ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0108.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Plant phenotyping, Plant pixel classification, Colour space, , Gaussian mixture model, Earth mover distance, Variance ratio, Plant segmentation.
Online: 15 December 2017 (16:52:23 CET)
Segmentation of a region of interest is an important pre-processing step for many colour image analysis techniques. Similarly segmentation of plant in digital images is an important preprocessing step in phenotying plants by image analysis. In this paper we present an analytical study to statistically determine the suitability of colour space representation of an image to best detect plant pixels and separate them from background pixels. Our hypothesis is that the colour space representation in which the separation of the distributions representing plant pixels and background pixels is maximized would be the best for detection of plant pixels. The two classes of pixels are modelled as a Gaussian mixture model (GMM). In our GM modelling we don't make any prior assumption about the number of Gaussians in the model. Rather a constant bandwidth mean-shift filter is used to cluster the data and the number of clusters and hence the number of Gaussians is automatically determined. Here we have analysed following representative colour spaces like $RGB$, $rgb$, $HSV$, $Ycbcr$ and $CIE-Lab$. This is because these colour spaces represent several other similar colour spaces and also an exhaustive study of all the colour space will be too voluminous. We also analyse the colour space feature from the two-class variance ratio perspective and compare the results of our hypothesis with this metric. The dataset for this empirical study consist of 378 digital images of plants and their manual segmentation. Dataset consist of various species of plants (arabidopsi, tobacco, wheat, rye grass etc.) imaged under different lighting conditions, indoor and outdoor, controlled and uncontrolled background. In results we obtain better segmentation of the plants in $HSV$ colour space, which is supported by its Earth mover distance (EMD) on the GMM distribution of plant and background pixels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0209.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: plant phenotyping; noise filtering; binarization; accuracy evaluation; connected components
Online: 24 April 2018 (17:02:18 CEST)
Plants are such important keys of biological part of our environment, supply the human life and creatures. Understanding how the plant’s functions react with our surroundings, helps us better to make plant growth and development of food products. It means the plant phenotyping gives us bio information which needs some tools to reach the plant knowledge. Imaging tools is one of the phenotyping solutions which consists of imaging hardware such as the camera and image analysis software analyses the plant images changings such as plant growth rates. In this paper, we proposed a preprocessing algorithm to eliminate the noise and separate foreground from the background which results the plant image to help the plant image segmentation. The preprocessing is one of important levels has effect on better image segmentation and finally better plant’s image labeling and analysis. Our proposed algorithm is focused on removing noise such as converting the color space, applying the filters and local adaptive binarization step such as Niblack. Finally, we evaluate our algorithm with other algorithms by testing a variety of binarization methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0081.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: miRNAs; pre-miRNAs sequencing; Abelmoschus esculentus; Next generation sequencing; non-model plant
Online: 14 March 2017 (10:15:14 CET)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial regulatory RNAs, originated from hairpin precursors. For the past decade, researchers are focusing extensively on miRNA profiles in various plants. However studies on precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) global profiling stay static even in model plants. Here, for the first time in a non-model plant, Abelmoschus esculentus with negligible genome information, we are reporting the global profiling to characterize the miRNAs and their associated pre-miRNAs by applying next generation sequencing approach. Preliminarily we performed sRNA (small RNA) sequencing with five biological replicates of leaf samples to attain 207,285,863 reads and data analysis using miRPlant keyed out 128 known and 845 novel miRNA candidates. With the objective to seize their associated hairpin precursors, we accomplished pre-miRNA sequencing to attain 83,269,844 reads. The paired end reads are merged, adaptor trimmed and the resulting 40-241 nt (nucleotide) sequences were picked out for analysis by using perl scripts from miRGrep tool and in-house built shell script for Minimum Fold Energy Index (MFEI) calculation. Applying stringent criteria of dicer cleavage pattern and perfect stem loop structure revealed precursors for 57 known miRNAs of 15 families and 18 novel miRNAs. Quantitative Real Time (qRT) PCR was performed to determine the expression of selected miRNAs.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: automated machine learning; Neural Architecture Search; high-throughput plant phenotyping; wheat lodging assessment; unmanned aerial vehicle.
Online: 1 February 2021 (14:11:08 CET)
Automated machine learning (AutoML) has been heralded as the next wave in artificial intelligence with its promise to deliver high performance end-to-end machine learning pipelines with minimal effort from the user. However, despite AutoML showing great promise for computer vision tasks, to the best of our knowledge, no study has used AutoML for image-based plant phenotyping. To address this gap in knowledge, we examined the application of AutoML for image-based plant phenotyping using wheat lodging assessment with UAV imagery as an example. We compared the performance of an open-source AutoML framework, AutoKeras in image classification and regression tasks to transfer learning using modern convolutional neural network (CNN) architectures. For image classification which classified plot images as lodged or non-lodged, transfer learning with Xception and DenseNet-201 achieved best classification accuracy of 93.2%, whereas Autokeras had 92.4% accuracy. For image regression which predicted lodging scores from plot images, transfer learning with DenseNet-201 had the best performance (R2=0.8303, RMSE=9.55, MAE=7.03, MAPE=12.54%), followed closely by AutoKeras (R2=0.8273, RMSE=10.65, MAE=8.24, MAPE=13.87%). Interestingly, in both tasks, AutoKeras models had up to 40-fold faster inference times compared to the pretrained CNNs. The merits and drawbacks of AutoML compared to transfer learning for image-based plant phenotyping are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0477.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: High Throughput Plant Phenotyping; Deep Neural Network; Flower Detection; Temporal Phenotypes; Benchmark Dataset; Flower Status Report
Online: 31 October 2022 (10:00:24 CET)
A phenotype is the composite of an observable expression of a genome for traits in a given environment. The trajectories of phenotypes computed from an image sequence and timing of important events in a plant’s life cycle can be viewed as temporal phenotypes and indicative of the plant’s growth pattern and vigor. In this paper, we introduce a novel method called FlowerPhenoNet which uses deep neural networks for detecting flowers from multiview image sequences for high throughput temporal plant phenotyping analysis. Following flower detection, a set of novel flower-based phenotypes are computed, e.g., the day of emergence of the first flower in a plant’s life cycle, the total number of flowers present in the plant at a given time, the highest number of flowers bloomed in the plant, growth trajectory of a flower and the blooming trajectory of a plant. To develop a new algorithm and facilitate performance evaluation based on experimental analysis, a benchmark dataset is indispensable. Thus, we introduce a benchmark dataset called FlowerPheno which comprises image sequences of three flowering plant species, e.g., sunflower, coleus, and canna, captured by a visible light camera in a high throughput plant phenotyping platform from multiple view angles. The experimental analyses on the FlowerPheno dataset demonstrate the efficacy of the FlowerPhenoNet.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0518.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: alternation of generations; fertilization; gametophyte; mating; meiosis; plant sexual reproduction; sporophyte
Online: 26 October 2020 (11:49:53 CET)
The current plant two-sex model makes the assumption that there are only two sexual reproductive states: male and female. However, the application of this model to the plant alternation of generations requires the subtle redefinition of several common terms related to sexual reproduction, which also seems to obscure aspects of one or the other plant generation: For instance, the homosporous sporophytic plant is treated as being “asexual,” and the gametophytes of angiosperms treated like mere gametes. In contrast, the proposal is made that the sporophytes of homosporous plants are indeed sexual reproductive organisms, as are the gametophytes of heterosporous plants. This view requires the expansion of the number of sexual reproductive states we accept for plants, therefore a three-sex model for homosporous plants and a four-sex model for heterosporous plants are described and then contrasted with the current two-sex model. These new models allow the use of sexual reproductive terms in a manner largely similar to that seen in animals, and may better accommodate the plant alternation of generations life cycle than does the current plant two-sex model. These new three-sex and four-sex models may also help stimulate new lines of research, and examples of how they might alter our view of the flower, and may lead to new perspectives in terms of sexual determination, are presented. Thus it is suggested that plants have more than merely two sexual reproductive states, and that recognition of this may promote our study and understanding of plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0032.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: image segmentation; wireless sensor node deployment; plant growth simulation algorithm; disaster management
Online: 4 May 2017 (06:02:31 CEST)
The use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) during emergency response of a disaster has been widespread in recent years and the terrain images captured by the cameras on board these vehicles are significant sources of information for such disaster monitoring operations. Thus, analyzing such images are important for assessing the terrain of interest during such emergency response operations. Further, these UAVs are mainly used in disaster monitoring systems for the automated deployment of sensor nodes in real time. Therefore, deploying and localizing the wireless sensor nodes optimally, only in the regions of interest that are identified by segmenting the images captured by UAVs, hold paramount significance thereby effecting their performance. In this paper, the highly effective nature-inspired Plant Growth Simulation Algorithm (PGSA) has been applied for the segmentation of such terrestrial images and also for the localization of the deployed sensor nodes. The problem is formulated as a multi-dimensional optimization problem and PGSA has been used to solve it. Furthermore, the proposed method has been compared to other existing evolutionary methods and simulation results show that PGSA gives better performance with respect to both speed and accuracy unlike other techniques in literature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0976.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: quorum sensing; quorum sensing inhibitors; Chromobacterium violaceum; plant extracts
Online: 15 May 2023 (05:07:34 CEST)
In the new antibiotic era, the exponential increase of multiresistant bacterial strains become the main global health problem. Many researchers focused their efforts to explore novel or combined strategies for combating bacterial resistance. The good knowledge of molecular mechanisms of resistance and bacterial virulence factors as key targets gives us a good scenario to resolve the problem. One particularly attractive and promising way is to attack the main regulatory “network” of bacterial virulence determinants known as Quorum sensing (QS). The inhibition of QS signals will be a novel way for screening more effective Quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) and will put a key role in next-generation antimicrobials in the resistance battle. This determined the aim of the present review: comprehensive clarification of the regulatory mechanisms of quorum-sensing signaling pathways in Chromobacterium violaceum and discovery of potential plant quorum sensing inhibitors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0417.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: nutrient use efficiency; plant uptake; N-mineralization; carbon sequestration; manure management; animal-crop production systems; sustainability
Online: 3 March 2021 (09:49:16 CET)
The use of swine manure as a source of plant nutrients is one alternative to synthetic fertilizers. However, conventional manure application with >90% water and a low C:N ratio results in soil C loss to the atmosphere. Our hypothesis was to use biochar as a manure nutrient stabilizer that would slowly release nutrients to plants upon biochar-swine manure mixture application to soil. The objectives were to evaluate the impact of biochar-treated swine manure on soil total C, N, and plant-available macro and micronutrients in greenhouse-cultivated corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Neutral pH red oak (RO), highly alkaline autothermal corn stover (HAP), and mild acidic Fe-treated autothermal corn stover (HAPE) biomass were pyrolyzed to prepare biochars. Each biochar was surface-applied to swine manure at a 1:4 (biochar wt/manure wt) ratio to generate mixtures of manure and respective biochars (MRO, MHAP, and MHAPE). Conventional manure (M) control and manure-biochar mixtures were then applied to the soil at a recommended rate. Corn and soybean were grown under these controls and treatments (S, M, MRO, MHAP, and MHAPE) to evaluate the manure-biochar impact on soil quality, plant biomass yield, and nutrient uptake. Soil OM significantly (<0.05) increased in all manure-biochar treatments; however, no change in soil pH or N was observed under any treatment. No difference in soil ammonium between treatments was identified. There was a significant decrease in soil M3-P and soil NO3- for all manure-biochar treatments compared to the conventional M. However, the plant biomass nutrient concentrations were not significantly different from control manure. Moreover, an increasing trend of N and decreasing trend of P in the plant under all biochar-manure treatments than the controls were noted. This observation suggests that the presence of biochar is capable of influencing the soil N and P in such a way as not to lose those nutrients at the early growth stages of the plant. In general, no statistical difference in corn or soybean biomass yield and plant nutrient uptake for N, P, and K was observed. Interestingly, manure-biochar application to soil significantly diluted the M3-extractable soil Cu and Zn concentrations. The results attribute that manure-biochar has the potential to be a better soil amendment than conventional manure application to the soil.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0503.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Plant Pathogen; Biocontrol; Microbes; AMF; Bacteriophages; Microbiome; Sustainable strategies
Online: 31 December 2021 (10:45:32 CET)
Food security has become a major concern worldwide in recent years due to ever increasing population. Providing food for the growing billions without disturbing environmental balance is incessantly required in the current scenario. In view of this, sustainable modes of agricultural practices offer better promise and hence are gaining prominence recently. Moreover, these methods have taken precedence currently over chemical-based methods of pest restriction and pathogen control. Adoption of Biological Control is one such crucial technique that is currently in the forefront. Over a period of time, various biocontrol strategies have been experimented with and some have exhibited great success and promise. This review highlights the different methods of plant-pathogen control, types of plant pathogens, their modus operandi and various biocontrol approaches employing a range of microorganisms and their byproducts. The study lays emphasis on the use of upcoming methodologies like microbiome management and engineering, phage cocktails, genetically modified biocontrol agents and microbial volatilome as available strategies to sustainable agricultural practices. More importantly, a critical analysis of the various methods enumerated in the paper indicates the need to amalgamate these techniques in order to improve the degree of biocontrol offered by them.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: global change; plant-herbivore interactions; plant-pathogen interactions; coexistence; antagonistic biotic interactions
Online: 23 July 2020 (10:36:26 CEST)
Indirect effects of global change via changing species interactions have been largely ignored in studies predicting global change impacts on ecosystems. Antagonistic biotic interactions, however, can strongly affect ecosystems and are likely to be affected by global change drivers themselves. We synthesize current knowledge on the impact of invertebrate herbivores and pathogens on plant productivity, diversity and community composition, and outline theory and expectations on how important global change drivers – nitrogen enrichment, climate change and elevated CO2, and plant and insect diversity loss, may affect enemy impact on plant communities. We illustrate that our ability to predict global change impact requires a holistic perspective, taking into account direct as well as indirect effects via the biotic component of ecosystems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0015.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: plant; sesquiterpenes; biosynthesis; graph grammars; database;
Online: 1 March 2019 (14:30:16 CET)
Plants produce a diverse portfolio of sesquiterpenes that are important in their response to herbivores and the interaction with other plants. Their biosynthesis from farnesyl diphosphate depends on the sesquiterpene synthases. Here, we investigate to what extent metabolic pathways can be reconstructed just from knowledge of the final product and the reaction mechanisms catalyzed by sesquiterpene synthases. We use the software package MedØlDatschgerl (MØD) to generate chemical networks and elucidate pathways contained in them. As examples, we successfully consider the reachability of the important plant sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, and β-farnesene. We also introduce a graph database to integrate simulation results with experimental biological evidence for selected predicted sesquiterpenes biosynthesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0027.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: plant specific insert; aspartic proteinase; vacuolar sorting; unconventional trafficking; endoplasmic reticulum; Golgi, N-linked glycosylation
Online: 2 August 2019 (10:05:06 CEST)
In plant cells the conventional route to the vacuole involves the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi and the prevacuolar compartment. However, over the years, unconventional sorting to the vacuole, bypassing the Golgi, has been described, which is the case of the Plant Specific Insert (PSI) of the aspartic proteinase cardosin A. Interestingly, this Golgi-bypass ability is not a characteristic shared by all PSIs, since two related PSIs showed to have different sensitivity to ER-to-Golgi blockage. Given the high sequence similarity between the PSIs domains, we sought to depict the differences in terms of post-translational modifications. In fact, one feature that draws our attention is that one is N-glycosylated and the other one is not. Using site-directed mutagenesis to obtain mutated versions of the two PSIs, with and without the glycosylation motif, we observed that altering the glycosylation pattern interferes with the trafficking of the protein as the non-glycosylated PSI-B, unlike its native glycosylated form, is able to bypass ER-to-Golgi blockage and accumulate in the vacuole. This is also true when the PSI domain is analyzed in the context of the full-length cardosin. Regardless of opening exciting research gaps, the results obtained so far need a more comprehensive study of the mechanisms behind this unconventional direct sorting to the vacuole.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1581.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: (m,n)-rung ortho pair fuzzy sets, cosine similarity measure, pattern recognition, Plant leaf Disease)
Online: 23 May 2023 (05:26:15 CEST)
This article introduces ten similarity measures that utilize cosine and cotangent functions to compare (m,n)-rung orthopair fuzzy sets, this a super class of q-rung orthopair fuzzy sets. Further, we applied our established weighted similarity measures to medical diagnosis, pattern recognition,and building material problems and also presented the comparison between established measures with the existing cosine and cotangent measures of q-rung orthopair, pythagorean and intuitionistic fuzzy sets. Lastly, we considered a numerical example that demonstrates the effective and scientific application of these similarity measures in plant leaf disease classification. Furthermore, we present graphical interpretations to demonstrate the effectiveness of our established measures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0520.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: plant-plant interactions; stress gradient hypothesis; functional trait ecology; inter-plant distance; individual-based models; consumer-resource models
Online: 17 February 2022 (19:37:10 CET)
Ecologists use the net biotic interactions among plants to predict fundamental ecosystem features. Following this approach, ecologists have built a giant body of theory founded on observational evidence. However, due to the limitations that a phenomenological approach raises both in empirical and theoretical studies, an increasing number of scientists claim the need for a mechanistic understanding of plant interaction outcomes, and a few studies have taken such a mechanistic approach. In this synthesis, we propose a modeling framework to study the plant interaction mechanistically. We first establish a conceptual ground to frame plant-plant interactions, and then, we propose to formalize this research line theoretically developing a family of individual-based, spatially-explicit models in which biotic interactions are an emergent property mediated by the interaction between plants’ functional traits and the environment. These models allow researchers to evaluate the strength and sign of biotic interactions under different environmental scenarios and thus constitute a powerful tool to investigate the mechanisms underlying facilitation, species coexistence, or the formation of vegetation spatial patterns.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0152.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Plant disease epidemics
Online: 23 February 2023 (02:56:41 CET)
A synoptic review of plant disease epidemics and outbreaks was made using two complementary approaches. The first approach involved reviewing scientific literature published in 2021, in which quantitative data related to new plant disease epidemics or outbreaks were obtained via surveys or similar methodologies. The second approach involved retrieving new records added in 2021 to the CABI Distribution Database, which contains over a million global geographic records of organisms from over 50,000 species. The literature review retrieved 186 articles, describing studies in 62 categories (pathogen species/species complexes) across >40 host species on 6 continents. Pathogen species with >5 articles were: Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, cassava mosaic viruses, citrus tristeza virus, Erwinia amylovora, Fusarium spp. complexes, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, Magnaporthe oryzae, maize lethal necrosis co-infecting viruses, Meloidogyne spp. complexes, Pseudomonas syringae pvs, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Xylella fastidiosa, and Zymoseptoria tritici. Automated searches of the CABI Distribution Database identified 617 distribution records new in 2021 of 283 plant pathogens. A further manual review of these records confirmed 15 pathogens reported in new locations: apple hammerhead viroid, apple rubbery wood viruses, Aphelenchoides besseyi, Biscogniauxia mediterranea, Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus, citrus tristeza virus, Colletotrichum siamense, cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus, Erwinia rhapontici, Erysiphe corylacearum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4, Globodera rostochiensis, Nothophoma quercina, potato spindle tuber viroid, and tomato brown rugose fruit virus. Of these, 4 pathogens had at least 25% of all records reported in 2021. We assessed two of these pathogens – tomato brown rugose fruit virus and cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus – to be actively emerging in/spreading to new locations. Although three important pathogens – Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus, citrus tristeza virus and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense – were represented in the results of both our literature review and our interrogation of the CABI Distribution Database, in general our dual approaches revealed distinct sets of plant disease outbreaks and new records, with little overlap.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0270.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: MPDB2.0,; medicinal plant; medicinal plant database of Bangladesh; folk medicine
Online: 10 February 2021 (16:29:00 CET)
Medicinal plants are generally defined as rare herbals with potent medicinal activities that can be used as an alternative treatment for diseases. Recent studies exploring novel medicine developments, originating from folk-medicinal practices challenges this notion and suggests that both the circumference of the term medicinal plant and their potential application covers a substantially extensive verse than previously suggested. While medicinal plants are not limited to the borders of any country, Bangladesh and its south-east Asian neighbors do boast a huge collection of potent medicinal plants with considerable folk-medicine history compared to most other countries of the world. MPDB 2.0 is the continuation of MPDB 1.0, it serves as both a data repertoire for medicinal of Bangladesh and a user-friendly interface for researchers, health practitioners, drug developers, and students who wish to study the various medicinal & nutritive plants scattered around Bangladesh and the underlying phytochemicals contributing to their efficacy in folk medicine. While in developing MPDB 2.0 human diseases have been highly focused upon, the information in this database is not limited in its application for human diseases or diseases only, as many of the plants indexed here can serve in developing biofuel or bioremediation technologies or nutritive diets or cosmetics, etc. MPDB 2.0 comprises a collection of more than five hundred medicinal plants from Bangladesh along with a record of their corresponding scientific, family, and local names together with their utilized parts, information regarding ailments, active compounds, and PubMed ID of related publications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0127.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: hydro-power; hydro-power plant; micro-energy; renewable energy; water energy
Online: 11 December 2018 (10:46:08 CET)
This research paper is part of the wider project concerning the very first detailed mapping of the overall Taiwanese hydro-power plants that took place from 2013 up to 2015 and it is currently in evaluation and finalization stage. The case of Shanping hydro-power plant has been carefully studied, photographed, documented and mapped in situ. It was one of the isolated hydro-power plant projects originally built to supply the remote area with the specific designation. Shanping hydro-power plant, as well as the other units from the early hydro-power generation era in Taiwan, are considered to be the technological heritage of civil and mechanical engineering that reflects later in all the further projects up to nowadays modern Taiwanese hydro-power plants. Unfortunately, most of the hydro-power houses from the older periods were severely damaged or destroyed by natural causes which were also the case of Shanping unit. The research is trying to reconstruct the original location of the powerhouse and its supporting structures based on available historical documents, previous studies, comparative methodology, and the current on-site observation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0035.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: EuAP2 genes; Flowering; Plant Development
Online: 24 October 2019 (11:04:57 CEST)
EuAP2 genes are famous for their role in flower development. A legacy of the founding member of this subfamily of transcription factor, whose mutants lacked petals in Arabidopsis. However, studies of other euAP2 genes in several species have accumulated evidence highlighting the diverse roles of euAP2 genes in other aspects of plant development. Here, we emphasize other developmental roles of euAP2 genes in various species and suggest a shift from regarding euAP2 genes as just flowering genes to consider the global role they may be playing in plant development. We hypothesize that their almost universal expression profile and pleiotropic effects of their mutation suggest their involvement in fundamental plant development processes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0507.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: epigenetics; plant development; microsporogenesis; megasporogenesis; male and female gametophytes; embryogenesis; endospermogenesis; sexual and asexual reproduction
Online: 30 September 2021 (09:16:17 CEST)
Plants are exposed to highly fluctuating effects of light, temperature, weather conditions and many other environmental factors throughout their life. As sessile or-ganisms, unlike animals, they are unable to escape, hide or even change their position. Therefore, the growth and development of plants is largely determined by interaction with the external environment, the success of this interaction depends on the ability of the phenotype plasticity, which is largely determined by epigenetic regulation. In addi-tion to how environmental factors can change the patterns of genes expression, epige-netic regulation determines how genetic expression changes during the differentiation of one cell type into another, and how patterns of gene expression are passed from one cell to its descendants. Thus, one genome can generate many 'epigenomes'. Epigenetic modifications acquire special significance during the formation of gametes and plant reproduction, when epigenetic marks are eliminated during meiosis and early embry-ogenesis and later reappear. However, during asexual plant reproduction, when meio-sis is absent or suspended, epigenetic modifications that have arisen in the parental sporophyte can be transmitted to the next clonal generation practically unchanged. In plants that reproduce sexually and asexually, epigenetic variability has different adap-tive significance. In asexuals, epigenetic regulation is of particular importance for im-parting plasticity to the phenotype, when the genotype remains unchanged for many generations of individuals. Of particular interest is the question of the possibility of transferring acquired epigenetic memory to future generations and its potential role for natural selection and evolution. All these issues will be discussed to some extent in this review. In the last two decades, a lot of data on the epigenetic regulation of plants has appeared, as well as works summarizing the accumulated knowledge (Verhoeven and Preite 2013; Pikaard and Scheid 2014; Gehring 2019; Ono and Kinoshita 2021), nevertheless, many questions remain unclear, and a number of results are contradic-tory. New in this area data is constantly emerging. We tried to take into account and discuss the main findings and conclusions in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1695.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Industry; micropropagation; plant tissue culture; Sri Lanka
Online: 24 May 2023 (04:53:43 CEST)
Lack of reliable information on PTC industry in Sri Lanka is hampering the advancement of the technology. Hence, this study attempted to assess the current status of PTC industry in Sri Lanka in order to ascertain the type and the level of interventions needed to broaden the horizons of the industry. Data of last 05 years were collected through qualitative research methods including a questionnaire-based survey, personal interviews, etc. and personal interviews to identify product diversity, R&D, available facilities, production capacity, and markets. Information was analyzed qualitatively using descriptive statistical software to assess the current status, and identify gaps, challenges and opportunities. COVID pandemic and the economic crisis had a heavy toll on the PTC industry. Six major challenges experienced by business owners were identified as increasing capacity, opportunities to build market linkages, demand fluctuations, issues relating to awareness and insufficient support given by the government. Proper identification and screening of mother plants, determining the production capacities and marketing, knowledgeable and skilled human resources, were identified as important contributory factors for success. Development strategies identified mainly include instinctive decision making and government support. Embracing the significant trade achievements through resource reallocation, prioritization and improvisation processes at individual, family group, inter-organizational levels and across these levels need to be regulated through a responsible authority. These interpretations and recommendations of this research can be utilized both by the policy makers and public and private sector organizations for decision making purposes targeting commercial scale advancements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0215.v4
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: coevolution; herbivory; host-plant specialization; phylogeny; speciation
Online: 17 October 2019 (10:12:05 CEST)
During the last two decades, ecological speciation has been a major research theme in evolutionary biology. Ecological speciation occurs when reproductive isolation between populations evolves as a result of niche differentiation. Phytophagous insects represent model systems for the study of this evolutionary process. The host-plants on which these insects feed and often spend parts of their life cycle constitute ideal agents of divergent selection for these organisms. Adaptation to feeding on different host-plant species can potentially lead to ecological specialization of populations and subsequent speciation. This process is thought to have given birth to the astonishing diversity of phytophagous insects and is often put forward in macroevolutionary scenarios of insect diversification. Consequently, numerous phylogenetic studies on phytophagous insects have aimed at testing whether speciation driven by host-plant adaptation is the main pathway for the diversification of the groups under investigation. The increasing availability of comprehensive and well-resolved phylogenies and the recent developments in phylogenetic comparative methods are offering an unprecedented opportunity to test hypotheses on insect diversification at a macroevolutionary scale, in a robust phylogenetic framework. Our purpose here is to review the contribution of phylogenetic analyses to investigate the importance of plant-mediated speciation in the diversification of phytophagous insects and to present suggestions for future developments in this field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0049.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: plant extracts; antifungal activity; fungal pathogens
Online: 13 October 2016 (11:50:21 CEST)
Abstract Plant fungal pathogens are frequently found as one of limiting factors for crop production. More than 10,000 species of fungi can cause disease in plants. To control the diseases, many farmers are still rely on the use of chemical fungicides, however most synthetic fungicides can cause acute toxicity, and some cause chronic toxicity as well. Thus, an appropriate technological improvement towards a more effective use of natural resources is required in agriculture to develop environmentally friendly sustainable farming system. This paper highlights the potential of extracts of tropical plants as antifungal agent to control plant fungal diseases. Information and data presented in this paper are mainly derived from selected and related references that previously published in the scientific journals. Many higher plants of tropical origin with fungicidal activities and their potential for fungal disease control of agricultural crops have been studied, however most of the studies have been done under in vitro condition. Some plant extracts showed strong antifungal activities on in vitro as well as in vivo tests, but some plant extracts showed significant antifungal activities on in vitro test, but did not obvious on in vivo tests. A great variation in antifungal activities were shown by plants extracts of different species and plant parts, in one hand, and on the other hand, variation was also observed on the responses of different fungal species to the same plant extract. Since the purpose of the use of plant extract is to control plant fungal diseases, the field trial is needed to ensure the stability of efficacy of certain plant extract. In addition, isolation and identification of active substances in the extracts is needed to assess possible mode of action and side effect of their use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0091.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Plant extracts; VEG’LYS; antimicrobial effects; curative and preventive treatment
Online: 6 January 2022 (14:06:53 CET)
The objective of this work was to determine the antimicrobial properties of an allium-based antimicrobial formulation named VEG’LYS (https://phytoauxilium.com/) on the growth of plant pathogenic microorganisms such as fungi, oomycetes, and bacteria. Two anthracnose-related species of the fungal genus Colletotrichum, C. gloeosporioides, and C. fragariae, the oomycete Phytophthora cactorum and the bacterium Xanthomonas fragariae associated with strawberry plants and two fungi Alternaria dauci and Botrytis cinerea, associated with carrot plants were tested in vitro. In in planta experiments, A. dauci and B. cinerea were used.. VEG’LYS inhibited the growth of all plant pathogens tested. We found that both curative and preventive in planta treatments with VEG’LYS inhibited the growth of A. dauci and B. cinerea in carrot. Furthermore, after spraying VEG’LYS on carrot plants the expression of the Pathogenesis-related (PR) 10 gene correlated with the magnitude of infection both in treated and untreated plants. Additionally, it has been shown, that the field application of VEG’LYS on strawberry plants results in a reduction of bacterial and fungal pathogens of strawberry fruits stored in refrigerator. In summary, VEG’LYS is a potential resistance inducer that seems to be suitable for use in both curative and preventive treatments to reduce the diseases and rotting of fruits and vegetables caused by different plant pathogens.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0182.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: sustainable development; plant sciences; ecology; conservation; urbanism; synthetic biology
Online: 14 February 2020 (02:57:11 CET)
Increasingly, architects are looking towards nature to design more sustainable, efficient cities to reduce the environmental impact of urban life. At the moment, plants are incorporated into urban design for conservation or aesthetic reasons. Here, I argue plants can be rationally designed into synthetic systems based on chemical and other functional traits to increase the stability of urban infrastructure, protect native biodiversity, and promote human health while meeting key UN Sustainable Development Goals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0029.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: protease; plant; pathogen; defence; substrate; immunity; hypersensitive response; recognition; signalling; priming
Online: 5 February 2018 (04:11:42 CET)
Proteases are integral enzymes of the plant immune system. Multiple aspects of defence are regulated by proteases, including the hypersensitive response, pathogen recognition, priming and peptide hormone release. These processes are regulated by unrelated proteases residing at different subcellular locations. In this review we discuss ten prominent plant proteases contributing to the plant immune system, highlighting the diversity of roles they perform in plant defence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0290.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: plant diversity; plant productivity; humped pattern; intrinsic rate of species richness; complementary effect; resource availability; disturbance; species pool effect; competition exclusion; process integration
Online: 10 November 2020 (08:28:28 CET)
The plant productivity-richness relationship (PPR) is one of the most debated and important issues in ecology. There have been distinct stages in the research of this issue, including the discovery of the different PPR shapes, respective tests of influencing processes, and integrative research with vegetation investigation, manipulation experiments, and theoretical analysis. The debate largely focuses on what the dominant shapes and underlying mechanisms are. Recent integrative research works following analyses of respective processes affecting PPR have found that the humped, asymptotic, positive, negative, and irregular shapes of PPR are linked to each other. One shape of PPR may change into another. The balance between positive and negative processes determines the different shapes of PPR. Plant diversity has a globally positive effect on plant productivity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0460.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: plant breeding; genomic selection; Bayes; BLUP; machine learning
Online: 18 November 2020 (11:21:50 CET)
Estimation of breeding values through Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) using pedigree-based kinship and Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS) are the two fundamental breeding methods used before and after the introduction of genetic markers, respectively. The emergence of high-density genome-wide markers has led to the development of two parallel series of approaches inspired by BLUP and MAS, which are collectively referred to as Genomic Selection (GS). The first series of GS methods alters pedigree-based BLUP by replacing pedigree-based kinship with marker-based kinship in a variety of ways, including weighting markers by their effects in genome-wide association study (GWAS), joining both pedigree and marker-based kinship together in a single-step BLUP, and substituting individuals with groups in a compressed BLUP. The second series of GS methods estimates the effects for all genetic markers simultaneously. For the second series methods, the marker effects are summed together regardless of their individual significance. Instead of fitting individuals as random effects like in the BLUP series, the second series fits markers as random effects. Differing assumptions regarding the underlying distribution of these marker effects have resulted in the development of many Bayesian-based GS methods. This review highlights critical concept developments for both of these series and explores ongoing GS developments in machine learning, multiple trait selection, and adaptation for hybrid breeding. Furthermore, considering the increasing use and variety of GS methods in plant breeding programs, this review addresses important concerns for future GS development and application, such as the use of GWAS-assisted GS, the long-term effectiveness of GS methods, and the valid assessment of prediction accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0111.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Multispectral; Radiometric calibration; Classification; Plant disease; Aerial imagery
Online: 13 February 2019 (10:40:40 CET)
In recent years, using multispectral cameras on UAVs has provided an opportunity to capture separate bands that offer the extraction of spectral features used for early detection of diseased plants. One of the main steps in disease detection is radiometric calibration that converts digital numbers to reflectance values commonly using white reference panels. This paper focused on the necessity of radiometric calibration to distinguish disease trees in orchards based on aerial multi-spectral images. For this purpose, two study sites with various climate conditions and tree species as well as different disease types were selected where multispectral images were taken using a multirotor UAV. The impact of radiometric correction on plant disease detection was assessed in two ways: 1) comparison of separability between the healthy and diseased classes using T-test and entropy distances; 2) radiometric calibration effect on the accuracy of classification. The experimental result showed the insignificant effect of radiometric calibration on separability criteria. Furthermore, based on T-test and entropy distances criteria, NIR and R spectral features made highest distances between healthy and Greening infected citrus trees, respectively, at the first study site while NDRE and BNDVI spectral features made highest distances between healthy and peach leaf curl infected trees, respectively, at the other study site. In the second strategy, the experimental result showed that radiometric calibration had no effect on the accuracy of classification. As a result, the overall accuracy and kappa values for both un-calibrated and calibrated orthomosaic classifications of the citrus orchard were 96.6% and 0.94%, respectively, using five spectral bands as well as DVI, NDRE, NDVI and GNDVI vegetation indices using a random forest classifier. The experimental results were also similar at the other study site. Therefore, the overall accuracy and kappa values for both the un-calibrated and calibrated orthomosaic classifications were 96.1%, 0.92, respectively, using five spectral bands as well as NDRE, BNDVI, GNDVI, DVI, and NDVI vegetation indices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0443.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Sentinel-2; Land cover; Vegetation; Mapping; Plant communities; Machine learning; Genus-Physiognomy-Ecosystem; Gradient Boosting Decision Trees
Online: 28 December 2021 (10:49:28 CET)
Classification and mapping of plant communities is an essential step for conservation and management of ecosystems and biodiversity. We adopt the Genus-Physiognomy-Ecosystem (GPE) system developed in previous study for satellite-based classification of plant communities. This paper assesses the potential of multi-spectral and multi-temporal images collected by Sentinel-2 satellites. This research was conducted in five representative study sites in a temperate region. It consists of 44 types of plant communities including a few land cover types as well. The plant community types were enumerated in the study sites and ground truth data were prepared with reference to extant vegetation surveys, visual interpretation of high-resolution images, and onsite field observations. We acquired all Sentinel-2 Level-1C product images available for the study sites between 2017-2019 and generated monthly median composite images consisting of ten spectral and twelve spectral-indices. Gradient Boosting Decision Trees (GBDT) classifier was employed as an efficient and distributed gradient boosting technique for the supervised classification of big datasets involved in the research. The cross-validation accuracy in terms of kappa coefficient varied from 87% in Oze site with 41 land cover and plant community types to 95% in Hakkoda site with 19 land cover and plant community types; with average performance of 91% across all sites. In addition, the resulting maps demonstrated a clear distribution of plant community types involved in all sites, highlighting the potential of Sentinel-2 multi-spectral and multi-temporal images with GPE classification system for operational and broad-scale mapping of land cover and plant communities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1815.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: microRNA; target gene; plant growth and development; abiotic stress response
Online: 26 May 2023 (02:04:16 CEST)
MicroRNAs (MiRNAs) are a class of non-coding single-stranded RNA molecules of approximately 20-24 nucleotides in plants that play an important regulatory role in a variety of biological processes such as plant growth and development and response to various abiotic stresses. For example Drought, Salt, Cold, High temperature, Heavy metals and Nutrition. MiRNAs affect gene expression by manipulating the cleavage, translational expression or DNA methylation of target mRNAs. This review describes the current progress made on the way miRNAs are produced and regulated and the way miRNA/target gene is used in plant responses to abiotic stresses. Studying the molecular mechanism of action of miRNAs downstream target genes can optimize the genetic manipulation of crop growth and development conditions that provide a more theoretical basis for improving crop production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0048.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Plant Breeding; Speed Breeding; Training Population; Field Design; Multi-Environment; Multi-Trait; Deep Learning; High-Throughput Phenotyping; Genetic Gain
Online: 3 February 2022 (10:41:44 CET)
Plant geneticists and breeders have used marker technology since the 1980s in quantitative trait locus (QTL) identification. Marker-assisted selection is effective for large-effect QTL but has been challenging to use with quantitative traits controlled by multiple minor effect alleles. Therefore, genomic selection (GS) was proposed to estimate all markers simultaneously, thereby capturing all their effects. However, breeding programs are still struggling to identify the best strategy to implement it into their programs. Traditional breeding programs need to be optimized to implement GS effectively. This review explores the optimization of breeding programs for variety release based on aspects of the breeder’s equation. Optimizations include reorganizing field designs, training populations, increasing the number of lines evaluated, and leveraging the large amount of genomic and phenotypic data collected across different growing seasons and environments to increase heritability estimates, selection intensity, and selection accuracy. Breeding programs can leverage their phenotypic and genotypic data to maximize genetic gain and selection accuracy through GS methods utilizing multi-trait and, multi-environment models, high-throughput phenotyping, and deep learning approaches. Overall, this review describes various methods that plant breeders can utilize to increase genetic gains and effectively implement GS in breeding .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0677.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: meat substitute; meathybrid; consumer preference; plant-based proteins
Online: 26 November 2020 (23:08:59 CET)
High levels ofmeat consumption are increasingly being criticised for ethical, environmental, 2 and social reasons. Plant-based meat substitutes have been identified as healthy sources of protein in 3 comparison to meat. This alternative offers several social, environmental and health benefits and may 4 play a role in reducing meat consumption. However, there has been a lack of research on how specific 5 meat substitute attributes can influence consumers to replace or partially replace meat in their diets. 6 Research demonstrates that in many countries consumers are highly attached to meat.They consider 7 it as an essential and integral element of their daily diet. For these consumers which are not interested 8 in vegan or vegetarian alternatives to meat, so-called meathybrids could be a low-threshold option 9 for a more sustainable food consumption behaviour. In meathybrids only a fraction of the meat 10 product (e.g. 20% to 50%) is replaced with plant-based proteins. In this paper, the results of an online 11 survey with 500 German consumers are presented with focus on preferences and attitudes relating 12 to meathyrids. The results show that more than fifty percent of consumers substitute meat at least 13 occasionally. Thus, about half of the respondents reveal an eligible consumption behaviour in respect 14 to sustainability and healthiness to a certain degree. Concerning the determinants of choosing either 15 meathybrid or meat it becomes evident that the highest effect is exerted by the health perception. The 16 healthier meathybrids are perceived, the higher is the choice probability. Thus, this egoistic motive 17 seems to outperform altruistic motives like animal welfare or environmental concerns when it comes 18 to choice for this new product category.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0068.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Microbiome; Plant Immunity; Priming; Transgenerational Immune Priming (TGIP)
Online: 5 July 2020 (11:35:04 CEST)
One of the biggest demanding situations for food security in the 21st century is to enhance crop yield stability through the improvement of diseases-resistant crops. Managing plant health is a major challenge for modern food production and compounded by the lack of common ground among the many disease control disciplines involved. All plants simultaneously engage with billions of microbes which can be collectively referred to as the plant microbiome. Most microbes inside the plant microbiome are harmless or even beneficial to the plant as they promote plant growth or provide protection in opposition to diseases. However, some of these microbes also cause disease with devastating effects on crop yields. To prevent pathogen infection, plants have evolved an advanced innate immune system that recognizes conserved cell surface molecules that most pathogen possesses. Activation of the plant immune system stops the invading pathogen, however this comes with fitness cost that significantly reduces plant growth and leads to yield penalty. Apart from their innate immune system controlling pre-programmed defense reactions, plants can also increase the responsiveness of their immune system in response to selected environmental signals. This phenomenon is known as “defense priming”. Although defense priming rarely provides full protection, its broad-spectrum effectiveness, low-fitness cost, long‐lasting durability and inherited to future generations make it attractive for sustainable crop protection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0142.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Plant Diseases; Modern Agriculture; Plant Health; AWS DeepLens; SageMaker; Machine Learning; Deep Learning
Online: 14 September 2020 (06:24:16 CEST)
In the Agriculture sector, control of plant leaf diseases is crucial as it influences the quality and production of plant species with an impact on the economy of any country. Therefore, automated identification and classification of plant leaf disease at an early stage is essential to reduce economic loss and to conserve the specific species. Previously, to detect and classify plant leaf disease, various Machine Learning models have been proposed; however, they lack usability due to hardware incompatibility, limited scalability and inefficiency in practical usage. Our proposed DeepLens Classification and Detection Model (DCDM) approach deal with such limitations by introducing automated detection and classification of the leaf diseases in fruits (apple, grapes, peach and strawberry) and vegetables (potato and tomato) via scalable transfer learning on A.W.S. SageMaker and importing it on AWS DeepLens for real-time practical usability. Cloud integration provides scalability and ubiquitous access to our approach. Our experiments on extensive image data set of healthy and unhealthy leaves of fruits and vegetables showed an accuracy of 98.78% with a real-time diagnosis of plant leaves diseases. We used forty thousand images for the training of deep learning model and then evaluated it on ten thousand images. The process of testing an image for disease diagnosis and classification using AWS DeepLens on average took 0.349s, providing disease information to the user in less than a second.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1196.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: plant detection; Otsu; UAS; Canapa sativa; CHM
Online: 18 May 2023 (07:22:06 CEST)
Diffusion in recent decades of Cannabis sativa L. varieties with low concentrations of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is leading to a specialization in the whole sector, requiring innovative techniques for input optimization according to the variety and the growing environment. The continuous agricultural evolution aims at increasing the sustainability of cultivation systems, pushing toward precision technologies application for inputs management. Cannabis monitoring can benefit from Unmanned Aerial Systems applications combined with image thresholding techniques for reliable and effective near-real-time plant detection and numbering. The work compares and evaluates the potential of two threshold segmentation techniques for Cannabis plant detection and counting in two experimental fields in Italy on a multitemporal scale, bringing such techniques in competition with machine learning for object detection. The Otsu segmentation technique demonstrated more reliable performances at the early stage of cultivation with an accuracy of 0.95. The Canopy Height Model technique showed increasing performances during the growing season. Future works will compare thresholding segmentation techniques with machine learning (ML) approaches and their potential as a supporting tool for ML image annotation.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0080.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: plant-parasitic nematodes; resistance; xenobiotic metabolism; ABC transporters; gene silencing
Online: 17 November 2020 (11:40:02 CET)
The molecular interaction between the nematode and the host plant cells is complex and sophisticated. Initial contact with the plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) triggers immune response in the host plant system which includes the release of toxic molecules. To put a bridle on this immune response, PPNs trigger pivotal cytoprotective mechanisms, such as antioxidant and detoxification pathways. Mechanisms of these pathways have been studied in PPNs and the specific genes involved have been targeted for gene silencing research in view of developing novel control measures. However, one of the important group of proteins involved in detoxification pathways known as ABC-transporters are not being studied until recently in PPNs. This opinion article focusses on the current knowledge and future prospects of ABC transporters in PPNs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0110.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Amphiploidy; Disomic Polyploidy; Plant Genome Evolution; Neo-polyploidy; Polysomic Polyploidy
Online: 23 February 2021 (14:25:28 CET)
Polyploidy means having more than two basic sets of chromosomes. Polyploid plants may be artificially obtained through chemical, physical and biological (2n gametes) methods. This approach allows an increased gene scope and expression, thus resulting in phenotypic changes such as yield and product quality. Nonetheless, breeding new cultivars through induced polyploidy should overcome deleterious effects that are partly contributed by genome and epigenome instability after polyploidization. Furthermore, shortening the time required from early chromosome set doubling to the final selection of high yielding superior polyploids is a must. Despite these hurdles, plant breeders have successfully obtained polyploid bred-germplasm in broad range of forages after optimizing methods, concentration and time, particularly when using colchicine. These experimental polyploids are a valuable tool for understanding gene expression, which seems to be driven by dosage dependent gene expression, altered gene regulation and epigenetic changes. Isozymes and DNA-based markers facilitated the identification of rare alleles for particular loci when compared with diploids, and also explained their heterozygosity, phenotypic plasticity and adaptability to diverse environments. Experimentally induced polyploid germplasm could enhance fresh herbage yield and quality, e.g. leaf protein content, leaf total soluble solids, water soluble carbohydrates and sucrose content. Offspring of experimentally obtained hybrids should undergo selection for several generations to improve their performance and stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0257.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Pinus elliottii Engelm; phosphorus addition; plant-litter-soil system; ecological stoichiometry; stoichiometric homeostasis
Online: 12 April 2023 (08:21:44 CEST)
Plants do need a fixed proportion of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) elements to maintain normal metabolic activities. The P fertilizers are widely used to supplement nutrients in subtropical plantations. Stoichiometric homeostasis reflects the strategy of plants to cope with various environments (including P fertilizer supply rate). It is thus of great significance to understand C:N:P stoichiometry in the plant-litter-soil system under P addition and stoichiometric homeostasis of plant tissues for fertilization management of slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm) plantations. We measured the C, N and P contents in root, branch, needle, litter and soil in slash pine plantations fertilized with four treatments - P1 (25 kg P ha−1 yr−1), P2 (50 kg P ha−1 yr−1), P3 (100 kg P ha−1 yr−1), and a control (CK) in subtropical China and calculated stoichiometric homeostasis of plant tissues. Results showed that P addition increased the capacity of needle to obtain C, N and P elements and altered the C:N:P stoichiometry of plant tissues, as well promoted the accumulation of C and P elements in soil, but had no significant effect on soil stoichiometry. The nutrient contents of needle and branch were higher than those of root and litter, indicating that slash pine was more inclined to allocate nutrient to the aboveground tissues. The stoichiometric homeostasis of C, N and P among plant tissues was ranked as follows: root > branch > needle, and homeostasis of nutrient elements in the needle was C > N > P. This indicated that the C, N and P stoichiometric homeostasis was various among plant tissues and elements types under P addition. These findings suggest P addition would alleviate the P limitation of slash pine growth in subtropical regions. In the future, long-term observation experiments should be conducted and the trade-off between P addition rates and economic and ecological benefits should be considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0463.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: disturbance; drylands; photovoltaic; plant community; plant traits; rare species; renewable energy; seed traits; seed banks; solar energy
Online: 20 July 2020 (08:55:44 CEST)
Seed bank survival underpins plant population persistence but studies on seed bank trait-environment interactions are few. Changes in environmental conditions relevant to seed banks occur in desert ecosystems owing to solar energy development. We developed a conceptual model of seed bank survival to complement methodologies using in-situ seed bank packets. Using this framework, we quantified the seed bank survival of two closely related annual desert plant species, one rare (Eriophyllum mohavense) and one common (Eriophyllum wallacei) and the seed bank-environment interactions of these two species in the Mojave Desert within a system that emulates microhabitat variation associated with solar energy development. We tracked 4,860 seeds buried across 540 seed packets and found, averaged across both species, that seed bank survival was 21% and 6% for the first and second growing seasons, respectively. After two growing seasons, the rare annual had a significantly greater seed bank survival (10%) than the common annual (2%). Seed bank survival, across both species, was significantly greater in Shade (10%) microhabitats compared to Runoff (5%) microhabitats and Control microhabitats (3%). Our study confers insight into this early life-stage across rare and common congeners and their environmental interactions using a novel conceptual framework for seed bank survival.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0336.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: plant fructans; fructosyltransferase; metabolism; evolution aspects; functional foods
Online: 13 April 2021 (10:11:41 CEST)
Fructan, a fructose polymer, is used as carbohydrate reserve in many plants. The nutritional and therapeutic benefits of fructans have attracted increasing interest by consumers and food industry. In the course of evolution, many plants have developed the ability of regulating plant frunctan metabolism genes to produce different structures and chain length fructans, which are strongly correlated with their survival in harsh environments. De nevo domestication of fructan-rich plants based on genome editing is a viable and promising approach to improve human dietary quality and reduce the risk of chronic disease. These advances will greatly facilitate breeding and production of tailor-made fructans as a healthy food ingredient from wild plants such as polygonati rhizoma. The purpose of this review is to broaden our knowledge on plant fructan biosynthesis, evolution and beneficial applications for human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0210.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: olive; xylem sap; metabolomics; plant age; genotype
Online: 8 March 2021 (10:56:37 CET)
Vascular pathogens are the causal agents of main diseases threatening the health and growth of olive crops worldwide. The use of endophytic microorganisms represents a challenging and promising strategy for management of vascular diseases in olive. Although current research has been focused on analyzing the structure and diversity of the endophytic microbial communities inhabiting the olive xylem, the characterization of this ecological niche has been overlooked and to date remain unexplored, despite that the characterization of the xylem sap composition is essential to unravel the nutritional requirements of xylem-limited microorganisms. In this study, branches from plantlets and adult olive trees of cultivars ‘Picual’ and ‘Arbequina' were selected to characterize the chemical composition of olive xylem sap extracted using a Scholander pressure chamber. Metabolome and ionome analyses of xylem sap were performed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based and by inductively coupled plasma with optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), respectively. Olive xylem sap metabolites included a higher relative percentage of sugars (54.35%), followed by alcohols (28.85%), amino acids (8.01%), organic acids (7.68%) and osmolytes (1.12%). Within each of these groups, the main metabolites in the olive xylem sap were mannitol, ethanol, glutamine, acetate and trigonelline, whereas K and Cl- were the main element and inorganic anion, respectively. Metabolomic profile varied when comparing olive plant age and genotype. The levels of glucose, fructose, sucrose and mannitol, choline, B and PO43 were significantly higher in adult trees than in plantlets for both olive genotypes, whereas NO3- and Rb content showed the opposite behavior. On the other hand, levels of aspartate, phenylalanine and Na were significantly higher in ‘Picual’ than in ‘Arbequina’ whereas Fe showed the opposite behavior but only for adult trees. Non-supervised hierarchical clustering analysis separated xylem sap composition firstly according to the plant age and then by the olive cultivar. Supervised PLS-DA analysis revealed that B, ethanol, Fe, Fructose, glucose, mannitol, sucrose and Sr were the most significative compounds discriminating adult trees from plantlets, whereas asparagine, aspartate, glutamate and phenylalanine or aspartate, arginine, ethanol and Sr were the most contributory compounds in the discrimination of both olive genotypes for adult trees or plantlets, respectively. Knowledge of the chemical composition of xylem sap will lead to a better understanding of the complex nutritional requirements of olive xylem-inhabiting microorganisms, including its vascular pathogens, and would allow the design of artificial growing media to improve culturing the olive microbiome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2173.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: abioitic stress; regulation of plant translation; IRES; 5’-UTR, uORF; codon bias; G-qudruplex
Online: 31 May 2023 (05:38:58 CEST)
Stress is one of the important factors affecting the growth and development of plants. In recent years, a large body of data on transcriptional changes in response to stress in plants has been obtained. Despite the fact that the important role of the regulation of translation in response to stress has been proven in plants, knowledge in this area remains extremely scarce. In this review, we focused on mRNA translation in the cytoplasm of higher plants. Most of the current research on the effects of translation has been done in yeast and mammalian systems. Translation factors and mechanisms are mostly conserved among eukaryotes; however, some differences are known to exist among plants. A comprehensive understanding of the complex apparatus of translation and its regulation in plants is required. In this work, we have tried to update modern ideas about the regulation of translation under conditions of abiotic stress.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0581.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: genetically encoded biosensors; live spatiotemporal imaging; multiparameter imaging; plant immune response; biotic stress; crops
Online: 28 January 2021 (12:33:42 CET)
Biosensors are indispensable tools to follow plant’s immunity as its spatiotemporal dimension is key in withstanding the complex plant immune signaling. The diversity of genetically encoded biosensors in plants is expanding, covering new analytes with ever higher sensitivity and robustness, but their assortment is limited in some aspects, such as their use to follow biotic stress response, employing more than one biosensor in the same chassis and their implementation into crops. In this review, we focused on the available biosensors that encompass these aspects. We show that in vivo imaging of calcium and reactive oxygen species is satisfactorily covered with the available genetically encoded biosensors, while on the other hand they are still underrepresented when it comes to imaging of the main three hormonal players of the immune response, salicylic acid, ethylene and jasmonic acid. Following more than one analyte in the same chassis, upon one or more conditions has so far been possible by using the most advanced genetically encoded biosensors in plants which allow to monitor calcium and two main hormonal pathways involved in plant development, auxin and cytokinin. These kinds of biosensors are also the most evolved in crops. In the last section, we gathered the challenges in the use of the biosensors and showed some strategies to overcome them.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1888.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Ascomycetes; bio decaffeination; endophytic bacteria; endophytic fungi; entomopathogenic endophytes; nitrogen fixing; phosphate solubilizing; phytohormones; plant defense system
Online: 26 May 2023 (08:14:17 CEST)
Endophytic microbes are a ubiquitous group of plant-associated communities that colonize the intercellular or intracellular host tissues while giving numerous beneficial effects to the plants. All the plant species are thought to be associated with endophytes, majorly constituted with bacteria and fungi. During the last two decades, there has been a considerable movement toward the study of endophytes associated with coffee plants. In this review, the main consideration is given to address the coffee-associated endophytic bacteria and fungi, particularly their action on plant growth promotion and the biocontrol of pests. In addition, we sought to identify and analyze the gaps in available research. Additionally, the potential of endophytes to improve the quality of coffee seeds is briefly discussed. Even though there are limited studies on the subject, it has been well recognized the potentiality of coffee endophytes in plant growth promotion through enhancing nitrogen fixation, availability of minerals, nutrient absorption, secretion of phytohormones, and other bioactive metabolites. Further, the antagonistic effect against various coffee pathogenic bacteria, fungi, nematodes, and also insect pests lead to the protection of the crop. Furthermore, it is recognized that endophytes enhance the sensory characteristics of coffee as a new field of study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0400.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: biochar; charcoal; pyrogenic carbon; road salt; salinity stress; plant performance
Online: 17 April 2023 (04:36:59 CEST)
Pyrolyzed waste biomass, or biochar, has been suggested as a means to increase plant growth and to mitigate soil salinization, which is a widespread agricultural issue and can reach extreme levels in urban soils impacted by de-icing salts. Soil mixing is enhanced by reduced biochar particle size; however, biochar properties vary with particle size and recent studies suggest that plant growth responses may be maximized at intermediate particle sizes. We examined the responses of two plant species (cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti)) to biochar amendments that spanned a wide range of particle sizes obtained by sieving, with and without de-icing salt additions. The smallest size fractions of biochar reduced plant growth relative to unamended controls. Plant biomass production was generally maximized at intermediate biochar particle size treatments, with particles sizes of 0.5-2.0 mm showing the best response. Mitigation of salt effects was also improved at intermediate biochar particle sizes in this particles size range. Our results emphasize the importance of optimizing biochar particle size to best enhance plant responses to biochar, with particular reference to saline soils.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0519.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Burn wounds; ZnO NPs; Plant-based Green Synthesis; Wound healing
Online: 22 July 2020 (11:10:15 CEST)
In this changing world, we all are surrounded by the surmountable risk of getting injured. Amongst various risk factors, major burns are the most distressing and catastrophic. Burn wounds are not easy to heal via natural healing process and ultimately ended up with scar formation. If the degree of burn is high then the loss of tissue and its function is very common. To fasten-up the natural burn wound healing; zinc, an essential trace element is found to be very much effective. But due to its’ particle size limitation, less contact with wounded cells and tissues, and high inherent toxicity restrict its use. Needlessly, zinc is an element with dual action i.e. both antimicrobial and wound healing it is a prime choice to apply its aptitude in burn wound healing. To overcome the documented limitations zinc has converted to nanoparticle form. Zinc oxide nanoparticles, in particular, have attained ample of interest due to their unique properties and potential antimicrobial activity along with wound healing activity which makes it promising for the healing of topical burn wounds. Plant mediated green synthesis of nano-metal oxide particles is gaining a lot of significance due to its simplicity, eco-friendliness and extensive antimicrobial activity and recommended as an appealing substitute to not only physical methods but also chemical methods avoiding the use of the high rate of toxic chemicals and extreme surroundings. This study includes ZnO NPs role in burn wound healing with Phyto-mediated synthesis methods to provide evidence of their potential applications. Additionally, it provides an overview of traditional methods used for the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles and characterization techniques to obtain information concerning the size, shape and optical properties along with toxicity and safety concern of ZnO NPs and its biomedical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0473.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: antioxidant enzymes; DNA methylation; epigenetics; plant resistance; root-knot nematodes; ROS; tomato
Online: 20 September 2020 (14:35:29 CEST)
Two wild-type field populations of root-knot nematodes (Mi-Vfield, Mj-TunC2field), and two isolates selected for virulence in laboratory on resistant tomato cultivars (SM2V, SM11C2), were used to induce a resistance reaction in tomato to the soil-borne parasites. Epigenetic and metabolic mechanisms of resistance were detected and compared with those occurring in partially or fully successful infections. The activated epigenetic mechanisms in plant resistance, as opposed to those activated in infected plants, were detected by analysing the methylated status of total DNA, by ELISA methods, and the expression level of key genes involved in the methylation pathway, by qRT-PCR. DNA hypo-methylation and down-regulation of two methyl-transferase genes (CMT2, DRM5), characterized the only true resistant reaction obtained by inoculating the Mi-1.2-carrying resistant tomato cv Rossol with the avirulent field population Mi-Vfield. On the contrary, in the roots into which nematodes were allowed to develop and reproduce, total DNA was generally found to be hyper-methylated and methyl-transferase genes up-loaded. DNA hypo-methylation was considered to be the upstream mechanism that triggers the general gene over-expression observed in plant resistance. Gene silencing induced by nematodes may be obtained through DNA hyper-methylation and methyl-transferase gene activation. Plant resistance is also characterized by an inhibition of the anti-oxidant enzyme system and activation of the defence enzyme chitinase, as opposed to the activation of such a system and inhibition of the defence enzyme glucanase in roots infested by nematodes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0051.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: chemical plant environmental protection; stackelberg security games; source estimation methods; historical monitoring data; game theory
Online: 14 August 2017 (04:42:56 CEST)
The chemical industry is an integral part of the world economy and a substantial income source for developing countries. However, existing regulations or the enforcement of these regulations, on controlling atmospheric pollutants sometimes may be insufficient, leading to the deterioration of surrounding ecosystems and to a quality decrease of the atmospheric environment. Previous works in this domain fail to generate executable solutions for inspection agencies due to practical challenges. In addressing these challenges, we introduce a so-called Chemical Plant Environment Protection Game (CPEP) to generate reasonable schedules of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations for inspection agencies. First, Stackelberg Security Games (SSGs) are incorporated together with source estimation methods into this research. Second, high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations as well as gas sensors are modeled into the CPEP. Third, simplified data analysis on the regularly discharging of chemical plants is utilized to construct the CPEP. Finally, an illustrative case study is used to investigate the effectiveness of the CPEP Game, and a realistic case study is conducted to illustrate how the models and algorithms being proposed in this paper, work. Results show that playing a CPEP Game can reduce operational costs of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations; moreover, playing the game leads to more compliance from the chemical plants towards the inspection agencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0714.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: plant sterols; database; Polish population
Online: 31 May 2021 (08:32:16 CEST)
Plant sterols are compounds with multiple biological functions, mainly cholesterol-reducing. There are no comprehensive databases on plant sterols, which makes it difficult to estimate their intake in the Polish population. In this study we used international food databases, supplemented by scientific data from the literature, to create a database on plant sterols in the food consumed in Poland to assess the size and sources of dietary plant sterols in the adult population of Poland. The literature search was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar to identify possible sources of published food composition data for plant sterols. The study group consisted of 5690 participants of the WOBASZ II survey. We identified 361 dietary sources of plant sterols based on the consumption of foods and dishes reported by participants. Cereals and fats provided 61% of the total plant sterols, and together with vegetables and fruits, this totaled 80%. Total plant sterol intake for the Polish population was 282.97 mg/day, and divided by men and women was 320.77 and 252.19 mg/day, respectively. Canola oil provided the most plant sterols at 16.92%, followed by white bread at 16.65% and soft margarine at 8.33%. This study found that the database of plant sterols facilitates the calculation of plant sterols in the typical Polish diet, and the results are comparable to those of other studies, despite different methodologies of nutritional assessment and slightly different databases. The main sources of dietary plant sterols did not differ from the data for other populations. This study confirmed the observations of other research that women's diets may have a higher plant sterol density compared to men.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0055.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: PTC; DSG; solar energy; power plant
Online: 3 March 2023 (03:44:17 CET)
Power generation using renewable technologies has become a primordial option to satisfy the energy demand all over the world, being solar concentrating technologies widely applied for this purpose. A combination of Parabolic Trough Collector with Direct Steam Generation has been considered an excellent option for power generation, due to the economic cost and complexity in the plant are reduced. The thermal evaluation of the solar power plant as well as the PTC in the DSG process is very important in viability and economic analysis. In this sense, as the main objective of this work, a numerical tool for evaluating DSG with PTC technology has been developed. The software SOLEEC is a versatile, reliable, accurate and friendly to the user for thermally evaluating a DSG with PTC technology. The user has the possibility to compare the thermal behavior of different geometrical dimensions for a PTC; and even consider different materials; in order to satisfy the demand of superheated steam by a DSG process. The software has an error less than 5% when compared with literature results and in this paper is used to evaluate a power plant in Mexico obtaining that the change to DSG proposing different PTC could reduce the solar field about 35%.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0338.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: castor bean; cancer therapy; immunotoxins; plant toxins; ribosome-inactivating proteins; ricin; rRNA N-glycosylase activity; traditional medicine; folk medicine; bioterrorism.
Online: 28 May 2019 (11:54:43 CEST)
The castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) has been known since time immemorial in traditional medicine in the pharmacopeia of Mediterranean and eastern ancient cultures. Moreover, it is still used in folk medicine worldwide. Castor bean has been mainly recommended as anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, anti-bacterial, laxative, abortifacient, for wounds, ulcers, and many other indications. Many cases of human intoxication occurred accidentally or voluntarily with the ingestion of castor seeds or derivatives. Ricinus toxicity depends on several molecules, among them the most important is ricin, a protein belonging to the family of ribosome-inactivating proteins. Ricin is the most studied of this category of proteins and it is also known to the general public, having been used for biocrimes in several cases. Here, the main steps of ricin research are reported with particular regards to its enzymatic activity, structure and cytotoxicity. Moreover, we discuss ricin toxicity for animals and humans, as well as the relation amongst bioterrorism and ricin and its impact on environmental toxicity. Ricin has also been of great utility to develop a number of immunotoxins specific for the elimination of unwanted cells, mainly cancer cells; some of these immunotoxins gave promising results also in clinical trials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0650.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: biofertilizers; sustainable agriculture; plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria; microbial formulations
Online: 26 September 2020 (16:48:22 CEST)
The world’s population is increasing and so are agricultural activities to match the growing demand for food. Conventional agricultural practices generally employ artificial fertilizers to increase crop yields, but these have multiple environmental and human health effects. For decades, environmentalists and sustainability researchers have focused on alternative crop fertilization mechanisms to address these challenges, and biofertilizers have constantly been researched, recommended, and even successfully-adopted for several crops. Biofertilizers are microbial formulations made of indigenous plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) which can naturally improve plant growth either directly or indirectly, through the production of phytohormones, solubilization of soil nutrients, and production of iron-binding metabolites; siderophores. Biofertilizers, therefore, hold immense potential as tools for sustainable crop production especially in the wake of climate change and global warming. Despite the mounting interest in this technology, their full potential has not yet been realized. This review updates our understanding of the PGPR biofertilizers and sustainable crop production. It evaluates the history of these microbial products, assesses their present state of utilization, and also critically propounds on their future prospects for sustainable crop production. Such information is desirable to fully evaluate their potential and can ultimately pave the way for their increased adoption for crop production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0290.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Histone PTM; RNA Polymerase II; ChIP-seq; chromatin; epigenetics; transcriptional interference; plant; Transcription Cycle; Transcription
Online: 18 March 2020 (17:14:28 CET)
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histone residues shape the landscape of gene expression by modulating the dynamic process of RNAPII transcription. The contribution of particular histone modifications to the definition of distinct RNAPII transcription stages remains poorly characterized in plants. Chromatin Immuno-precipitation combined with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) resolves the genomic distribution of histone modifications. Here, we review histone PTM ChIP-seq data in Arabidopsis thaliana and find support for a Genomic Positioning System (GPS) that guides RNAPII transcription. We review the roles of histone PTM “readers”, “writers” and “erasers”, with a focus on the regulation of gene expression and biological functions in plants. The distinct functions of RNAPII transcription during the plant transcription cycle may in part rely on the characteristic histone PTMs profiles that distinguish transcription stages.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0205.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Antioxidants; Medicinal plant; Justicia adhatoda L.
Online: 5 January 2022 (10:37:29 CET)
There are many medicinal plants that have various medicinal properties in their different parts. The medicinal plants are major backbone of pharmaceutical industries. In this article we compare the antioxidants properties from various plants parts (root, stem, leaf, flower and bark) of the most important medicinal plant, Justicia adhatoda L. Various plant parts showed the good amount of antioxidant properties. These results enhance the medicinal properties of this plant due to the presence of good amount of antioxidants; among all the plant parts leaves and flowers showed maximum natural antioxidants, hence the study could be saying that this plant has good efficacy of antioxidants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0516.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Plant-dominant diet; low-protein diet; dietary protein intake; glomerular hyperfiltration; CKD prevention; uremia
Online: 31 May 2020 (21:22:42 CEST)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects >10% of the adult population. Each year approximately 120,000 Americans develop end-stage kideny disease and initiate dialysis, which is costly and associated with functional impairments, worse health-related quality of life, and high early-mortality rates exceeding 20% in the first year. Recent declarations by the World Kidney Day and the U.S. Government Executive Order seek to implement strategies that reduce the burden of kidney failure by slowing CKD progression and controlling uremia without dialysis. Pragmatic dietary interventions may have a role in improving CKD outcomes and preventing or delaying dialysis initiation. Evidence suggests that a patient-centered plant-dominant low-protein diet (PLADO) of 0.6-0.8 g/kg/day comprised of >50% plant-based sources, administered by dietitians trained in non-dialysis CKD care, can be promising. The scientific premise of the PLADO is based on the observations that high protein diets with high meat intake are not only associated with higher cardiovascular disease risk but also higher CKD incidence and faster CKD progression due to increased intraglomerular pressure and glomerular hyperfiltration. Meat intake increases production of nitrogenous end-products, worsens uremia, and may increase the risk of hyperkalemia, given constipation from the typical low fiber intake. Plant-dominant, fiber-rich, low-protein diet may lead to favorable alterations in the gut microbiome, which can modulate uremic toxin generation and slow CKD progression, along with reducing cardiovascular risk in CKD patients. PLADO is a heart-healthy, safe, flexible, and feasible diet that could be the centerpiece of a conservative and preservative CKD-management strategy that challenges the prevailing dialysis-centered paradigm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0387.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: explainable artificial intelligence; high-level explainable feature; entropy; plant stress; early diagnosis
Online: 22 August 2022 (15:47:02 CEST)
The article is devoted to solving the problem of searching for universal explainable features that can remain explainable for a wide class of objects and phenomena and become an integral part of Explainable AI (XAI). The study is implemented on the example of an applied problem of early diagnostics of plant stress, using Thermal IR (TIR) and HSI, presented by 8 vegetation indices/channels. Each such index was presented by 5 statistical values. A Single-Layer-Perceptron classifier was used as the main instrument. TIR turned out to be the best of the indices in terms of efficiency in the field and sufficient to detect all 7 key days with 100% accuracy. Our study shows also that there are a number of indices, inluding NDVI, and usual color channels Red, Green, Blue, which are close to TIR possibilities in early plant stress detection with 100% accurasy or near, and can be used for wide class of plants and in different conditions their treatment. The stability of the stress classification in our study was maintained when the training set was reduced up to 10% of the dataset volume. The entropy-like feature of (max-min) for any indices/channels have determined as a leadersheep universal high-level explainable feature for the plant stress detection, which used in interaction with some of other statistical features.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0563.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: plant development rate; temperature-dependent; landscape; multi-location trials
Online: 24 September 2020 (04:33:34 CEST)
Understanding the detailed timing of crop phenology and their variability enhances grain yield and quality by providing precise scheduling of irrigation, fertilization, and crop protection mechanisms. Advances in information and communication technology (ICT) provide a unique opportunity to develop agriculture-related tools that enhance wall-to-wall upscaling of data outputs from point-location data to wide-area spatial scales. Because of the heterogeneity of the worldwide agro-ecological zones where crops are cultivated, it is unproductive to perform plant phenology research without providing means to upscale results to landscape-level while safeguarding field-scale relevance. This paper presents an advanced, reproducible, and open-source software for plant phenology prediction and mapping (PPMaP) that inputs data obtained from multi-location field experiments to derive models for any crop variety. This information can then be applied consecutively at a localized grid within a spatial framework to produce plant phenology predictions at the landscape level. This software supports the development of process-oriented and temperature-driven plant phenology models by intuitively and interactively leading the user through a step-by-step progression to the production of spatial maps for any region of interest. Maize (Zea mays L.) was used to demonstrate the robustness, versatility, and high computing efficiency of the resulting modeling outputs of the PPMaP. The framework is implemented in R, providing a flexible and easy‐to‐use GUI interface. Since this allows appropriate scaling to the larger spatial domain, the software can effectively be used to determine the spatially explicit length of growing period (LGP) of any variety.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0223.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: abiotic stress; antioxidant defense; enzyme regulations; oxidative stress; plant nutrients; reactive oxygen species; soil fertility
Online: 24 January 2018 (07:01:05 CET)
Among the plant nutrients potassium (K) is one of the vital elements required for plant growth and physiology. Potassium is not only a constituent of plant structure but also plays regulatory function in several biochemical processes related to protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, enzyme activation. There are several physiological processes like stomatal regulation and photosynthesis are dependent on K. In the recent decades K was found to provide abiotic stress tolerance. Under salt stress, K helps in maintaining ion homeostasis and regulation of osmotic balance. Under drought stress condition K regulates the stomatal opening and makes the plants adaptive to water deficit. Many reports provided the notion that K enhances the antioxidant defense in plants and therefore, protects the plants from oxidative stress under various environmental adversities. Also, it provides some cellular signaling alone or in association with other signaling molecules and phytohormones. Although a considerable progress in understanding K-induced abiotic stress tolerance in plants has been achieved the exact molecular mechanisms of such protections are still under research. In this review, we summarized the recent literature on the biological functions of K, its uptake, and translocation and its role in plant abiotic stress tolerance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0572.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: wind turbine system; hydroelectric plant simulator; model--based control; data--driven approach; self--tuning control; robustness and reliability
Online: 24 October 2018 (11:26:20 CEST)
The interest on the use of renewable energy resources is increasing, especially towards wind and hydro powers, which should be efficiently converted into electric energy via suitable technology tools. To this aim, self--tuning control techniques represent viable strategies that can be employed for this purpose, due to the features of these nonlinear dynamic processes working over a wide range of operating conditions, driven by stochastic inputs, excitations and disturbances. Some of the considered methods were already verified on wind turbine systems, and important advantages may thus derive from the appropriate implementation of the same control schemes for hydroelectric plants. This represents the key point of the work, which provides some guidelines on the design and the application of these control strategies to these energy conversion systems. In fact, it seems that investigations related with both wind and hydraulic energies present a reduced number of common aspects, thus leading to little exchange and share of possible common points. This consideration is particularly valid with reference to the more established wind area when compared to hydroelectric systems. In this way, this work recalls the models of wind turbine and hydroelectric system, and investigates the application of different control solutions. The scope is to analyse common points in the control objectives and the achievable results from the application of different solutions. Another important point of this investigation regards the analysis of the exploited benchmark models, their control objectives, and the development of the control solutions. The working conditions of these energy conversion systems will be also taken into account in order to highlight the reliability and robustness characteristics of the developed control strategies, especially interesting for remote and relatively inaccessible location of many installations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0280.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: nutrition; plant-based diet; vegan diet; lifestyle; obesity; body composition; weight-loss
Online: 24 October 2019 (15:30:39 CEST)
Failure of various weight-loss programs and long-term maintenance of favorable body composition in all kinds of people is high, since the majority go back to old dietary patterns. Many studies have documented the efficacy of a plant-based diet (PBD) for body mass management, but there are opinions that maintaining a PBD is difficult. We aimed to evaluate the long-term success of a whole-food plant-based (WFPB) lifestyle program. We investigated the differences in the obesity indices and lifestyle of 151 adults (39.6 ± SD 12.5 years), who were on our program for short (0.5–<2 years), medium (2–<5 years), or long term (5–10 years). Body-composition changes were favourable for all three groups, both genders and all participants. There were no differences in relative body-composition changes (BMI, body fat percentage and muscle mass index (MMI)) between the three groups. All participants improved their BMI (baseline mean pre-obesity BMI range (kg/m2): 26.4 ± 5.6 to normal 23.9 ± 3.8, p < 0.001), decreased body mass (–7.1 ± 8.3 kg, p < 0.001) and body fat percentage (–6.4 ± 5.6 % points, p < 0.001). Those with the highest BMI at baseline lost the most of: a) BMI units, b) total body mass and c) body fat (a) (kg/m2) (–5.6 ± SD 2.9, –2.4 ± 1.8 and –0.9 ± 1.5), b) (kg) (–16.1 ± SD 8.8, –7.1 ± 5.4 and –2.5 ± 4.5) and c) (% points) (–9.5 ± SD 5.7, –6.6 ± 4.6 and –4.7 ± 5.3) for participants who had baseline BMI in obese, overweight and normal range, respectively; pbaseline vs. current < 0.001 for all). 85.6% (101 out of 118) of parents of underage children (< 18 years), introduced WFPB lifestyle to their children. WFPB lifestyle program provides long-term lifestyle changes for reversal of obesity and is effective transferred to the next generation.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Host jumping; viral evolution; trade-off; plant virus; RNA virus; Potyvirus; Plum pox virus
Online: 19 March 2021 (11:24:18 CET)
Understanding biological mechanisms that regulate emergence of viral diseases, in particular those events engaging cross-species pathogens spillover, are becoming increasingly important in Virology. Species barrier jumping has been extensively studied in animal viruses, and the critical role of a suitable intermediate host in animal viruses-generated human pandemics is highly topical. However, studies on host jumping involving plant viruses have been focused on shifting intra-species, leaving aside the putative role of “bridge hosts” in facilitating interspecies crossing. Here, we take advantage of several VPg mutants, derived from a chimeric construct of the potyvirus Plum pox virus (PPV), analysing its differential behaviour in three herbaceous species. Our results showed that two VPg mutations in a Nicotiana clevelandii-adapted virus, emerged during adaptation to the bridge-host Arabidopsis thaliana, drastically prompted partial adaptation to Chenopodium foetidum. Although, both changes are expected to facilitate productive interactions with eIF(iso)4E, polymorphims detected in PPV VPg and the three eIF(iso)4E studied, extrapolated to a recent VPg:eIF4E structural model, suggested that two adaptation ways can be operating. Remarkably, we found that VPg mutations driving host-range expansion in two non-related species, not only are not associated with cost trade-off constraints in the original host, but also improve fitness on it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0409.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Agronomic traits; Hybrid performance; Nitrogen response; Plant density; Variability
Online: 27 February 2020 (15:59:14 CET)
Maize (Zea mays L.) production in West and Central Africa is constrained by drought, low soil-N and Striga infestation. Breeders in the region have developed and commercialized extra-early and early-maturing hybrids (E-EH and EH), which combine high yield potentials with tolerance/resistance to the three stresses. Hybrids of both maturity groups are new to the farmers; thus, the urgent need to recommend appropriate agronomic practices for these hybrids. We investigated the responses of four hybrids belonging to extra-early and early-maturity groups to plant density (PD) and nitrogen (N) application in five agroecologies. The EHs consistently out-yielded the E-EHs in all the five agroecologies. The hybrids showed no response to N-fertilizer application above 90 kg ha-1. All interactions involving N had no significant effect on all traits except in few cases. The E-EHs and EHs had similar response to PD; their grain yield decreased as PD increased. Contrarily, flowering was delayed and expression of some other agronomic traits such as plant and ear aspects became poorer with increased PD. Optimal yield was obtained at approximately 90 kg N ha-1 and 66,666 plants ha-1. Most of the measured traits indicated high repeatability estimates (i.e. ≥ 60) across the N levels, PDs and environments. Evidently, the hybrids were intolerant of high PD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0751.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Maillard reaction; protein-polysaccharide conjugate; plant proteins; technofunctionality; application; Amadori products; AGEs
Online: 30 December 2020 (11:21:19 CET)
Plant proteins being considered to become the most important protein source of the future, they must be able to replace the animal-derived proteins currently in use as technofunctional food ingredients. This poses challenges because plant proteins are oftentimes storage proteins with a high molecular weight and low water solubility. One promising approach to overcome these limitations is the glycation of plant proteins. The covalent bonding between the proteins and different carbohydrates created via the initial stage of the Maillard reaction can improve the technofunctional characteristics of these proteins without the involvement of potentially toxic chemicals. However, compared to studies with animal-derived proteins, glycation studies on plant proteins are currently still underrepresented in literature. This review provides an overview of the existing studies on the glycation of the major groups of plant proteins with different carbohydrates using different preparation methods. Emphasis is put on the reaction conditions used for glycation as well as the modifications to physicochemical properties and technofunctionality. Different applications of these glycated plant proteins in emulsions, foams, films, and encapsulation systems are introduced. Another focus lies on the reaction chemistry of the Maillard reaction and ways to harness it for controlled glycation and to limit the formation of undesired advanced glycation products. Finally, challenges related to the controlled glycation of plant proteins to improve their properties are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0004.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: artificial sand plant; stone crusher; screen unit and sand unit; beating phenomenon; vibration measurement and reduction
Online: 2 June 2020 (09:35:03 CEST)
Due to limitation of natural sand from rivers and seas, artificial sand production from large stones or rocks is being increased. However, this sand manufacturing process is dangerous and causes several social problems such as high level of unwanted vibrations or noises. This study investigates vibration characteristics of sand and screen units in artificial sand production plant whose actuating operation is multiple with several different exciting frequencies. As a first step, vibration levels are measured at the sand and screen unit positions using accelerometers in time and frequency domains. The measurement is carried out at two different conditions: activating sand unit only and operating entire facilities such as stone crusher. Vibration signals acquired from several locations of the sand and screen units of the plant are collected and analyzed from waveforms and spectrums of the signals. It is identified that the vibration acceleration level of the screen unit is higher than that of the sand unit. In addition, it is found from the acceleration signals measured at plant office and shipping control center those places are far away from the plant location that the beating phenomenon is occurred by close driving frequencies for several sand units. In this work, the vibration caused from the beating is significantly reduced by adjusting the driving frequencies for the sand units so that they are sufficiently scattered to avoid the beating.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0471.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Zea mays; maize; corn; rhizosphere; 16S rRNA gene; ITS; fungicide; plant growth promoting rhizobacteria
Online: 21 August 2020 (05:10:34 CEST)
The targeted application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) provides the key for a future sustainable agriculture with reduced pesticide application. PGPR interaction with the indigenous microbiota is poorly understood but essential to develop reliable applications. Therefore, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila SPA-P69 was applied as seed coating and in combination with a fungicide based on the active ingredients fludioxonil, metalaxyl-M, captan and ziram. Plant performance and rhizosphere composition of treated and non-treated maize plants of two field trials were analyzed. Plant health was significantly increased by treatment; however overall corn yield was not changed. By applying high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA and the ITS genes, the bacterial and fungal changes in the rhizosphere due to different treatments were determined. Despite treatments had a significant impact on the rhizosphere microbiota (9- 12%), the field site was identified as main driver (27- 37%). Soil microbiota composition from each site was significantly different, which explains the site-specific effects. In this study we were able to show first indications how PGPR treatments increase plant health via microbiome shifts in a site-specific manner. This way first steps towards a detailed understanding of PGPRs and developments of consistently efficient applications in diverse environments are set.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0028.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Expired Plant Variety Protection (ex-PVP); maize; nitrogen stress; Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE); U.S. Corn Belt Germplasm
Online: 4 November 2017 (07:39:11 CET)
Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in maize (Zea mays L.) is an important trait to maximize yield with minimal input of nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Expired Plant Variety Protection (ex-PVP) Act-certified germplasm may be an important genetic resource for public breeding sectors. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the genetic variation of N-use traits and to characterize maize ex-PVP inbreds adapted to the U.S. Corn Belt for NUE performance. Eighty-nine ex-PVP inbreds [36 stiff stalk synthetic (SSS), and 53 non-stiff stalk synthetic (NSSS)] were genotyped using 26,769 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, then 263 single-cross maize hybrids derived from these inbreds were grown in eight environments from 2011 to 2015 at two N fertilizer rates (0 and 252 kg N ha−1) and three replications. Genetic utilization and the yield response to N fertilizer were stable across environments and were highly correlated with yield under low and high N conditions, respectively. Cluster analysis identified inbreds with desirable NUE performance. However, only one inbred (PHK56) was ranked in the top 10% for yield under both N-stress and high N conditions. Broad-sense heritability across 12 different N-use traits ranged from 0.11 to 0.77, but was not associated with breeding value accuracy. Nitrogen-stress tolerance was negatively correlated with the yield increase from N fertilizer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0275.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Grid-connected PV plant, Monitoring, Performance parameters, performance comparison, Mauritania.
Online: 11 February 2021 (10:30:39 CET)
This paper presents preliminary operational performance results of a pilot grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system designed and installed on the rooftop of the Ministry of Petroleum, Energy and Mining headquarter in Nouakchott (latitude of 18.1°N and the longitude of 16.0°W), Mauritania. The aim is for the government to demonstrate the relevance of using solar energy and to encourage the uptake of solar PV technology for commercial and residential building applications in Mauritania.. In this study, the grid-connected PV system has a peak power of 48 kW and the performance monitoring was carried out during one year, with a system that allow to measure DC power, inverter and system conversion efficiency, energy generated by the PV arrays, solar radiation in the inclination plane of panels, ambient temperature and module temperature. During this period, the PV plant was found to supply 65,668 kWh to the grid. The final yield ranged from 3.91 to 5.09 kWh/kWp/day. The performance ratio was found to vary from 69.69% to 89.35% and the annual capacity factor was found to be 19%. Finally, performance parameters were compared with other PV plants installed in the same region of Northern Africa. The outcome of this work is deemed important in assisting accurate PV system design and decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0171.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Alien plant species; Availability hypothesis; Versatility hypothesis; Residence time hypothesis; theory driven ethnobotany
Online: 14 February 2022 (10:02:40 CET)
Ethnobotany has been, for too long, a descriptive discipline. However, ethnobotanists are increasingly calling for a paradigm shift towards the formulation of unifying theories and hypothesis-driven research in ethnobotany. Here, we formulated a theory, termed time-since-introduction theory, to explain the integration of alien plants into local pharmacopoeias in their recipient environment. This theory suggests that the factor time is paramount in determining which alien plants are more likely to be included in the medicinal flora of the areas they are introduced in. The theory relies on three hypotheses, the availability and versatility hypotheses alongside the residence time hypothesis newly proposed in the present study. We tested this theory by fitting a structural equation model to ethnobotanical data collected on South Africa’s alien woody flora. Although residence time is a direct predictor of medicinal status of alien plants, it is a better predictor when mediated through plant versatility. These findings are in support of the theory, and we consequently proposed a framework with which to understand different paths linking all three hypotheses. Collectively, our study shows the value of time in the development of ethnobotanical knowledge and fully responds to the pressing call for paradigm shift in ethnobotany.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0182.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Arsenic hyper-tolerant bacterium; 16S rDNA sequencing; Microbacterium paraoxydans; Arsenic bioremediation; Plant growth promoting bacterium
Online: 13 October 2022 (02:01:52 CEST)
The soil and groundwater of Bhagobangola I block of Murshidabad district, West Bengal, India is severely arsenic contaminated. A bacterium was isolated from the garden soil of Mahishasthali village, which could tolerate 36.49 mM arsenic (III), 280.44 mM arsenic (V) and 63 mM chromium (III), which makes it arsenic (III & V) and chromium (III) hyper-tolerant bacterium. The growth pattern of this bacterium does not show much alteration in presence of 10 mM arsenic (III) and chromium (III), emphasizing its resistance to these heavy metals. Scanning electron microscopy depicted the size of this bacterium to be ~1.45 µm. 16S rDNA sequencing followed by subsequent phylogenetic analysis established the identity of this bacterium as Microbacterium paraoxydans. The bacterium is capable of bioremediation of arsenic and showed 30.8% & 22.6%, and 35.2% and 30.5% of bioremediation over a period of 24 and 48 hours in 1 mM and 4 mM arsenite, respectively. Microbacterium paraoxydans also exhibit plant growth promoting properties like nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid production and production of siderophores. Therefore, the heavy metal resistance, bioremediation potential and plant growth promoting potential of the bacterium could be utilized not only for reduction of arsenic toxicity in soil and groundwater but also for plant growth promotion by using it as a biofertilizer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0411.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: abiotic stresses; gene-expression; genomics; ion homeostasis; plant growth and development; plasma membrane; sugar translocation
Online: 20 August 2021 (11:43:31 CEST)
Membrane transporters (MTs) are mainly localized at the plasma membrane (PM), tonoplast and vacuolar membrane (VM) of cells in all plant organs. Their work is to maintain the cellular homeostasis by controlling ionic movements across PM channels from roots to upper plant parts, xylem loading and remobilization of sugar molecules from photosynthesis tissues in the leaf (source) to roots, stem and seeds (sink) via phloem loading. The plant’s whole source-to-sink relationship is regulated by multiple transporting proteins in a highly sophisticated manner and driven based on different stages of plant growth and development (PG&D), and environmental changes. The MTs play a pivotal role in PG&D in terms of increased plant height, branches/tiller numbers, enhanced numbers, length and filled panicles per plant, seed yield and grain quality. Dynamic climatic changes disturbed the ionic balance (salt, drought and heavy metals) and sugar supply (cold and heat stress). Due to poor selectivity, some of the MTs also uptake toxic elements in the roots that negatively impact on PG&D, later on also exported to upper parts and then deteriorate the grain quality. As an adaptive strategy, in response to salt and HMs plants activated PM and VM localized MTs that export toxic elements into vacuole, and also translocate in the root’s tips and shoot. However, in case of drought, cold and heat stresses, MTs increased the water and sugar supply to all organs. In this review, we mainly reviewed recent literature from Arabidopsis, halophytes, and major field crops such as rice, wheat, maize and oilseed rape to argue on the global role of MTs in PG&D and abiotic stress tolerance. We also discussed the gene expression level changes and genomic variations within a species as well as within a family in response to developmental and environmental cues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0019.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: energy efficiency; combined cycle power plant; energy losses
Online: 2 May 2018 (10:12:31 CEST)
Natural gas combined cycle power plants (CCPPs) are widely used to meet peak loads in electric energy production. Continuous monitoring of the output electrical power of CCPPs is a requirement for power performance. In this study, the role of ambient temperature change having the greatest effect on electric production is investigated for a natural gas CCPP. The plant has generated electricity for fourteen years and setup at 240 MW in Aliağa, İzmir, Turkey. Depending on the seasonal temperature changes, the study data were obtained from each gas turbine (GT), steam turbine (ST) and combined cycle blocks (CCBs) in the ambient temperature range of 8-23°C. It has been found that decreases of the electric energy in the GTs because of the temperature increase and indirectly diminishes of the electricity production in the STs. As a result, the efficiency of each GT, ST and CCB reduced, although the quantity of fuel consumed by the controllers in the plant was decreased. As a result of this data, it has been recommended and applied that additional precautions have been taken for the power plant to bring the air entering the combustion chamber to ideal conditions and necessary air cooling systems have been installed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0449.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: comparative genomics; plant-parasitic nematodes; phylogenomics; parasite-specific genes; pest control; de novo gene birth; horizontal gene transfers
Online: 22 October 2020 (09:01:30 CEST)
Plant-parasitic nematodes cause expressive annual yield losses to worldwide agricultural production. Most cultivated plants have no known resistance against nematodes and the few bearing a resistance gene can be overcome by certain species. The chemical methods that have been deployed to control nematodes were largely banned from use due to their poor specificity and high toxicity. Hence, there is an urgent need for the development of cleaner and more specific control methods. Recent advances in nematode genomics, including in phytoparasitic species, provide an unprecedented opportunity to identify genes and functions specific to these pests. Using phylogenomics, we compared 61 nematode genomes, including 16 for plant-parasitic species and identified more than 24,000 protein families specific to these parasites. In the genome of Meloidogyne incognita, one of the most devastating plant parasites, we found ca. 10,000 proteins with orthologs restricted only to phytoparasitic species and no further homology in protein databases. Among these phytoparasites-specific proteins, ca. 1,000 shared the same properties as known secreted effectors involved in essential parasitic functions. Of those, 68 were novel and showed strong expression during the endophytic phase of the nematode life cycle, based on both RNA-seq and RT-qPCR analyses. Besides effector candidates, transcription-related and neuro-perception functions were enriched in phytoparasites-specific proteins, revealing interesting targets for nematode control methods. This phylogenomics analysis, constitutes an unprecedented resource for the further understanding of the genetic basis of nematode adaptation to phytoparasitism and for the development of more efficient control methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0119.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: plant-based; meat alternative; hybrid burger; check-all-that-apply; consumer survey.
Online: 3 May 2023 (09:10:03 CEST)
Beef has one of the highest climate footprints of all foods, and therefore the hamburger has been targeted for substitution by numerous plant-based alternatives. However, many consumers find the taste of these alternatives lacking, and thus we proposed a hybrid meat and plant-based burger as a lower threshold alternative for these consumers. The burger was made from 50% meat (beef and pork, 4:1) and 50% plant-based ingredients, including texturised legume protein and had a climate footprint less than half that of a beef burger. Texture and sensory properties were evaluated instrumentally and through a consumer survey (n = 381) using the check-all-that-apply (CATA) method. Moisture properties indicated a significantly juicier eating experience for the hybrid compared to a beef burger, which was supported by the CATA survey. From texture profile analysis the hybrid burger was significantly softer and less cohesive than a beef burger. Despite having different CATA term profiles overall liking of the hybrid and a beef burger were not significantly different. Penalty analysis indicated that “meat flavour”, “juiciness”, “spiciness”, and “saltiness” are the most important attributes for a burger. In conclusion, consumers may be open to reducing their meat consumption by way of hybrid meat and plant-based products.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0387.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: bio-stimulant; seaweed liquid extract; rice; Oryza sativa; plant growth promoter
Online: 25 October 2022 (10:55:27 CEST)
Rice is considered as the most important crop for most of the world population. Utilization of seaweed as bio-stimulant can be an alternative way to enhance rice plant growth and productivity, as well as a strategic move to reduce the use of inorganic fertilizer that is harmful to the environment. Seaweed and its derivative products have been widely used as bio-stimulant in the agricultural industry because of their potential use in increasing plant growth and productivity. Auxins, gibberellins, and cytokinin are some of growth regulators found in seaweed extract, as well as macro and micronutrients required for plant growth and development. Several studies have found that seaweed extract has a variety of favorable effects as a plant growth promoter, including early seed germination and establishment, improved nutritional quality, increased yield and crop performance, and increased tolerance to environmental stress. The purpose of this paper is to give a comprehensive overview of the impacts of several seaweed species on seed germination, crop development and production, enhancement of rice plants (Oryza sativa) nutritional quality and the modes of action of seaweed extract includes the chemical components that might be causing plant physiological changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0261.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: nuclear power plant; electric cabinet; tuned mass damper; earthquake; vibration control
Online: 23 September 2019 (06:13:10 CEST)
In this study, a tuned mass damper is proposed as a seismic acceleration mitigating technique of an electrical cabinet inside the nuclear power plant. In order to know the mitigation performance, the electrical cabinet and the tuned mass damper were modeled using SAP2000. The sine sweep wave was used to confirm the vibration characteristics of the cabinet over a wide frequency range, and the several various earthquakes were applied to the cabinet to verify the control performance of the tuned mass damper. After analyzing the numerical results, it is summarized that the application of the proposed technique can reduce the acceleration response of the cabinet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0536.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Breeding population, internal standards, matrix effects, plant volatiles, SPME, odorant analysis
Online: 30 August 2018 (21:22:47 CEST)
Headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is widely employed for volatile analyses of plants, including mapping populations used in plant breeding research. Studies often employ a single internal surrogate standard, even when multiple analytes are measured, with the assumption that any relative changes in matrix effects among individuals would be similar for all compounds, i.e. matrix effects do not show Compound × Individual interactions. We tested this assumption using individuals from two plant populations, an interspecific grape (Vitis spp.) mapping population (n = 140) and a tomato (Solanum spp.) recombinant inbred line (RIL) population (n = 148). Individual plants from the two populations were spiked with a cocktail of internal standards (n = 6, 9, respectively) prior to HS-SPME-GC-MS. Variation in the relative responses of internal standards indicated that Compound × Individual interactions exist but were different between the two populations. For the grape population, relative responses among pairs of internal standards varied considerably among individuals, with a maximum of 249% relative standard deviation (RSD) for the pair of [U13C]hexanal and [U13C]hexanol. However, in the tomato population, relative responses of internal standard pairs varied much less, with pairwise RSDs ranged from 8% to 56%. The approach described in this paper could be used to evaluate the suitability of using surrogate standards for HS-SPME-GC-MS studies in other plant populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0226.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: COVID-2019; Mpro; 6LU7; medicinal plant compounds; docking
Online: 13 March 2020 (03:19:02 CET)
COVID-19, a new strain of coronavirus (CoV), was identified in Wuhan, China, in 2019. No specific therapies are available and investigations regarding COVID-19 treatment are lacking. Liu et al. (2020) successfully crystallised the COVID-19 main protease (Mpro), which is a potential drug target. The present study aimed to assess bioactive compounds found in medicinal plants as potential COVID-19 Mpro inhibitors, using a molecular docking study. Molecular docking was performed using Autodock 4.2, with the Lamarckian Genetic Algorithm, to analyse the probability of docking. COVID-19 Mpro was docked with several compounds, and docking was analysed by Autodock 4.2, Pymol version 188.8.131.52 Edu, and Biovia Discovery Studio 4.5. Nelfinavir and lopinavir were used as standards for comparison. The binding energies obtained from the docking of 6LU7 with native ligand, nelfinavir, lopinavir, kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin-7-glucoside, demethoxycurcumin, naringenin, apigenin-7-glucoside, oleuropein, curcumin, catechin, epicatechin-gallate, zingerol, gingerol, and allicin were -8.37, -10.72, -9.41, -8.58, -8.47, -8.17, -7.99, -7.89, -7.83, -7.31, -7.05, -7.24, -6.67, -5.40, -5.38, and -4.03 kcal/mol, respectively. Therefore, nelfinavir and lopinavir may represent potential treatment options, and kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin-7-glucoside, demethoxycurcumin, naringenin, apigenin-7-glucoside, oleuropein, curcumin, catechin, and epicatechin-gallate appeared to have the best potential to act as COVID-19 Mpro inhibitors. However, further research is necessary to investigate their potential medicinal use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0619.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Digital twin; data-driven; plant factory; transplanting; online monitoring
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:59:04 CEST)
Plant Factory Transplanter (PFT) is a key component of the plant factory system. Its operation status directly affects the quality and survival rate of planted seedlings, which in turn affects the overall yield and economic efficiency. To monitor the operation status and transplanting quality of a transplanting machine in a timely manner, the primary task is to use a computerized and easy-to-use method to monitor the transplanting units. Inspired by the latest developments in augmented reality and robotics, a DT model-based and data-driven online monitoring method for plant factory transplanting equipment is proposed. First, a data-driven and virtual model approach is combined to construct a multi-domain digital twin of the transplanting equipment. Then, taking the vibration frequency domain signal above the transplanting manipulator and the image features of the transplanting seedling tray as input variables, the evaluation method and configuration method of the PFT digital twin system are proposed. Finally, the effect of the transplanter is evaluated, and the cycle can be repeated to optimize the transplanter to achieve optimal operation parameters. The results show that the digital twin model can effectively use the sensor data to identify the mechanical vibration characteristics and avoid affecting transplanting quality due to mechanical resonance. At a transplanting rate of 3000 plants/h, the transplanting efficiency can be maintained at a high level and the vibration signal of X, Y, Z-axis above the transplanting manipulator is relatively calm. In this case, Combined the optimal threshold method with the traditional Wiener algorithm, the identification rate of healthy potted seedlings can reach 94.3%. Through comprehensively using the optimal threshold method and 3D block matching filtering algorithm for image threshold segmentation and denoising, the recognition rate of healthy seedlings has reached over 96.10%. In addition, the developed digital twin can predict the operational efficiency and optimal timing of the detected transplanter, even if the environmental and sensor data are not included in the training. The proposed digital twin model can be used for damage detection and operational effectiveness assessment of other plant factory equipment structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0200.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cytokine; gene expression; glucose transport; gossypol; inflammation; insulin signaling; plant polyphenol; toxicity; tristetraprolin
Online: 13 February 2023 (06:51:21 CET)
Gossypol is a complex plant polyphenol reported to be cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory, but little was known about its effect on gene expression in macrophages. The objective was to explore gossypol’s toxicity and its effect on gene expression involved in inflammatory responses, glucose transport and insulin signaling pathway in mouse macrophages. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with multiple concentrations of gossypol for 2-24 h. Gossypol toxicity was estimated by MTT assay and soluble protein content. qPCR analyzed the expression of anti-inflammatory tristetraprolin family (TTP/ZFP36), proinflammatory cytokine, glucose transporter (GLUT) and insulin signaling genes. Cell viability was greatly reduced by gossypol, accompanied with dra-matic reduction of soluble protein content in the cells. Gossypol treatment resulted in an increase of TTP mRNA level 6-20 fold and increased ZFP36L1, ZFP36L2 and ZFP36L3 mRNA levels by 26-69 fold. Gossypol increased proinflammatory cytokine TNF, COX2, GM-CSF, INFγ and IL12b mRNA levels up to 39-458 fold. Gossypol treatment upregulated mRNA levels of GLUT1, GLUT3 and GLUT4 genes as well as INSR, AKT1, PIK3R1 and LEPR but not APP genes. This study demonstrated that gossypol induced macrophage death and reduced soluble protein content that was accom-panied with massive stimulation of anti-inflammatory TTP family and proinflammatory cytokine gene expression as well as elevation of gene expression involved in glucose transport and insulin signaling pathway in mouse macrophages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0070.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: deep learning; aerial imagery; precision agriculture; plant detection; domain adaptation; unsupervised learning; self-supervision; adversarial learning; domain shift; tropical crops
Online: 3 February 2023 (10:14:09 CET)
This paper presents a novel approach for accurate counting and localization of tropical plants in aerial images that is able to work in new visual domains in which the available data is not labeled. Our approach uses deep learning and domain adaptation, designed to handle domain shift between the training and test data, which is a common challenge in this agricultural applications. This method uses a source dataset with annotated plants and a target dataset without annotations, and adapts a model trained on the source dataset to the target dataset using unsupervised domain alignment and pseudolabeling. The experimental results show the effectiveness of this approach for plant counting in aerial images of pineapples under significative domain shift, achieving a reduction up to 97% in the counting error when compared to the supervised baseline.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0106.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: within-plant phenotypic plasticity; combined stresses; additive, antagonistic and synergic effects; VOC
Online: 9 October 2022 (03:56:12 CEST)
Background: Drought, N deficiency and herbivory are considered the most important stressors caused by climate change in the agro- and eco-systems and varied in space and time shaping a highly dynamic and heterogeneous stressful environments. This study aims to evaluate the to-mato morpho-physiological and metabolic responses to combined abiotic and herbivory at dif-ferent within-plant spatial levels and temporal scales. Methods: Leaf-level morphological, gas exchange traits and VOC profiles were measured in to-mato plants exposed to N deficiency and drought, T. absoluta larvae and their combination. Ad-ditive, synergistic or antagonistic effects of the single stress when combined were also evaluat-ed. Morpho-physiological traits and VOC profile were also measured on leaves located at three different positions along the shoot axes. Results: The combination of the abiotic and biotic stress has been more harmful than single stress with antagonistic and synergistic but non-additive effects for the morpho-physiological and VOC tomato responses, respectively. Combined stress also determined a high within-plant phenotypic plasticity of the morpho-physiological responses. Conclusions: These results suggest that the combined stress in tomato determined a “new stress state” and a higher within-plant phenotypic plasticity which could permit an efficient use of the growth and defence resources in the heterogeneous and multiple stressful environmental condi-tions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Plant-based diet; Vegan; Vegetarian; vitamin B12; Iron; Essential fatty acids; Calcium; Zinc; vitamin D; essential amino acids
Online: 1 February 2023 (11:01:32 CET)
Plant-based diets are increasingly popular for health as well as financial, ethical, and religious reasons. The medical literature clearly demonstrates that plant-based diets can be both nutritionally sufficient and medically beneficial. However, any person on an intentionally restrictive but poorly-informed diet may predispose themselves to clinically-relevant nutritional deficiencies. For persons on a poorly-informed plant-based diet, deficiencies are possible in both macronutrients (protein, essential fatty acids) and micronutrients (vitamin B12, iron, calcium, zinc and vitamin D). Practitioner evaluation of symptomatic patients on a plant-based diet requires special consideration of 7 key nutrient concerns for plant-based diets. This article translates these concerns into 7 practical questions that all practitioners can introduce into their patient assessments and clinical reasoning. Ideally, persons on plant-based diets should be able to answer these 7 questions. Each serves as a heuristic prompt for both clinician and patient attentiveness to a complete diet. As such, these 7 questions support increased patient nutrition knowledge and practitioner capacity to counsel, refer, and appropriately focus clinical resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0143.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear And High Energy Physics Keywords: Cold nuclear fusion; Iron-56 as a fuel; Eco friendly Thermal energy; Power plant;
Online: 9 January 2023 (06:46:39 CET)
In this contribution, we make an attempt to write a theoretical proposal for designing an eco friendly thermal power plant which runs with cold nuclear fusion technology at a temperature of (1500 to 2000) deg.C. In our recently published papers, we have proposed a clear cut mechanism for understanding and implementing cold nuclear fusion technique pertaining to fusion of hydrogen with metals of mass numbers starting from 50. In this context, we would like to stress the point that, fusion of hydrogen under controllable temperature and pressure can be understood as a phenomenon of fusing neutron to the nucleus of the base atom. Part of isotopic nuclear binding energy difference of final and base atomic nuclides can be seen in the form of safe thermal energy of the order of (1 to 3) MeV per atom against 200 MeV released in nuclear fission of one Uranium atom. Due to increased heaviness and weak interaction, sometimes fused neutron splits into proton and electron. Proton seems to be retained by the base atom’s nuclear core and electron seems to join with the electronic orbits of the base atom. In this way, increased mass of base atomic nuclide helps in eco friendly production of thermal energy in large quantity. For this purpose we consider Iron-56 as a fuel. In a simplified view, under strong nuclear attractive forces, Iron-56 absorbs hydrogen atom as a neutron and by emitting 1MeV equivalent thermal energy transforms to Iron-57. Thus, one gram of Iron-56 can generate 1000MJ of heat with 50% efficiency. In a shortcut approach, by bombarding powder and semi-liquid forms of Iron-56 with direct neutrons coming from neutron source, our proposal can be tried, understood and verified experimentally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0080.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Vermicompost; Sesamum indicum L.; Perionyx excavates; NPK Fertilizers; Farm yard Manure; plant growth components
Online: 6 February 2020 (09:05:32 CET)
This paper aims in studying the effect of vermicompost on soil and growth of the plant Sesamum indicum L. by measuring the its various growth and yield components. For this purpose, a mixture of textile mill sludge, cow dung and saw dust have been mixed in different ratios to produce vermicompost by using the earthworm Perionyx excavates and was compared with inorganic (NPK) and organic fertilizer (FYM). The results of soil quality revealed that the porosity, water holding capacity (WHC), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and occurrence of macronutrients were significantly increased and the particle density were decreased in treatment with 100% vermicompost (VC) followed by soil treated with 50% VC + 50% NPK, on contrary, reduction in porosity, WHC, CEC were noted in NPK treated plots. The effect of vermicompost on plant growth components (root, shoot, leaf area index, branch, DMP) and yield components (pod number, weight, length, seed weight, number of seed, seed yield) were significantly higher in the plots treated with 50% VC + 50% NPK followed by 100% vermicompost than the plots treated only with FYM and NPK. The significant growth upon using vermicompost was accounted by its nutrients composition over other fertilizers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0532.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Biotic stress; Abiotic stress; climate change; Plant Transcription Factors; Food Security; Crop Improvement
Online: 26 October 2020 (14:26:31 CET)
Crop plants should be resilient to climatic factors in order to feed ever-increasing populations. Plants have developed stress-responsive mechanisms by changing their metabolic pathways and switching the stress-responsive genes. The discovery of plant transcriptional factors (TFs) as key regulators of different biotic and abiotic stresses have opened up new horizons for plant scientists. TFs perceive the signal and switch certain stress-responsive genes on and off by binding to different cis-regulatory elements. The above 50 species of plant TFs have been reported in nature. DREB, bZIP, MYB, NAC, Zinc-finger, HSF, Dof, WRKY, and NF-Y are important with respect to biotic and abiotic stresses whereas the role of many TFs is yet to explore. In this review, we summarize the role of different stress-responsive TFs with respect to biotic and abiotic stresses. Further, challenges and future opportunities linked with TFs for developing climate-resilient crops are also elaborated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0133.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: Radiation risk analysis, GIS based model, thermal power plant, surface radiation, remedial measures
Online: 11 December 2018 (13:57:09 CET)
Coal combustion in thermal power plants releases ash. Ash is reported to cause different adverse health hazards in humans and other organisms. Owing to the presence of radionuclides, it is also considered as a potential radiation hazard. In this study, based on the surface radiation measurements and relevant ancillary data, expected radiation risk zones were identified with regard to the human population residing near the Thermal Power Plant. With population density as the risk determining criteria, about 20% of the study area was at ‘High’ risk and another 20% of the study area was at ‘Low’ risk zone. The remaining 60% was under medium risk zone. Based on the findings remedial measures which may be adopted have been suggested.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0040.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: adipogenesis; AMPK; plant products; anti-obesogenic; beige/brite adipocytes; natural products; phytochemicals
Online: 23 July 2019 (10:30:06 CEST)
The Abnormal increase in the mass of adipose tissue during adipogenesis results in obesity. Obesity is a predominant disorder and its widespread has become a critical concern worldwide. This is due to the burden of its associated co-morbidities like cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Over-nutrition and the sedentary lifestyle are considered as the most significant causes of abnormal adipose tissue development. Appropriate lifestyle and behavioural interventions are the corner stones of successful weight loss, but to maintain such a lifestyle is highly challenging. Accordingly, natural products from plants either as crude extracts or purified phytochemicals have shown to have anti-obesogenic properties and are generally non-toxic and cost-effective. In this review, we discuss the comparative analysis of molecular mechanisms involved in adipogenesis and the recently reported anti-obesogenic effects of various plant products. We will provide a common platform for understanding obesity and adipogenesis, and a possible mechanism of action for anti-obesogenic plant products through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which will support the scientific development of traditional herbal medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0155.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Aquaponics; Tilapia; Clarias; Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, extracellular enzymes, Pseudomonas flourescens; Pseudomonas veronii, plant growth promotion, In vitro antagonistic
Online: 8 February 2021 (15:46:08 CET)
Background: Aquaponics are food production systems advocated for food security and health. Their sustainability from a nutritional and plant health perspective is, however, a significant challenge. Recirculated aquaculture systems (RAS) form a major part of aquaponic systems, but knowledge about their potential to benefit plant growth and plant health is limited. The current study tested if the diversity and function of microbial communities in two commercial RAS were specific to the fish species used (Tilapia or Clarias) and sampling site (fish tanks and wastewaters), and whether they confer benefits to plants and have invitro antagonistic potential towards plant pathogens. Results: Microbial diversity and composition was found to be dependent on fish species and sample site. The Tilapia RAS hosted higher bacterial diversity than the Clarias RAS; but the latter hosted higher fungal diversity. Both Tilapia and Clarias RAS hosted bacterial and fungal communities that promoted plant growth, inhibited plant pathogens and encouraged biodegradation. The production of extracellular enzymes, related to nutrient availability and pathogen control, by bacterial strains isolated from the Tilapia and Clarias systems, makes them a promising tool in aquaponics and in their system design. Conclusions: This study explored the microbial potential of the commercial RAS with either Tilapia or Clarias as a tool to benefit the aquaponic system with respect to plant growth promotion and control of plant diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0294.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Empoasca onukii Matsuda; EonuIR25a; plant volatiles; RNA interference; olfactory system
Online: 5 May 2023 (04:13:36 CEST)
Olfaction plays a crucial role in many important behavioral activities of insects, such as finding sexual partners, locating hosts, and selecting oviposition sites. Ionotropic receptors (IRs) play a central role in detecting chemosensory information from the environment and guiding insect behaviors and are potential target genes for pest control. Empoasca onukii Matsuda is a major pest of the tea plant Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Ktze, and seriously influences tea yields and quality. In this study, the ionotropic receptor gene EnouIR25a in E. onukii was cloned, and the expression pattern of EnouIR25a was detected in various tissues. Behavioral responses of E. onukii to volatile compounds emitted by tea plants were determined by the olfactometer bioassay and field trials. To further explore the function of EnouIR25a in olfactory recognition of compounds, RNAi (RNA interference) of EnouIR25a was carried out by ingestion of in vitro synthesized dsRNAs. The CDS length of EnouIR25a was 1266 bp and it encoded a 48.87 kD protein. EnouIR25a was enriched in the antennae of E. onukii. E. onukii were more significantly attracted by 1-phenylethanol at concentration of 100 µl/ml. Feeding with dsRNA-IR25a significantly downregulated the expression level of EonuIR25a, after 3 h of treatment, which disturbed the behavioral responses of E. onukii to 1-phenylethanol at concentration of 100µl/ml. The response rate of E. onukii to 1-phenylethanol was significantly decreased after dsRNA-IR25a treatment for 12 h. In summary, the ionotropic receptor gene EnouIR25a was highly expressed in the antennae of E. onukii and was involved in olfactory recognition of the tea plant volatile 1-phenylethanol. The present study may help us to use the ionotropic receptor gene as a target for the behavioral manipulation of E. onukii in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0249.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Cervus nippon; mineral requirements; sodium; TRY Plant Traits Database
Online: 13 January 2023 (09:34:30 CET)
Deficient minerals in overabundant populations could act as an attractant to cull sika deer (Cervus nippon). Because selective culling of female deer is reported to be effective in reducing sika deer populations, it is particularly important to clarify the differences in mineral requirements between male and female. Here, using global plant trait data and a published list of sika deer food plants in Japan, we estimated whether food plants provide sika deer sufficient sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg), and compared the results between male and female. An analysis of 191 food plant species suggested that food plants can provide sufficient Mg, whereas sufficient Na and Ca is not always provided, especially when the intake is small or the deer large. Na deficiency was more intense for lactating females than males, suggesting that Na can be an effective attractant for selectively culling female deer. In summary, this study demonstrated that sika deer in Japan might require extra Na and Ca sources in addition to food plants, and therefore these minerals could be useful for developing effective culling methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0122.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: explainable artificial intelligence; hyperspectral image; thermal IR training; zero-shot learning; plant stress; early diagnosis
Online: 6 January 2023 (09:56:11 CET)
The work is devoted to the search for effective solutions to the applied problem of early diagnostics of plant stress in the conditions of smart farming and based on modern explicable artificial intelligence (XAI). The study mostly oriented on the theory and practice of XAI, focused on the use of hyperspectral imagery (HSI) and Thermal Infra-Red (TIR) sensor data at the input of a neural network. The first our goal is to build an XAI neural network, explainable due to its structure, the input of which is a datascientist oriented HSI 'explanator', and the output is a biologist oriented TIR 'explanator'. In the middle is SLP-regressor which solves the universal problem of training HSI pixels to temperatures of plants, needed for early plant stress diagnostic. The result can be considered as prototype of a special XAI explanator which is assigned to transform explanator specialized on area 1 onto explanator specialized on area 2. Using this HSI-TIR explanator we ensured the follows: extend HSI data by TIR attribute; providing TIR data for early diagnostic of plant stress; reducing dimensionality HSI needed for TIR training 25 times (from 204 to 8) preserving the same accuracy of temperature prediction (RMSE=0.2-0.3C). This reducing was achieved without using PCA methods. The constructed model is computationally efficient in training: the average training time is significantly less then 1 min (Intel Core i3-8130U, 2.2 GHz, 4 cores, 4 GB). One of the 8 channels, 820 nm, is the leader in correlation with TIR, what allows building local linear temperature prediction functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0185.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Plant sterols, wholegrain wheat, breakfast cereal, crossover clinical trial, LDL cholesterol
Online: 27 February 2018 (16:32:51 CET)
Meta-analysis of plant sterol supplement studies suggests an 8% lowering of LDL cholesterol for 2 to 2.5g/day of plant sterols. Cereal foods have been rarely tested and one study showed a lower LDL lowering of 5.4% with 1.6g of plant sterol in breakfast cereal. We aimed to test a breakfast wheat biscuit with 2g of plant sterols in a single serve of two wholegrain wheat breakfast cereal biscuits. Fifty volunteers with a total cholesterol of >5.5mmol/L were recruited for a randomised crossover study with two 4-week periods with no washout of which 45 successfully completed the study. After exclusion of four outliers the difference in LDL cholesterol between standard wholegrain wheat breakfast cereal biscuit and plant sterol-enriched wholegrain wheat breakfast cereal biscuit was 0.23 mmol/L or 5.6% (P=0.001) with a 95% confidence interval of 2.4-8.9%. Men and daily cereal consumers had greater responses 9.8% vs 3.6% and 7.2% vs 3.8% respectively (P<0.05). The LDL lowering effect of 2g of plant sterol enriched from one serve of wholegrain wheat breakfast cereal biscuit was not significantly different from other food products delivering 2-2.5g of plant sterols daily. Regular cereal consumers have a better response.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: wheat; plant height; grain traits; Wheat50K; genetic map; QTL
Online: 22 April 2021 (10:20:48 CEST)
Plant height is significantly correlated with grain traits, which is a component of wheat yield. The purpose of this study is to investigate the main QTLs that control plant height and grain-related traits in multiple environments. In this study, we constructed a high-density genetic linkage map using the Wheat50K SNP Array to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for these traits in 198 recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The two ends of the chromosome were identified as re-combination-rich areas in all chromosomes except chromosome 1B. The middle area of the chro-mosomes was identified as the recombination-barren area. Both the genetic map and the physical map showed a significant correlation when p=0.001, with a correlation coefficient between 0.63 and 0.99. However, there was almost no recombination between 1RS and 1BS. In terms of plant height, 1RS contributed to the reduction of plant height by 3.43cm. In terms of grain length, 1RS contributed to the elongation of grain by 0.11mm. A total of 43 QTLs were identified, including 8 QTLs for Plant height(PH), 11 QTLs thousand grain weight(TGW), 15 QTLs for grain length(GL),and 9 QTLs for grain width(GW), which explained 1.36%–33.08% of the phenotypic variation. Seven were environment-stable QTLs, including two loci Qph.nwafu-4B and Qph.nwafu-4D that determined plant height. The explanation rates of phenotypic variation were 7.39%-12.26% and 20.11%-27.08%, respectively. One QTL, Qtgw.nwafu-4B, which influenced TGW, showed an explanation rate of 3.43%-6.85% for phenotypic variation, two co-segregating KASP markers were developed, the physical locations corresponding to KASP_AX-109316968 and KASP_AX-109519968 were 25.888344 MB and 25.847691 MB. Another QTL, Qgw.nwafu-4D, which determined grain width, had an explanation rate of 3.43%-6.85%. Three loci that affected the grain length were Qgl.nwafu-5A, Qgl.nwafu-5D.2 and Qgl.nwafu-6B, illustrating the explana-tion rates of phenotypic variation as 6.72%-9.59%, 5.62%-7.75%, and 6.68%-10.73%, respectively. Two QTL clusters were identified on chromosomes 4B and 4D.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0155.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Density; Pre-soaking; High strength concrete, Lightweight plant-based aggregate; Mechanical properties; Environmentally friendly
Online: 10 April 2023 (07:08:54 CEST)
This research investigates the effect of pre-soaking treatment on plant-based aggregate using a wet grout binder to formulate a high-strength lightweight concrete (HSLWC). The surface modification utilising a novel grout soaking technique with various water-to-cement (w/c) ratios indicated a new method of approach for the recent development of lightweight plant-based aggregate (LWPA). In this experiment, the fresh and hardened properties of modified LWPA lightweight concrete were assessed by verifying their workability, densities, compressive and split tensile strengths towards the modulus of elasticity. The results showed that pre-soaking plant-based lightweight aggregate (w/c: 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2) slightly increased the density of the samples compared to untreated LWPA. The oven-dry density of treated and untreated LWPA is controlled in the range of HSLWC. The outcomes indicated that the workability of the surface- modified LWPA has significant improvement up to 40% in 6 min for (TDS)/0.6 sample compared to the original LWPA. The mechanical properties of the LWPA concrete with surface modification method exhibit substantial increment of compressive strength, split tensile strength, and modulus of elasticity were recorded at 22%, 26%, and 34%, respectively. Significantly, the findings from this scientific method revealed that the pre-soaking treatment method on LWPA has shown to be a highly recommended technique in improving interfacial bonding while performing as one of the most promising solutions to improve the properties of lightweight concrete.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: new plant engineering techniques (NPETs); new breeding techniques (NBTs); genome editing; gene editing; cisgenic; willingness to pay (WTP)
Online: 1 October 2021 (12:55:10 CEST)
We follow the PRISMA extension for scoping reviews to review the emerging international body of empirical evidence on consumers’ attitudes and willingness to pay (WTP) for novel foods produced with New Plant Engineering Techniques (NPETs). NPETs include genome/gene editing, cisgenesis, intragenesis, RNA interference and others. These novel foods are often beneficial for the environment and human health and more sustainable under increasingly prevalent climate extremes. These techniques can also improve animal welfare and disease resistance when applied to animals. Despite these promising attributes, evidence suggests that many, but not all, consumers discount these novel foods relative to conventional ones. Our review sorts out findings to identify conditioning factors that can increase the acceptance of and WTP for these novel foods in a significant segment of consumers. International patterns of acceptance are identified. We also analyze how information and knowledge interact with consumer acceptance of these novel foods and technologies. Heterogeneity of consumers—across cultures and borders and in attitudes towards science and innovation—emerges as a key determinant of acceptance and WTP. Acceptance and WTP tend to increase when socially beneficial attributes—as opposed to producer-oriented cost-saving attributes—are generated by NPETs. NPET-improved foods are systematically less discounted than transgenic foods. Most of the valuation estimates are based on hypothetical experiments and surveys and await validation through revealed preferences in actual purchases in food retailing environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0143.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Data assimilation; TROPOMI; Air Quality modelling; NOx Emissions; Ensemble Kalman Filter; LOTOS-EUROS; power plant; anthropogenic
Online: 4 June 2021 (12:59:09 CEST)
In this work, we investigate the ability of a data assimilation technique and space-borne observations to quantify and monitor changes in nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions over North-Western Greece for the summers of 2018 and 2019. In this region, four lignite-burning power plants are located. The data assimilation technique, based on the Ensemble Kalman Filter method, is employed to combine space-borne atmospheric observations from the high spatial resolution Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) and simulations using the LOTOS-EUROS Chemical Transport model. The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service-Regional European emissions (CAMS-REG, version 4.2) inventory based on year 2015 is used as the a priori in the simulations. Surface measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from air quality stations operating in the region are compared with the model surface NO2 output using either the a priori (base run) or the a posteriori (assimilated run) NOx emissions. The high biases found between the in situ NO2 measurements and the base run surface NO2 decrease in the assimilated run in most cases. The bias in the station near the largest power plant decreases to 2.0 μg/m3 (2.83 μg/m3) from 10.5 μg/m3 (8.46 μg/m3) in 2019 (2018 respectively). Concerning the estimated annual a posteriori NOx emissions it was found that, for the pixels hosting the two largest power plants, the assimilated run results in emissions decreased by ~40-50% for 2018 compared to 2015, whereas a larger decrease, of ~70% for both power plants, was found for 2019, after assimilating the space-born observations. For the same power plants, the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) reports decreased emissions in 2018 and 2019 compared to 2015 (-35% and -38% in 2018, -62% and -72% in 2019), in good agreement with the estimated emissions. We further compare the a posteriori emissions to the reported energy production of the power plants during the summer of 2018 and 2019. Mean decreases of about -35% and-63% in NOx emissions are estimated for the two larger power plants in summer of 2018 and 2019, respectively, which are supported by similar decreases in the reported energy production of the power plants (~-30% and -70%, respectively).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0236.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Keywords: TMV, plant vaccine, génital herpes, HSV-2, gD, VP16, GFP, mouse model genital herpes
Online: 28 March 2018 (09:18:30 CEST)
A B S T R A C T Genital herpes disease is caused mainly by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), which is sexually transmitted with a high prevalence in both developed and developing countries. No vaccine is currently available against genital herpes. In this study, we introduced and expressed two genes encoding HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) and VP16 protein and a GFP marker gene (control) in tobacco seedlings. Positive plant infection was assessed through characteristic tobacco mosaic virus disease symptoms on leaves and by monitoring the fluorescence emitted by the expressed GFP protein. Expression of the HSV-gD2 and VP16 antigens was verified by RT-PCR, ELISA and Western blot. As a proof of concept, the immunogenicity and the protection ability of the plant produced gD antigen was tested in a mouse model of genital herpes and compared to gD antigen produced in a mammalian expression system. This showed that the plant-gD preparation, when used in combination with a CpG oligodeoxynucleotide as adjuvant, was highly immunogenic and capable of inducing complete immunity to lethal vaginal HSV-2 challenge in mice. Thus, the data presented here may have implications for the development of a production system for highly immunogenic plant-based HSV-2 vaccine antigens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0532.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: geothermal power plant; environment issues; rural Tompaso; competitive intelligence
Online: 23 February 2021 (19:01:29 CET)
The vision of the community around Geothermal Power Plant (GPP) is the development of GPP should be based on sustainable development principles, without jeopardizing the quality of life and justice for communities surrounding the power plant. This research aims to: (i) identifying issues that arise as an impact of the development of GPP in the rural Tompaso, and (ii) finding solutions to the issues to minimize the conflict that arises from further GPP development in rural Tompaso and its surroundings. This study is based on the competitive intelligence (CI) research method. The results show that the development of GPP in Tompaso has a negative impact on the natural environment and social environment. The technical solutions offered include: (i) bioremediation by cultivating plants that absorb arsenic; (ii) biosulfurization and desulfurization for reducing air pollution, especially sulfur; (iii ) floods and extreme drought are managed by improving infrastructure and reforestation; (iv) social conflicts (land acquisition, working days, labor recruitment and settlement security) are solved by intensifying program dissemination to the community and involving local communities in decision making. The recommended policy is providing incentives to the local community through strategic programs for the development of human and natural resources.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Plant water transport, plant long-distance water transport, sorption hypothesis, cohesion theory, cohesion-tension theory
Online: 12 April 2019 (20:55:26 CEST)
In the case of vascular plants the process of water loss by leafs and water absorption by the root is well known. There is agreement on the passive nature of long-distance moisture movement in the dead cells of the xylem; however, controversy exists focusing on the long-distance water transport principle. Hales (1726) founded a view of bulk flow based on water suction after experiments with cut twigs. The previous doctrine of long-distance water transport within vessel elements and tracheid of the xylem of intact plants – the relevant cohesion theory in text books – was developed mainly by Boehm (1893), Renner (1911) and Dixon (1914) with plant artefacts. Water movement according to this theory is based on an assumed hydrodynamic bulk fluid flow in xylem in continuous water columns (free of water vapour space), under tension, according to the law of Poiseuille (see e.g. Dixon 1914). Physically hydrodynamics is part of fluid mechanics, as a result Poiseuille’s law is usually valid only for hydrodynamic bulk flow in ideal capillaries (Sutera & Skalak, 1993). Besides the basic requirement for transport, according to cohesion theory, the existence of ideal capillaries is not compatible with either: “Because vessel elements and tracheid do not stand as ideal capillaries. …” (Bresinsky et al. 2008, translated from German). Unlike ideal capillaries, the walls of vessel elements and tracheid interact with the transported water. These walls are able to function as a source or as a sink for the transported water because of interaction with the cell walls. With the interaction, vessel elements and tracheid, part of the xylem, can shrink and swell, unlike ideal capillaries. Because the xylem (in woody plants part of the wood) is inconsistent with the basic law of fluid flow, the equation of mass balance (Zimmermann et al. 2004) and cohesion theory are not strictly followed.Many plant physiologists view the cohesion theory as appropriate, however, this theory remains controversial, i.e. by Eisenhut (1988), Laschimke (1990) and Hahn (1993). Nultsch (1996) gives doubts referring to the present doctrine of plant water transport. Zimmermann et al. (2004) reject the cohesion theory and conclude: “... that the arguments of the proponents of the Cohesion Theory are completely misleading” (Zimmermann et al. 2004). Hence cohesion theory can be treated as inapplicable and the question arises: how does water transport in fact function? In the following, it is gone into in more detail. A sorption hypothesis of actual water transport, based on empirical fact, shall be addressed in this paper.