Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Occurrence of Aflatoxins in Edible Vegetable Seeds and Oil Samples Available in Retail Markets and Estimation of Dietary Intake in Consumers

Version 1 : Received: 26 March 2021 / Approved: 29 March 2021 / Online: 29 March 2021 (11:09:17 CEST)

How to cite: Waqas, M.; Iqbal, S.Z.; Razis, A.F.A.; Pervaiz, W.; Ahmed, T.; Usman, S.; Ali, N.B.; Asi, M.R. Occurrence of Aflatoxins in Edible Vegetable Seeds and Oil Samples Available in Retail Markets and Estimation of Dietary Intake in Consumers. Preprints 2021, 2021030681 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202103.0681.v1). Waqas, M.; Iqbal, S.Z.; Razis, A.F.A.; Pervaiz, W.; Ahmed, T.; Usman, S.; Ali, N.B.; Asi, M.R. Occurrence of Aflatoxins in Edible Vegetable Seeds and Oil Samples Available in Retail Markets and Estimation of Dietary Intake in Consumers. Preprints 2021, 2021030681 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202103.0681.v1).

Abstract

A total of 744 samples of vegetable seeds and oil (soybean, sunflower, canola, olive, corn, and mustard) were collected for the presence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and total aflatoxins (AFs). The results have shown that 92 (56.7%) samples of branded and 108 (57%) samples of non-branded edible seeds were observed to be contaminated with AFs. The maximum mean of AFB1 and total AFs in non-branded soybean seeds was 21.01 ± 4.70 and 36.37 ± 6.10 µg/kg, respectively. Furthermore, all samples of edible seeds have concentrations of AFB1 greater than the proposed limit of European Union (EU, 2 µg/kg) and 12 (7.40%) samples of branded seeds and 14 (7.40%) samples of non-branded seeds were found in the range ≥ 50 µg/kg. About 78 (43.3%) samples of branded edible oil and 103 (48.3%) sample of non-branded edible oil were observed to be positive with AFs, and the elevated average of AFB1 (14.29 ± 2.51 µg/kg) and total AFs (25.61 ± 7.50) µg/kg were found in non-branded soybean oil samples. Furthermore, 16 (8.88%) and 6 (3.33%) samples of branded vegetable oil have levels of total AFs in a range (21 - 50 µg/kg) and ≥ 50 µg/kg, respectively. The findings have indicated significant difference of AFs levels between branded and non-branded vegetable oil samples (t = 22.274 and p = 0.000) at α = 0.05 and significant difference of AFs levels in vegetable seeds and oil samples ( t = -17.75, p = 0.000) at α =0.05. The highest dietary intake was found in non-branded sunflower oil sample (0.90 µg/kg/day) in female individuals (16-22 age group), followed by the dietary intake of 0.69 µg/kg/day body weight in male individuals (16-22 age group).

Subject Areas

AFB1; AFs; vegetable seeds; vegetable oils; dietary intake

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