ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0010.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: consciousness; cognition; theory of consciousness; meta-consciousness; meta-cognition
Online: 1 March 2023 (03:53:11 CET)
For consciousness to exist, an entity must have prerequisite characteristics and attributes to give rise to it. We explore these “building blocks” of consciousness in detail in this paper, which range from perceptive to computational to higher-order characteristics of an entity’s cognitive architecture. We show how each cognitive attribute is strictly necessary for the emergence of consciousness, and how the building blocks are collectively sufficient for any entity to be classified as being conscious. The list of building blocks is not limited to human or organic consciousness and may be used to classify artificial and organisational conscious entities. We further explore a list of attributes that seem intuitively necessary for consciousness, but on further investigation, are neither required nor sufficient. The building blocks do not represent a theory of consciousness but rather a meta-theory on the emergence and classification of consciousness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0136.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: detour task; equids; social cognition; social learning; spatial cognition
Online: 9 May 2018 (05:08:10 CEST)
Horses’ ability to adapt to new environments and to acquire new information plays an important role in handling and training. Social learning in particular would be very adaptive for horses as it enables them to flexibly adapt to new environments. In the context of horse handling, social learning from humans has been rarely investigated but could help to facilitate management practices. We assessed the impact of human demonstration on spatial problem-solving abilities in horses using a detour task. In this task, a bucket with a food reward was placed behind a double-detour barrier and horses (n = 16) received a human demonstration or no demonstration. Horses were allocated to two test groups of 8 horses each, which experienced the two treatments in a counterbalanced order. We found that horses did not solve the detour task faster with human demonstration. However, both test groups improved rapidly over trials. Our results suggest that horses prefer to use individual rather than social information when being confronted with a spatial problem-solving task.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1991.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Dementia; Memory; Cognition; Self
Online: 29 August 2023 (14:19:15 CEST)
Dementia is a public health priority, in which memory impairments are prevalent and affects an individual’s daily activities. Research has tried to find ways to support memory problems of individuals with dementia. Self reference effect (SRE) has been shown to benefit memory in healthy, non-dementia group. The study aimed to investigate if SRE will improve memory performance of individuals with dementia. We used ecologically valid Ownership Procedure and the Remember/Know Paradigm to examine the Self-Reference Effect (SRE) on memory. It was hypothesised that participants living with dementia will perform differently in the recall of items that were self-referentially encoded compared to items other-referentially encoded and that the memory will be different in control participants than in those that live with dementia. The research found that self-referential processes did not have effect on memory in individuals with dementia. We suggest that impaired self-awareness may have contributed to the lack of this effect. However, we had a small sample size and these findings should be treated with caution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0180.v1
Online: 9 August 2018 (08:25:45 CEST)
We present three studies which investigated the relations between cognition and personality from 7 to 20 years of age. All three studies showed that general cognitive ability and the general factor of personality are significantly related throughout this age span. This relation was expressed in several ways across studies. The first investigated developmental relations between three reasoning domains (inductive, deductive, and scientific) and Eysenck’s four personality dimensions in a longitudinal-sequential design where 260 participants received the cognitive tests three and the personality test two times, covering the span from 9-16 years. It was found that initial social likeability significantly shapes developmental momentum in cognition and vice-versa, especially in the 9 to 11 years period. The second study involved 438 participants from 7 to 17 years, tested twice on attention control, working memory, reasoning in different domains, and once by a Big Five Factors inventory. Extending the findings of the first, this study showed that progression in reasoning is affected negatively by conscientiousness and positively by openness, on top of attention control and working memory influences. The third study tested the relations between reasoning in several domains, the ability to evaluate one’s own cognitive performance, self-representation about the reasoning, the Big Five, and several aspects of emotional intelligence, from 9 to 20 years of age (N=247). Network, Hierarchical Network, and Structural Equation modeling showed that cognition and personality are mediated by the ability of self-knowing. Emotional intelligence was not an autonomous dimension. All dimensions but emotional intelligence influenced academic performance. A developmental model for mind-personality relations is proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1986.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: diabetes; adolescence; cognition; insulin; inflammation
Online: 30 August 2023 (03:29:31 CEST)
Increased insulin levels may support the development of neural circuits involved in cognition, while chronic mild inflammation may also result in cognitive impairment. This study aimed to gain more insight into whether cognition is impacted already during adolescence in a genetic rat model for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Cognitive functioning throughout adolescence and early adulthood was investigated in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF), ZDF lean and healthy outbred Long Evans rats using operant touchscreens. Blood glucose, insulin and lipids were longitudinally analyzed. Histological analyses were performed in the liver, white adipose tissues and the prefrontal cortex. Adolescent ZDF obese rats outperformed lean rats on visual discrimination performance. During the longitudinal cognitive testing period, insulin levels sharply increased over weeks in ZDF obese rats and were significantly enhanced from 6 weeks of age onwards. Early signs of liver steatosis and enlarged adipocytes in white adipose tissue were observed in ZDF early adult obese rats. Histological analyses at early adulthood showed no group differences in the number of prefrontal cortex neurons and microglia, nor PSD95 and SIRT1 mRNA expression levels. Together, our data show that adolescent obese ZDF rats even display enhanced cognition despite their early diabetic profile.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0655.v1
Online: 9 May 2023 (12:37:24 CEST)
Abstract: Background: Cancer and cancer treatments may affect aging processes, altering the trajectory of cognitive aging, but extant studies are limited in interval of assessment (2-5 years). We studied cognitive performance in a cohort of survivors and controls utilizing cross-sectional cognitive performance data from age 60 to 89 years as an indicator of potential aging trajectories and contrasted these trends with longitudinal data collected over two years. Methods: Female breast cancer survivors who had been diagnosed and treated at age 60 or older and were 5– to 15-year survivors (N=328) and non-cancer controls (N=158) were assessed at enrollment and at 8, 16 and 24 months with standard neuropsychological tests and comprehensive geriatric as-sessment. Results: Cross-sectional baseline analysis found the expected inverse association of age with cognition in both groups, with survivors performing lower than controls in learning and memory (LM) but not in attention, processing speed and executive function (APE). Younger survivors, i.e., those under 75 years of age, exhibited early decline in performance in both LM and APE compared to controls, with no differences between older survivors and controls, which tracked with deficit accumulation trends. Conclusion: Differences between survivors and controls were prominent in younger survivors, as was deficit accumulation, suggesting a mediating effect on cognition. Deficit accumulation may represent a modifiable risk factor in cancer survivorship that may be targeted for prevention and intervention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0131.v1
Online: 5 September 2020 (08:18:57 CEST)
Increased motivation towards alcohol use and suboptimal behavioural control are suggested to predispose adolescents to Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs). Paradoxically however, most adolescent AUDs resolve over time without any formal intervention, suggesting adolescent resilience to AUDs. Importantly, studies directly comparing adolescent and adult alcohol use are largely missing. We therefore aimed to unravel the moderating role of age in the relation between alcohol use and motivational and control-related cognitive processes in 45 adolescent drinkers compared to 45 adults. The results showed that enhancement drinking motives and impulsivity related positively to alcohol use. Although enhancement drinking motives and impulsivity were higher in adolescents, the strength of the relation between these measures and alcohol use did not differ between age groups. None of the alcohol use-related motivational measures (i.e., craving, attentional bias, approach bias) and behavioral control measures (i.e., interference control, risky decision making, working-memory) were associated with alcohol use or differed between age groups. These findings support the role of impulsivity and affective sensitivity in adolescent drinking, but question the moderating role of age therein. The current study contributes towards understanding the role of age in the relation between alcohol use and cognition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0137.v1
Online: 12 January 2020 (18:15:25 CET)
Excessive cell phone use contributes to distracted driving, may increase risk for automobile accidents, and a minority of mobile phone users exhibit behaviors consistent with technological addiction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cell phone beliefs and behaviors could be changed by a brief educational encounter. The Theory of Reasoned Action provided a lens for viewing attitudes and behavior. A one-week pre-post design with a thirty-day follow-up was used with participants (N = 215, 67.0% female, age = 20.0 + 1.6) assigned to a peer led intervention or comparison groups. The intervention included cell-phone educational materials. A short index of cell phone behavior was developed which showed good internal consistency with a Cronbach’s alpha of .81. The intervention group “agreed” or “strongly-agreed” more than the comparison group on five of the seven areas of cell phone beliefs and behaviors ( p < 0.05, item Cohen’s d = .32 to .47, total d = .50) at one-week following receipt of informational materials. We conclude that attitudes and behaviors regarding cell phones are malleable and susceptible to change in young-adults following a brief psychoeducational intervention.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0011.v1
Online: 2 January 2020 (04:41:29 CET)
Cognitive scientists have paid very little attention to magic as a distinctly human activity capable of creating situations or events that are considered impossible because they violate expectations and conclude with the apparent transgression of well-established cognitive and natural laws. And even though magic techniques appeal to all known cognitive processes from sensing, attention and perception to memory and decision making, the relation between science and magic has so far been mostly unidirectional, with the primary goal of unraveling how magic works. Building up from the deconstruction of a classic magic trick, we provide here a cognitive foundation for the use of magic as a unique and largely untapped research tool to dissect cognitive processes in tasks arguably more natural than those usually exploited in artificial laboratory settings. Magicians can submerge every spectator into the precise experimental protocol they have previously designed, accounting with ease for both circumstantial and social contexts. Magicians do not base the success of their experiments in statistical measures that smear out the individual in favor of an average spectator that we know never exists in the real world. They target each and everyone in the audience and, often, with a complete accomplishment. Magicians deliver their cognitive manipulations in real-time, in tight closed-loop with the audience, and in a single trial (they cannot afford to repeat the trick if it fails). Magic has also an inherent and strong social component, merging the private cognitive processes of each spectator with the group dynamics. Finally, when combined with the wide range of precise measuring and wearable technologies available today, magic paves the way for a road not taken towards real-world cognitive science. We dare to speculate that some of the mysteries of how the brain works may be trapped in the split realities present in each magic effect.
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: acetylcholine; tonic; phasic; attention; cognition
Online: 9 May 2019 (08:02:59 CEST)
Previous evidence in support of a slowly acting (scale of 100s of seconds) and volume-transmitted component of cholinergic signaling was based largely on studies using measures of extracellular brain acetylcholine (ACh) levels which required several minutes to generate a single data point and typically employed AChEsterase inhibitors (AChEIs) to foster the measurement of ACh. Moreover, collecting such data points in correlation with relatively stable behavioral states has supported the view that extracellular ACh levels vary at a relatively slow rate. Here we argue that forebrain cholinergic signaling is exclusively phasic (milliseconds to perhaps seconds), unlikely to be volume-transmitted, and that previous neurochemical evidence and associated behavioral correlates may be re-interpreted in terms of integrated phasic cholinergic activity and specific behavioral and cognitive operations. The highly potent catalytic enzyme for ACh, AChE, limits the presence of an ambient extracellular ACh level and thus renders it unlikely that ACh influences target regions via relatively slow changes in extracellular ACh concentrations. Real-time amperometric recordings of cholinergic signaling have suggested a specific function of rapid, phasic or transient cholinergic signaling in attentional contexts. Optogenetic studies support a causal relationship between these transients on behavior. Combined electrochemical and neurophysiological recordings revealed that the powerful behavioral control by cholinergic transients involves the generation of high-frequency oscillations. Such oscillations are thought to recruit efferent circuitry to (re)activate dormant task sets. Evidence showing the impact of genetic variations of the capacity of cholinergic synapses likewise can be interpreted in terms of their impact on the ability to sustain generation of repeated phasic cholinergic signals, as opposed to effects on ambient ACh levels. Further, while notions of slowly-changing, sleep stage-associated variations in extracellular ACh levels and their functions are widely accepted, the evidence is in fact limited. An alternative hypothesis offers a role for high-frequency cholinergic transient signaling during REM sleep. By employing a theoretical framework that focuses on the phasic and causative characteristics and functions of cholinergic signaling, results from human cognitive neuroscience studies of cholinergic function may be substantially clarified and simplified. Compared to the current treatment of cholinergic deficits using AChEIs, the conceptualization of forebrain cholinergic signaling as wired, phasic, and causative predicts that drugs that either rescue transient presynaptic signaling or amplify or rescue the postsynaptic impact of phasic signals will be more efficacious in treating age- and dementia-related cognitive and cognitive-motor disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0958.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: PM2.5; Inflammation: Neurodegeneration; Cognition: FBBR; Bioactive
Online: 14 September 2023 (10:30:19 CEST)
The escalating prevalence of particulate matter (PM) has raised serious concerns regarding its detrimental effects on human health. This study aimed to investigate the potential of fermented blueberry and black rice (FBBR) in mitigating the effects of PM2.5, both in SH-SY5Y cells and mice exposed to PM2.5. Various assays, including MTT, NO, western blot, ELISA, and behavioral studies (MWM and Y-maze) were conducted. Our results demonstrated that PM2.5 induced significant cytotoxicity and elevated nitric oxide (NO) production at a concentration of 100μg/mL of PM2.5 in SH-SY5Y cells. Additionally, administration of FBBR effectively attenuated PM2.5-induced cytotoxicity and suppressed NO production in SH-SY5Y cells. In an intranasal instilled mice model, exposure to 10 mg/kg body weight of PM2.5 resulted in cognitive impairments. However, FBBR treatment ameliorated these impairments in both the Y-maze and MWM tests in PM2.5-exposed mice. Furthermore, FBBR administration increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and reduced inflammatory markers in the brains of PM2.5-exposed SH-SY5Y cells. These findings underscore the detrimental effects of PM2.5 on the nervous system and highlight the potential of FBBR as a nutraceutical agent for mitigating these effects. Overall, this study emphasizes the urgency of addressing the harmful impact of PM2.5 on the nervous system and suggests the promising role of FBBR as a protective intervention against the adverse effects associated with PM2.5 exposure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0335.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: children; digital media; attention; development; cognition
Online: 18 August 2022 (09:03:44 CEST)
Using digital media has become the most popular leisure activity for children and adolescents. The effects of digital media use on the developing brain and cognitive processes of children are subject to debate. Here, we examine the effect of digital media use on attention subdomains in children aged 6 to 10 years. In total, 77 children participated in the study. Selective and divided attention as well as switching between attentional demands were quantified by the SwAD task. Parents were asked to assess the screen time of their children (TV, smartphone, laptop/PC, game console, tablet). Results show no main or interaction effects of screen time on any of the attention conditions investigated. Based on the present findings, as well as previous studies, we suggest a possible non-linear relationship between the amount of screen time and attention function. Furthermore, we emphasize the relevance of considering the socio-economic background of children and a need for longitudinal studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0201.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: psychedelics; language; consciousness; cognition; pharmacology; semantics
Online: 10 November 2021 (09:45:20 CET)
Psychedelics are drugs capable of eliciting profound alterations in the subjective experience of the users, sometimes with long-lasting consequences. Because of this, psychedelic research tends to focus on human subjects, given their capacity to construct detailed narratives about the contents of their consciousness experiences. In spite of its relevance, the interaction between serotonergic psychedelics and language production is comparatively understudied in the recent literature. This review is focused on two aspects of this interaction: how the acute effects of psychedelic drugs impact on speech organization regardless of its semantic content, and how to characterize the subjective effects of psychedelic drugs by analyzing the semantic content of written retrospective reports. We show that the computational characterization of language production is an emergent powerful tool to predict the therapeutic outcome of individual experiences, relate the effects elicited by psychedelics with those associated with other altered states of consciousness, draw comparisons between the psychedelic state and the symptomatology of certain psychiatric disorders, and investigate the neurochemical profile and mechanism of action of different psychedelic drugs. We conclude that researchers studying psychedelics can considerably expand the range of their potential scientific conclusions by analyzing brief interviews obtained before, during and after the acute effects. Finally, we list a series of questions and open problems that should be addressed to further consolidate this approach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0402.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Thermodynamics Keywords: entropy; information; nervous system; energy; cognition
Online: 13 November 2020 (13:33:56 CET)
In the same manner that there are several statements of the second law of thermodynamics but all of them are equivalent, it is possible that most of the entropic methods applied to the nervous system and brain in particular share a similar outcome, or essence, that helps understand some aspects of the fundamentals of basic neurodynamics. In this short review focused on certain aspects of the entropic metrics some results are examined that indicate the fundamental importance of the natural tendency towards a maximal energy distribution for healthy brain activity and thus cognition to emerge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0302.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: autism, cognition, components, psychiatric impairments, comorbidity
Online: 24 April 2018 (01:02:55 CEST)
We propose a theory of ASD as a condition of comorbid cognitive impairments that corrupt the learning, encoding, and manipulation of episodic and semantic memories. We consider (i) episodic and semantic memory functions of the entorhinal-hippocampal complex, (ii) constraints on the transfer and encoding of these memory components into neocortical areas, and (iii) the demands of cognitively manipulating memories in distributed computations being necessary for goal oriented interactions. In ASD, learning and cognitive challenges manifest in diverse ways but especially in high-complexity model predictive control tasks with latent variables. ASD impairments in social interactions represent a prototypical example. Social interactions are at the high end of complexity and require processes (i)–(iii) to work in a concerted fashion due to the need for the learning and estimation of many, sometimes latent, parameters, including emotions, intention, physical and mental capabilities as well as the predictive modeling of these parameters for decision making and timed-action series. We put forth the idea that autism is a result of an arbitrary combination of otherwise not prominent corruptions in processes (i)–(iii). Together, these corruptions may severely impair intelligence and slow down learning, especially in high complexity learning tasks. Over time, slow learning may spare the spontaneous learning-by-doing method - namely, repetitive behavioral patterns, whereas behavioral failures related to complex tasks can restrict interest in such task, thus inducing a fear of novelty; conversely, the fear of novelty restricts interest and can slow learning down. We embed our thoughts into a predictive autoencoding, goal-oriented model of a deterministic world. We compare this model to others, such as the noisy brain model, the Bayesian prior theory, the mirror neuron theory and the weak central coherence theory. We argue that the predictive autoencoder model of the deterministic world harmonizes with these other models and embraces them in a straightforward way.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1550.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Parkinson' s disease; cognition; dementia, cognitive decline
Online: 22 August 2023 (09:40:54 CEST)
Cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), which may occur in various severities, represents one of the commonest and most disabling non-motor manifestations during the course of the disease, causing a negative impact on patients’ quality of life. Eventually, it becomes a burden for the family members and/or the caregivers of patients, as it progresses to PD dementia. Current pharmacological treatments for cognitive impairment in PD exhibit partial efficacy, while novel effective therapeutic strategies are required. Accumulating preclinical and clinical evidence shows that several agents may provide beneficial effects on patients with PD and cognitive impairment, including ceftriaxone, ambroxol, intranasal insulin, nilotinib, atomoxetine, mevidalen, blarcamesine, prasinezumab, SYN120, ENT-01, NYX-458, GRF6021, fosgonimeton, INT-777, Neuropeptide S, silibinin, osmotin, cordycepin, huperzine A, fibroblast growth factor 21, Poloxamer 188, ginsenoside Rb1, thioredoxin-1, tangeretin, istradefylline, and Eugenia uniflora. Potential underlying mechanisms include the inhibition of a-synuclein aggregation, improvement of mitochondrial function, regulation of synaptic plasticity, impact on gut-brain axis, modulation of neuroinflammation, upregulation of neurotrophic factors, as well as cholinergic, dopaminergic, serotoninergic and norepinephrine neurotransmission. In this overview, we aim to cover the clinical aspects of PD associated cognitive impairment, highlighting recent evidence on emerging treatment approaches that are currently under investigation at a preclinical and clinical level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0161.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Crocin; Multiple scleroses; Cognition; BDNF; NGF; Demyelination
Online: 8 August 2022 (13:46:09 CEST)
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Crocin on brain neuroterophins, cognition, sensory and motor dysfunction and compare to fingolimod effects in experimental model of demyelination with Ethidium Bromide EB in female Wistar rats. Methods: Animals were assigned in to 8 groups; Sham, Sham operated (ShOp), EAE, crocin treated (Cr5,10,20 mg/kg), Vehicle, Fingolompd (Fing) and fingolimod + crocin (Cr+Fing). Demyelination was induced by single dose injection of 10 μl of EB 0.1% into the fourth ventricle of the brain. Crocin and fingolimod were applied for 21 days, daily, oral gavage. BDNF, NGF1, nerve conduction velocities, tail flake latency, balance and behavioral variables were sampled and analyzed by paired t-test and ANOVA test with repeated post hoc measurements. Results: The results showed that crocin improves all studied factors, but remarkable imrovments were observed in dosage of 10 mg/kg. Crocin (10mg/kg) and fingolimod (1mg/kg) significantly improved cognition variables in open field test, sensory and motor nerve conduction velocity, tail flick latency and clinical signs (p<005). In addition, applying of crocin co-administered with fingolimod led to significant increases in all assessed factors, greater than crocin or fingolimod intervention alone (α≤0.001). Conclusion: Based on the current findings, crocin can improve the level of brain neurotrophins, exploratory behavior and nerve conduction after demyelination as close as fingolimod results. So, crocins can be considered as a neuro supportive agent in the management of degenerative diseases maybe similar to fingolimod mechanism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0186.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Habituation; Genelist; Molecular pathway; Cognition; Neurodevelopmental disorders
Online: 6 May 2022 (08:58:50 CEST)
Habituation is the most ancient and fundamental form of learning. As a firewall that protects our brain from sensory overload, it is indispensable for higher cognitive processes. Studies in humans and animal models provide a growing body of evidence that habituation is affected in autism and related monogenic neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). An integrated application of habituation assessment in NDDs and their animal models has currently unexploited potential for fundamental neuroscience and medical care.With the aim to gain mechanistic insights, we systematically retrieved genes that have been demonstrated in the literature to underlie habituation. We identified 258 evolutionarily conserved genes across species, describe the biological processes they converge on, and highlight regulatory pathways and drugs that may alleviate the habituation deficits associated with their dysregulation. We also summarize current habituation paradigms and extract the most decisive arguments from the literature that support the crucial role of habituation for cognition in health and disease. We conclude that habituation is a conserved, quantitative, cognition- and disease-relevant process that can connect preclinical and clinical work, and hence is a powerful tool to advance research, diagnostics,’’ and treatment of NDDs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0279.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Primate cognition; scribbles; evolutive anthropology; art; aesthetics
Online: 16 September 2021 (11:20:42 CEST)
This study analyses 749 drawings of five female Bornean orang-utans (Pongo pygmaeus) at Tama Zoological Park in Japan. We searched for differences between individuals but also tried to identify possible temporal changes among the drawings of one individual, Molly, who drew almost 1,300 drawings from 2006 to 2016. An analysis of the drawings was carried out after collecting quantitative and qualitative variables. Our findings reveal evidence of differences in the drawing style of the five individuals as well as creative changes in Molly’s drawing style throughout her lifetime. Individuals differed in terms of the colours used, the space they filled but also the shapes (fan patterns, circles or loops) they drew. Molly drew less and less as she grew older, and we found a significant difference between drawings produced in winter, when orang-utans were kept inside and had less activity, and those produced during other seasons. Our results suggest that the drawing behaviour of these five orang-utans is not random and that differences among individuals might reflect differences of styles, states of mind but also motivation to draw.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0006.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: semantics; process cycle; subjectivity; quantum cognition; qubit
Online: 1 September 2021 (11:24:31 CEST)
The paper describes a model of subjective goal-oriented semantics extending standard "view-from-nowhere" approach. Generalization is achieved by using a spherical vector structure essentially supplementing the classical bit with circular dimension, organizing contexts according to their subjective causal ordering. This structure, known in quantum theory as qubit, is shown to be universal representation of contextual-situated meaning at the core of human cognition. Subjective semantic dimension, inferred from fundamental oscillation dynamics, is discretized to six process-stage prototypes expressed in common language. Predicted process-semantic map of natural language terms is confirmed by the open-source word2vec data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0499.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: adolescents; cannabis; cognition; working memory; executive functions
Online: 22 July 2020 (05:42:03 CEST)
The developmental phase of adolescence is characterized by a multitude of neurocognitive and psychosocial changes and is therefore considered one of the most critical developmental periods of life. Experimentation on the use of substances often begins in adolescence and so does the addiction process. Most research in human subjects shows that chronic cannabis abuse is the cause of the impairment of some cognitive functions, affecting the performance on divided attention, verbal memory and working memory. In this study, we wanted to investigate how the abuse of cannabis (chronic, occasional and absence use) can influence global cognitive functioning, also through executive functions. From the statistical analyzes of our study, it emerges that the group of subjects who use chronic cannabis (group 1) has a significant drop in working memory tasks compared to the group that does not use it (group 3). In addition, the goal of future studies by our group is to verify the permanent alteration of cognitive processes affected through revaluations with calendar follow-up (controlled).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0035.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: aviation automation; automation surprise; cognition; complacency; bias
Online: 6 March 2017 (17:59:48 CET)
Automation surprises in aviation continue to be a significant safety concern and the community’s search for effective strategies to mitigate them are ongoing. The literature has offered two fundamentally divergent directions, based on different ideas about the nature of cognition and collaboration with automation. In this paper, we report the results of a field study that empirically compared and contrasted two models of automation surprises: a normative individual-cognition model and a sensemaking model based on distributed cognition. Our data prove a good fit for the sense-making model. This finding is relevant for aviation safety, since our understanding of the cognitive processes that govern the human interaction with automation drives what we need to do to reduce the frequency of automation-induced events.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0740.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Oxytocin; pain perception; social cognition; decision making; mediation
Online: 13 November 2023 (14:16:49 CET)
Oxytocin is well known for its role in relationships and social cognition and has more recently been implicated in pain relief and pain perception. Connections between prosocial feelings and pain relief are also well documented, however, effects of exogenous oxytocin on social cognition and pain have not been explored. The current study tested whether intranasally-delivered oxytocin affects pain perception through prosocial behaviors. Additionally, moderation of the effects of oxytocin by life history or genetic polymorphisms are examined. Young adults (n=43; 65% female) were administered intranasal oxytocin (24 IU) or placebo in a crossover design on two visits separated by a one-week washout period. Pain was delivered via cold-pressor. Baseline measures for decision-making and social cognition were collected, as well as pain sensitivity and medication history. Saliva samples were collected for analysis of genetic markers, and urine samples were collected to assess oxytocin saturation. Following oxytocin administration, participants reported increased prosocial cognition and decision-making. Pain perception appeared to be adaptive, with procedural order and expectation affecting perception. Finally, behavioral trust and cooperation responses were significantly predicted by genetic markers. Oxytocin may increase a patient’s trust and cooperation and reduce pain sensitivity while having fewer physiological side effects than current pharmaceutical options.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1778.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: teaching; learning; brain; mind; neural network; cognition; recognition
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:36:18 CEST)
Teachability has been extensively studied under the context of making industrial robots to be programmable and reprogrammable. However, it is only recently that the artificial intelligence (AI) research community is accelerating the research works with the objective of making humanoid robots and many other robots to be teachable under the context of using natural languages. We human beings spend many years to learn knowledge and skills despite our extraordinary mental capabilities of being teachable with the use of natural languages. Therefore, if we would like to develop human-like robots such as humanoid robots, it is inevitable for us to face the issue of making future humanoid robots to be teachable with the use of natural languages as well. In this paper, we present the key details of a top-down design for achieving a teachable mind which consists of two major processes: the first one is the process which enables humanoid robots to gain innate mental capabilities of transforming incoming signals into meaningful crisp data, and the second one is the process which enables humanoid robots to gain innate mental capabilities of undertaking incremental and deep learning with the main focus of associating conceptual labels in a natural language to meaningful crisp data. These two processes consist of the two necessary and sufficient conditions for future humanoid robots to be teachable with the use of natural languages. In addition, this paper outlines a very likely new finding underlying human brain’s neural systems as well as the obvious mathematics underlying artificial deep neural networks. These outlines provide us the strong reason to separate the study of mind from the study of brain. Hopefully, the content discussed in this paper will help the AI research community to venture into the right direction which is to make future humanoid robots, non-humanoid robots, and many other systems to achieve human-like self-intelligence at cognitive level with the use of natural languages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0600.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: Parkinson; monkey; non-motor symptoms; anxiety; sleep; cognition
Online: 8 June 2023 (07:25:45 CEST)
Abstract Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder featured with motor and non-motor deficits. Using 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced dopamine neuron degeneration has been widely used to produce reliable animal models of the PD. However, most of previous preclinical studies focused on the motor dysfunctions, few non-motor symptoms were evaluated. So far there is a lack of comprehensive investigation of the non-motor symptoms in animal models. Objectives: In this study, we aim to use a battery of behavioral methods to evaluate the non-motor symptoms in MPTP-induced non-human primate PD models. Methods: Cognitive functions, sleep and psychiatric behaviors were evaluated in MPTP-treated cynomolgus monkeys. The tests consisted of delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS), physical activity monitor (PAM), apathy feeding task (AFT), human intruder test (HIT), novel fruit test (NFT) and predator confrontation test (PCT). In addition, we tested whether the dopamine receptor agonist pramipexole (PPX) will improve these non-motor symptoms. Results: The present results show that the MPTP-treated monkeys exhibited cognitive deficits, abnormal sleep, and anxiety-like behaviors as compared to the control monkeys. These symptoms were relieved partially by PPX. Conclusions: These results suggest that MPTP-induced PD monkeys displayed non-motor symptoms that were similar to those found in PD patients. PPX treatment showed moderate therapeutic effects on these non-motor symptoms. This battery of behavioral tests may provide a valuable model for future preclinical research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2268.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Online surfing; Screen addiction; Physical inactivity; Mood; Cognition
Online: 31 May 2023 (14:40:04 CEST)
Background: The Internet has become an essential component of college students' lives, serving as a tool for academic pursuits, daily activities, and social interactions with individuals and the global community. Productive internet use is associated with student success, while pathological internet use can negatively impact psychosocial performance. This study aimed to assess the impact of internet addiction on the cognitive function, mood, and physical activity of college students. Study design: The study was based on a correlational observational study design. Settings: The study’s participants were taken using a convenience sampling method from the Manav Rachna International Institute of Research and Studies campus, Faridabad, Haryana, having a student strength of more than two thousand. Methods: With a response rate of 69.93%, one hundred male and female college students who could understand the self-administered questionnaires and obtained the internet addiction test (IAT) scores equal to or above twenty participated (aged 18-25 years) in this study. The participants were assessed for the study’s outcomes, such as the internet addiction (viz. average, moderate, and excessive) cognition, mood, and physical activity level, using an internet addiction test questionnaire (IATQ), cognitive failure questionnaire (CFQ), the profile of mood state questionnaire (POMS), and international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ), respectively. A categorical analysis with mean scores was carried out for all the outcomes. The correlation between internet dependency and cognitive abilities, emotional state, and levels of physical activity among the participants was ascertained using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The threshold of significance was set to 95%, meaning any p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The study’s outcome variable- internet addiction, revealed a moderate positive correlation with cognition (r=0.793; p=0.001) and mood (r=0.703; p=012), while a moderate negative correlation with physical activity (r=-0.681; p=003). Conclusion: The study concluded that internet addiction is positively linked to cognition and mood disruption; however, it negatively affects physical activities among college students. An awareness program should be executed on “Internet addiction and its effects on college students’ Cognition, Mood, and Physical Activity” and advocating Internet use in a limited manner for getting aroused, feeling better, and avoiding physical inactivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1817.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: hearing; auditory processing; cognition; music; byzantine; percussion; rhythm
Online: 26 May 2023 (02:35:33 CEST)
Better auditory processing of musicians is observed in previous research. As musicians differentiate their practice method and performance environment, we aimed to assess auditory perception in Greek musicians with respect to their musical specialization. If there are differences, this may provide a basis for better shaping auditory training in individuals with auditory processing disorder. The auditory tests administered were speech in noise (Speech in Babble), with and without rhythmic advantage (Word Recognition—Rhythm Component), short-term and working memory (Digit Span - Forward and Backwards), temporal resolution (Gaps In Noise) and detection of frequency discrimination threshold (DFL). Groups consisted of classical musicians, Byzantine chanters, percussionists, and non-musicians (12 participants/group). Statistical analysis revealed significant difference in: (i) word recognition in noise with precursor synchronized pulse between classical musicians compared to Byzantine musicians, (ii) better frequency discrimination of Byzantine musicians compared to non-musicians for the 2000Hz region and (iii) working memory, an advantage detected in musicians. Considering all the above, we conclude that musicians have a superior auditory perception, regardless of musical specialization. Musical training enhances elements of auditory processing and may be used as an additional rehabilitation during auditory training, focusing on specific types of music for specific auditory processing deficits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1146.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Human Robot Interaction; Cognition; Emotion; Animacy; Affective Engineering
Online: 28 April 2023 (08:30:10 CEST)
It is known that people perceive animacy in objects. However, many studies on animacy and emotional expressions are limited in that the investigated motions were created by experimenters themselves. This makes the objective validity unclear. Moreover, it remains unclear what types of movements can express emotions with animacy due to the limited number of investigations examining both animacy and emotional expressions. Therefore, we investigated the motion elements for both animacy perception and emotional expressions using simple objects that lack features of specific living things, such as eyes, ears, tails, and voices in this study. First, we investigated the motion elements for animacy perception and emotional expressions using a robot simulator that enabled participants to create undulatory motions by tuning parameters for speed, height, and randomness. In total, 64 participants created motions in Normal (neutral), Joy, Sad, Relaxed, and Angry conditions. The results showed that the medians of speed and height in Normal, related only to animacy, were 0.5569[Hz] and 3.050cm at the edges/4.575cm at the center. The differences in Joy were 0.4028[Hz] and 3.348cm/5.022cm, in Sad were −0.1652[Hz] and −0.9982cm/−1.497cm, in Relaxed were −0.1979[Hz] and −0.4902cm/−0.7353cm, and in Angry were 0.5212[Hz] and 4.688cm/7.032cm. Second, we investigated whether the motion elements revealed in the first experiment were sufficient to express emotions with animacy, using a robot simulator that reflected the results of the motion element investigation. In total, 44 online participants observed the simulator. The results showed that participants could understand emotional arousal levels at the same time as animacy, but they did not fully understand emotional valence. Our findings provide design guidelines for robots that exhibit emotional expressions and closely interact with humans.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0025.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Thermodynamics Keywords: Neural synchrony; Cognition; Consciousness; Entropy; Equilibrum; Energy gradients
Online: 6 March 2023 (14:21:13 CET)
Our purpose is to address the biological problem of finding foundations of the organization in the collective activity among cell networks in the nervous system, at the meso/macroscale, giving rise to cognition and consciousness. But in doing so, we encounter another problem related to the interpretation of methods to assess the neural interactions and organization of the neurodynamics, because thermodynamic notions, which have precise meaning only under specific conditions, have been widely employed in these studies. The consequence is that apparently contradictory results appear in the literature, but these contradictions diminish upon the considerations of the specific circumstances of each experiment. After clarifying some of these controversial points and surveying some experimental results, we propose that a necessary condition for cognition/consciousness to emerge is to have available enough energy, or cellular activity; and a sufficient condition is the multiplicity of configurations in which cell networks can communicate, resulting in non-uniform energy distribution, the generation and dissipation of energy gradients due to the constant activity. These ideas may reveal possible fundamental principles of brain organization and how healthy activity may derive to pathological states.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0012.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: animal welfare; welfare range; comparative cognition; interspecies comparisons
Online: 3 October 2022 (13:03:23 CEST)
The number of animals bred, raised, and slaughtered each year is on the rise, resulting in increasing impacts to welfare. Farmed animals are also becoming more diverse, ranging from pigs to bees. The diversity and number of species farmed invites questions about how best to allocate currently limited resources towards safeguarding and improving welfare. This is of the utmost concern to animal welfare funders and effective altruism advocates, who are responsible for targeting the areas most likely to cause harm. For example, is tail docking worse for pigs than beak trimming is for chickens in terms of their pain, suffering, and general experience? Or are the welfare impacts equal? Answering these questions requires making an interspecies welfare comparison; a judgment about how good or bad different species fare relative to one another. Here, we outline and discuss an empirically-based methodology that aims to improve our ability to make interspecies welfare comparisons by investigating welfare range, which refers to how good or bad animals can fare. We begin our proposal with a theory of welfare. We operationalize that theory of welfare by identifying metrics that are defensible proxies for measuring welfare, including cognitive, affective, behavioral, and neuro-biological measures. We assign differential weights to those proxies that reflect their evidential value for the determinants of welfare, such as the “Delphi'' structured deliberation method with a panel of experts. Then we review the evidence and score its quality to ascertain whether a particular taxa may possess the proxies in question to construct a taxa-level welfare range profile. Finally, we use a Monte Carlo simulation to generate an overall estimate of comparative welfare range relative to our hypothetical index species - humans. Interspecies welfare comparisons will help facilitate empirically informed decision-making to streamline the allocation of resources and to ultimately better prioritize and improve animal welfare.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0326.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Agency, Transition, Cognition, Land-use change, Games, Democracy
Online: 16 August 2021 (17:09:08 CEST)
While the scientific community has focused on documenting environmental degradation and developing scenarios that help identify the operational margins for system Earth, less attention has been given to the mental models of decision-makers that underpin environmental policies. We suggest that global efforts to stop deforestation and biodiversity loss are failing in part due to a critical blind spot in the analysis—human agency. To address this weakness, we propose to formulate mental models and translate them into strategy games. This will increase the representation of agency in scenario development and create spaces for deliberation between different worldviews. We claim that personal transformation can be achieved through transparent democratic dialogues that identify, challenge, and respond to the human and social limitations inherent to decision-making and we present empirical examples that validate that claim. Their transformation through gaming gives decision-makers access to the experience of consciousness: “what is it like being a stakeholder?”. Such experience will help to break free of established norms in science and political processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0320.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: bipolar disorders; metacognition; cognitive complaints; cognition; antipsychotic; impulsivity
Online: 16 August 2021 (11:03:23 CEST)
The determinants of metacognition are still poorly understood in bipolar disorders (BD). We aimed to examine the clinical determinants of metacognition, defined as the agreement between objective and subjective cognition in individuals with BD. The participants consisted of 281 patients with BD who underwent an extensive neuropsychological battery and clinical evaluation. To assess subjective cognition, participants provided a general rating of their estimated cognitive difficulties. Clinical characteristics of BD were also recorded, along with medication. We studied the potential moderation of the association between cognitive complaints and global objective cognitive performance by several clinical variables with ordinal logistic regressions. Depression and impulsivity were associated with greater cognitive complaints. The only variable that moderated the relationship between objective and subjective cognition in the global model was the prescription of antipsychotics. Patients taking antipsychotics had a poorer association between cognitive complaints and objective neuropsychological performance. This result suggests a role for dopamine in the modulation of metacognitive performance, and calls for the systematic control of antipsychotic medication in future studies documenting metacognitive deficits in severe and persistent mental disorders. Depression and impulsivity should be investigated as potential therapeutic targets for individuals with BD and cognitive complaints, before proposing an extensive neuropsychological evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0441.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: cognition; visual memory; reaction time; alcohol; Bipolar disorder
Online: 16 June 2021 (11:37:43 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to explore the association of cognition with hazardous drinking and alcohol related disorder in persons with bipolar disorder (BD). The study population included 1,268 persons from Finland with bipolar disorder. Alcohol use was assessed through hazardous drinking and alcohol related disorder including alcohol use disorder (AUD). Hazardous drinking was screened with the AUDIT-C (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test for Consumption) screening tool. Alcohol related disorder diagnoses were obtained from the national registrar data. Participants performed two computerized tasks from the Cambridge automated neuropsychological test battery (CANTAB) on tablet computer: the 5-choice serial reaction time task, or, reaction time (RT) test and the Paired Associative Learning (PAL) test. Association between RT-test and alcohol use was analyzed with log-linear regression, and eβ with 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. PAL first trial memory score was analyzed with linear regression, and β with 95% CI are reported. PAL total errors adjusted was analyzed with logistic regression and odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI are reported. After adjustment for age, education and housing status, hazardous drinking was associated with lower median and less variable RT in females while AUD was associated with a poorer PAL test performance in terms of the total errors adjusted scores in females. Our findings of positive associations between alcohol use and cognition in persons with bipolar disorder are unique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0802.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: numerical cognition; fractional reasoning; fine motor ability; gesture
Online: 31 December 2020 (12:42:34 CET)
We investigated preschool-aged children’s understanding of early fractional tasks and how that performance correlates with fine motor skills and use of gestures while counting. Participants were 33 preschoolers aged 4 to 5 in two Southeastern public elementary schools. Children were tested individually in an interview-like setting. Mathematics tasks were presented in a paper and pencil format and the Grooved Pegboard test assessed fine motor skills. Finally, utilization of gestures was evaluated by taking a behavioral rating of the child’s hand morphology, accuracy of gestures, and synchrony of gestures and spoken word while performing a counting task. Results indicate performance on fractional reasoning tasks significantly predicts both fine motor ability and accuracy of gestures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0609.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: agency; transition; cognition; land-use change; games; democracy
Online: 29 October 2020 (11:24:42 CET)
Leclère et al.1 have outlined the possibility of a biodiversity transition for the 21st century, a line of thinking equivalent to the Forest Transition theory and what it says about forest cover globally2. The authors use a suite of global models to explore the impacts on global biodiversity of interventions on land-use, consumption and production patterns. They outline six strategies that have the potential to stop the downfall of global terrestrial biodiversity by 2050 and redress it to a pre-1970 level by 2100. Although robust, sophisticated and well-illustrated, the conclusions of this paper cannot alone be used to frame a post-2020 biodiversity strategy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0394.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: unanticipated; decision-making; brain function; sports; athletes; cognition
Online: 18 August 2020 (16:32:00 CEST)
The performance of choice-reaction tasks during athletic movement has been demonstrated to evoke unfavorable lower limb biomechanics. However, the mechanism of this observation is unknown. We conducted a systematic review examining the association between 1) the biomechanical and functional safety of unplanned sports-related movements (e.g. jumps/runs with spontaneously indicated landing leg/cutting direction) and 2) markers of perceptual-cognitive function (PGF). A literature search in three databases (Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar) identified five relevant articles. Study quality, rated by means of a modified Downs & Black checklist, was moderate to high (average: 13.5/16 points). Four of five papers, in at least one parameter, found either an association of lower PGF and reduced task safety or significantly reduced task safety in low vs. high PGF performers. Yet, as a) the outcomes, populations and statistical methods of the included trials were highly heterogeneous and b) only two out of five studies had an adequate control condition (pre-planned movement task), evidence was classified as conflicting. In sum, PGF may represent a factor increasing injury risk during unplanned sports-related movements but future research strengthening the evidence of this association is warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0046.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: wearables; biosensors; sleep; fitbit; oura; hexoskin; withings; cognition
Online: 4 February 2020 (10:49:44 CET)
Sleep quality has been directly linked to cognitive function, quality of life, and a variety of serious diseases across many clinical domains such as psychiatry and cardiology. Standard methods for assessing sleep involve overnight studies in hospital settings, which are uncomfortable, expensive, not representative of real sleep, and difficult to conduct on a large scale. Recently, a number of commercial digital devices have been developed that record physiological data which can act as a proxy for sleep quality in lieu of standard electroencephalogram recording equipment. Each device company makes different claims of accuracy and measures different features of sleep quality, and it is still unknown how well these devices correlate with one another and perform in a research setting. In this pilot study of 21 participants, we investigated whether outputs from four sensors, specifically FitBit, Withings Aura, Hexoskin, and Oura Ring, were related to known cognitive and psychological metrics, including the PSQI and N-back test. We found that sleep metrics extracted from these devices did not predict cognitive and psychological metrics well in our pilot data. However, we did identify certain signification associations, specifically the Oura Ring’s total sleep duration and efficiency in relation to the PSQI measure with p=0.004 and p=0.033, respectively. Additionally, correlation of various sleep features among the devices across the sleep cycle was almost uniformly low. These findings can hopefully be used to guide future sensor-based sleep research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Deficit schizophrenia, machine learning, cytokine, cognition, Immunological biomarkers
Online: 23 May 2019 (16:25:44 CEST)
No studies have examined the immune fingerprint of major neuro-cognitive psychosis (MNP) or deficit schizophrenia using M1 macrophage cytokines in combination with chemokines such as CCL-2 and CCL-11. The present study delineated the neuro-immune fingerprint of MNP/deficit schizophrenia by analyzing plasma levels of IL-1β, sIL-1RA, TNF-α, sTNFR1, sTNFR2, CCL-2 and CCL-11 in MNP (n=120) versus healthy controls (n=54) in association with neurocognitive deficits (as assessed with the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia) and PHEMN (psychotic, hostility, excitation, mannerism and negative) symptoms. All immune biomarkers were significantly higher in MNP than in normal controls. MNP was best predicted by a combination of CCL-11, TNF-α, IL-1β and sIL-1RA which yielded a bootstrapped (n=2000) area under the Receiver Operating Curve of 0.985. Composite scores reflecting M1 macrophage activity and neurotoxic potential including combined effects of CCL-11 plus CCL-2 were significantly increased in MNP. Nevertheless, the effects of increased IL-1β and TNF-α in MNP were attenuated (statistically) by increased sIL-1RA and sTNFR2, two negative immune-regulatory markers. A large part of the variance in PHEM (38.4%-52.6%) and negative (65.8-7439%) symptoms was explained by combinations of immune markers whereby CCL-11 was consistently the most important. The immune markers also explained a large part of the variance in the Mini Mental State examination, list learning, digit sequencing task, category instances, controlled word association, symbol coding and Tower of London. Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy performed on the biomarkers showed that the inter-class distance between the models constructed around MNP and controls was 19.3 indicating a good separation. Partial Least Squares analysis showed that 72.7% of the variance in overall phenomenology was explained by the regression on IL-1β, sIL-1RA, CCL-11, TNF-α (all positively) and education (inversely). It is concluded that the combination of the above-mentioned markers defines MNP as a distinct neuro-immune disorder and that those markers in combination explain a large part of the variance in memory and executivive impairments and PHEMN symptoms.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0527.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: citation network analysis; text mining; nutrition intervention; cognition
Online: 21 November 2018 (13:50:28 CET)
Manual review of the extensive literature covering nutrition-based lifestyle interventions to promote healthy cognitive ageing has proved educative, however, data-driven techniques can better account for the large size of the literature (tens of thousands of potentially relevant publications to date) and interdisciplinary nature of where relevant publications may be found. In this study we present a new way to map the literature landscape focusing on nutrition-based lifestyle interventions to promote healthy cognitive ageing. We applied a combination of citation network analysis and text mining to map out the existing literature on nutritional interventions and cognitive health. Results indicated five overarching clusters of publications, which could be further deconstructed into a total of 35 clusters. These could be broadly distinguished by focus on lifespan stages (e.g. infancy versus older age), and specificity regarding nutrition (e.g. narrow focus on iodine deficiency versus broad focus on weight gain). Rather than concentrating into a single cluster, interventions were present throughout the majority of the research. We conclude that a data-driven map of the nutritional intervention literature can benefit the design of future interventions, by highlighting topics and themes that could be synthesized across currently disconnected clusters of publications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0045.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: caffeine; cognition; motor coordination; memory; social behavior; mice
Online: 4 June 2018 (13:02:34 CEST)
Heavy caffeine consumption is associated with adverse health effects. The effects of moderate and high doses of caffeine mixed with drinking water on the motor coordination, learning and memory and the social behavior in mice were studied in mice. Animals were divided into 3 groups: control group, moderate dose group (Ac MD) and high dose group (Ac HD). The animals were tested after 7 days of caffeine administration. Rota rod test for motor coordination showed that the mice of the moderate dose group could stay more time on the rotating rod before they fall than the control group and the high dose group. Water maze test for learning and memory showed better performance of mice receiving moderate dose of caffeine compared to the other groups. Animals that were administered moderate as well as high doses of caffeine showed no sociability and no preference for social novelty in the three-chamber test used to test the social behavior. In elevated plus maze, control animals showed no anxiety- like behavior while mice administered with caffeine were both showing anxiety-like behaviors. We concluded that acute administration of moderate dose of caffeine to mice could enhance their spatial memory and motor coordination. High doses however caused defects in memory and learning. The social behavior as the level of anxiety and sociability was affected negatively by moderate as well as high dose caffeine administration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0062.v3
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: cognitive computing; cognition; AI; cognitive symbiosis; language; HCI
Online: 2 November 2017 (03:35:19 CET)
Cognitive Computing has become somewhat of a rallying call in the technology world, with the promise of new smart services offered by industry giants like IBM and Microsoft. The recent technological advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI) have thrown into the public sphere some old questions about the relationship between machine computation and human intelligence. Much of the industry and media hype suggests that many traditional challenges have been overcome. On the contrary, our simple examples from language processing demonstrate that present day Cognitive Computing still struggles with fundamental, long-standing problems in AI. An alternative interpretation of cognitive computing is presented, following Licklider's lead in adopting man-computer symbiosis as a metaphor for designing software systems that enhance human cognitive performance. A survey of existing proposals on this view suggests a distinction between weak and strong versions of symbiosis. We propose a Strong Cognitive Symbiosis which dictates an interdependence rather than simply cooperation between human and machine functioning, and introduce new software systems which were designed for cognitive symbiosis. We conclude that strong symbiosis presents a viable new perspective for the design of cognitive computing systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1104.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: Self-Regulation; Event-Driven Architecture; Digital Genome; Autopoiesis; Cognition.
Online: 30 November 2023 (14:17:03 CET)
The benefits of event-driven architecture (EDA) derive from how systems and components are loosely coupled, which can facilitate independent development and deployment of systems, improved scaling and fault tolerance, and integration with external systems, especially in comparison to monolithic architectures. With the advent of new technologies such as containers, and microservices, a new generation of distributed event streaming platforms are commonly used in event-driven architecture for efficient event-driven communication. However, the asynchronous and distributed nature of EDA poses several problems that include handling failures, the dependence of an end-to-end transaction on individual component stability, etc. In this paper, we describe a new approach to designing self-regulating distributed applications with autopoietic and cognitive workflow management. This approach is based on the new science of information processing structures derived from the General Theory of Information. Just as a genome enables self-organizing and self-regulating biological structures, a digital genome enables a specific software application with several components, the ability to use distributed resources and self-regulate the evolution of the system based on functional and non-functional requirements, and best-practice policies that maintain the stability, safety, and survival under non-deterministic fluctuations in the demand for resources. In addition, cognitive workflow management assures end-to-end transaction delivery.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0079.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; Cognitive Impairment; Blood biomarkers; Cognitive functions; Cognition.
Online: 1 November 2023 (12:00:12 CET)
Blood biomarkers represent a promising future for studying cognitive impairment, particularly in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), as they offer a non-invasive alternative to cerebrospinal fluid tests and have potential as population screening tools. However, the relationships between these biomarkers and specific cognitive functions, as well as their utility in predicting longitudinal cognitive decline, are not yet fully understood. This descriptive review surveys the literature from 2018 to 2023, focusing on the associations between Amyloid-β, Total Tau, Phosphorylated Tau (p-tau), Neurofilament Light (Nfl), and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) with cognition. The reviewed studies are heterogeneous, varying in design and population (mixed, cognitively impaired, or unimpaired), and show results that are sometimes conflicting. Generally, cognition positively correlates with Aβ levels, especially when evaluated through the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio. In contrast, Tau, Nfl, and GFAP levels typically show a negative correlation with cognitive performance. While p-tau measures tend to show stronger associations with cognitive functions than other biomarkers, no single blood marker has emerged as predominantly associated with a specific cognitive domain. These findings add to our understanding of the complex relationship between blood biomarkers and cognitive performance and underscore their potential utility in clinical evaluations of cognition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0902.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Vertical Urbanism; Human Centric Design; Spatial Cognition and Psychology
Online: 16 October 2023 (08:22:44 CEST)
The main focus of this paper is to propose a comprehensive framework for the cognitive meas-urement and modelling of the built environment. This will involve exploring and measuring neural mechanisms. The aim is to create a foundation for further studies in this field that are consistent and rigorous. Additionally, this framework will facilitate collaboration with cognitive neuroscientists by establishing a shared conceptual basis. The goal of this research is to develop a human-centric approach for urban design that is scientific and measurable, producing a set of urban design guidelines that incorporate cognitive measurement and modelling. By doing so, the broader intention is to design urban spaces that prioritize human needs and well-being, mak-ing them more liveable.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1210.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Vision; Information Theory; Neural Computation; Drosophila; Cognition; Compound Eye
Online: 16 August 2023 (13:51:01 CEST)
The traditional understanding of brain function has predominantly focused on chemical and electrical processes. However, new research in fruit fly (Drosophila) binocular vision reveals ultrafast photomechanical photoreceptor movements significantly enhance information processing, thereby impacting a fly's perception of its environment and behaviour. The coding advantages resulting from these mechanical processes suggest that similar physical motion-based coding strategies may affect neural communication ubiquitously. The theory of neural morphodynamics proposes that rapid biomechanical movements and microstructural changes at the level of neurons and synapses enhance the speed and efficiency of sensory information processing, intrinsic thoughts, and actions by regulating neural information in a phasic manner. We propose that morphodynamic information processing evolved to drive predictive coding, synchronising cognitive processes across neural networks to match the behavioural demands at hand effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0252.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: false belief; Williams syndrome; theory of mind; social cognition
Online: 14 March 2023 (09:02:41 CET)
Background: People with Williams syndrome (WS) are characterized with hypersociability, fluency in languages, and advantageous face-processing skills, leading to the proposal of a social module. Previous studies on the mentalizing abilities of people with WS using two-dimensional pictures and mindreading from eyes, including normal-like, delayed, and deviant behaviors, have yielded mixed results. This study thus examined the mentalizing ability of people with WS through structured computerized animations of false belief tasks to investigate whether inferences about other people’s minds can be improved in this population. Method: Participants were shown animations with unexpected location and content changes. After viewing each animation, participants had to answer four types of questions: character identification, reality, memory, and false belief. Their responses were recorded and analyzed. Results: Comprehension of false belief was observed in 4-year-old healthy children, whereas children with WS showed unsuccessful comprehension of false belief (until they attained a mental age of 5.3 years), suggesting an improvement in theory of mind resulting from viewing structured computerized animations. This age is earlier than that reported by previous studies for using theory of mind to pass false belief tests (8.5 years old), even challenging the age at which individuals failed to pass the tests (12.10 years old). Conclusions: Structured computerized animations enhanced the mentalizing ability of people with WS to a certain extent. Compared to the typically developing controls, people with WS presented with a lower developmental level in processing false belief tasks. The educational implication of this study is to develop computerized social skills interventions for people with WS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0379.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: core affect; emotion; semantics; process cycle; quantum cognition; qubit
Online: 22 November 2021 (11:04:58 CET)
The paper describes model of human affect based on quantum theory of semantics. The model considers emotion as subjective representation of behavioral context relative to a basis binary choice, organized by cyclical process structure and an orthogonal evaluation axis. The resulting spherical space, generalizing well-known circumplex models, accommodates basic emotions in specific angular domains. Predicted process-semantic structure of affect is observed in the word2vec data, as well as in the previously obtained spaces of emotion concepts. The established quantum-theoretic structure of affective space connects emotion science with quantum models of cognition and behavior, opening perspective for synergetic progress in these fields.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0528.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Intermittent fasting; cognition; brain-related diseases; prevention and progress
Online: 27 August 2021 (16:22:57 CEST)
The importance of diet and the gut-brain axis for brain health and cognitive function is increasingly acknowledged. Dietary interventions are tested for their potential to prevent and/or treat brain disorders. Intermittent fasting (IF), the abstinence or strong limitation of calories for 12 to 48 hours, alternated with periods of regular food intake, has shown promising results on neurobiological health in animal models. In this review article, we discuss the potential benefits of IF on cognitive function and the possible effects on the prevention and progress of brain-related disorders in animals and humans. We do so by summarizing the effects of IF which - through metabolic, cellular and circadian mechanisms - lead to anatomical and functional changes in the brain. Our review shows that there is no clear evidence of a positive short-term effect of IF on cognition in healthy subjects. Clinical studies show benefits of IF for epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis on disease symptoms and progress. Findings from animal studies show mechanisms by which Parkinson’s disease, ischaemic stroke, autism spectrum disorder and mood- and anxiety disorders could benefit from IF. Future research should disentangle whether positive effects of IF hold true regardless of age or the presence of obesity. Also, variations in fasting patterns, total caloric intake and intake of specific nutrients may be relevant components of IF success. Longitudinal studies and Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) will provide a window into the long-term effects of IF on the development and progress of brain-related diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0168.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Design knowledge, Knowledge dimensions, prototyping, design cognition, design thinking
Online: 7 June 2021 (11:30:21 CEST)
Whilst prior works have characterised the affordances of prototyping methods in terms of generating knowledge about a product or process, the types, or ‘dimensions’ of knowledge towards which they contribute are not fully understood. In this paper we adapt the concept of ‘design domains’ as a method to interpret, and better understand the contributions of different prototyping methods to design knowledge in new product development. We first synthesise a set of ten dimensions for design knowledge from a review of literature in design-related fields. A study was then conducted in which participants from engineering backgrounds completed a Likert-type questionnaire to quantify the perceived contributions to design knowledge of 90 common prototyping methods against each dimension. We statistically analyse results to identify patterns in the knowledge contributions of different methods. Results reveal that methods exhibit significantly different contribution profiles, suggesting different methods to be suited to different knowledge generation. Thus, this paper indicates potential for new methods, methodology and processes to leverage such characterisations for better selection and sequencing of methods in the prototyping process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0741.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: dancing; dual-task; older adults; qualitative study; Zumba; cognition
Online: 31 May 2021 (11:10:45 CEST)
Despite the popularity of Zumba in several countries, research is scarce about its impact on older adults. Meanwhile, the integration of cognitive tasks with physical exercises, known as dual-tasking, is an evolving strategy to facilitate activities for older people. This study investigated the perceptions of older adults regarding Zumba and the potential of implementing it in a dual-task program. We conducted a qualitative-descriptive research involving 44 Filipino older adults from August to November 2020. Content analysis was employed to analyze the data. Four themes were identified: moving towards match or mismatch; balancing benefits with burdens; dual-tasking as innovative yet potentially challenging; and overcoming barriers with enablers. While Zumba is an inclusive and beneficial activity, individual and contextual limitations could hinder its suitability for older people. Dual-tasking in Zumba was also recognized as an innovative approach, although challenges should be addressed to promote its utility. Several strategies could support the design of these programs in communities. This is the first study to explore older adults’ perceptions towards Zumba and its potential utilization as a dual-tasking program. Findings could guide the implementation of appropriate Zumba and dual-tasking activities that seek to integrate cognitive and physical training for older adults.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0133.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Cognition; nutrition; metabolism; neurodegeneration; ketone bodies; glycaemia; nutrition therapy
Online: 5 September 2020 (08:29:52 CEST)
Although diet interventions are mostly related to metabolic disorders, nowadays they are used in wide variety of pathologies. From diabetes and obesity to cardiovascular diseases, through cancer or neurological disorders and stroke, nutritional recommendations applied to almost all diseases. Among those disorders, metabolic disturbances and brain function and/or diseases have recently been shown to be linked. Indeed, numerous neurological functions are often associated with perturbations of whole-body energy homeostasis. In this regard, specific diets are used in various neurological conditions such as epilepsy, stroke, or seizure recovery. In addition, Alzheimer’s disease or Autism Spectrum Disorders are also considered as putatively improved by diet intervention. Glycemic index diets are a novel developed indicator expected to anticipate the changes in blood glucose induced by specific foods, and how they can affect various physiological function. Several results provide indications of efficiency of low glycemic index diets in weight management, insulin sensitivity, but also cognitive function, epilepsy treatment, stroke, or neurodegenerative diseases. Overall, studies involving glycemic index could provide new insight in the relationship between energy homeostasis regulation and brain function or related disorders. Therefore, in this review we will summarize main evidences on glycemic index involvement in brain mechanisms of energy homeostasis regulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0067.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: cognition; depression; agigng; elderly; nonpharmacological therapy; community day-care
Online: 5 May 2020 (10:32:05 CEST)
Nonpharmacological therapeutic interventions in elderly may lead to the reduction of cognitive and depressive symptoms. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in cognitive functions and mood er or not. in older adults participating in therapy, conducted in the community day-care center (CD-CC). 46 elderly adults (21 M, 25 W) (SG) were examined. The control group (CG) included 45 adults (12 M, 33 W), who participated in the activities of the University of the Third Age (U3A). The following measuring tools were used: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clock-Drawing Test (CDT), Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), Digit Span Test (DST), Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT), Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The intervention consisted of CD-CC 6-month complex therapy. In the SG, compared to the CG, the scores on the: MMSE, CDT, VFT, DST, and SCWT were significantly lower (p<0,05), and BDI was significantly higher (p<0,05). After intervention, the SG and the CG, did not show substantial differences in their scores on the: MMSE, CDT, and BDI. In the SG, a significant improvement (p<0,05) was reported on the: VFT, BDI, and HADS scores. The CD-CC complex therapy can be helpful for the cognitive and emotional elderly functioning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0338.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Semantics and meaning; Context representation; Quantum cognition; Subjectivity; Quantum phase; Behavioral modeling; Qubit
Online: 22 December 2020 (11:58:16 CET)
The paper describes an algorithm for semantic representation of behavioral contexts relative to a dichotomic decision alternative. The contexts are represented as quantum qubit states in two-dimensional Hilbert space visualized as points on the Bloch sphere. The azimuthal coordinate of this sphere functions as a one-dimensional semantic space in which the contexts are accommodated according to their subjective relevance to the considered uncertainty. The contexts are processed in triples defined by knowledge of a subject about a binary situational factor. The obtained triads of context representations function as stable cognitive structure at the same time allowing a subject to model probabilistically-variative behavior. The developed algorithm illustrates an approach for quantitative subjectively-semantic modeling of behavior based on conceptual and mathematical apparatus of quantum theory.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: consciousness; cognition; life; equivalence relation; synchrony; compartmentalization; closure; connectivity
Online: 16 February 2020 (15:01:47 CET)
In an analogous manner as occurred during the development of a connected metabolism that at some point reached characteristics associated with what is called ‘life’ ―due mainly to a catalytic closure phenomenon when chemicals started to autocatalyze themselves forming a closed web of chemical reactions― it is here proposed that cognition and consciousness (or features associated with them) arose as a consequence of another type of closure within the nervous system, the brain especially. Proper brain function requires an efficient web of connections and once certain complexity is attained due to the number and coordinated activities of the brain cell networks, the emergent properties of cognition and consciousness take place. Seeking to identify main features of the nervous system organization for optimal function, it is here proposed that while catalytic closure yielded life, neuroglial closure produced cognition/consciousness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0239.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: deficit schizophrenia; machine learning; cytokines; cognition; inflammation; neuro-immune
Online: 20 October 2019 (17:21:05 CEST)
In Schizophrenia, pathway-genotypes may be constructed by combining interrelated immune biomarkers with changes in specific neurocognitive functions that represent aberrations in brain neuronal circuits. These constructs provide insight on the phenome of schizophrenia and show how pathway-phenotypes mediate the effects of genome X environmentome interactions on the symptomatology/phenomenology of schizophrenia. Nevertheless, there is a lack of knowledge how to construct pathway-phenotypes using Partial Least Squares (PLS) path modeling and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA). This paper aims to provide a step-by-step utilization guide for the construction of pathway-phenotypes that reflect aberrations in the neuroimmune - brain circuit axis (NIBCA) in deficit schizophrenia. This NIBCA index is constructed using immune biomarkers (CCL-2, CCL-11, IL-1β, sIL-1RA, TNF-α, sTNFR1, sTNFR2) and neurocognitive tests (Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia) predicting overall severity of schizophrenia (OSOS) in 120 deficit SCZ and 54 healthy participants. Using SmartPLS path analysis, a latent vector is extracted from those biomarkers and cognitive tests, which shows a good construct reliability (Cronbach alpha and composite reliability) and replicability and which is reflectively measured through its NIBCA manifestations. This NIBCA pathway-phenotype explains 75.0% of the variance in PHEMN (psychotic, hostility, excitation, mannerism and negative) symptoms. Using SIMCA, we constructed a NIBCA pathway-class that defines deficit schizophrenia as a qualitatively distinct nosological entity and which allows patients with deficit schizophrenia to be authenticated as belonging to the deficit schizophrenia class. In conclusion, our nomothetic approach to develop a nomological network combining neuro-immune and neurocognitive phenome markers to predict OSOS and cross-validate a diagnostic class generated replicable models reflecting the key phenome of the illness, which may mediate the effects of genome X environmentome interactions on the final outcome phenome features, namely symptomatology and phenomenology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0944.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Neuropsychological tests; youth football; concussion; cognition; helmets; head acceleration events
Online: 16 October 2023 (08:40:00 CEST)
Weight and age interact to modify cognitive effects of head acceleration events after two seasons of youth football Abstract This is a follow-up study of youth American football players in a second season of play. Season-one findings identified a relationship between a head acceleration measure (HITsp) and cognitive score changes with weight modifying the effect in 9 to 10 year-olds. Sixty-eight youth completed a second season of play wearing helmet-mounted sensors and were assessed with neuropsychological tests pre- and post-season. Regression analysis of the full sample demonstrated a small but significant negative effect of HAE on cognition as indexed by test score changes: R2 = .06, F = 4.06, p = .024. Outcome differences between those who started playing at ages nine to 10, compared to those who started between 11 and 13 were identified: t(66) = -3.39, p<.01, d = -.84, 95th CI -2.77 to -.72. Regression models including players’ weights found that the relationship of weight to outcome was different by group: greater negative cognitive effects were found in younger-heavier players (R2 = 0.21, F =3.21, p = 0.03) and older-lighter players (R2 = 0.18, F =4.26, p <.001). These findings confirmed a negative relationship of HAE and cognitive change and point to player weight as an important developmental factor to consider in understanding concussion biomechanics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0804.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Sensorimotor Integration; Spinal muscle atrophy; cognition; Fitts’s Law; Motor; Sensory
Online: 10 August 2023 (03:36:20 CEST)
Previous studies have found that individuals with limited motor capabilities due to acquired neurological injury (e.g., spinal cord injury and stroke) can make accurate action possibility judgements for neurologically healthy individuals. Previous studies have shown that people with limited motor capabilities may rely on previous motor experience (i.e., pre-injury) when making action possibility judgments for others. In the present study, we examined whether having severely limited previous motor experience from birth, as a consequence of spinal muscle atrophy (SMA), alters the action possibility judgments made for neurologically healthy individuals. Participants with SMA and Neurologically Healthy (NH) sex- and age-matched controls performed a perceptual-motor judgment task using the Fitts’s law paradigm (see Fitts, 1954). Participants observed apparent motion videos of reciprocal aiming movements with varying indices of difficulty (ID, see: Manson et al., 2014). For each movement, participants predicted the shortest movement time (MT) at which a neurologically healthy young adult could perform the task while maintaining accuracy. Between-group comparisons revealed that participants with SMA predicted significantly longer MTs compared to controls. Regression analyses revealed that predicted MTs of both NH and SMA participants exhibited a Fitts’s law relationship (i.e., the predicted MTs significantly increased as movement difficulty increased). A supplementary analysis on the SMA group revealed no differences in predicted MTs between the participants with some and no motor function as assessed by the SMA health index. Overall, these results provide evidence that participants with SMA who have limited or no motor experience may make more conservative action possibility judgments for others. Critically, our finding that the pattern of action possibility judgements (e.g., the slopes of the regression lines) were not different between SMA and NH groups provides evidence that limited previous motor experience may not completely impair action possibility judgements.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2186.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Diamine oxidase deficiency; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; histamine; cognition; attention
Online: 31 May 2023 (07:42:00 CEST)
The Speer allergic tension-fatigue syndrome (SATFS) is a classic syndrome characterized by allergy-like symptoms, muscle tension, headache, chronic fatigue, and a particular behavior. The particular behavior displayed includes symptoms such as hyperkinesis, hyperesthesia (i.e., insomnia), restlessness, and distractibility, among others. Interestingly, these symptoms are very similar to recent descriptions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder worldwide, which is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Although the exact cause of ADHD remains unknown, it has been proposed that deficiency of the enzyme diamine oxidase (DAO), which metabolizes histamine, may be involved in the development of ADHD. Our conceptual paper suggests that DAO enzyme deficiency may be involved in the development and severity of ADHD. Histamine, which is metabolized by DAO, plays an important role in the regulation of attention, memory and cognition. Therefore, decreased DAO activity could lead to an accumulation of histamine, which could contribute to ADHD symptoms. This study provides a theoretical framework for the relationship between DAO deficiency and ADHD, which could have important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of the disorder. Further empirical studies are needed to confirm our hypothesis and explore the clinical implications of the relationship between DAO deficiency, histamine, and ADHD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0385.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Trace amine-associated receptor 5; cognition; decision-making; switch task
Online: 25 January 2022 (14:49:51 CET)
Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) are a family of G protein-coupled receptors present in mammals in the brain and in several peripheral organs. Apart from its olfactory role, TAAR5 is expressed in the major limbic brain areas and regulates brain serotonin functions and emotional behaviors. However, most of its functions remain undiscovered. Given the role of serotonin and limbic regions in some aspects of cognition, we used a temporal decision-making task to unveil a possible role of TAAR5 in cognitive processes. We found that TAAR5 knock-out (KO) mice showed a generally better performance due to a reduced number of errors and displayed a greater rate of improvement at the task than WT littermates. However, task-related parameters, such as time accuracy and uncertainty have not changed significantly. Overall, we show that TAAR5 modulates specific domains of cognition, highlighting a new role in brain physiology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0524.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Self-reference; cognition; consciousness; computation; causal structure; integrated information theory
Online: 29 November 2021 (11:51:43 CET)
Ordinary computing machines prohibit self-reference because it leads to logical inconsistencies and undecidability. In contrast, the human mind can understand self-referential statements without necessitating physically impossible brain states. Why can the brain make sense of self-reference? Here, we address this question by defining the Strange Loop Model, which features causal feedback between two brain modules, and circumvents the paradoxes of self-reference and negation by unfolding the inconsistency in time. We also argue that the metastable dynamics of the brain inhibit and terminate unhalting inferences. Finally, we show that the representation of logical inconsistencies in the Strange Loop Model leads to causal incongruence between brain subsystems in Integrated Information Theory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0340.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Cognition; computing models; Deep Learning; Autopoiesis; Structural Machines; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 19 November 2021 (08:16:17 CET)
Making computing machines mimic living organisms has captured the imagination of many since the dawn of digital computers. However, today’s artificial intelligence technologies fall short in replicating even the basic autopoietic and cognitive behaviors found in primitive biological systems. According Charles Darwin, the difference in mind between humans and the higher animals, great as it is, certainly is one of degree and not of kind. Autopoiesis refers to the behavior of a system that replicates itself and maintains its own identity and stability while facing fluctuations caused by external influences. Cognitive behaviors model the system’s state, sense internal and external changes, analyze, predict and take action to mitigate any risk to its functional fulfilment. How did intelligence evolve? what is the relationship between the mind and body? Answers to these questions should guide us to infuse autopoietic and cognitive behaviors into digital machines. In this paper we use recent advances in our understanding of general theory of information, and the role of structures in managing the transformations between information and knowledge to pave the path to infuse autopoietic and cognitive functions into digital computing and build a new class of intelligent machines going beyond the current state of the art.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0688.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: mHealth; multiple sclerosis; telemonitoring; longitudinal assessment; rehabilitation; fatigue; walking; cognition
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:26:43 CEST)
The development of mobile technology and internet mobile offers new possibilities in both rehabilitation and for patients’ assessment in a longitudinal and MS management perspective. However, because the mobile health applications (mHealth) have only been developed recently, the level of evidence supporting the use of mHealth in patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) is currently unclear. Therefore, this study aims to list and describe the different mHealth available for rehabilitation and self-assessment of pwMS and to define the level of evidence supporting these interventions for functioning problems categorized within the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). 36 studies, performed with 22 different mHealth, were included in this review, 30 about rehabilitation and 6 for self-assessment, representing 3,091 patients. For rehabilitation, most of the studies were focusing on cognitive function and fatigue. Concerning the efficacy we found a small but significant effect of the use of mHealth for cognitive training (SMD = 0.28 [0.12 ; 0.45]) and moderate effect for fatigue (SMD = 0.61 [0.47 ; 0.76]). mHealth is a promising tool in pwMS but more studies are needed to validate these solutions in the others ICF categories. More replications studies are also needed as most of the mHealth have only been assessed in one single study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0460.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Cognition; Visual memory; Reaction time; Alcohol; schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.
Online: 19 April 2021 (11:26:29 CEST)
Purpose of the study was to explore the association of cognition with hazardous drinking, binge drinking and alcohol use disorder in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Cognitive deficits are common in schizophrenia. Alcohol might be associated with additional cognitive impairment in schizophrenia patients. The study population included 3362 schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder patients in Finland. Hazardous drinking was screened with the AUDIT-C (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test for Consumption) screening tool. Binge drinking was obtained from the AUDIT-C. Alcohol use disorder (AUD) diagnoses were obtained from the national registrar data. Participants performed two computerized tasks from the Cambridge automated neuropsychological test battery (CANTAB) on tablet computer: the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), or, reaction time (RT) test and the Paired Associative Learning (PAL) test. Association of alcohol use with RT test and PAL test was analyzed with log-linear regression and logistic regression, respectively. After adjustment for age, education and age at first psychotic episode, hazardous drinking in females was associated with lower median RT. Compared to never binge drinkers, male and female participants drinking 6 or more doses of alcohol monthly or less had lower median RT. In the PAL test both first trial memory score (FTMS) and total errors adjusted score (TEAS) were associated with better performance in males drinking 6 or more doses of alcohol weekly or more and in females drinking 6 or more doses monthly or less. Higher PAL TEAS was associated with AUD in females Some positive associations between alcohol and cognition were found in male and female schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder patients with hazardous drinking and binge drinking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0075.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: embodied cognition; embodied pedagogy; eye-tracking; gaze; angular velocity; predictive behavior
Online: 4 July 2023 (03:17:26 CEST)
Abstract: Embodied pedagogy maintains that teaching and learning abstract concepts can benefit significantly from integrating bodily movements in the process. Here we explored the involvement of eye movements in the process of collective embodied learning of a concept in physics - angular velocity. Embodied learning was accomplished by the subjects forming a line that rotated around a central object, in this case, a bottle. We tracked the gaze resulting from eye and head movements in 12 subjects, who both actively participated in the collective embodied exercise and passively watched it. The tracking data of 7 of these 12 subjects passed our tracking reliability criteria in all trials and are reported here. During active learning, the learners tended to look ahead of the rotating line (by 35.18±14.82 degrees). In contrast, while passively watching others performing the task, the learners tended to look directly at the line. Interestingly, while the learners were performing the collective exercise they were unaware of looking ahead of the rotating line. We discuss possible differences between active and passive embodied learning that might be indicated by the observed differences in gaze control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0139.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: blackfin reef shark; Carcharhinus melanopterus; shark behaviour; shark ethology; shark cognition
Online: 8 August 2022 (09:44:57 CEST)
The chondrichthyan lineage diverged from the osteichthyan line 440 million years ago, resulting in a vast evolutionary gulf between modern elasmobranchs and other vertebrates. Though this has supported the assumption that sharks are ancient, dangerous, and binary-minded, the few ethological studies done have noted intelligent actions including social exchanges. Yet their behaviour remains little known. On seeing that Carcharhinus melanopterus displayed complex actions during incidental meetings, a long-term ethological study of the species was carried out using artificial aggregations, at several sites in the fringe lagoon of Mo’orea Island, French Polynesia. Short and long-term behaviour was recorded in 473 individuals, including an ethogram, roaming patterns, social interactions, and cognition. C. melanopterus is considered sedentary, yet the home range could also be viewed as a place to pause between travels, for most individuals left for long periods. The study community and its visitors travelled in correlation with the lunar phase, in groups of up to six individuals, socializing with conspecifics encountered along the way, and displaying fluid social dynamics. C. melanopterus was highly alert to danger yet prone to investigate novel objects, a combination that generated a variety of tactics to remain hidden while investigating the environment. Basic to this was the use of the visual limit for escape or to screen their presence, indicating an awareness of being present and observable. Using their other senses, they could focus their attention on events beyond visual range and made swift decisions to act as circumstances unfolded. In their non-territorial, non-hierarchical society, any shark could lead, but it was usually the same ones that did so. Therefore, unusual individuals had a significant effect on events through social learning, suggesting the potential for culture. Actions in a variety of situations suggested complex cognition, and individuals displayed both positive and negative subjective states including playfulness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0523.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: deficit schizophrenia; cognition; tryptophan catabolites; neuro-immune; oxidative stress; antioxidants; CCL11
Online: 19 November 2020 (21:06:35 CET)
Recently we showed that schizophrenia and, especially, deficit schizophrenia is accompanied by neurocognitive impairments as measured with different cognitive batteries. The aim of this study was to examine whether a single trait underpins aberrations in 9 key Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) probes, verbal fluency (VFT), world list memory (WLM), true recall, and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). We recruited 80 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy controls. All patients were assessed using CANTAB tests, namely paired-association learning (PAL), rapid visual information (RVP), spatial working memory (SWM), one touch stocking (OTS), intra/extradimensional set shifting (IED), and emotional recognition test (ERT). We found that a single latent trait, which is essentially unidimensional, underlies the CANTAB tests, VFT, WLM, True Recall and MMSE. The latent trait shows excellent psychometric properties and fits a reflective model and, therefore, reflects a generalized cognitive decline (GCoDe), which is the cause of aberrations in semantic and episodic memory, recall, executive functions, strategy use, rule acquisition, visual sustained attention, attention set-shifting and emotional recognition. 40.5% of the variance in GCode was explained by CCL11, IgA to tryptophan catabolites, and increased oxidative toxicity. GCoDe explains 44.8% of the variance in a single latent trait extracted from psychosis, hostility, excitation, mannerism, negative symptoms, formal thought disorders, and psychomotor retardation and 40.9% in quality of life scores. GCoDe is significantly greater in deficit than in nondeficit schizophrenia. In conclusion, GCoDe mediates the effects of neuro-immune and neuro-oxidative toxicity on the phenome of (deficit) schizophrenia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0001.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Alzheimer’s Disease; Task Performance; Cognition; Human Activities; Amyloid Beta Protein; Dementia
Online: 2 November 2020 (08:06:39 CET)
The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of dual-task training, including cognitive tasks, on cognitive and bodily functioning and β-amyloid levels in Alzheimer's dementia patients. The subjects were 34 inpatients diagnosed with Alzheimer's dementia at a nursing hospital located in Gyeongsansi, South Korea. The patients were randomly divided into a dual-task group (n = 16) and a single-task group (n = 18). The dual-task group performed cognitive tasks at the same time as exercising tasks, while the single-task group performed only exercise tasks. Each group was trained for 30 minutes three times a week for eight weeks. The Mini-Mental State Examination was used to measure the patients’ cognitive function. Static and dynamic balance were measured to evaluate bodily functioning. Static balance was measured using Biorescue, while dynamic balance was measured using the Berg Balance Scale. Blood analysis was performed to measure levels of β-amyloid, which is known to cause Alzheimer's dementia. Both groups exhibited statistically significant improvements in gait function after the training (p < .05). The dual-task group exhibited statistically significant differences in cognitive function, static and dynamic balance function, and β-amyloid levels after training (p < .05). A significant difference was observed between the two groups (p < .05). Dual-task activities were found to be effective in improving cognitive and bodily functioning and reducing β-amyloid levels in Alzheimer's dementia patients. Therefore, dual-task training is thought to be an effective method of treating and preventing Alzheimer's dementia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0317.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: clinically isolated syndrome; multiple sclerosis; cognition; neuropsychology; proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Online: 15 October 2020 (11:15:44 CEST)
To assess cognitive impairment and affective symptoms and their association with damage to normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), we compared neuropsychological test scores between patients with CIS and healthy controls, and examined correlations between these and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) outcomes in patients with CIS. Forty patients with CIS and 40 healthy participants were tested with the set of neuropsychological tests, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Single-voxel 1H-MRS was performed on frontal and parietal NAWM of patients with CIS to assess ratios of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) to creatine (Cr), myo-inositol (mI), and choline (Cho), as well as mI/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios. Patients with CIS had lower cognitive performance, higher scores for the BDI and anxiety subscale of HADS than healthy controls. There were significant correlations between the following neuropsychological tests and metabolic ratios in the frontal NAWM: Stroop Color-Word Test and Cho/Cr, Symbol Digit Modalities Test and mI/Cr as well as NAA/mI, Go/no-go reaction time and NAA/Cho as well as NAA/mI, Californian Verbal Learning Test and NAA/Cr. BDI scores were related to frontal NAA/mI and parietal NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios, whereas HADS-depression scores were associated with frontal NAA/Cr and NAA/mI, and parietal NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios. HADS-anxiety correlated with parietal NAA/Cr ratio. This study suggests that neurochemical changes in the NAWM assessed with single-voxel 1H-MRS are associated with cognitive performance and affective symptoms in patients with CIS.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: numerical cognition; zero; number status of zero; items based number representation
Online: 16 July 2020 (12:35:17 CEST)
While the knowledge about the development of understanding positive integers is rapidly growing, the development of understanding zero is not well-known. Here we tested several components of preschoolers’ understanding zero: whether they can use empty sets in numerical tasks, whether they can use empty sets soon after they understand the cardinality principle, whether they know what the word “zero” refers to, and whether they categorize zero as a number. The results show that preschoolers can handle empty sets in numerical tasks as soon as they understand the cardinality principle or even earlier, and some of them know that these sets are labeled as “zero.” However, they are unsure whether zero is a number. These results identify three components of knowledge about zero: operational knowledge, linguistic knowledge, and meta knowledge. To account for these results we propose that preschoolers might understand numbers as the properties of items or objects in a set. In this view, zero cannot be a number, because an empty set does not include any items, and the missing items cannot have any property, excluding also the number property. This model might explain why zero is handled correctly in numerical tasks, while it is not regarded to be a number.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0084.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: philosophy of emotion; science of emotion; meta-semantic pluralism; embodied cognition; mind; mind-body problem; perception; cognition; emotion; cultural evolution; dual-inheritance theory; evolutionary norm psychology
Online: 6 July 2022 (03:55:00 CEST)
In this paper, I give readers an idea of what some scholars are interested in, what I found interesting, and what may be of future interest in the philosophy of emotion. I begin with a brief overview of the general topics of interests in the philosophy of emotion. I then discuss what I believe to be some of the most interesting topics in the contemporary discourse, including questions about how philosophy can inform the science of emotion, conceptions of the mind and the mind-body problem, concerns about perception, cognition, and emotion, along with questions about the place of 4E approaches and meta-semantic pluralist approaches in the embodied cognitive tradition. Finally, I discuss the emerging field of cultural evolution, the import of a dual-inheritance theory in this emerging field, and I propose a possible way to integrate the frameworks of dual-inheritance theory and meta-semantic pluralism to demonstrate at least one way in which the philosophy of emotion can contribute to the emerging field of cultural evolution.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1361.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Self-versus-other perception; Social cognition; Development of Neural activit; Social processing
Online: 20 October 2023 (13:44:36 CEST)
Although adults and children differ in self-versus-other perception, the developmental perspective on this discriminative ability is missing. We compared neural activation of self-vs-others in 39 participants of 4 different age groups (4 yo. to adulthood). Two brain regions, the MCC and right postcentral gyrus, exhibited respectively non-linear and gradual gains in discriminative abilities for self-vs-others stimuli. These regions play critical roles in self-referential processing, empathy, and social cognition. Nine brain regions showed linear increase for others-vs-self stimuli. These regions are associated with multisensory processing, somatosensory skills, complex visual stimuli, self-awareness, empathy, theory of mind, and social recognition. Understanding the neural basis of self-vs-others discrimination during development can inform when and how social contexts support learning processes during childhood and adolescence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0732.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; diltiazem; intra-cerebroventricular; streptozotocin; cognition; amyloid beta; anti-oxidant enzymes
Online: 11 July 2023 (12:29:33 CEST)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-related neuropsychiatric disorder and a common cause of progressive dementia. Diltiazem (DTZ), the non-dihydropyridine benzothiazepine class of calcium channel blocker (CCB), used clinically in angina and other cardiovascular disorders have proven neurological benefits. In the present study, the neuroprotective anti-dementia effects of DTZ against intra-cerebroventricular-streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-induced sporadic AD (SAD)-type rat model was investigated. ICV-STZ-induced cognitive impairments were measured by passive avoidance and Morris water maze tasks. Anti-oxidative enzyme status, pro-inflammatory markers, and amyloid-beta (Aβ) protein expression in rat brain tissues were measured by ELISA kits, Western blotting, and immunostaining techniques. Data revealed that ICV-STZ injection in rats significantly induced cognitive deficits and altered the levels of oxidative and pro-inflammatory markers (p < 0.05 ~ p < 0.001). Treatment with DTZ (10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, and 40 mg/kg. p.o.) daily for twenty-one days, 1 h before a single ICV-STZ (3 mg/kg) injection, significantly improved cognitive impairments, ameliorated the ICV-STZ-induced altered nitrite, pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, and IL-1β) and anti-oxidative enzyme levels (superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione). Further, DTZ restored the increased Aβ protein expression in ICV-STZ-induced brain tissue Considering the data obtained, DTZ exhibited a potential neuroprotective anti-dementia role in ICV-STZ-induced SAD-type conditions in rats and might be repurposed as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment and management of AD and related dementia pathologies.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0210.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: neuropsychiatric disorder; cognition; social behavior; dimensionality, reward; heterogeneity; autoencoder; components; genetic causes
Online: 19 January 2020 (04:53:42 CET)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous neuropsychiatric problem with a few core symptoms: weaknesses in social behavior, verbal impairments, repetitive behavior and restricted interests. Beyond the core symptoms, autism has strong association with other disorders such as intellectual disability, epilepsy, schizophrenia among many others. This paper outlines a theory of ASD with capacity to connect heterogeneous ‘core’ symptoms, medical and psychiatric comorbidities as well as other etiological theories of autism in a unifying cognitive framework rooted in neuroscience and genetics. Cognition is embedded into an ever-developing structure modified by experiences, including the outcomes of environment influencing behaviors. We introduce the hypothesis that autism is caused by deficits in component-based cognition and the internal learning reinforcing machinery. Specifically, we outline our Cartesian Factor forming autoencoder like model that supports cognition by breaking combinatorial explosion and discuss the cognitive and neural processes behind our model. The high dimensionality of sensory information poses serious problems, since the brain can handle only 7±2 relevant variables at a time making processes, such as the extraction and encoding of the relevant variables and their efficient manipulation critical. These processes are influenced by previous experiences and the internal reward system. In addition, large delays of distributed information processing should be counteracted by learned predictive models to synchronize sensory, proprioceptive, and cognitive signals and have timely and accurate model-based actions. Impairments in any of these aspects may disrupt learning and execution. Combinations of small impairments may allow the solving of low complexity tasks but may become visible if learned variables and the related metric are improper and imprecise, respectively, especially if their number is large. We claim that social interactions are amongst the most challenging cognitive tasks in terms of the number of variables involved. In turn, they are highly susceptible to combinations of small impairments. We consider impairments as the basic colors of autism, whereas the combinations of diverse impairments make the palette of autism. In turn, social processes can be spoiled in many ways and can lead to diverse comorbidities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0185.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: anxiety; cognition; colour of drink; dehydration; electrolytes; fluid intake; mood; placebo; rehydration
Online: 17 August 2019 (15:53:08 CEST)
Traditionally it has been thought necessary to lose 2% of body mass due to dehydration, before functioning is disrupted, although recently adverse effects have been reported with a loss of 0.5-0.7%. It is, however, unclear whether the response to small decreases in mass reflects dehydration, mechanisms that help to adapt to a loss of bodily fluid, or a placebo effect. Individuals were therefore subject to a temperature of 30°C for three hours, and mood and cognition monitored. To explore the possibility of a placebo response, the consumption of plain or coloured water was compared. To consider changes in hydration status, drinks known to differ in their ability to rehydrate were contrasted. Not drinking was disruptive, although a combination of plain water and electrolyte’s most effectively prevented a decline in functioning, indicating a role for rehydration after a loss of 0.52% body mass. There was, however, also evidence of a placebo response: a combination of plain water and electrolytes was better able to prevent a decline in functioning than coloured plain water and electrolytes. As increased anxiety was a robust response, it was discussed whether the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system might be part of the mechanism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0110.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: causality; deep learning; machine learning; counterfactual; explainable AI; blended cognition; mechanisms; system
Online: 8 July 2019 (08:10:29 CEST)
Causality is the most important topic in the history of Western Science, and since the beginning of the statistical paradigm, it meaning has been reconceptualized many times. Causality entered into the realm of multi-causal and statistical scenarios some centuries ago. Despite of widespread critics, today Deep Learning and Machine Learning advances are not weakening causality but are creating a new way of finding indirect factors correlations. This process makes possible us to talk about approximate causality, as well as about a situated causality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0050.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: mind brain interaction, Avicenna, consciousness, cognition, incorporeity of mind, mind matter interaction
Online: 6 June 2019 (12:58:52 CEST)
Mind and brain/matter interaction is one of the important and controversial issues in Islamic philosophy. In fact, in the resources of Islamic philosophy, one of the basic parts of philosophical discussions is related to mind’s nature and its interaction with the brain. Especially, in Avicenna’s philosophy, there are many articles and books which have addressed the topic of mind and brain and the relation between them. Avicenna was a profound philosopher, an expert physicist and a proficient physician of his time. Because of his experimental proficiency in medicine and surgery and his deep philosophical analysis, his discussion about mind and brain is very interesting for our time, due to recent advances in neuroscience. In this article, we have explained one of Avicenna’s arguments (in his famous opus “al-Isharat”) about the incorporeity of mind (self), which is very close to modern neuroscience and physics literature. In addition, we explain his model of mind and brain interaction. Avicenna described the mechanism of the causal effect of mind on the brain via a third identity, which works as an interface between them (in his main book “al-Shifa”). We try to illustrate his model by the use of some examples, inspired from modern physics. Also, we explore the philosophical constraints which must be considered in any model of mind-matter interaction, within the Islamic philosophy framework. In fact, we propose a new understanding of Avicenna’s philosophy which is in agreement with modern physics and neuroscience.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0146.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Growth Hormone; cognition; recent memory; PET-SCAN; hippocampus; amygdala; parahippocampus; ApoE genotype.
Online: 5 June 2018 (15:18:11 CEST)
1) Background: We analyzed, by PET-SCAN, how growth hormone (GH) could act on the brain of an older woman, not GH-deficient, which was beginning to show some cognitive deficiencies and presented an ApoE genotype 4/3; 2) Methods: After performing a first psychometric study (TAVEC verbal learning test), the metabolic activity of brain structures related to knowledge, memory, and behavior was analyzed using 18-F Fluorodeoxyglucose PET-SCAN. The patient was then treated with GH (0.4 mg/day) for three weeks and on the last day under this treatment, a new PET-SCAN was performed. One month after beginning treatment with GH, a new TAVEC test was performed; 3) Results: GH administration normalized the cognitive deficits observed in the first psychometric test and increased significantly (P < 0.025) the metabolic activity in practically all brain cortical areas, specifically in the left hippocampus and left amygdala, although not in the left parahippocampus; and 4) Conclusions: This is the first study in which the positive effects of GH on cerebral metabolism have been visualized in a human patient. Our data confirm the positive effects of this hormone on cognition, memory and behavior in patients affected by mild cognitive impairments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0397.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Familial hypercholesterolemia; Neuropsychological outcomes; Cognition; Health literacy; Quality of Life; Affective ranges; HADS; WHO-QOL BREF; Oman; Famiilial hypercholesterolemia; Neuropsychological outcomes; Cognition; Health Literacy; Affective ranges; HADS; Oman
Online: 26 July 2022 (08:16:04 CEST)
BACKGROUND: Over the past few years, there has been an increasing interest to view the diagnosis of Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) through the lens of the biopsychosocial model. However, other than a few epidemiological surveys, there is a dearth of studies from emerging economies that have examined FH using the biological, psychological and socio-environmental facets of the aforementioned model. AIM. The three aims of the current study were as follows: (i) to examine the psychosocial status among patients with genetically confirmed FH, (ii) to compare the intellectual capacity and cognitive outcomes with a reference group, and (iii) to examine the relationship between health literacy and cognitive functioning. METHOD: Consecutive FH patients referred to the lipid clinic at a tertiary care center for an expert opinion were recruited into this study, conducted from September 2019 to March 2020. Information regarding psychosocial functioning, health literacy, quality of life, and affective ranges were surveyed. Indices of current reasoning ability (attention and concentration, memory, and executive functioning) were compared with an age-matched reference group. The current hypothesis also explored the impact of FH on health literacy and cognition. RESULT: A total of 70 participants out of 106 (response rate: 66.0%) initially agreed to participate. However, 18 out of 70 dropped out of the study, yielding a final total of 52 FH patients. With 27 (51.9%) males and 25 (48.1%) females, the mean participant age stood at 37.2 years (SD=9.2), ranging from 21 to 52 years of age. In the psychosocial data, thirty-two percent (n=17) of them had anxiety (HADS≥ 8), and twenty-five percent (n=13) had depressive symptoms (HADS≥ 8). The performance of the FH patients was significantly impaired compared to the control group on the indices of current reasoning ability and all domains of cognitive functioning. In univariate analysis conducted to compare cognitive functioning with health literacy status, only indices of attention and concentration emerged as being significant. CONCLUSION: To date, there are only a few studies employing the biopsychosocial paradigm to investigate the FH population. The current study indicates that the FH population is marked by an impediment in almost all of the core features that are characteristically assessed by the biopsychosocial approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0607.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Interdependence; human-machine teams; autonomy; complexity; problem tasks; entropy; embodied cognition; harmonic oscillators
Online: 10 July 2023 (10:18:05 CEST)
In this review, our goal is to design and test quantum-like algorithms for Artificial Intelligence (AI) in open systems to structure a human-machine team to be able to reach its maximum performance. Unlike the laboratory, in open systems, teams face complexity, uncertainty and conflict. All task domains have complexity levels, some have low, and others high levels. Complexity in this new domain is affected by the environment and the task, which are both affected by uncertainty and conflict. We contrast the individual and interdependence approaches to teams. The traditional and individual approach focuses on building teams and systems by aggregating the best available information for individuals, their thoughts, behaviors and skills. Its concepts are characterized chiefly by one-to-one relations between mind and body, a summation of disembodied individual mental and physical attributes, and degrees of freedom corresponding to the number of members in a team; however, this approach is characterized by the many researchers who have invested in it for almost a century with few effects that can be generalized to human-machine interactions; by the replication crisis of today (e.g., the invalid scales for self-esteem, implicit racism, and honesty); and by its many disembodied concepts. In contrast, our approach is based on the quantum-like nature of interdependence. It allows us to theorize about the bistability of mind and body, but it proposes a measurement problem and a non-factorable nature. Bistability addresses team structure and performance; the measurement problem solves the replication crisis; and the non-factorable aspect of teams reduces the degrees of freedom and the information derivable from teammates to match findings by the National Academies of Science. We begin with a review of the science of teams and a focus on human-machine team research in the laboratory versus the open; justifications for rejecting traditional social science while supporting our approach; a full understand of the complexity of the domain, tasks in the domain, and how teams address both; the mathematics involved; a review of results from our model versus the open field; a discussion of the results; conclusions; and the path forward to successfully advance the science of interdependence and autonomy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0511.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: sleep fragmentation; obstructive sleep apnea; explicit memory; inflammation; blood brain barrier; cognition; microglia
Online: 18 April 2023 (10:18:23 CEST)
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic condition characterized by intermittent hypoxia (IH) and sleep fragmentation (SF). In murine models, chronic SF can impair endothelial function and induce cognitive declines. These deficits are likely mediated, at least in part, by alterations in Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) integrity. Male C57Bl/6J mice were randomly assigned to SF or sleep control (SC) conditions for 4 or 9 weeks, and in a subset 2 or 6 weeks of normal sleep recovery. Presence of inflammation and microglia activation were evaluated. Explicit memory function was assessed with the novel object recognition (NOR) test, while BBB permeability was determined by systemic dextran-4kDA-FITC injection and Claudin 5 expression. SF exposures resulted in decreased NOR performance and in increased inflammatory markers and microglial activation as well as enhanced BBB permeability. Explicit memory and BBB permeability were significantly associated. BBB permeability remained elevated after 2 weeks of sleep recovery (p<0.01) and returned to baseline values only after 6 weeks. Chronic SF exposures mimicking the fragmentation of sleep that characterizes patient with OSA elicits evidence of inflammation in brain regions and explicit memory impairments in mice. Similarly, SF is also associated with increased BBB permeability, the magnitude of which is closely associated with cognitive functional losses. Despite normalization of sleep patterns, BBB functional recovery is a protracted process that merits further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0375.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Covid-19; conspiracy theories; Need for Cognition; agreeableness; openness to experience; social media
Online: 26 September 2022 (03:45:04 CEST)
In the context of Covid-19 virus containment, there is a lack of acceptance of preventive measures in the population. The present work investigated which factors influence the belief in of scientific propositions compared belief in conspiracy theories. The focus here was on the determinants of conspiracy beliefs in the context of Covid-19 related media content. Using an online questionnaire (N = 175), results indicate that scientific compared to conspiracy theoretical media content led to higher acceptance. Furthermore, Need for Cognition (NFC-K), a conspiracy theoretical worldview (CMQ), and openness to experience (NEO-FFI) were positively associated with conspiracy beliefs derived from Facebook postings. In addition, a conspiracy theoretical worldview was negatively associated with belief in scientific media content. Furthermore, agreeableness was unrelated to conspiracy beliefs, although it was positively associated with conspiracy theoretical worldview. The results imply promising persuasion strategies for reducing conspiracy theoretical beliefs and to increase the acceptance of preventive measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0790.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Cognitive style; Spatial Cognition; Sense of Direction; Spatial Orientation; Mental Rotation; Individual Differences
Online: 30 April 2021 (15:23:16 CEST)
Background: Military pilots show high visuo-spatial skills. Previous studies demonstrate that they are better in mental rotating a target, in taking different perspectives, in estimating distances, in travel planning and in topographic memory. Here, we compared navigational cognitive styles between military pilots and people without flight experience. Pilots were expected to be more survey users than non-pilots, showing higher navigational strategies. Method: 106 jet military pilots of Italian Air Force and 92 non-pilots were enrolled in order to investigate group differences in navigational styles. Participants were asked to perform a reduced version of the Spatial Cognitive Style Test – SCST, consisting of six tasks that allow to distinguish individuals in landmark (people orient themselves by using a figurative memory for environmental objects), route (people use an egocentric representation of the space) and survey (people have a map-like representation of the space) users. Results: In line with our hypothesis, military pilots mainly adopt a survey style, whereas non-pilots mainly adopt the route style. In addition, pilots outperformed non pilots in both the 3D-Rotation task and Map Description Task. Conclusion: Military flight expertise influences some aspects of the spatial ability, leading to enhance human navigation. Although, it must be considered that they are a population whose navigational skills were already high at the time of selection at the academy before formal training began.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0422.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: collective intelligence; policymaking; public policy; e-participation; participatory budgeting; cognitive systems; group cognition.
Online: 15 April 2021 (15:10:12 CEST)
In open, sustainable policymaking, we are expecting to develop the valuable results that will bring us closer to a fairer and more balanced society. One way to involve the public in these processes is to engage them in online e-participation projects. Despite the hopes, empirical analyses show that many e-participation initiatives have failed to deliver expected benefits. Revealing what actually works in examined projects and what requires improvement would allow for better policy planning in the future. In this article, I made an attempt to identify and assess the cognitive processes enabling emergence of collective intelligence (CI) in a singular e-participation project. For this reason, I worked out and tested an evaluation technique, combining the MILCS framework for group cognition and the results of empirical research on CI. A case study method based on semi-structured interviews was selected to evaluate a sample participatory budgeting initiative, Civic Budget of the City of Kraków. Results reveal that most cognitive processes are working satisfactorily, but the real problem is using collective memory, which works only to a very limited extent. A guideline for future policymakers should be to develop a shared memory system, to which all community members should have access.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0307.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: social cognition; social information processing; mother-child relationships; parenting style; kindergarten; social functioning
Online: 26 November 2019 (04:11:54 CET)
Children's ability to adjust to the social rules and expectations in the educational environment is of major concern to researchers and practitioners alike. Accordingly, the main purpose of the present study was to examine predictors of children's social functioning in kindergarten with a specific focus on (a) maternal factors; and, (b) children's social cognition. Using a multi-method (self-reports and direct assessments), multi-informant (child, mother, teacher) design, we collected data from 306 kindergarten children and their mothers tapping the mother's social cognitions (general and child-related) and parenting style, and children's social cognition (social information processing) and functioning in kindergarten. We found direct associations between the mother and child's social cognitions, between the mother's authoritarian parenting style and her child's less competent social cognition and behavior, and between the child's social cognition and social functioning. Finally, as hypothesized, we found a number of interesting mediated effects. Most notably, we found that the association between the mother's social cognition (her tendency to attribute hostile intent to unknown others) and the child's social cognition (his/her tendency to generate less competent responses) is fully mediated by the mother's higher levels of authoritarian parenting style. The important theoretical and clinical implications of our findings are discussed.
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: complexity; uncertainty; cognition; allostasis; homeostasis; free energy principle; active inference; environmental complexity thesis; adaptation; representation; interoception; biorhythms; life-mind continuity
Online: 29 February 2020 (12:33:12 CET)
What is the function of cognition? On one influential account, cognition evolved to co-ordinate behaviour with environmental change or complexity (Godfrey-Smith 1996). Liberal interpretations of this view ascribe cognition to an extraordinarily broad set of biological systems – even bacteria, which modulate their activity in response to salient external cues, would seem to qualify as cognitive agents. However, equating cognition with adaptive flexibility per se glosses over important distinctions in the way biological organisms deal with environmental complexity. Drawing on contemporary advances in theoretical biology and computational neuroscience, we cash these distinctions out in terms of different kinds of generative models, and the representational and uncertainty-resolving capacities they afford. This analysis leads us to propose a formal criterion for delineating cognition from other, more pervasive forms of adaptive plasticity. On this view, biological cognition is rooted in a particular kind of functional organisation; namely, that which enables the agent to detach from the present and engage in counterfactual (active) inference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2188.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: traumatic brain injury; social cognition; emotion recognition; eye tracking; fixation; visual processing; dynamic stimuli
Online: 31 August 2023 (13:16:58 CEST)
Emotion recognition and social inference impairments are well-documented post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) yet the mechanisms underpinning these are not fully understood. We examined dynamic emotion recognition, social inference abilities, and eye fixation patterns between adults with and without TBI. Eighteen individuals with TBI and 18 matched non-TBI participants were recruited and underwent all three components of The Assessment of Social Inference Test (TASIT). The TBI group were less accurate in identifying emotions compared to the non-TBI group. Individuals with TBI also scored lower when distinguishing sincere and sarcastic conversations but scored similarly to those without TBI during lie vignettes. Finally, those with TBI also had difficulty understanding the actor’s intentions, feelings, and beliefs compared to participants without TBI. No group differences were found for eye fixation patterns and there were no associations between fixations and behavioural accuracy scores. This conflicts with previous studies and might be related to an important distinction between static and dynamic stimuli. Visual strategies appeared goal- and stimulus-driven, with attention being distributed to the most diagnostic area of the face for each emotion. These findings suggest that low-level visual deficits may not be modulating emotion recognition and social inference disturbances post-TBI.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0224.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: endocannabinoid system; cognition; neurotransmitters; CB receptors; endocannabinoid catabolism; Alzheimer's disease; tempral lobe epilepsy; protection
Online: 11 April 2023 (10:56:55 CEST)
Cognitive functions are based on neuronal plasticity, which is provided by various mechanisms involving numerous bioactive molecules, the most important of which are endocannabinoids (eCBs). Over the past three decades, a lot of data have been accumulated on the involvement of eCBs in the mechanisms of memory and other cognitive functions. These functions are impaired in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The main pathological feature of neurons in AD and TLE is increased excitability; therefore, an activation of the endocannabinoid system, which controls cellular excitation, may be a promising approach in their therapy. The available information about the effect of (endo)cannabinoids on cognitive functions is contradictory, which may depend on the drugs used, their dose, and the experimental conditions. There is an extensive literature indicating a protective effect of cannabinoids in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases in humans and in animal models of cognitive deficits. This review, focusing on the recent researches, is devoted to the analysis of the effects of endocannabinoid system activation on cognitive functions in norm and in the brain with neurodegeneration that occurs in AD and TLE diseases. Possible reasons for inconsistencies in the available data are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0025.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: numerical cognition; numerical distance effect; numerical size effect; analogue number system; discrete semantic system
Online: 7 September 2016 (11:29:41 CEST)
Human number understanding is thought to rely on the analogue number system (ANS), working according to Weber’s law. We propose an alternative account, suggesting that symbolic mathematical knowledge is based on a discrete semantic system (DSS), a representation that stores values in a semantic network, similar to the mental lexicon or to a conceptual network. Here, focusing on the phenomena of numerical distance and size effects in comparison tasks, first we discuss how a DSS model could explain these numerical effects. Second, we demonstrate that DSS model can give quantitatively as appropriate a description of the effects as the ANS model. Finally, we show that symbolic numerical size effect is mainly influenced by the frequency of the symbols, and not by the ratios of their values. This last result suggests that numerical distance and size effects cannot be caused by the ANS, while the DSS model might be the alternative approach that can explain the frequency-based size effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1313.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Visual Signals; Stereovision; Image Sampling; Feature Extraction; Incremental Learning; Match-Maker; Cognition; Recognition; Possibility Function.
Online: 19 June 2023 (07:47:08 CEST)
Visual signals are the upmost important source for robots, vehicles or machines to achieve human-like intelligence. Human beings heavily depend on binocular vision to understand the dynamically changing world. Similarly, intelligent robots or machines must also have the innate capabilities of perceiving knowledge from visual signals. Until today, one of the biggest challenges faced by intelligent robots or machines is the matching in stereovision. In this paper, we present the details of a new principle toward achieving a robust matching solution which leverages on the use and integration of top-down image sampling strategy, hybrid feature extraction, and RCE neural network for incremental learning (i.e., cognition) as well as robust match-maker (i.e., recognition). A preliminary version of the proposed solution has been implemented and tested with data from Maritime RobotX Challenge (www.robotx.org). The contribution of this paper is to attract more research interest and effort toward this new direction which may eventually lead to the development of robust solutions expected by future stereovision systems in intelligent robots, vehicles and machines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0313.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: SAMP8 and SAMR1 mice; DNLA (Dendrobium nobile Lindl. alkaloids); Cognition; Nissl staining; Phosphorylated Proteomics; Bioinformatics
Online: 19 December 2022 (03:32:01 CET)
Senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice exhibit cognitive defects and neuron loss with aging, and are used to study anti-aging effects of Dendrobium nobile alkaloids (DNLA). SAMP8 mice were orally given DNLA from ages 6 to 10 months. At 10 months of age, behavioral tests and neuron damage were evaluated. Protein was extracted and subjected to phosphorylated proteomic analysis. The cognitive deficits and neuron loss in hippocampus and cortex of aged SAMP8 mice were improved by DNLA. Hippocampal proteomic analysis showed differentially expressed protein/genes in SAMP8 compared to age-matched senescence-accelerated resistant mice, including altered tubulin binding, microtubule binding, etc. via Gene Oncology. KEGG revealed endocytosis, mRNA surveillance, tight junction, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, aldosterone synthesis and secretion, and glucagon signaling pathway changes. Upregulated protein/genes in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice, such as Lmtk3, Usp10, Dzip1, Csnk2b, and Rtn1, were attenuated by DNLA; whereas downregulated protein/genes, such as Kctd16, Psd3, Bsn, Atxn2l, and Kif1a, were rescued by DNLA. The aberrant protein/gene expressions of SAMP8 mice were correlated with transcriptome changes of Alzheimer’s disease in the GEO database, and were attenuated by DNLA. Thus, DNLA improved cognitive dysfunction and ameliorated neuronal injury in aged SAMP8 mice, and attenuated aberrant protein/gene expressions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0123.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; COPD; fall risk factor; gait; balance; cognition; daily activity; muscle dysfunction
Online: 8 September 2022 (10:35:01 CEST)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasingly being recognized as a systemic disease rather than a mere disorder of the lungs. Central (respiratory) and peripheral (limb) muscle weakness are among the main pronounced systemic effects of COPD. While the disease primarily affects the lower limb muscles and contributes to gait impairment, COPD is also associated with an increasing risk of falls in patients (COPDp). Previous studies have reported higher rates of falls among COPDp (1.17 to 1.20 falls/person-year), amounting to four times higher than an age-matched healthy group. Potential fall risk factors include muscle weakness, impaired daily activities, cognitive dysfunction, and gait and balance impairment. Although COPDp often manifest many of these risk factors, there remains a gap in literature regarding falls during walking in this population. This study aimed to 1. analyze the literature to identify the risk factors of falling in COPDp, and 2. investigate the underlying mechanisms by which these risk factors can lead to increased prevalence of falling. The results suggest that in addition to the known risk factors of falling, low back pain and mental fatigue should also be considered as relevant risk factors in the treatment process of these patients. Moreover, respiratory problems, which are common in this population, have demonstrated pronounced effects on energy expenditure, gait, and other types of activities of daily living (ADLs), leading to reduced intensity, disrupted coordination of the trunk-pelvic structure with the lower limbs during gait, and altered motor control performance due to activation of muscles in an inefficient synergic manner. These problems potentially lead to the increased vulnerability of these patients to external disturbances and higher incidence risk of falls and injuries. Cognitive problems, which are typically due to reduced oxygen received by the brain, as well as general inflammation caused by COPD, also play a significant role in gait disruption and balance. Future research is warranted to determine the prevalence of falls in COPDp by examining the response of these patients to Medio-Lateral (ML) and Anterior-Posterior (AP) disturbances during gait in association with traditional and recommended fall risk factors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0732.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Rosemary; Alzheimer’s disease; cognition; meta-analysis; preclinical study; mild cognitive dysfunction; herbal drugs; rosmarinic acid
Online: 30 September 2020 (10:04:01 CEST)
Background: Patients with mild cognitive impairment end up progressing to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) leading to straining burden on public health. R. officinalis long been known as the herb of remembrance and can be a potential cognition enhancer for AD. The aims of the review were to summarize the qualitative and quantitative aspects of R.O and its active constituents in enhancing the cognition. MATERIALS AND METHOD Google scholar and PubMed structured search to find relevant studies that assessed the effect of R.O extract or any of its active constituents on cognitive performance in animals. Data extraction: Following information from each included study was extracted: (1) article information (2) characteristics of study animals (3) type of intervention; type, dose, duration, and frequency of administration of R.O (4) type of outcome measure. Data synthesis: Data were analyzed using Review Manager (RevMan 5.3, 2014] and meta-analysis was performed for the outcome measures on all relevant tasks within the included papers by computing the standardized mean difference ps. RESULTS. 23 studies for qualitative and fifteen for meta-analysis were selected. From fifteen included papers, 22 studies with 35 comparisons were meta-analyzed. Effect sizes for intact animals and impaired animals respectively was (mean g and 95% CI 1.19 [0.74, 1.64; 0.57 [0.19,0.96]. The R. officinalis had positive effect on both groups of animals. The subgroup analyses exhibited substantial unexplained heterogeneity between studies. Mechanisms of R.O was anticholinesterase, procholinergic, antioxidant, anti-amyloid, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory agent CONCLUSIONS: R.O improves cognitive function. Limitations: Considerable heterogeneity between studies.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0594.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: societal transformation; systems change; sustainability; societal cognition; climate change; biodiversity loss; active inference; cooperation; SAILS
Online: 27 August 2020 (07:48:57 CEST)
Climate change, biodiversity loss, and other social and environmental problems pose grave risks. Progress so far has been incremental and insufficient, and as a result scientists, global policy experts, and the general public increasingly conclude that bold change is required across all sectors of society. At least two kinds of bold change are conceivable: reform of existing societal systems (e.g., financial, economic, legal, and governance systems), including their institutions, policies, rules, and priorities; and transformation, understood as the de novo development of and migration to new, improved systems. This paper is the second in a series of three that together propose a novel science-driven research and development program aimed at societal transformation. Moreover, the series advances a conceptual framework and formal mechanics by which societal transformation might be approached. Two of the underlying hypotheses are that new societal systems can be developed in a science-driven process to be fit for purpose, and system fitness can be compared across designs. Societies are viewed as superorganisms, and systems are viewed as a societal cognitive architecture. The first paper in the series provides definitions, aims, hypotheses, and a worldview. This paper discusses motivations, the role of science in societal transformation, a theory of change, and fitness metrics. The proposed R&D program and theory of change are sound, viable, and affordable. The local-global-viral strategy invites the global science community to play a unique co-leadership role with local communities in the development, testing, and monitoring of new societal systems. Systems are implemented via a novel civic club model, where participation is voluntary. Clubs grow and replicate based on merit and aided by club networks, whose systems are also viewed as societal cognitive architectures. Benefits of the program and strategy are discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0197.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: affordance; umwelt; agency; active inference; allostasis; immune cognition; situated Darwinism; information; entropy; free energy principle
Online: 30 November 2017 (09:02:17 CET)
The relationship of the animal with its environment has been of longstanding interest in philosophy and science. Here I provide a brief introduction to concepts that place an emphasis on mutualism as the basis of organism - environment interaction, in contrast to the long standing view that the environment exerts an instrumental role in shaping the organism. Two influential theories have been von Uexküll’s theory of umwelt and Gibson’s theory of affordances. The former envisioned the animal as immersed in its surroundings (umwelt) to form a functional unit. In a similar manner, the latter theory describes a unity between 1) environmental information that provides the animal with opportunities for action (affordances) and 2) the ability of the animal to perceive and engage with those affordances. These views have influenced more recent ecological models of the organism as the functional unit of biology and have also influenced models of immune function. In ecological models, agency is seen as the ability of the organism to predict and control its engagement with the environment in order to maintain its integrity. The predominant contemporary model of neural function in which perception and action are understood to operate through Bayes-like active inference complements the concept of agency as proposed by the mutualism models. However, it is suggested that rather than a constant mutualism, encounters between organism and environment range over a dynamic spectrum from dualism to mutualism. It is also suggested that along this spectrum, agency emerges when the balance of instrumentality shifts from the environment to the organism, and that the balance of this relationship can further progress towards a felicitous mutualism. Meaning emerges between environmental information and an agent as opportunity for action. Implications for opportunities to foster agency in animals within our care is noted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1765.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Virtual Reality; Cybersickness; VR Sickness; Motion Sickness; Cognition; Motor Skills; Pupil Dilation; Gaming Experience; Immersion; Susceptibility
Online: 27 October 2023 (10:44:09 CEST)
Background: Given that VR is applied in multiple domains, understanding the effects of cybersickness on human cognition and motor skills and the factors contributing to cybersickness gains urgency. This study aimed to explore the predictors of cybersickness and its interplay with cognitive and motor skills. Methods: 30 participants, 20-45 years old, completed the MSSQ and the CSQ-VR, and were immersed in VR. During immersion, they were exposed to a roller coaster ride. Before and after the ride, participants responded to CSQ-VR and performed VR-based cognitive and psychomotor tasks. Post VR session, participants completed the CSQ-VR again. Results: Motion sickness susceptibility, during adulthood, was the most prominent predictor of cybersickness. Pupil dilation emerged as a significant predictor of cybersickness. Experience in videogaming was a significant predictor of both cybersickness and cognitive/motor functions. Cybersickness negatively affected visuospatial working memory and psychomotor skills. Overall cybersickness’, nausea and vestibular symptoms’ intensities significantly decreased after removing the VR headset. Conclusions: In order of importance, motion sickness susceptibility and gaming experience are significant predictors of cybersickness. Pupil dilation appears as a cybersickness’ biomarker. Cybersickness negatively affects visuospatial working memory and psychomotor skills. Cybersickness and its effects on performance should be examined during and not after immersion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0492.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Virtual Reality; Training; Autism; Social Skills; Social Cognition; Executive Functions; Accepta-bility; Usability; User Experience; Prompts
Online: 27 January 2023 (06:34:43 CET)
Poor social skills in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated with reduced independence in daily life. Current interventions for improving the social skills of individuals with ASD fail to represent the complexity of real-life social settings and situations. Virtual reality (VR) may facilitate social skills training in social environments and situations proximal to real life, however, more research is needed for elucidating aspects such as the acceptability, usability, and user experience of VR systems in ASD. Twenty-five participants with ASD attended a neuropsychological evaluation and three sessions of VR social skills training, incorporating 5 social scenarios with three difficulty levels for each. Participants reported high acceptability, system usability, and user experience. Significant correlations were observed between performance in social scenarios, self-reports, and executive functions. Working memory and planning ability were significant predictors of functionality level in ASD and the VR system’s perceived usability respectively. Yet, performance in social scenarios was the best predictor of usability, acceptability, and functionality level in ASD. Planning ability substantially predicted performance in social scenarios, postulating an implication in social skills. Immersive VR social skills training appears effective in individuals with ASD, yet an error-less approach, which is adaptive to the individual’s needs, should be preferred.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0635.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Fast learning; Bayes’ theorem; navigation; language; spatial cognition; feature structures; unification; generalization; dynamic binding; metadata multiplexing.
Online: 28 June 2021 (10:06:07 CEST)
Bayesian formulations of learning imply that whenever the evidence for a correlation between events in an animal’s habitat is sufficient, the correlation is learned. This implies that regularities can be learnt rapidly, from small numbers of learning examples. This speed of learning gives maximum possible fitness, and no faster learning is possible. There is evidence in many domains that animals and people can learn at nearly Bayesian optimal speeds. These domains include associative conditioning, and the more complex domains of navigation and language. There are computational models of learning which learn at near-Bayesian speeds in complex domains, and which can scale well – to learn thousands of pieces of knowledge (i.e., relations and associations). These are not neural net models. They can be defined in computational terms, as algorithms and data structures at David Marr’s  Level Two. Their key data structures are composite feature structures, which are graphs of multiple linked nodes. This leads to the hypothesis that animal learning results not from deep neural nets (which typically require thousands of training exam-ples), but from neural implementations of the Level Two models of fast learning; and that neu-rons provide the facilities needed to implement those models at Marr’s Level Three. The required facilities include feature structures, dynamic binding, one-shot memory for many feature struc-tures, pattern-based associative retrieval, unification and generalization of feature structures. These may be supported by multiplexing of data and metadata in the same neural fibres.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0244.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Stress; epigenetics; senescence; cognition; age-related cognitive decline; Alzheimer’s disease; SAMP8; SAMR1; oxidative stress; inflammation; autophagy
Online: 21 January 2020 (11:44:35 CET)
Cognitive and behavioural disturbances are growing public healthcare issue for the modern society, as stressful lifestyle is becoming more and more common. Besides, several pieces of evidence state that environment is crucial in the development of several diseases as well as compromising healthy aging. Therefore, it is important to study the effects of stress on cognition and its relationship with aging. To address these queries, Chronic Mild Stress (CMS) paradigm was used in the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) and resistant 1 (SAMR1). On one hand, we determined the changes produced in the three main epigenetic marks after 4 weeks of CMS treatment, such as a reduction in histone posttranslational modifications and DNA methylation, and up-regulation or down-regulation of several miRNA involved in different cellular processes in mice. In addition, CMS treatment induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and loss of antioxidant defence mechanisms, as well as inflammatory signalling activation through NF-κB pathway and astrogliosis markers, like Gfap. Remarkably, CMS altered mTORC1 signalling in both strains, decreasing autophagy only in SAMR1 mice. We found a decrease in glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK-3β) inactivation, hyperphosphorylation of Tau and an increase in sAPPβ protein levels in mice under CMS. Moreover, reduction in the non-amyloidogenic secretase ADAM10 protein levels was found in SAMR1 CMS group. Consequently, detrimental effects on behaviour and cognitive performance were detected in CMS treated mice, affecting mainly SAMR1 mice, promoting a turning to SAMP8 phenotype. In conclusion, CMS is a feasible intervention to understand the influence of stress on epigenetic mechanisms underlying cognition and accelerating senescence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0155.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: robot cloud; cognition as a service; cognitive robots; sentential cognitive system; cloud service; human–robot interaction
Online: 14 October 2019 (06:26:52 CEST)
Cloud robotics is becoming an alternative to support advanced services of robots with low computing power as network technology advances. Recently, fog robotics has gained attention since the approach has merit relieving latency and security issues over the conventional cloud robotics. In this paper, a Function-as-a-Service based Fog Robotic (FaaS-FR) for cognitive robots is proposed. The model distributes the cognitive functions according to the computational power, latency and security with a public robot cloud and fog robot server. During the experiment with a Raspberry Pi as an edge, the proposed FaaS-FR model shows efficient and practical performance in the proper distribution of the computational work of the cognitive system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2196.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: microbiome; cognitive bacteria; embodied cognition; behavior; holobiont; meditation; Internet of Microbes (IOM); developmental programming; quantum states; hologenome
Online: 1 September 2023 (03:29:46 CEST)
Microbes are the most prevalent and widely-distributed life form on planet Earth. They are also cognitive organisms with memory and superior problem-solving skills that use quantum phase transitions during their remarkably-effective gathering and dissemination of information. This narrative review explores the biological ramifications of human holobionts physically embodying the human microbiome and connecting to the Internet of Microbes (IOM) beyond our body. Within the review, we consider: 1) the ways in which our microbial co-partners exerted control over our ancestors and continue to influence our current human generation, 2) how they mold virtually every key aspect of our life and even remain with our body in death and 3) how inward-looking contemplative tools such as meditation and embodied cognition provide an ideal opportunity to connect to the microbial information super highway and tap the full range of human holobiont capacities.