Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Toxic Metals in Cereals and Derivatives Consumed in Cape Verde: A Risk Assessment Study

Version 1 : Received: 24 February 2021 / Approved: 26 February 2021 / Online: 26 February 2021 (11:05:17 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Rubio-Armendáriz, C.; Paz, S.; Gutiérrez, Á.J.; Gomes Furtado, V.; González-Weller, D.; Revert, C.; Hardisson, A. Toxic Metals in Cereals in Cape Verde: Risk Assessment Evaluation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3833. Rubio-Armendáriz, C.; Paz, S.; Gutiérrez, Á.J.; Gomes Furtado, V.; González-Weller, D.; Revert, C.; Hardisson, A. Toxic Metals in Cereals in Cape Verde: Risk Assessment Evaluation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3833.

Journal reference: Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3833
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18073833

Abstract

Cereals and their derivatives are the basis of human nutrition. However, cereals also contribute to the dietary exposure to toxic metals that may pose a risk. Strengthening food security and nutrition information is a high priority challenge for the Cape Verde Government. The toxic metals content (Cr, Ni, Sr, Al, Cd, Pb) has been determined in 126 samples of cereals and derivatives (rice, corn gofio, corn flour, wheat flour, corn, wheat) consumed in Cape Verde. Wheat flour samples stand out for registering the highest Sr (1.60 mg/kg), Ni (0.25 mg/kg) and Cr (0.13 mg/kg). The results show relevant Al levels (1.17 – 13.4 mg/kg) with its highest levels in corn gofio. The mean Pb average content in the cereals is 0.03 – 0.08 mg/kg with the highest level observed in corn gofio. The Al and Pb levels are lower in cereals without husks. A consumption of 100 g/day of corn gofio provide an intake of 1.34 mg Al/day (13.7% of the tolerable weekly intake established at 1 mg/kg bw/week) and 8 µg Pb/day (20% of the BMDL set at 0.63 µg/kg bw/day for nephrotoxic effects). The minimization of the dietary exposure of the Cape Verdean population to toxic metals is through the importation of higher quality cereals.

Subject Areas

Cape Verde; cereals; metals; dietary intake; risk evaluation

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