Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Diet-Derived Exogenous miRNAs As Functional Food Components: Facts and New Perspectives

Version 1 : Received: 22 February 2021 / Approved: 24 February 2021 / Online: 24 February 2021 (10:11:26 CET)

How to cite: Khurana, P.; Gupta, A.; Varshney, R. Diet-Derived Exogenous miRNAs As Functional Food Components: Facts and New Perspectives. Preprints 2021, 2021020541 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202102.0541.v1). Khurana, P.; Gupta, A.; Varshney, R. Diet-Derived Exogenous miRNAs As Functional Food Components: Facts and New Perspectives. Preprints 2021, 2021020541 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202102.0541.v1).

Abstract

Exogenous miRNAs derived from dietary substances have been shown to be orally transferred to the mammalian system and proven to remain active to regulate host-gene expression. This way they have become an active area of research as functional food components and aspects for dietary supplementation. They are being studied as a new class of metabolically targeted therapeutics that work through diet manipulation and may hold promise for a therapeutic approach in reducing the risk of life-threatening diseases. However, a substantial amount of evidence also defies this dietary miRNA concept in terms of their absorption, bioavailability, cellular uptake and its physiological effects in the mammalian system. But recent advances in the identification of some unique sequence and structural characteristics of dietary miRNAs and a deeper understanding of their stability in host peripheral blood for its cellular uptake have strengthened the whole concept. The review comprehensively summarizes the mechanism for miRNA extracellular transport, absorption through the gastrointestinal tract (GI), stability in peripheral blood, and cellular uptake in mammalian cells. It recapitulates the shreds of evidence, related to the influence of dietary miRNAs on gene expression based on the source of the origin (plant vs animal), and compares their cross-kingdom behaviour in terms of their unique sequence and stem-loop structure properties that help them to get stabilized in the mammalian system. The review also summarizes the parameters required for maintaining the sustainable uptake and bioavailability of the dietary miRNAs with existing examples of successful in-vivo and in-vitro delivery of dietary miRNA for augmented therapy. Lastly, it provides an overview of the available and required databases, webserver, and tools that can be used for the successful identification of potential dietary miRNA candidates.

Keywords

Functional food components, Dietary miRNA, XenomiRs, dietary supplementation therapy

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