Obesity and T2DM are also associated with increased inflammation. Mangosteen is a tropical tree, whose fruits, widely known for their antioxidant properties, have been recently suggested having a possible further role in the treatment of obesity and T2DM. The objective of this pilot study has been to evaluate safety, compliance and efficacy of mangosteen on insulin resistance, weight management, and inflammatory status in obese female patients with insulin resistance. 22 patients were randomized 1:1 to behavioral therapy alone or behavioral therapy and mangosteen and 20 completed the 26-week study. The mangosteen group reported a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity (HOmeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance, HOMA-IR -53.22% vs -15.23%, p=.0037), and a trend decrease in inflammation markers serum levels, together with trend greater weight loss and trend increased HDL levels. No side effect attributable to treatment was reported. Given the positive preliminary results we report and the excellent safety profile, we suggest a possible role of mangosteen in the treatment of obesity, insulin resistance and inflammation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: antibiotic; bacteroidetes; dietary emulsifier; firmicutes; food additive; gut microbiota; non-nutritive sweetener; proteobacteria
Online: 23 December 2016 (11:21:40 CET)
Gut bacteria play an important role in several metabolic processes and human diseases, such as obesity and its co-morbidities, like fatty liver disease, insulin resistance/diabetes and cardiovascular events. Among several factors, dietary patterns, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antimicrobials and non-dietary factors, such as stress, age, exercise and climatic conditions, can dramatically impact the human gut microbiota diversity and equilibrium. However, the effect of minor food constituents, including food additives and trace contaminants, on human gut microbiota has received less attention. Consequently, the present review aimed to provide an objective perspective of the current knowledge regarding the impacts of minor food constituents on human gut microbiota and consequently, on human health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0516.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Plant-dominant diet; low-protein diet; dietary protein intake; glomerular hyperfiltration; CKD prevention; uremia
Online: 31 May 2020 (21:22:42 CEST)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects >10% of the adult population. Each year approximately 120,000 Americans develop end-stage kideny disease and initiate dialysis, which is costly and associated with functional impairments, worse health-related quality of life, and high early-mortality rates exceeding 20% in the first year. Recent declarations by the World Kidney Day and the U.S. Government Executive Order seek to implement strategies that reduce the burden of kidney failure by slowing CKD progression and controlling uremia without dialysis. Pragmatic dietary interventions may have a role in improving CKD outcomes and preventing or delaying dialysis initiation. Evidence suggests that a patient-centered plant-dominant low-protein diet (PLADO) of 0.6-0.8 g/kg/day comprised of >50% plant-based sources, administered by dietitians trained in non-dialysis CKD care, can be promising. The scientific premise of the PLADO is based on the observations that high protein diets with high meat intake are not only associated with higher cardiovascular disease risk but also higher CKD incidence and faster CKD progression due to increased intraglomerular pressure and glomerular hyperfiltration. Meat intake increases production of nitrogenous end-products, worsens uremia, and may increase the risk of hyperkalemia, given constipation from the typical low fiber intake. Plant-dominant, fiber-rich, low-protein diet may lead to favorable alterations in the gut microbiome, which can modulate uremic toxin generation and slow CKD progression, along with reducing cardiovascular risk in CKD patients. PLADO is a heart-healthy, safe, flexible, and feasible diet that could be the centerpiece of a conservative and preservative CKD-management strategy that challenges the prevailing dialysis-centered paradigm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0080.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: child nutrition disorders; animal source foods; diet; food and nutrition; dietary diversity; food assistance
Online: 9 January 2019 (07:49:09 CET)
Introduction: Child undernutrition remains a challenge globally and in the geographically diverse country of Ethiopia. Improving dietary diversity and consumption of animal source foods are important for improving child nutrition and corresponding health outcomes. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify household and community factors associated with consumption of animal source foods among 6 to 36-month-old children from four regions of Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using multistage probability sampling in eight geographic zones and four regions of Ethiopia took place in 2015 with parents/caretakers of 6 to 36-month-old children. Data was collected on demographic information, proxy indicators of socioeconomic status, and food consumed by the child the day before the survey. Results: Increased child age, pastoral livelihood, Muslim religion, and participation in the Productive Safety Net Program were associated with increased consumption of animal source foods. Odds of animal source foods consumption increased 8% with each 3-month age increase. Children from pastoralist households were the most likely to have consumed animal source foods in the preceding 24 hours as compared with those in agro-pastoralist households (0.21 times as likely) or those in agriculturalist/farming households (0.15 times as likely). The odds of consumption of animal source foods for families with food aid or safety net support was 1.7 times greater among those receiving traditional support from the Productive Safety Net Program and 4.5 times greater for those in the direct support arm of the program. Conclusions: The findings illustrate the importance of accounting for local context and community characteristics, such as livelihood and religion, when undertaking programming designed to improve diversity of children’s diets through increasing animal source foods. In addition, the Productive Safety Net program may be a critical determinant of dietary diversity for young children in these regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0070.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: genistein; soy isoflavone extracts; anti-menopausal dietary supplements; bacterial growth; viability of human cells
Online: 13 April 2017 (05:33:06 CEST)
Flavonoids, compounds present in many dietary supplements, affect growth of different bacterial species when tested as purified or synthetic substances. Here, we asked if soy isoflavone extracts, commonly used in many products sold as anti-menopausal dietary supplements, influence bacterial growth similarly to synthetic isoflavone, genistein. Four commercially available products were tested in amounts corresponding to genistein concentrations causing inhibition of growth of Vibrio harveyi (a model bacterium sensitive to this isoflavone) and Escherichia coli (a model bacterium resistant to genistein). Differential effects of various extracts on V. harveyi and E. coli growth, from stimulation, through no changes, to inhibition, were observed. Moreover, contrary to genistein, tested extracts caused a decrease (to different extends) in viability of human dermal fibroblasts. These results indicate that effects of various soy isoflavone extracts on bacterial growth and viability of human cells are different, despite similar declared composition of the commercially available products.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0305.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: dietary flavonoids; cardioprotective effects; ROS scavenging; myocardial dysfunction; bioavailability and drug metabolism; toxicity; drug discovery
Online: 11 June 2021 (08:44:01 CEST)
Flavonoids comprise a large group of structurally diverse polyphenolic compounds of plant origin and are abundantly found in human diet such as fruits, vegetables, grains, tea, dairy products, red wine and so on. Major classes of flavonoids include flavonols, flavones, flavanones, flavanols, anthocyanidins, isoflavones, and chalcones. Owing to their potential health benefits and medicinal significance, flavonoids are now considered as an indispensable component in a variety of medicinal, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and cosmetic preparations. However, flavonoids play a significant role in preventing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which could be mainly due to their antioxidant, antiatherogenic, and antithrombotic effects. Epidemiological and in vitro/in vivo evidences of antioxidant effects support the cardioprotective function of dietary flavonoids. Further, the inhibition of LDL oxidation and platelet aggregation following regular consumption of food containing flavonoids and moderate consumption of red wine might protect against atherosclerosis and thrombosis. A study suggests that daily intake of 100 mg of flavonoids through diet may reduce the risk of developing morbidity and mortality due to coronary heart disease (CHD) by approximately 10%. This review summarizes dietary flavonoids with their sources and potential health implications in CVDs including various redox-active cardioprotective (molecular) mechanisms with antioxidant effects. Pharmacokinetic (oral bioavailability, drug metabolism), toxicological and therapeutic aspects of dietary flavonoids are also addressed herein with future directions for the discovery and development of useful drug candidates/ therapeutic molecules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0205.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: chlorpyrifos; cypermethrin; daily intake; home environment; Monte Carlo simulation; non-dietary ingestion; SHEDS model; Taiwan
Online: 15 May 2018 (06:30:06 CEST)
We estimated the daily intakes of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin via ingestion of indoor dust and outdoor soils using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model on a probabilistic approach for Taiwan’s homes. Variable information for the daily intake estimation, such as concentration, ingestion rate, body weight, was adopted from previous studies. Monte Carlo simulation was performed with 1,000,000 iterations to simulate a single daily intake, which was shown in terms of percentage of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of either insecticide. The daily intakes were minimal with a 99% probability; at 99.9th percentile, however, the total intakes leaped to 13.1% and 20.0% of the respective ADIs of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin. The sensitivity analysis indicated that concentration was the most determinant variable. Compared to the data of daily intakes via dietary ingestion of vegetables derived from a previous study, the estimated intakes by this study were considerable at the highest percentile, which referred to insecticide residues few days after insecticide application. Consequently, the non-dietary ingestion exposure to either insecticide was negligible in most cases; nevertheless, for those with indoor insecticide applications, the daily intakes for young children could be of concern. Frequently home cleaning is recommended to reduce the exposure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0271.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Biomarkers; dietary total fat; pentadecanoic acid; 15:0; heptadecanoic acid; 17:0; odd chain fatty acids.
Online: 15 September 2018 (17:49:08 CEST)
Pentadecanoic acid (C15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) have been described as dietary biomarkers of dairy-fat consumption with varying degrees of reliability between studies. It remains unclear how the total amount of dietary fat; one of the main confounding factors in these biomarker investigations, affects C15:0 and C17:0 circulating compositions independently to their relative intake. Additionally, it is unknown how changes in the dietary total-fat affects other fatty acids in circulation. Through two dietary studies with different total-fat levels but maintaining individual fatty acid compositions we were able to see how the dietary total-fat affects the fatty acids in circulation. We saw that there was a significant, proportionate, and robust decrease in the endogenous C15:0 levels with an increase in dietary total-fat. However, there was an increase in the circulating C17:0 compositions as the total-fat increased. To conclude, the dietary total-fat content and fat-type have a very complex influence on the relative compositions of circulating fatty acids, which are independent to the actual dietary fatty acid composition. Knowing how to manipulate circulating C15:0 and C17:0 composition is far-reaching in nutritional/pathological research as they highlight a dietary route to attenuate the development of metabolic disease (both by reducing risk and improving prognosis).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0164.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: coffee; dietary supplements; metabolic syndrome X; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; adiponectin; hyperpolarized magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Online: 27 October 2017 (02:32:43 CEST)
Since coffee has been shown to influence positively the metabolism of subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS), we aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of a coffee-based supplement on different features of diet-induced MetS. 24 Sprague Dawley rats were divided into control or nutraceuticals groups to receive a high-fat/high fructose diet with or without a mixture of caffeic acid (30 mg/day), trigonelline (20 mg/day), and cafestol (1 mg/day) for 12 weeks. An additional 11 rats were assigned to an acute crossover study. In the chronic experiment, nutraceuticals did not alter body weight or glycemic control but improved fed hyperinsulinemia and HOMA-IR, and plasma adiponectin levels. The impact of nutraceuticals on post-prandial glycemia tended to be more pronounced after acute administration than at the end of the chronic study. Circulating and intrahepatocellular alanine transaminase activity, assessed by hyperpolarized-13C NMR spectroscopy, were reduced by coffee nutraceuticals at endpoint. There was also a tendency towards lower liver triglyceride content and histological steatosis score in the intervention group. In conclusion, a mixture of coffee nutraceuticals improved insulin sensitivity and exhibited hepatoprotective effects in a rat model of MetS. Higher dosages with or without caffeine deserve to be studied in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0279.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: animal model; dietary components; feeding strategy; gene expression; lipid profile; nutrients; nutrigenomic; physiological processes; signaling pathways; transcription.
Online: 16 November 2021 (09:07:22 CET)
Studies on the influence of dietary components and their effects are fundamental for nutrigenomics, or the study of how nutrients can be cellular sensors, how they affect biological processes and gene expression in different tissues. Lipids are an important source of fatty acids (FA) and energy and are fundamental to biological processes and influence the regulation of transcription. Pigs are excellent model to study nutrigenomics, particularly lipid metabolism because the deposition and composition of FA in their tissues reflect the composition of FA in their diet. Recent studies show that FA supplementation is important in production systems, such as growing and finishing pigs, as it can improve the energy value of the feed, help reduce costs, improve animal welfare, and influence the nutritional value of the meat. Studies show that oleic (OA), linoleic (LA), docosahexaenoic (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids are associated with the regulation of transcription in tissues such as muscle, liver, adipose tissue, and brain. Other studies indicate that EPA and DHA are associated with changes in specific signaling pathways, altering gene expression and biophysical properties of membranes. This review, therefore, focuses on the current knowledge of the effects of dietary FA on production traits and gene expression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0199.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs); polychlorinated dibenzo-p-furans (PCDFs); human exposure; blood samples; dietary intake; risks
Online: 20 August 2019 (04:20:00 CEST)
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-furans (PCDD/Fs) are environmental pollutants with a great persistence, capacity of bioaccumulation, and well known important toxic effects in humans and animals. Incinerators of hazardous, municipal and medical waste, chlorine bleaching of paper pulp, cement plants, and the traffic of motor vehicles are the most frequent emission sources of these compounds. The diet, followed at a great distance by inhalation, is generally the main way of human exposure to PCDD/Fs. Human biomonitoring is of a great importance to prevent potential adverse effects derived from exposure to chemicals such as PCDD/Fs. In relation to this, blood is among the most used biological monitors. In the current review, we have summarized the recent information (2000-2009) published in the scientific literature (databases: Scopus and PubMed) on the concentrations of PCDD/Fs in blood samples of non-occupationally exposed populations, as well as in some groups of occupationally exposed individuals. We have revised a number of studies conducted in various African American, Asian and European countries, and Australia. Unfortunately, the information is quite limited. No data are available for most countries over the world. Based on the results here reviewed –where available- the current health risks for the general populations do not seem to be of concern. Moreover, taking into account the important reductions observed in the levels of PCDD/Fs in foodstuffs, new decreases in the concentrations of PCDD/Fs in blood -and other biological tissues- are very probable in the immediate years.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0203.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: vitamin C; ascorbate; obesity; body weight; vitamin C intake; plasma ascorbate concentrations; vitamin C requirements; dietary vitamin C
Online: 15 March 2022 (10:45:27 CET)
Higher body weight is known to negatively impact plasma vitamin C status. However, despite this well-documented inverse association, recommendations on daily vitamin C intakes by health authorities worldwide do not include particular reference values for people of higher body weight. This suggests that people of higher body weight and people with obesity may be insufficient in vitamin C in spite of ingesting the amounts recommended by their health authorities. The current preliminary investigation sought to estimate how much additional vitamin C people with higher body weights need to consume in order to attain a comparable vitamin C status to that of a lower weight person consuming an average Western vitamin C intake. Data from two published vitamin C dose-concentration studies were used to generate the relationship: a detailed pharmacokinetic study with seven healthy non-smoking men and a multiple depletion-repletion study with 68 healthy non-smoking men of varying body weights. Our estimates suggest that an additional intake of 10 mg vitamin C/day is required for every 10 kg increase in body weight to attain a comparable plasma concentration to a 60 kg individual with a vitamin C intake of ~110 mg/day, which is the daily intake recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Thus, individuals weighing e.g. 80 and 90 kg will need to consume ~130 and 140 mg vitamin C/day, respectively. People with obesity will likely need even higher vitamin C intakes. As poor vitamin C status is associated with increased risk of several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, these findings may have important public health implications. As such, dose-finding studies are required to determine optimal vitamin C intakes for overweight and obese people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0185.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: pediatric pharmacy; complementary alternative medicine; dietary interventions; oral manifestations; chronic pediatric conditions; ketogenic diet; gluten free casein free diet
Online: 8 November 2018 (03:55:15 CET)
Complementary and alternative treatment approaches are becoming more common among children with chronic conditions. The pravelance of CAM use among US adults was estimated to be around 42% in 2015, and around 44% to 50% among adults with neurologic disorders. Studies report children with chronic illnesses such as cancer, asthma, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), genetic disorders, and other neurodevelopmental disorders are treated with complementary and alternative treatments at higher rates. Dietary therapies are gaining increasing popularity in the mainstream population, due to the heavy media involvement. Although, majority of “fad” diets do not have enough supporting evidence, some dietary therapies have been utilized for decades and have numerous published studies. The objective of this review is to describe the dietary interventions used in children with the specific chronic conditions, to evaluate their efficacy based on published data, and to encourage pharmacist involvement in the management and care of such patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: dietary substitution; CVD; saturated fatty acids; protein; monounsaturated fatty acids; polyunsaturated fatty acids; dairy fat; refined carbohydrates; whole grains
Online: 18 May 2017 (04:01:53 CEST)
Dietary recommendations to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have focused on reducing intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) for more than 50 years. While the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advise substituting both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids for SFA, evidence supports other nutrient substitutions that will also reduce CVD risk. For example, replacing SFA with whole grains, but not refined carbohydrates, reduces CVD risk. Replacing SFA with protein, especially plant protein may also reduce CVD risk. While dairy fat (milk, cheese) is associated with a slightly lower CVD risk compared to meat, dairy fat results in a significantly greater CVD risk relative to unsaturated fatty acids. As research continues, we will refine our understanding of dietary patterns associated with lower CVD risk.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: vitamin C; vitamin C status; vitamin C deficiency; global health; dietary intake; obesity; smoking; communicable disease; infection; non-communicable disease
Online: 4 June 2020 (03:49:42 CEST)
A recent review of global vitamin C status indicated a high prevalence of deficiency, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, as well as in specific subgroups within high-income countries. Here we provide a narrative of potential factors influencing vitamin C status. The in vivo status of vitamin C is primarily affected by dietary intake and supplement use. Dietary intake can be influenced by cultural aspects such as staple foods and traditional cooking practices. Environmental factors can also affect vitamin C intake and status; these include geographic region, season and climate, as well as pollution. Demographic factors such as sex, age, and race are known to affect vitamin C status, as do socioeconomic factors such as deprivation, education and social class, and institutionalization. Various health aspects affect vitamin C status; these include body weight, pregnancy and lactation, genetic variants, smoking, and disease states, including severe infections as well as various non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Some of these factors have changed over time, therefore we also explore if vitamin C status has shown temporal changes. Overall, there are numerous factors that can affect vitamin C status to different extents in various regions of the world. Many of these factors are not taken into consideration during the setting of global recommended dietary intakes for vitamin C.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0369.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Gut-retina axis, Gut microbiota, Dietary habits, Micronutrients, Fish oil, omega-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids, Personalised medicine
Online: 16 October 2018 (17:39:27 CEST)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex multifactorial disease and the primary cause of legal and irreversible blindness among individuals aged >=65 years in developed countries. Globally, it affects 30-50 million individuals, with an estimated increase of approximately 200 million by 2020 and approximately 300 million by 2040. Currently, the neovascular form may be able to be treated with the use of anti-VEGF drugs, while no effective treatments are available for the dry form. Many observational studies, such as AREDS-1 and AREDS 2, have shown a potential role of micronutrient supplementation in lowering the risk of progression of the early stages of AMD. Recently, low-grade inflammation, sustained by dysbiosis and a leaky gut, has been shown to contribute to the development of AMD. Given the ascertained influence of the gut microbiota in systemic low-grade inflammation and its potential modulation by macro- and micro-nutrients, a potential role of diet in AMD has been proposed. This review discusses the role of the gut microbiota in the development of AMD. Using PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus, we searched for recent scientific evidence discussing the impact of dietary habits (high fat and high glucose or fructose diets), micronutrients (vitamins C, E, and D, zinc, beta-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin) and omega-3 fatty acids on the modulation of the gut microbiota and their relationship with AMD risk and progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0086.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: early adolescents; mobile food record; food waste; plate waste; eating behavior; portion size; dietary assessment; uncontrolled eating; cognitive restraint; emotional eating
Online: 4 August 2018 (11:37:39 CEST)
Understanding behavioral factors associated with obesity is of importance in addressing this issue. This study examined the association between cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, emotional eating and body mass index (BMI) and amount of food plated, consumed, leftovers, and leftover food thrown into the trash (food wasted) in early adolescent girls nine to 13 years in O’ahu, Hawai’i (n = 93). Food plated, consumed, leftovers, and food wasted were estimated using a three-day mobile food record (mFR). Weight and height were measured to compute BMI (kg/m2). The three-factor eating questionnaire provided a score from 0 to 100 for cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating. Higher scores are indicative of greater cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating. Pearson’s correlation and general linear models were computed to examine the relationship between three factor eating scores, BMI, and food plated, consumed, leftovers, and food wasted. There was no clinically significant association between cognitive restraint and amount of food wasted. Cognitive restraint was positively correlated with BMI (r=0.36, p<0.001) and with BMI z score (r=0.40, p<0.001). Uncontrolled eating and emotional eating were positively correlated with amount of leftover food at dinner (r=0.30, p=0.006; r=0.33, p=0.003, respectively). Emotional eating was positively associated with percentage of leftover food at dinner (r=0.24, p=0.30). Additional research should examine the specific roles of cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, emotional eating and food waste in the development of obesity in adolescents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0039.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Platelet function, platelet activation, platelet hyperactivity, platelet-leukocyte aggregates, inflammation, immunothrombosis, particulate air pollution, dietary antiplatelet, water-soluble tomato extract; Fruitflow; Tomato
Online: 2 April 2021 (08:12:22 CEST)
Understanding platelet functionality has undergone a sea change in the last decade. No longer are platelets viewed simply as regulators of haemostasis; they are now acknowledged to be pivotal in coordinating the inflammatory and immune responses. This expanded role for platelets brings new opportunities for controlling a range of health conditions, targeting platelet activation and their interactions with other vascular cells. Antiplatelet drugs may be of wider utility than ever expected but often cause too strong a platelet suppression to be used out of clinical settings. Dietary antiplatelets represent a nutritional approach that can be efficacious while safe for general use. Here we review potential new uses for dietary antiplatelets outside the field of cardiovascular health, with specific reference to the water-soluble tomato extract Fruitflow®. Uses in different aspects of inflammation and immune function are discussed, highlighting exercise-induced inflammation, mediating the effects of air pollution, and controlling thrombotic aspects of the immune response. Potential future developments in women’s health, erectile dysfunction, and the allergic response give an indication of how wide-ranging the utility of dietary antiplatelets can possibly be.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: vitamin C status; hypovitaminosis C; vitamin C deficiency; low and middle income countries; LMIC; dietary intake; supplement; non-communicable disease; communicable disease; infection
Online: 24 May 2020 (18:16:25 CEST)
Vitamin C is an essential nutrient that must be obtained through the diet in adequate amounts to prevent hypovitaminosis C and the potentially fatal deficiency disease scurvy. Global vitamin C status and prevalence of deficiency has not previously been reported, despite vitamin C’s pleiotropic roles in both non-communicable and communicable disease. This review highlights the global literature on vitamin C status and the prevalence of hypovitaminosis C and deficiency. Related dietary intake is reported if assessed in the studies. We also explore if global vitamin C status has changed over time. Overall, the review illustrates the shortage of high quality epidemiological studies of vitamin C status in many countries, particularly low- and middle-income countries. The available evidence indicates that vitamin C deficiency is common in low- and middle-income countries and not uncommon in high income settings. Further high quality studies are required to confirm these findings, including in the countries not yet represented, and to fully understand associations with a range of disease processes. Our findings suggest a need for interventions to prevent deficiency in a range of at risk groups and regions of the world.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: lifestyle factors; chronic inflammatory diseases; treatment result; treatment response; diet; meat intake; dietary pattern; food; mucosa associated bacteria; epithelium-associated bacteria; microbiome; fibre intake; personalized medicine; mucus; sulphate-reducing bacteria; mucin-degrading bacteria; Western style diet; anti-TNF
Online: 15 March 2017 (07:29:13 CET)
We wanted to investigate the current knowledge on the impact of diet on anti-TNF response in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), to identify dietary factors that warrant further investigations in relation to anti-TNF treatment response, and, finally, to discuss potential strategies for such investigations. PubMed was searched using specified search terms. One small prospective study on diet and anti-TNF treatment in 56 patients with CD found similar remission rates after 56 weeks among 32 patients with good compliance that received concomitant enteral nutrition and 24 with poor compliance that had no dietary restrictions (78% versus 67%, p = 0.51). A meta-analysis of 295 patients found higher odds of achieving clinical remission and remaining in clinical remission among patients on combination therapy with specialised enteral nutrition and Infliximab (IFX) compared with IFX monotherapy (OR 2.73; 95% CI: 1.73–4.31, p < 0.01, OR 2.93; 95% CI: 1.66–5.17, p < 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, evidence-based knowledge on impact of diet on anti-TNF treatment response for clinical use is scarce. Here we propose a mechanism by which Western style diet high in meat and low in fibre may promote colonic inflammation and potentially impact treatment response to anti-TNF drugs. Further studies using hypothesis-driven and data-driven strategies in observational, animal and interventional studies are warranted.