Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Breakfast in the United States: Food and Nutrient Intakes in Relation to Diet Quality in NHANES 2011-2014. A Study from the International Breakfast Research Initiative (IBRI)

Version 1 : Received: 6 August 2018 / Approved: 6 August 2018 / Online: 6 August 2018 (10:10:46 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Drewnowski, A.; Rehm, C.D.; Vieux, F. Breakfast in the United States: Food and Nutrient Intakes in Relation to Diet Quality in National Health and Examination Survey 2011–2014. A Study from the International Breakfast Research Initiative. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1200. Drewnowski, A.; Rehm, C.D.; Vieux, F. Breakfast in the United States: Food and Nutrient Intakes in Relation to Diet Quality in National Health and Examination Survey 2011–2014. A Study from the International Breakfast Research Initiative. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1200.

Journal reference: Nutrients 2018, 10, 1200
DOI: 10.3390/nu10091200

Abstract

Abstract: The contribution of breakfast to diet quality (DQ) can inform future dietary guidelines. This study examined breakfasts that were associated with highest-quality diets. Dietary data came from the first reported day of the National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2014 (n=14,488). DQ measures were the Nutrient Rich Foods Index (NRF9.3) and the USDA Healthy Eating Index 2015 (HEI 2015). Analyses of breakfast intakes were conducted by NRF9.3 tertiles and by age and socioeconomic groups. Four out of 5 NHANES participants ate breakfast. Breakfast provided 19-22% of dietary energy depending on age. Breakfast intakes of complex carbohydrates and total sugars were higher and intakes of protein and fats were lower relative to energy intakes. Breakfast provided more that 20% of daily intakes of B vitamins, vitamins A and D, folate, calcium, iron, potassium and magnesium. Eating breakfast was associated with higher NRF9.3d scores. Breakfasts associated with top tertile of NRF9.3d had more carbohydrates and less added sugars and fats. Such breakfasts had more fruit and juices, more whole grains, more milk and yogurt and less meat and eggs. Breakfast patterns that favored fruit, whole grains, and dairy were associated with healthiest diets.

Subject Areas

Keywords: Breakfast; dietary intake; nutrition; dietary quality; NRF9.3 index; USDA HEI 2015 index

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