ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0262.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Fluid-Structure interactions; Topological fluid dynamics; General fluid mechanics; Mathematical fluid dynamics; Applied mathematics
Online: 25 January 2021 (10:32:15 CET)
This article objectively assesses, the hypothesis of the streamline's shape theory and its formulated equation. The deduction of proof uses algebra rather than first-order partial differential equations to address the specific hypothesis of "Streamline's shape theory" from the fundamental perspective of applied mathematics and scientifically derives mathematical relations of the axioms and corollaries in the field of fluid dynamics. The algebraic methods employed provide progressively more distinct and precise solutions compared to first-order partial differential equations. The foremost objective of this work is to evaluate if the formulations of the streamline's shape theory can have solutions for inviscid-incompressible and viscid-compressible flows of Newtonian fluids and to identify their nature. Secondly, to understand how the topology of the body and the free-stream conditions affect these solutions with due regards to the shape and size of the body interacting with the fluid flow. Finally, to explore the possibility of this theory to develop a CFD solver for streamline simulation to reduce the experimentation in the analysis of flow-structure interactions of Newtonian fluids and also to identify its scope of applications and limitations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: morphing blade; adaptive geometry; computational fluid dynamics; fluid-structure coupling
Online: 16 May 2017 (13:06:29 CEST)
The concept of smart morphing blades, which can control themselves to reduce or eliminate the need for active control systems, is a highly attractive solution in blade technology. In this paper an innovative passive control system based on Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) is proposed. On the basis of previous thermal and shape characterization of a single morphing blade for a heavy-duty automotive cooling axial fan, this study deals with the numerical analysis of the aerodynamic loads acting on the fan. By coupling CFD and FEM approaches it is possible to analyze the actual blade shape resulting from both the aerodynamic and centrifugal loads. The numerical results indicate that the polymeric blade structure ensures proper resistance and enables shape variation due to the action of the SMA strips.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0067.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: General fluid mechanics; Mathematical Model; Streamline; Flow–structure interactions; Topological fluid dynamics
Online: 14 May 2019 (10:30:29 CEST)
This article attempts to formulate a mathematical model for a potential explanation regarding the unavoidable impact of a rigid body's peculiar shape on the seamless flow over it. The solid body completely immersed in a Newtonian fluid and respectively has a relative open circuit flow on it will typically experience various observable phenomena like flow separation, flow transition, down-wash, stalling at the higher angle of attack, stalling velocity and how cambered airfoil can typically generate lift at a zero incidence angle. This article respectively represents an understanding of the laminar flow over a rigid body's external surface with due respect to its distinctive shape and size. This working paper formulates a more realistic and simplified mathematical model for open circuit laminar flow over a body, based on the historical data of aerodynamics and theoretical mechanics. This is intended to properly estimate forces on the continuous surface of the body in a laminar flow, to properly explain, understand and predict mentioned phenomena. Most of all the mechanism of streamline formation and its deformation with due regards to flow, shape and size of the body in an open-circuit laminar are formulated mathematically to enhance better design theory which can reduce experimentation while designing a streamlined body.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0556.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Fluid-Structure Interaction; OpenFOAM; One-way approach; Structural Analysis
Online: 27 January 2021 (12:10:19 CET)
This study addressed a Fluid-Structure Interaction of an open Water test for vp1304 propeller to predict pressure and stress distributions with a low cost and high precision method. The most striking aspect of such a method(one-way coupling) is to use one hydrodynamic solution for the number of different structural sets involved in other materials or different layup methods and combinations of layers. An open-access software(OpenFOAM) with an open-source code solver is used to simulate the fluid domain. Abaqus is used To evaluate and predict the deformation and strength of the blade with the Finite Element Method(FEM). The coupling approach is based on dry condition, which means the added mass effects due to propeller blades vibration is neglected. The pressures imposed on the blades are extracted from the fluid solver for each time step. Then, These pressures role as a load condition for the structure solver. This approach was verified in the last paper(wedge impact); a key factor for the present solution is the rotational rate interrelated between two solution domains, which is explained in this paper. Finally, the blades' stress and strain are calculated and compared in each advance coefficient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0160.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: fluid-structure interaction; soil-structure interaction; transient flow; pipe jacking; numerical modeling; abaqus FEA
Online: 17 January 2019 (05:02:55 CET)
Transient flows result in unbalanced forces and high pressure in pipelines. Under these conditions, the combined effects of flow-induced forces along with sudden pipe displacements can create cracks in the pipeline, especially at the junctions. This situation consequently results in water leakage and reduced operational efficiency of the pipeline. In this study, displacements and stresses in a buried pressurized water transmission pipe installed by pipe jacking method are investigated using numerical modeling and considering interactions between fluid, pipe, and soil. The analyses were performed consecutively under no-flow, steady flow, and transient flow conditions, in order to investigate the effects of flow conditions on displacements and stresses in the system. Analyses of the results show that displacements and stresses in the jointed concrete pipes are significant under transient flow conditions. Moreover, because of pressure transient effects, maximum tensile stresses exceed the tensile strength of concrete at the junctions, leading to cracks and consequent water leakage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0569.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: centrifugal fan; unsteady flow; vibroacoustics; fluid-structure-acoustic coupling; optimization
Online: 24 October 2018 (11:14:57 CEST)
Concerning fan systems with an air pipe connecting air intake and a closed outlet, aerodynamic noise cannot be directly transmitted from the fan inlet and outlet to the outside. At this moment, the volute vibrational radiation noise induced casing surface vibration is the major noise component. The main factors affecting the fan vibrational noise are analyzed through theoretical derivation, then a vibrational noise optimization control method for the volute casing is proposed that considered the influence of vibro-acoustic coupling, taking the panel thickness of the volute (front-panel thickness [FT], side-panel thickness [ST], and back-panel thickness [BT]) as design variables, and the acoustical power of the volute surface and the total mass of the volute as the optimal target function. The optimization method is mainly divided into three main parts: the first was based on the simulation of unsteady flow of the fan to obtain the vibrational noise source; the second, using the design of experimental (DOE) method and the proposed numerical simulation of fluid-structure-acoustic coupling method to obtain the designing space, then the radical-based function (RBF) method is used to construct the approximate surrogate model instead of the simulation model previously mentioned, which was used to provide the basic mathematical model for the optimization of the next part; the third part, implementing the low vibrational noise optimization for the fan volute, applied the single-target (taking volute radiated acoustical power as the target function) and the multi-target (taking the volute radiated acoustical power and volute total mass as the target function) methods. In addition, the fan aerodynamic performance, volute casing surface fluctuations, and vibration response were validated by experiments, showing good agreement. It is of utmost importance that the dynamic pressure measurements and vibrational tests on the volute casing verify the accuracy of the numerical calculation. The optimization results showed that the vibrational noise optimization method proposed in this study can effectively reduce the vibration noise of the fan, obtaining a maximum value of noise reduction of 7.3 dB. The optimization identified in this paper provides a significant reference for the design of a low-vibrational-noise volute.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0244.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: adaptive lens; piezoelectric devices; fluid-structure interaction; moving mesh; thermal expansion.
Online: 21 October 2019 (13:02:57 CEST)
In this paper, we present a finite element simulation of an adaptive piezoelectric fluid-membrane lens modeled in COMSOL Multiphysics. The simulation couples the piezoelectric effect with the fluid dynamics to model the interaction between piezoelectric forces and fluid forces. Also, the simulation is extended to model the thermal expansion of the fluid. Finally, we compare the simulation and experimental results of the adaptive lens refractive power at different actuation levels and temperatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0198.v1
Subject: Keywords: mathematical modelling; peristalsis; smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH); fluid dynamics; large intestine; colonl proximal colon; fluid-structure interactions; drug delivery
Online: 12 April 2020 (15:57:17 CEST)
The proximal part of the colon offers opportunities to prolong the absorption window following oral administration of a drug. In this work, we used computer simulations to understand how the hydrodynamics in the proximal colon might affect the release from dosage forms designed to target the colon. For this purpose, we developed and compared three different models: a completely-filled colon, a partially-filled colon and a partially-filled colon with a gaseous phase present (gas-liquid model).The highest velocities of the liquid were found in the completely-filled model, which also shows the best mixing profile, defined by the distribution of tracking particles over time. No significant differences with regard to the mixing and velocity profiles were found between the partially-filled model and the gas-liquid model. The fastest transit time of an undissolved tablet was found in the completely-filled model. The velocities of the liquid in the gas-liquid model are slightly higher along the colon than in the partially-filled model. The filling level has an impact on the exsisting shear forces and shear rates, which are decisive factors in the development of new drugs and formulations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0118.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Circular Waterways; Outdoor recreation facilities; fluid landscape paradise; Blue-Green Infra-structure
Online: 8 September 2022 (05:44:43 CEST)
Rajshahi, blessed by the geographical advantage provided by the river Padma, is a beautiful and one of the cleanest cities in Bangladesh. It presents a spectacular image and stunning sight to its residents. But Rapid urbanization created immense pressure on the infrastructures and cityscape by rescinding most of the natural assets and scenic beauty it possessed historically. The growing pressure of population influx accompanied by unplanned urbanization threatens the survival of its waterbodies, wetlands, and greeneries, which many other contemporary cities strive to achieve with hard-hearted planning measures. Moreover, the city suffers from inadequate provision of quality outdoor recreational facilities. Yet because of the verdant resources, it still can set an example of becoming green and fluid landscape. There are scopes to connect the city people to the urban landscape and blue-green infrastructures by applying proper planning and urban design techniques. For example, it can explore the potential and scope of a water-based transportation system to create outdoor recreation space for city dwellers as well as a transport mode in the city. This SECTION discusses the prospects and potential of enhancing recreational aspects of Circular Inland Waterways. It also analyzes the benefits of a network of waterways well-connected and integrated with the existing conventional transportation system to reduce pressure on land transport and promote a sustainable system. This research was conducted in two phases each involving a distinct approach. The first one was a macroscopic approach to probe the potential of the water transport system in Rajshahi city. The required data on traffic volume, traffic growth rate, roads and existing waterbodies were collected, and GIS and Remote Sensing tools were used to find the scope of waterway transport around Rajshahi City. In the second approach, a detailed design was proposed for a potential circular waterway network in the city. Results indicate that there is a huge prospect for introducing a circular waterway transport system around Rajshahi city to create a place of fluid landscape and minimize the pressure on the existing land transportation system.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0277.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: antibody; network; sequence; structure; clonality; B cell; systems biology; quantitative biology
Online: 12 October 2018 (17:01:13 CEST)
Based on the key molecule of humoral adaptive immunity, the antibody, evolution of the system comprises molecular genetic, cell biologic and immunologic mechanisms, and as a network the system is likely governed and can be characterized by physical rules as well. While deep sequencing can provide vast amounts of data related primarily to clonal relationships, functional interpretation of such data is hampered by the inherent limitations of converting sequence to structure to function. In this paper a novel model of structural interaction space, termed radial adjustment of system resolution, or RADARS, is proposed. The model is based on the radial growth of resolution of structural recognition, corresponding to increasing affinity of immune reactivity, and the virtual infinity of directions of growth, corresponding to the ability to respond to almost any molecular structure. Levels of interaction strength appear as shells of the sphere representing the system. B-cell development and immune responses can be readily interpreted in the model and quantitative properties of the antibody network can be inferred from the physical properties of a quasi-spherical system growing multi-radially. The system is described by double-Pareto distribution, sampling the lognormally distributed equilibrium constants at a rate of phi square. Finally, general strategies for merging antibody sequence space into structural space are outlined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0312.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: monolithic variational scheme; cosserat fluids; fluid structure interaction; finite elements; Eulerian formulation; FreeFEM++
Online: 23 March 2022 (08:48:26 CET)
In this paper a new monolithic Eulerian formulation in the framework of non-classical continuum is presented for the analysis of fluid-strucutre interaction problems. In this respect, Cosserat continuum theory taking into account the micro-rotational degrees of freedom of the particles is considered. Continuum description of the model and variational formulation of the governing flow dynamics for non-classical -fluid-structure interaction nCFSI is presented. The model is analyzed by computing a well known benchmark problem by Hecht and Pironneau . The algorithmic description is presented and implemented using FreeFEM++. Code is validated with the benchmark solution of Turek and Hron  in case of flow around a flag attached with cylinder. New microstructral behavior of the solution is studied and numerical simulations and results are shown in the form of figures. Some interesting feature of the flow is observed and microstructural characteristics are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: ocean wave energy; fluid-structure interaction; BEM; diffraction/ radiation; floating cylinder; heave; array
Online: 20 September 2017 (05:42:49 CEST)
This compendium presents new mathematical techniques for modeling Point Absorbers. A combined frequency-time domain framework is developed. It is used to simulate the energy generated by the wave farms. With Matlab and Fortran as a base, this leads to obtain physical variables of primary importance, namely position, velocity and power to energy net balance relationships of absorption. Integration of different degrees of freedom with heave as main executable leads in turn to a single buoy motion focus. Acquisition of the needed hydrodynamic coefficients is provided through application of potential field solvers with Boundary Element Methodology background. Initially, this Wave-to-motion model is validated by comparison with previous experimental results for a floating cone cylinder shape (Buldra-FO3). A single, generic, vertical floating cylinder is contemplated then, that responds to the action of the passing regular waves excitation. Later, two equally sized vertical floating cylinders aligned with the incident wave direction are modeled for a variable distance between the bodies. For both unidirectional regular and irregular waves as an input in deep water, we approximate the convolutive radiation force function term through the Prony method. By changing the spatial disposition of the axisymmetric buoys, using for instance triangular or rectangular shaped arrays of three and four bodies respectively, the study delves into motion characteristics for regular waves. The results highlight efficient layouts for maximizing the energy production whilst providing important insights into their performance, revealing displacement amplification- and capture width-ratios, while deriving in possible interpretations of scenarios related to the known park effect. These terms are encompassed by the novelty of a new conceptual Post-Processing methodology in the field, which leads to obtain an optimal distance for the separated bodies with effective energy absorption in a regular wave regime. The main objective is to generate a tendency within the hydrodynamic field of study, which is the Wave to motion perspective. More generally, this computational excursion envisions and depicts potential fields of study, which will surely enhance new connections and link this renewable energy form. Therefore, this research delves first into the historical and technical background on Ocean Wave Energy. Next, it is in the section regarding Materials and Methods, where boundaries and related equations are introduced step by step, together with latter mentioned case scenarios, and their corresponding configuration parameters. A separate section frames then the scope of results, while finally, there is an ensuing discussion and conclusions for evaluation assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0025.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: ocean wave energy; fluid-structure interaction; BEM; diffraction/ radiation; floating cylinder; heave; array
Online: 7 August 2017 (16:31:44 CEST)
This thesis completion works it out to deepen into diverse modeling techniques for Point Absorbers. A combined frequency-time domain model is conceived, designed and developed in Matlab with Fortran as a base, leading to obtain physical variables of primary importance, namely position, velocity and power to energy net balance relationships of absorption. Integration of different degrees of freedom with heave as main executable leads in turn to a single buoy motion focus. Acquisition of the needed hydrodynamic coefficients is provided through application of NEMOH \& BEMIO solvers due to the Boundary Element Methodology. Initially, this Wave-to-motion model is validated by comparison with previous experimental results for a floating cone cylinder shape (Buldra-FO3). A single, generic, vertical floating cylinder is contemplated then, that responds to the action of the passing regular waves excitation. Later, two equally sized vertical floating cylinders aligned with the incident wave direction are modeled for a variable distance between the bodies. For both unidirectional regular and irregular waves as an input in deep water, we approximate the convolutive radiation force function term through the Prony method. By changing the spatial disposition of the axisymmetric buoys, using for instance triangular or rectangular shaped arrays of three and four bodies respectively, the study delves into motion characteristics for regular waves. The results highlight efficient layouts for maximizing the energy production whilst providing important insights into their performance, revealing displacement amplification- and capture width-ratios, while deriving in possible interpretations of scenarios related to the the known park effect. These terms are encompassed by the novelty of a new conceptual Post-Processing methodology in the field, which leads to obtain an optimal distance for the separated bodies with effective energy absorption in a regular wave regime. In conclusion, this computational excursion envisions and proposes potential fields of study, which will surely enhance new connections and link this renewable energy form.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0102.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: ocean wave energy; fluid-structure interaction; BEM; diffraction/ radiation; floating cylinder; heave; array
Online: 14 June 2017 (05:47:27 CEST)
This thesis completion works it out to deepen into diverse modeling techniques for Point Absorbers. A combined frequency-time domain model is conceived, designed and developed in Matlab with FoRtran as a base., leading to obtain physical variables of primary importance, namely position, velocity and power to Energy net balance relationships of absorption. Integration of different degrees of freedom with heave as main executable leads in turn to a single buoy motion focus. Acquisition of the needed hydrodynamic coefficients is provided though application of NEMOH & BEMIO solvers due to the Boundary Element Methodology. Initially, this Wave-to-motion model is validated through comparison with previous experimental results for a floating cone cylinder shape (Buldra-FO3). A single, generic, vertical floating cylinder is contemplated then, that responds to the action of the passing regular waves excitation. Later, two equally sized vertical floating cylinders aligned with the incident wave direction are modeled for a variable distance between the bodies. For both unidirectional regular and irregular waves as an input in deep water, we approximate the convolutive radiation force function term through the Prony method. By changing the spatial disposition of the axisymmetric buoys, using for instance triangular or rectangular shaped arrays of three and four bodies respectively, the study delves into motion characteristics for regular waves. The results highlight efficient layouts for maximizing the energy production whilst providing important insights into their performance, revealing displacement amplification- and capture width-ratios, while deriving in possible interpretations of scenarios related to the the known park effect. These terms are encompassed by the novelty of a new conceptual Post-Processing methodology in the field, which leads to obtain an optimal distance for the separated bodies with effective energy absorption in a regular wave regime. In conclusion, this computational excursion envisions and proposes potentials fields of study, which will surely enhance new connections and link this renewable energy form.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0278.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: ocular biomechanics; intraocular pressure (iop); fluid structure interaction (fsi); arbitrary lagrangian-eulerian mesh (ale)
Online: 25 September 2019 (08:16:34 CEST)
Purpose: To improve numerical simulation of the non-contact tonometry test by using Arbitrary Eulerian-Lagrangian deforming mesh in the coupling between computational fluid dynamics model of an air jet and finite element model of the human eye. Methods: Computational fluid dynamics model simulated impingement of the air puff and consisted of 25920 wedge6 elements and employed Spallart-Allmaras model to simulate capture turbulence of the air jet. The time span of the jet wais 30 ms and maximum Reynolds number
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0030.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: dynamical equation; crystal; period vectors; periodic structure; period dynamics; pressure; stress; many-body interaction; molecular dynamics; periodic boundary conditions
Online: 9 August 2018 (08:36:53 CEST)
Since crystals are made of periodic structures in space, predicting their three period vectors starting from any values based on the inside interactions is a basic theoretical physics problem. For the general situation where crystals are under constant external stress, we derived dynamical equations of the period vectors in the framework of Newtonian dynamics, for pair potentials recently (doi:/10.1139/cjp-2014-0518). The derived dynamical equations show that the period vectors are driven by the imbalance between the internal and external stresses. This presents a physical process where when the external stress changes, the crystal structure changes accordingly, since the original internal stress can not balance the external stress. The internal stress has both a full kinetic energy term and a full interaction term. It is extended to many-body interactions in this paper. As a result, all conclusions in the pair-potential case also apply for many-body potentials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0270.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: sensors technologies; sensor systems for water flow; hydrodynamics monitoring of rivers; hydraulics; MEMS; Fluid-structure interactions
Online: 14 January 2021 (13:15:14 CET)
Experimental evidence showed how various complex systems, characterized by a fluctuation scaling, satisfy the well-known Taylor's law. The present work aims to apply for the first time Taylor's law, given its general treatment, for a flow field at $Re$ around $10^4$, since activity of each fluid particle is highly fluctuating, especially in the context of vortex shedding. In addition, the further element of innovation is the use of an innovative thin-films based device consisting of an elastic piezoelectric flapping flag that is proposed as a measuring instrument of the flow field. The oscillations of the flapping flag, due to the vortexes release downstream to an obstacle of cylindrical shape, generate an alternating piezoelectric voltage whose time history is similar to the chaotic components of the fully developed turbulent speed. Preliminary experimental results about the use of thin-films based device in a flume channel are reported together with a second order analysis on the voltage difference and a scaling law of the exponent scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0733.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Discrete multiphysics; smooth particle hydrodynamics; Lattice Spring Model; Fluid-structure interaction; particle-based method; Coronary stent; Atherosclerosis
Online: 30 June 2021 (11:55:59 CEST)
Stenting is a common method for treating atherosclerosis. A metal or polymer stent is deployed to open the stenosed artery or vein. After the stent is deployed, the blood flow dynamics influence the mechanics by compressing and expanding the structure. If the stent does not respond properly to the resulting stress, vascular wall injury or re-stenosis can occur. In this work, Discrete Multiphysics is used to study the mechanical deformation of the coronary stent and its relationship with the blood flow dynamics. The major parameters responsible for deforming the stent are sort in terms of dimensionless numbers and a relationship between the elastic forces in the stent and pressure forces in the fluid is established. The blood flow and the stiffness of the stent material contribute significantly to the stent deformation and affect the rate of deformation. The stress distribution in the stent is not uniform with the higher stresses occurring at the nodes of the structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0283.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: fish-like movement; underwater robotics; undulating propulsion; Biomimetic Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (BUUV); energy efficiency; Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI)
Online: 20 October 2021 (09:17:07 CEST)
This paper describes research on a unique propulsion system design for a low-speed Biomimetic Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (BUUV). It is biomimetic in the sense that it mimics the movement of aquatic organisms. The undulating propulsion system has numerous advantages over the rotary impeller and is becoming more popular in underwater robotics. The analysis of an artificial seal’s propulsion system with two tail fins is described here. The contrast between the previous undulating propulsion system and the new one is detailed using mathematical analysis and experimental data. The experimental comparison was carried out on a laboratory test stand equipped with specialist sensor equipment to determine the energy efficiency of various types of propulsion systems. Due to a patent procedure, the innovative propulsion system presented in this work has never been published previously. The fins have extra joints, which is the subject of patent claims. The extra joint is intended to improve energy efficiency and reduce fatigue wear on the fins.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0049.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: hydraulic transients; water-hammer; fluid-structure interaction; degrees-of-freedom; junction coupling; Poisson coupling; friction coupling; Bourdon coupling
Online: 4 September 2018 (03:38:31 CEST)
The present review paper aims at collecting and discussing the research work, numerical and experimental, carried out in the field of Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) in one-dimensional (1D) pressurized transient flow in the time-domain approach. Background theory and basic definitions are provided for the proper understanding of the assessed literature. A novel frame of reference is proposed for the classification of FSI models based on pipe degrees-of-freedom. Numerical research is organized according to this classification, while an extensive review on experimental research is presented by institution. Engineering applications of FSI models are described and historical accidents and post-accident analyses documented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0208.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids & Plasmas Keywords: permeability; porous media; fluid dynamics; fluid current; turbulence; simple harmonic motion
Online: 18 October 2019 (07:29:42 CEST)
In this paper we develop from first principles a unique law pertaining to the flow of fluids through closed conduits. This law, which we call “Quinn’s Law”, may be described as follows: When fluids are forced to flow through closed conduits under the driving force of a pressure gradient, there is a linear relationship between the normalized dimensionless pressure gradient, PQ, and the normalized dimensionless fluid current, CQ. The relationship is expressed mathematically as: PQ = k1 +k2CQ. This linear relationship remains the same whether the conduit is filled with or devoid of solid obstacles. The law differentiates, however, between a packed and an empty conduit by virtue of the tortuosity of the fluid path, which is seamlessly accommodated within the normalization framework of the law itself. When movement of the fluid is very close to being at rest, i.e., very slow, this relationship has the unique minimum constant value of k1, and as the fluid acceleration increases, it varies with a slope of k2 as a function of normalized fluid current. Quinn’s Law is validated herein by applying it to the data from published classical studies of measured permeability in both packed and empty conduits, as well as to the data generated by home grown experiments performed in the author’s own laboratory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0169.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: tandem cylinders; flexible beams; fluid-structure interaction; whisker sensing; cross-correlation; coherent vortices; convection velocity; optical fiber sensors; pinniped head
Online: 5 February 2021 (21:49:12 CET)
(1) Background: Sensing of critical events or flow signatures in nature often presents itself as a coupled interaction between a fluid and arrays of slender flexible beams, such a wind-hairs or whiskers. It is hypothesized that important information is gained in highly noisy environments by the inter-correlation within the array. (2) Methods: The present study uses a model sea lion head with artificial whiskers in the form of slender beams (optical fibres), which are subjected to a mean flow with overlaid turbulent structures generated in the wake of a cylinder. Motion tracking of the array of fibres is used to analyse the correlation of the bending deformations of pairs of fibres. (3) Results: Cross-correlation of the bending signal from tandem pairs of whiskers proves that the detection of vortices and their passage along the animals head is possible even in noisy environments. The underlying pattern, during passage of a vortex core, is a jerk-like response of the whiskers, which can be found at later arrival-times in similar form in the downstream whisker's response. (4) Conclusion: Coherent vortical structures can be detected from cross-correlation of pairs of cantilever-beam like sensors even in highly turbulent flows. Such vortices carry important information within the environment, e.g. the underlying convection velocity. More importantly in nature, these vortices are characteristic elementary signals left by prey and predators. The present work can help to further develop flow, or critical event, sensory systems which can overcome high noise levels due to the proposed correlation principle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0310.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: hydraulic fracturing; energized fracturing fluid; tight gas; reservoir stimulation; frac fluid rheology
Online: 28 April 2019 (10:39:53 CEST)
Hydraulic fracturing is the most effective method of stimulation for hydrocarbon reservoirs. However the use of water-based fracturing fluids, can be a problem in water-sensitive formations due to the permeability damage hazard caused by clay minerals swelling. For this reason, the foamed fracturing fluids with addition of natural, fast hydrating guar gum were examined. The rheology and filtration coefficients of foamed fracturing fluids were examined and compared to the properties of conventional water-based fracturing fluid. Laboratory results provided the input for numerical simulation of the fractures geometry for water-based fracturing fluids and 50% N2 foamed fluids. The results show, that the foamed fluids were able to create shorter and thinner fractures compared to the fractures induced by the non-foamed fluid. The simulation proved that the concentration of proppant in the fracture and its conductivity are similar or slightly higher when using the foamed fluid. Moreover such fluids are able to significantly reduce the amount of water necessary for fracturing treatments, limiting clay minerals swelling, and reducing the reservoir permeability damage. The foamed fluids, when injected to the reservoir, provide additional energy, that allow for more effective flowback, and maintain the proper fracture geometry and proppant placing. The results of laboratory work in combination with the 3D simulation showed, that the foamed fluids have suitable viscosity which allows opening the fracture, and transport the proppant into the fracture, providing successful fracturing operation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0530.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: liquid flow; hydrodynamic Euler equations; diffeomorphism group; Lie-Poisson structure; isentropic hydrodynmaic invarinats; vortex invariants; charged liquid fluid dynamics; symmetry reduction
Online: 23 September 2020 (03:45:21 CEST)
We review a modern differential geometric description of the fluid isotropic motion and featuring it the diffeomorphism group structure, modelling the related dynamics, as well as its compatibility with the quasi-stationary thermodynamical constraints. There is analyzed the adiabatic liquid dynamics, within which, following the general approach, there is explained in detail, the nature of the related Poissonian structure on the fluid motion phase space, as a semidirect Banach groups product, and a natural reduction of the canonical symplectic structure on its cotangent space to the classical Lie-Poisson bracket on the adjoint space to the corresponding semidirect Lie algebras product. We also present a modification of the Hamiltonian analysis in case of the isotermal liquid dynamics. We study the differential-geometric structure of the adiabatic magneto-hydrodynamic superfluid phase space and its related motion within the Hamiltonian analysis and invariant theory. In particular, we construct an infinite hierarchies of different kinds of integral magneto-hydrodynamic invariants, generalizing those before constructed in the literature, and analyze their differential-geometric origins. A charged liquid dynamics on the phase space invariant with respect to an abelian gauge group transformation is also investigated, some generalization of the canonical Lie-Poisson type bracket is obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0276.v1
Online: 22 February 2022 (11:40:15 CET)
Analyzing synovial fluid from joints affected by the pathological process of psoriatic arthritis is part of the overall patient examination, since it may have differential diagnostic significance. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of crystals in the synovial fluid of psoriatic arthritis patients as biomarkers for disease activity. Materials and methods: The synovial fluid of 156 patients with proven PSA diagnosis (patients covered CASPAR criteria) was analyzed over 24 months and compared to 50 patients with activated gonarthrosis. The Leica DM4500P polarization microscope (Leica Microsystems, Germany) was used for crystal detection. Pain and disease activity measures were also evaluated (PSA VAS for pain, DAPSA, PASDAI, mCPDAI, and HAQ-DI). The statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 26 with a significance set at p < 0.05. Results: The macroscopic appearance of synovial fluid from patients with psoriatic arthritis was clear in 84.6% of the patients. Synovial fluid crystals were found in 23.71% of patients with psoriatic arthritis - predominantly monosodium urate (67.58%) but also calcium pyrophosphate (21.62%) and lipid drops (5.4%). The presence of monosodium urate crystals significantly correlates with all pain and disease activity measures – VAS for pain, DAPSA, PASDAI, mCPDAI, and HAQ-DI. In 67.56% of patients with established crystals treatment with an anti-TNF blocker was started at the discretion of the treating rheumatologist due to high levels of disease activity. Conclusion: Examining the synovial fluid in PSA patients is a necessary minimally invasive procedure in cases of joint effusion, since the presence of synovial fluid crystals is a significant indicator of disease severity. The current analyses demonstrate that the presence of synovial fluid crystals in PSA patients can be used as a biomarker for disease severity and the necessity to commence biological treatment (most often TNF-a-blocker).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0151.v1
Online: 10 September 2018 (05:53:04 CEST)
Gold, present as electrum, in the Battle Gap, Ridge North-West, HW, and Price deposits at the Myra Falls mine, occurs in late veinlets cutting the earlier VMS lithologies. The ore mineral assemblage containing the electrum comprises dominantly galena, tennantite, bornite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, pyrite and rare stromeyerite is defined as an Au-Zn-Pb-As-Sb association. The gangue is comprised of barite, quartz, and minor feldspathic volcanogenic sedimentary rocks and clay. Deposition of gold as electrum in the baritic upper portions of the sulphide lenses occurs at relatively shallow water depths beneath the sea floor. Primary, pseudosecondary, and secondary fluid inclusions, petrographically related to gold, show boiling fluid inclusion assemblages in the range of 123 to 173 °C, with compositions and eutectic melt temperatures consistent with seawater at approximately 3.2 wt% NaCl equivalent. The fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures are consistent with boiling seawater corresponding to water depths ranging from 15 to 125 metres. Slightly more dilute brines corresponding to salinities of approximately 1 wt% NaCl indicate that there is input from very low-salinity brines, which could represent a transition from subaqueous VMS to epithermal-like conditions for precious metal enrichment, mixing with re‑condensed vapour, or very low-salinity igneous fluids.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0257.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Biodiesel; Microreactor; Transesterification; Computational Fluid Dynamics
Online: 21 February 2022 (14:53:11 CET)
Microfluidic devices or microdevices refer to systems with a characteristic length in the micrometer range. Systems in this size allow handling small quantities of reagents and samples, with reduced residence time, better control of chemical species concentration, high heat and mass transfers, and high surface/volume ratio. These characteristics led to the application of these microdevices in several areas, such as biological systems, energy, liquid-liquid extraction, food, agricultural sectors, pharmaceuticals, flow chemistry, microreactors, and biodiesel synthesis. Microreactors are devices that have interconnected microchannels, in which small amounts of reagents are manipulated and react for a certain period of time. The traditional characteristics of microreactors are less quantities of reagents and samples, high surface area in relation to volume (10000 m2 m-3), reduction of resistance to heat and mass transfer, reduced reaction times, and narrower residence time distributions. In recent years, several studies have been carried out on biodiesel production in microreactors that explore the influence of operating conditions, mixing and reaction yield, numbering, and especially the microdevices design. Despite all the advantages of microreactors, the literature shows that there are only a few applications on an industrial scale. Two main reasons that hinder the adoption of this technology are the scale-up to a large enough volume to deliver the necessary production capacity and the costs related to industrial manufacturing microreactors. It is often stated that large-scale production of microreactors can be easily achieved by numbering-up. However, researches show that an incredibly high number of microdevices would be needed, which results in a technical unfeasibility and a strong impact on the construction costs of the industrial system. The present review aims to show whether microreactors can replace conventional biodiesel production processes and how this replacement technology could be carried out. The current chapter was divided into the following sections: Introduction, Synthesis and Purification of Biodiesel in Microreactors, Fundamentals of CFD, and Fundamentals of Scale-up. Finally, conclusions and future perspectives are exposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0627.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: nanorod structure; nanocorn structure; Hierarchical nanocorn skeleton-like structure; energy storage devices
Online: 26 October 2018 (11:07:54 CEST)
CoO-ZnO-based composites have attracted considerable attention for the development of energy storage devices because of their multifunctional characterization and ease of integration with existing components. This paper reports the synthesis of CoO@ZnO (CZ) nanostructures on Ni foam by the CBD method for facile and eco-friendly supercapacitor applications. The formation of a CoO@ZnO electrode functioned with cobalt, zinc, nickel and oxygen groups was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, low and high-resolution of scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The as-synthesized hierarchical nanocorn skeleton-like structure of CoO@ZnO-3h (CZ3h) electrode delivered a higher specific capacitance of 1136 F/g at a current density of 3 A/g with outstanding cycling stability, showing 98.3% capacitance retention over 3000 cycles in an aqueous 2 M KOH electrolyte solution. This retention was significantly better than that of other prepared electrodes, such as CoO (CO), ZnO (ZO), CoO@ZnO-1h (CZ1h), and CoO@ZnO-7h (CZ7h) (274, 383, 240 and 537 F/g, respectively). This superior capacitance was attributed to the ideal surface morphology of CZ3h, which is responsible for the rapid electron/ion transfer between the electrolyte and electrode surface area. The enhanced features of the CZ3h electrode highlight potential applications in high performance supercapacitors, solar cells, photocatalysis, and electrocatalysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0002.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: crystal structure; Hume-Rothery phases; structure stability
Online: 2 January 2017 (10:42:19 CET)
Crystal structures of simple metals and binary alloy phases based on the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure are analyzed within the model of Fermi sphere – Brillouin zone interactions to understand the stability of original cubic structure and derivative structures with distortions, superlattices and vacancies. Examination of the Brillouin-Jones configuration in relation to the nearly-free electron Fermi sphere for several representative phases reveals significance of the electron energy contribution to the phase stability. Representation of complex structures in the reciprocal space clarifies their relationship to the basic cubic cell.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0454.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: perioperative goal-directed fluid therapy; haemodynamics monitoring; fluid management; kidney transplantation; major postoperative complications; outcome of surgery
Online: 19 November 2018 (10:57:00 CET)
Background: Kidney transplantation is considered the first-choice therapy in ESRD patients. Despite recent improvements in terms of outcomes and graft survival in recipients, postoperative complications still concern health-care providers involved in the management of those patients. Particularly challenging are cardiovascular complications. Perioperative goal-directed fluid-therapy (PGDT) and hemodynamic optimization are widely used in high-risk surgical patients, and are associated with a significant reduction in postoperative complication rates and length of stay (LOS). The aim of this work is to compare the effects of perioperative goal-directed therapy (PGDT) with conventional fluid therapy (CFT), and to determine whether there are any differences in major postoperative complications rates and delayed graft function (DGF) outcomes. Methods: Prospective study with historical controls. Two groups, a PGDT- and a CFT- group were used: the stroke volume (SV) optimization protocol was applied in PGDT group throughout the procedure. Conventional fluid therapy with fluids titration at a central venous pressure (CVP) 8-12 mmHg and mean arterial pressure (MAP) >80mmHg was applied to the control-group. Postoperative data collection including vital signs, weight, urinary output, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, serum potassium, and assessement of volemic status and the signs and symptoms of major postoperative complications occurred at 24h, 72h, 7 days and 30 days after transplantation. Results: Among the 66 patients enrolled, 33 were in each group and both groups had similar physical characteristics. Good fuctional recovery was evident in the 94% of patients. The statistical analysis has showed a difference in postoperative complications as follows: significant reduction of cardiovascular complications, DGF episodes (p<0.05) and surgical complications (p<0.01). There were no significant differences in pulmonary or other complication. Conclusions: PGDT and SV optimization effectively influenced the rate of major postoperative complications, reducing the overall morbidity and thus the mortality in patients receiving kidney transplantation.
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: carbon; atomic structure; electron-dynamics; potential energy; force-exertion; atomic binding
Online: 17 May 2019 (08:36:23 CEST)
Many studies discuss carbon-based materials because of the versatility of its element. They include different opinions for scientific problems and discuss fairly at convincing and compelling levels within the scope and application. A gas-state carbon atom converts into various states depending on its conditions of processing. The electron transfer mechanism in the gas-state carbon atom is responsible to convert it into various states, namely, graphite, nanotube, fullerene, diamond, lonsdaleite and graphene. The shape of ‘energy trajectory’ enables transferring electrons from the left- and right-sides of an atom is like a parabola. That ‘energy trajectory’ is linked to states (filled state and suitable nearby unfilled state) where force-exertion along the poles of transferring electrons is remained balance. So, the mechanism of originating different states of a gas-state carbon atom is under the involvement of energy first. This is not the case for atoms executing confined inter-state electron-dynamics as the force is involved first. Graphite-, nanotube- and fullerene-state atoms ‘partially evolve partially develop’ (form) their structures. These possess one-dimensional, two-dimensional and four-dimensional ordering of atoms, respectively. Their structural formation also comprises ‘energy curve’ having a shape-like parabola. Transferring suitable filled state electron to suitable nearby unfilled state is under a balance force exerting along the poles. The graphite structure under only attained-dynamics of atoms can also be formed but in two-dimension. Here, binding energy between graphite-state carbon atoms is for a small difference of exerting forces along their opposite poles. Structural formation in diamond, lonsdaleite and graphene atoms involve energy to gain required infinitesimal displacements of electrons through which they maintain orientationally-controlled exerting forces along dedicated poles. In this study, the growth of diamond is found to be south to east-west (ground) where atoms bound ground to south. Thus, diamond atoms merge for a tetra-electron ground to south topological structure. Lonsdaleite atoms merge for a bi-electron ground to just-south topological structure. The growth of graphene is found to be north to ground where atoms bound ground to north. Thus, graphene atoms merge for a tetra-electron ground to north topological structure. Glassy carbon exhibits layered-topological structure where, tri-layers of gas-, graphite- and lonsdaleite-state atoms successively bind in repetitive order. Nanoscale hardness is also sketched based on different force-energy behaviors of different state carbon atoms. Here, structure evolution in each carbon state atom explores its own science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0446.v1
Online: 21 October 2020 (16:56:54 CEST)
The nature of fluid mechanics makes experimentation an important part of a course taught in the subject. Presented here is the application of a novel, large scale multidisciplinary model of practical education in a fluids engineering laboratory. Advantages of this approach include efficiencies through economy of scale leading to better pedagogy for students. The scale justifies dedicated academic resources to focus on developing laboratory classes and giving specific attention to designing activities that meet learning outcomes. Four examples of applying this approach to fluids mechanics experiments are discussed, illustrating tactics that have been developed and honed through many repeated instances of delivery. “The measurement lab” uses a flow measurement context to teach identifying and managing general experimental uncertainty. New students, unfamiliar with fluid mechanics are guided through a process to gain understanding that can be applied to all future experimental activities. The “pressure loss in pipes” lab discusses the advantage and process for sharing equipment and teaching resources between multiple cohorts. The provision for students is adapted for context, such as the degree program or year of study. The “weirs big and small” lab provides a methodology to teach the power of dimensional analysis to mechanical engineers using a field of fluid mechanics that is outside their usual theoretical studies. Finally, the “spillway design” lab discusses mechanisms to deliver student independent, open ended experiments at scale, without excessive staff resource requirement.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: equation of state; hard hyperspheres; fluid mixtures
Online: 25 March 2020 (08:47:08 CET)
New proposals for the equation of state of four- and five-dimensional hard-hypersphere mixtures in terms of the equation of state of the corresponding monocomponent hard-hypersphere fluid are introduced. Such proposals (which are constructed in such a way so as to yield the exact third virial coefficient) extend, on the one hand, recent similar formulations for hard-disk and (three-dimensional) hard-sphere mixtures and, on the other hand, two of our previous proposals also linking the mixture equation of state and the one of the monocomponent fluid but unable to reproduce the exact third virial coefficient. The old and new proposals are tested by comparison with published molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulation results and their relative merit is evaluated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0061.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Fluid Mechanic, Pulse Energy Tensor, General Relativity
Online: 17 June 2019 (09:35:44 CEST)
This paper is to summarize the involvement of the stress energy tensor in the study of fluid mechanics. In the first part we will see the implication that carries the stress energy tensor in the framework of general relativity. In the second part, we will study the stress energy tensor under the mechanics of perfect fluids, allowing us to lead third party in the case of Newtonian fluids, and in the last part we will see that it is possible to define space-time as a no-Newtonian fluids.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0661.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: protein structure; hierarchy; protein sequence; ANIS method; supersecondary structure.
Online: 28 June 2021 (14:11:39 CEST)
Most non-infectious diseases are associated with dysfunction of proteins or protein complexes. Аssociation between sequence and structure is analyzed since a long time, and analysis of sequence organization in domains and motifs is actual research area. A mathematical method is proposed here to identify the hierarchical organization of protein sequences. The method is based on pentapeptide as a unit of protein sequences. This method was applied on a non-homologous dataset of protein sequences. The analysis revealed 11 hierarchical levels of protein sequence organization, showing the relationship of these multiple fragments of sequences. Using different examples, we illustrated how the fragments of the spatial structure of protein correspond to the elements of the hierarchical structure of the protein sequence. A hierarchical structure is observed in the protein sequence. This methodology is an interesting basis for mathematically based classification of elements of spatial organization of proteins. Elements of the hierarchical structure of different levels of the hierarchy can be used for biotechnological and medical problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: machine learning, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), hybrid model, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), artificial intelligence, big data, prediction, forecasting, optimization, hydrodynamics, fluid dynamics, soft computing, computational intelligence, computational fluid mechanics
Online: 7 May 2019 (11:30:56 CEST)
The combination of artificial intelligence algorithms and numerical methods has recently become popular in the prediction of macroscopic and microscopic hydrodynamics parameters of bubble column reactors. The multi inputs and outputs machine learning can cover small phase interactions or large fluid behavior in industrial domains. This numerical combination can develop the smart multiphase bubble column reactor with the ability of low-cost computational time. It can also decrease case studies for the optimization process when big data is appropriately used during learning. There are still many model parameters that need to be optimized for a very accurate artificial algorithm, including data processing and initialization, the combination of inputs and outputs, number of inputs and model tuning parameters. For this study, we aim to train four inputs big data during learning process by an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system or adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) method, and we consider the superficial gas velocity as one of the input variables, while for the first time, one of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) outputs named gas velocity is used as an output of the artificial algorithm. The results show that the increasing number of input variables improves the intelligence of the ANFIS method up to , and the number of rules during learning process has a significant effect on the accuracy of this type of modeling. The results also show that propper selection of model parameters results in more accuracy in prediction of the flow characteristics in the column structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0403.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Cell Disease; Stroke; Neuroimaging; Hematology; Computational fluid dynamics
Online: 27 September 2022 (02:38:29 CEST)
The main objective of this study is to demonstrate proof of principle that computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling is a tool for studying the contribution of covert and overt vascular architecture to the risk of cerebrovascular disease in in sickle cell disease (SCD) as well as uncover one or more mechanism of response to therapy such as chronic red blood cell (cRBC) transfusion. We analyzed baseline (screening), pre-randomization and study exit magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) images from 10 (5 each from the transfusion and observation arms) pediatric sickle SCD participants in the silent cerebral infarct transfusion (SIT) trial, using CFD modeling. We reconstructed the intracranial portion of the internal carotid artery and branches and extracted the geometry using 3D Slicer. We cut specific potions of the large intracranial artery to include segments of the internal carotid, middle, anterior, and posterior cerebral artery such that the vessel segment analyzed extended from the intracranial beginning of the internal carotid artery up to immediately after (~0.25 inches) the middle cerebral artery branching point. Cut models were imported into Ansys 2021R2/2022R1 and laminar and time-dependent flow simulation was performed. Change in time averaged mean velocity, wall shear stress, and vessel tortuosity were compared between the observation and cRBC arm. We did not observe a correlation between time averaged mean velocity (TAMV) and mean transcranial doppler (TCD) velocity at study entry. There was also no difference in change in time average mean velocity, wall shear stress (WSS), and vessel tortuosity between the observation and cRBC transfusion arms. WSS and TAMV were abnormal for 2 (developed TIA) out of the 3 participants (one participant had SCI) that developed neurovascular outcomes. CFD approaches allows for the evaluation of vascular topology and hemodynamics in SCD using MRA images. In this proof of principle study, we show that CFD could be a useful tool and we intend to carry out future studies with a larger sample to enable more robust conclusions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0365.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Fluid flow; conservation laws; Bidomain model; glymphatic system
Online: 26 May 2022 (10:42:20 CEST)
Biology is about structure. Structures within structures. Organs within animals, tissues within organs, cells within tissues, and molecules, often proteins within cells. The structures are so complex that they can only be described by numbers. No numbers are of more importance than those that describe proteins. The numbers that describe coordinates of its atoms, often determined by Patterson functions (which are inverse Fourier Transforms of intensities) of crystal diffraction. Without these numbers, structural biology would hardly exist. Without numbers, engineering would not exist. Numbers are surely needed by the engineers who produce the x-rays diffracting from atoms of protein crystals. Devices of engineering have function. They are built to implement equations. Engineering devices use structures to implement equations, when power is supplied at the right places, that produces appropriate flows. Flows are the essence of life. Equilibrium means death in most living systems. Flows in biological structures are hard to analyze because we do not know input output equations in advance. Sometimes we do not know their function. Flows, forces, and structures of life (like those of engineering) are related by field equations of conservation laws, partial differential equations, constrained by location and properties of structures. Constraints are boundary conditions located on the complicated domain of biological structure. Dealing with this complexity is simplified if one systematically analyzes structure using the most general field theory known, electricity described by the Maxwell equations, without significant known error. Currents are involved because flows of biology usually involve migration of charges, convection of water and solutes, diffusion of ions that form the plasma of life, and their interactions. Interactions can dominate function. Here I show how a few complex structures can be understood in engineering detail. This approach may be useful in dealing with biological and medical issues in many other cases. In one limited case—the clearance of a toxic waste (potassium ions) from the optic nerve—this approach seems to have succeeded.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0266.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: Special-shaped spinneret holes; Spinning; Spinnerets; Fluid simulation
Online: 18 March 2022 (09:19:13 CET)
In this paper, a method of direct spinning is proposed for direct spinning of heterogeneous spun wire-blown holes standard parts and the motherboard mounted on the spin board assemblies. The standardization of the spinneret hole was conducive to improving the machining accuracy and efficiency of the pores, and the spinneret holes could be replaced in time when a hole in the spinneret fails. Moreover; on the other hand, according to the needs of the process of spinning, the spinnerets with various cross-sections were combined and installed on the same motherboard for spinning, and the spinning obtained different bionic new functional products. Based on the results, a finite element model of the standard part of the spinneret hole was developed, and the spinnability of the combinable spinnable spinneret board was verified by simulating the melt flow in the spinneret channel through POLYFLOW software. Further, by the processing of the spinneret, the motherboard was installed into a combined spinneret, and the spinneret assembly was installed on the spinning machine for the experiments. Furthermore, the tow section was observed using a microscope, and the results showed the feasibility of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0113.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: computational fluid dynamics; OpenFOAM; docked vessel; gas pollutants
Online: 4 August 2021 (13:12:08 CEST)
Docked ships are a source of contamination for the city while they keep their engine working. Plumes emissions from large boats can carry a number of pollutants to the nearby cities causing a detrimental effect on the life quality and health of local citizens and ecosystems. A computational fluid dynamics model of the harbour area of Tromsø has been built in order to model the deposition of CO2 gas emitted by docked vessels within the city. The ground level distribution of the emitted gas has been obtained and the influence of the wind speed and direction, vessel chimney height, ambient temperature and exhaust gas temperature has been studied. The deposition range is found to be the largest when the wind speed is low. At high wind speeds, the deposition of pollutants along the wind direction is enhanced and spots of high pollutant concentration can be created. The simulation model is intended for the detailed study of the contamination in cities near the coast or an industrial pollutant source of any type of gas pollutants and can easily be extended for the study of particulate matter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0723.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: general relativity; alternative gravity; compact stars; anisotropic fluid
Online: 31 August 2020 (10:43:38 CEST)
In this work, we study the existence of strange star in the background of f(T,T) gravity in the Einstein spacetime geometry, where T is the torsion tensor and T is the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. The equations of motion are derived for anisotropic pressure within the spherically symmetric strange star. We explore the physical features like energy conditions, mass-radius relations, modified TOV equations, principal of causality, adiabatic index, redshift and stability analysis of our model. These features are realistic and appealing to further investigation of properties of compact objects in f(T,T) gravity as well as their observational signatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0043.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: microalgae; photobioreactor; flashing light effect; Computational Fluid Dynamics
Online: 5 June 2019 (14:56:44 CEST)
In a thin-volume photobioreactor where a concentrated suspension of microalgae is circulated throughout the established spatial irradiance gradient, microalgal cells experience a time-variable irradiance. Deploying this feature is the most convenient way of obtaining the so-called “flashing light” effect, improving biomass production in high irradiance. This work investigates the light flashing features of sloping wavy photobioreactors, a recently proposed type, by introducing and validating a Computational Fluid Dynamics model. Two characteristic flow zones (straight top-bottom stream and local recirculation stream), both effective toward light flashing, have been found and characterised: a recirculation-induced frequency of 3.7 Hz and straight flow-induced frequency of 5.6 Hz were estimated. If the channel slope is increased, the recirculation area becomes less stable while the recirculation frequency is nearly constant with flow rate. The validated CFD model is a mighty tool that could be reliably used to further increase the flashing frequency by optimising the design, the dimensions, the installation and the operational parameters of the sloping wavy photobioreactor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0033.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids & Plasmas Keywords: Tank drainage; Power law MHD fluid; Analytical solution
Online: 5 February 2018 (11:41:11 CET)
This paper investigates the tank drainage problem of an isothermal, unsteady, incompressible electrically conducting Power law fluid. Analytic solution have been obtained from governing continuity and momentum equations subject to appropriate boundary conditions by using Perturbation method. The Power law fluid model solution without MHD is retrieved from this proposed model on substitution . Declaration on behalf of velocity profile, volume flux, average velocity, connection of time with respect to length of the tank and requirement of time for whole drainage of fluid are acquired. Special effects of numerous emerging parameter’s on velocity profile vz and depth of the fluid in the tank are graphically presented. Keywords: Tank drainage, Power law MHD fluid, Analytical solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0206.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: crystal structure; ammine complex; structure determination; ammonia storage; vibrational spectroscopy
Online: 15 May 2018 (06:33:41 CEST)
Nickel nitrate diammine, Ni(NH3)2(NO3)2, can be synthesised from the thermal decomposition of the nickel nitrate hexammine, Ni[(NH3)6](NO3)2. The hexammine decomposes in 2 distinct steps; the first releases 4 equivalents of ammonia while the second involves the release of NOx, N2 and H2O to yield NiO. The intermediate diammine compound can be isolated following the first deammoniation step or synthesised as a single phase from the hexammine under vacuum. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXD) experiments have allowed the structure of Ni(NH3)2(NO3)2 to be solved for the first time. The compound crystallises in orthorhombic space group Pca21 (a = 11.0628 (5) Å, b = 6.0454 (3) Å, c = 9.3526 (4) Å; Z = 4) and contains 11 non-hydrogen atoms in the asymmetric unit. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy demonstrates that the bonding in the ammine is consistent with the structure determined by PXD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0195.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: spacecraft; structure from motion; monocular vision; component detection; structure analysis
Online: 22 January 2018 (05:11:39 CET)
A monocular vision pose estimation and identification algorithm used on a small spacecraft for future orbital servicing is studied in this paper. A tracker spacecraft equipped with a short-range vision system is proposed to recover the 3D structural model of a space target in orbit and automatically identify its solar panels and main body using only visual information from an onboard camera. The proposed reconstruction and identification framework is tested using structure-from-motion and point cloud identification methods. The Efficient Perspective-n-Points (EPnP) descriptor is used for pose estimation. Triangulated points are used for component segmentation by means of orientation histogram descriptors. Experimental results based on laboratory images of a spacecraft model show the effectiveness and robustness of our approach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0070.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: wolframite, high-pressure, phase transitions, crystal structure, phonons, band structure.
Online: 8 January 2018 (18:22:35 CET)
In this article we review the advances that have been made on the understanding of the high-pressure structural, vibrational, and electronic properties of wolframite-type oxides since the first works in the early 1990s. Mainly tungstates, which are the best known wolframites, but also tantalates and niobates, with an isomorphic ambient-pressure wolframite structure, have been included in this review. Apart from estimating the bulk moduli of all known wolframites; the cation-oxygen bond distances and their change with pressure have been correlated with their compressibility. The composition variations of all wolframites have been employed to understand their different structural phase transitions to post-wolframite structures as a response to high pressure. The number of Raman modes and band gap energy changes have been also analyzed in the basis of these compositional differences. The reviewed results are relevant for both fundamental science and for the development of wolframites as scintillating detectors. The possible next research venues of wolframites have also been evaluated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0219.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids & Plasmas Keywords: Fluid dynamics; Turbulent cascades; Fluid equilibria; Casimir constraints; Euler equation; Quasigeostrophic equations; Rossby waves; Axisymmetric flows; Shallow water equations; Magnetohydrodynamics
Online: 11 August 2022 (11:48:18 CEST)
An overview is presented of several diverse branches of work in the area of effectively 2D fluid equilibria which have in common that they are constrained by an infinite number of conservation laws. Broad concepts, and the enormous variety of physical phenomena that can be explored, are highlighted. These span, roughly in order of increasing complexity, Euler flow, nonlinear Rossby waves, 3D axisymmetric flow, shallow water dynamics, and 2D magnetohydrodynamics. The classical field theories describing these systems bear some resemblance to perhaps more familiar fluctuating membrane and continuous spin models, but the fluid physics drives these models into unconventional regimes exhibiting large scale jet and eddy structures. From a dynamical point of view these structures are the end result of various conserved variable forward and inverse cascades. The resulting balance between large scale structure and small scale fluctuations is controlled by the competition between energy and entropy in the system free energy, in turn highly tunable through setting the values of the conserved integrals. Although the statistical mechanical description of such systems is fully self-consistent, with remarkable mathematical structure and diversity of solutions, great care must be taken because the underlying assumptions, especially ergodicity, can be violated or at minimum lead to exceedingly long equilibration times. Generalization of the theory to include weak driving and dissipation (e.g., non-equilibrium statistical mechanics and associated linear response formalism) could provide additional insights, but has yet to be properly explored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0395.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: air quality; nitrogen oxides; dispersion modelling; computational fluid dynamics
Online: 31 March 2022 (05:55:45 CEST)
Road vehicles are a large contributor to Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) pollution. The routine road-side monitoring stations, however, may underrepresent the severity of personal exposure in urban areas, because long-term average readings cannot capture the effects of momentary, high peaks of air pollution. While numerical modelling tools historically have been used to propose an improved distribution of monitoring stations, ultra-high resolution Computational Fluid Dynamics models can further assist the relevant stakeholders in understanding the important details of pollutant dispersion and exposure at local level. This study deploys a 10 cm-resolution CFD model to evaluate actual high peaks of personal exposure to NOx from traffic, by tracking the gases emitted from the tailpipe of moving vehicles being dispersed towards the roadside. The investigation shows that a set of four Euro 5-rated diesel vehicles travelling at constant speed may generate momentary road-side concentrations of NOx as high as 1.25 mg/m3, with 25% expected increase for doubling the number of vehicles and approximately 50% reduction when considering Euro 6-rated vehicles. The paper demonstrates how the numerical tool can be used to identify the impact of measures to reduce personal exposure, such as protective urban furniture, as traffic patterns and environmental conditions change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0324.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: lipids; cerebrospinal fluid, parkinson´s disease, mass-spectrometry, lipidomics
Online: 12 April 2021 (21:16:21 CEST)
Lipid metabolism is clearly associated to Parkinson´s disease (PD). Although lipid homeostasis has been widely studied in multiple animal and cellular models as well as in blood derived from PD individuals, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lipidomic profile in PD remains largely unexplored. In this study, we have characterized the CSF lipidomic imbalance between neurologically intact controls (n=10) and PD subjects (n=20). The combination of dual extraction with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-qToF-MS/MS) allowed to monitor 257 lipid species across all samples. Complementary multivariate and univariate data analysis pointed out that glycerolipids (mono-, di-, and triacylglycerides), saturated and mono/polyunsaturated fatty acids, primary fatty amides, glycerophospholipids (phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines), sphingolipids (ceramides, sphingomyelins), N-acylethanolamines and sterol lipids (cholesteryl esters, steroids) were significantly increased in the CSF of PD compared to control group. These results, despite the limitation of being obtained in a small population, demonstrate and extensive CSF lipid remodelling in PD, shedding new light on the deployment of CSF lipidomics as a promising tool to identify potential lipid markers as well as discriminatory lipid species between PD and other atypical parkinsonisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0825.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Modular Climbing Robots; Vacuum Generation; Computer Fluid Dynamics; Optimization
Online: 31 December 2020 (16:01:52 CET)
Adhesion systems are very important in robots for infrastructure inspection (especially in vertical walls). They present the challenge of optimizing the ratio vacuum/power consumption in battery-powered robots. In this paper a CFD (Computer Fluid Dynamics) modelling and optimization process of a robot adhesion system is carried out to determine the best performing configuration in terms of vacuum and power consumption. Analytical and numerical models were developed to predict the behaviour of the system for different configurations. The models were validated, using test rig measurements, by calibrating an arbitrary defined inlet height that simulates the leakage flow. Then, different geometric parameters were varied to determine the best performing configuration based on the vacuum/power consumption ratio value. The model presented in the paper was capable of predicting the behaviour of the system for different configurations, with a margin of error of 15% for the vacuum prediction and a 25% for the motor power calculation. Finally, the model was used to optimize parameters of the system, like the number of blades of the impeller. The adhesion system was conceived for the modular autonomous climbing legged robot ROMERIN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0168.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Casson fluid; Magneto-hydrodynamics; Nanofluid; Porous medium; Extending cylinder
Online: 7 December 2020 (15:08:26 CET)
It is a theoretical exportation for mass transpiration and thermal transpiration of Casson nanofluid over an extending cylindrical surface. The Stagnation point flow through porous matrix is influenced by magnetic field of form strength. Appropriate similarity functions are availed to yield the transmuted system of leading differential equations. Existence for the solution of momentum equation is proved for various values of Casson parameter β, magnetic parameter M, porosity parameter Kp and Raynolds number Re in two situations of mass transpiration (suction/injuction). Moreover, uniqueness results are discussed and for skin friction factor are established to attain accuracy for large injection values. Thermal and concentration profiles are delineated numerically by applying Runge-Kutta method and shooting technique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0595.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Bayesian Optimization; Machine Learning; Neural Architecture Search; Fluid Turbulence
Online: 3 December 2020 (10:51:21 CET)
The adoption of Machine Learning (ML) for building emulators for complex physical processes has seen an exponential rise in the recent years. While neural networks are good function approximators, optimizing the hyper-parameters of the network to reach a global minimum is not trivial, and often needs human knowl- edge and expertise. In this light, automatic ML or autoML methods have gained large interest as they automate the process of network hyper-parameter tuning. In addition, Neural Architecture Search (NAS) has shown promising outcomes for improving model performance. While autoML methods have grown in popularity for image, text and other applications, their effectiveness for high-dimensional, complex scientific datasets remains to be investigated. In this work, a data driven emulator for turbulence closure terms in the context of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) models is trained using Artificial Neural Networks and an autoML frame- work based on Bayesian Optimization, incorporating priors to jointly optimize the hyper-parameters as well as conduct a full neural network architecture search to converge to a global minima, is proposed. Additionally, we compare the effect of using different network weight initializations and optimizers such as ADAM, SGDM and RMSProp, to explore the best performing setting. Weight and function space similarities during the optimization trajectory are investigated, and critical differences in the learning process evolution are noted and compared to theory. We observe ADAM optimizer and Glorot initialization consistently performs better, while RMSProp outperforms SGDM as the latter appears to have been stuck at a local minima. Therefore, this autoML BayesOpt framework provides a means to choose the best hyper-parameter settings for a given dataset.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Volcanic plumes; Periodicity; Basaltic volcanism; Passive degassing; Fluid dynamics
Online: 19 July 2019 (10:38:28 CEST)
Persistent, non-explosive passive degassing is a common characteristic of active volcanoes. Distinct periodic components in measurable parameters of gas release have been widely identified over timescales ranging from seconds to months. The development and implementation of high temporal resolution gas measurement techniques now enables the robust quantification of high frequency processes operating on timescales comparable to those detectable in geophysical datasets. This review presents an overview of the current state of understanding regarding periodic volcanic degassing, and evaluates the methods available for detecting periodicity, e.g., autocorrelation, variations of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), and the continuous wavelet transform (CWT). Periodicities in volcanic degassing from published studies are summarised and statistically analysed, together with analyses of literature-derived datasets where periodicity had not previously been investigated. Finally, an overview of current knowledge on drivers of periodicity is presented and discussed in the framework of four main generating categories, including: (1) non-volcanic (e.g., atmospheric or tidally generated); (2) gas-driven, shallow conduit processes; (3) magma movement, intermediate to shallow storage zone; and (4) deep magmatic processes.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0133.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: tunnel; gas pipeline; leakage; computational fluid dynamics; ventilation scheme
Online: 19 December 2017 (07:43:46 CET)
Due to poor ventilation conditions in the tunnel, if gas pipeline leaks, the consequence of the accident will be more serious. Therefore, before the emergency repair, gas in the tunnel needs to be excharged so as not to explode during the repair process. Therefore, it is necessary to study the ventilation of gas in the tunnel. Based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) theory and taking the Yanyingshan tunnel section of China-Myanmar pipeline as an example, this paper uses Fluent software to establish the leakage model of the gas pipeline and fan model in the tunnel and analyzes the influence of different fan locations and number of fans on gas concentration. It can be concluded that: (1) the use of press-in method makes it more efficient to discharge gas out of the tunnel. (2) In order to make ventilation efficient, the fan should be arranged in a higher position and needs to be at a distance from the top of the tunnel. (3) Parallel use of two fans has better ventilation effect than single fan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0150.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids & Plasmas Keywords: Geophysical Fluid Dynamics; Geostrophic flows; Thermal forcing; Analytical model
Online: 19 May 2017 (16:33:10 CEST)
Starting with a hypothetical geostrophic zonal current in an unbounded ocean, the investigation points out the response of this simple system to a thermal forcing, applied to the free surface and consistent with the maintenance of the geostrophic balance. The main result is the formation of a meridional component of the current, according to the Sverdrup relation, such that the full velocity vector rotates clockwise for heating and anticlockwise for cooling to adjust eventually in the initial zonal direction for large depths.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0170.v1
Online: 8 August 2018 (15:02:58 CEST)
That form and function relates, is the maxim to anatomy and physiology. Yet form-function relations can be difficult to establish. Human subjects with excessive trabeculated myocardium in the left ventricle, for example, are diagnosed with non-compaction cardiomyopathy, but the extent of trabeculations may be without relation to ejection fraction. Rather than rejecting a relation between form and function, we may ask whether the salient function is assessed; is there a relation to electrical propagation, mean arterial blood pressure, propensity to form blood clots, or all? And how should extent of trabeculated muscle be assessed? While reviewing literature on trabeculated muscle, we applied Tinbergen’s four types of causation - how does it work, why does it work, how is it made, and why did it evolve - to better parse what is meant by form and function. The paper is structured around cases that highlight advantages and pitfalls of applying Tinbergen’s questions. It further uses the evolution of lunglessness in amphibians to argue lung reduction can impact on chamber septation, and it considers the evolution of an arterial outflow in fishes to argue that reductions in energy consumption may drive structural changes with little consequences to function. Concerning trabeculations, we argue they relate to pump function in the embryo in the couple of weeks before the onset of coronary circulation. In fetal and postnatal stages, a spectrum of trabeculated-to-compact myocardium makes no difference to cardiac function and in this period form and function may appear unrelated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0286.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Cuttlebone-like structure; Bionic structure; Finite element analysis; 3D Printing; Compression; Shearing
Online: 29 April 2022 (04:06:24 CEST)
The cuttlebone-like structure is a complex porous bionic structure with asymmetric sinusoidal S-shaped wall structure connecting laminar septa, and studies have shown that the cuttlebone-like structure has light weight, high strength and excellent energy absorption capability. It has become an important research to investigate the mechanical mechanism of cuttlebone-like structure and to design a bionic structure beyond nature structure based on it. In order to investigate the mechanical properties of the static compression and shearing processes of the cuttlebone-like structure, this paper establishes theoretical formulas and analyzes the influence of dimensionless parameters such as height-to-thickness ratio $\lambda$, period-to-thickness ratio $\xi$ and amplitude to period ratio $\eta$ on the compression and shearing processes with the help of ABAQUS finite element software.The parameter sensitivity analysis method was used to compare the important influence degree of each dimensionless parameter on the mechanical properties of the structure and to determine the relative optimal parameters of the structural mechanical properties under compression and shearing. Based on the relatively optimal parameter of the cuttlebone-like structure, the cross-sectional geometry of the structure is improved to build a new cuttlebone-like structure.The experimental results showed that the new cuttlebone-like structure with revised cross-section improved the mechanical properties of the cuttlebone-like structure.The study results are of theoretical guidance to enhance the mechanical properties and geometric design of cuttlebone-like structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0412.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Galactic dynamics; Spiral structure; Bared spiral structure; Density wave; Gravitational retarded potential
Online: 27 February 2020 (16:10:59 CET)
Most fully developed galaxies have vivid spiral structure, but the formation and evolution of spiral structure is still a mystery that is not fully understood in astrophysics. We find that the currently used equations of galactic dynamics contain some unreasonable components. In this paper, the following three working assumptions are introduced to simplify the galactic structural equations. 1. In the research of large-scale structure, the retarded potential of the gravitational field should be taken into account. The propagating time of the gravitational field from center to border is longer than the revolution periods of the stars near the center of galaxy. Newton's gravitational potential is unreasonable for such case, and the weak field and low velocity approximation of Einstein's field equation should be adopted. 2. The stars in a fully developed galaxy should be zero-pressure and inviscid fluid, and the equation of motion is different from that of ordinary continuum mechanics. Stars move along geodesics. 3. The structure of the galaxy is only related to the total mass density distribution. The equation of state of dark halo is different from that of ordinary luminous interstellar matter, so their trajectories are also very different. Dark halo and ordinary matter in galaxy are automatically separated. The total mass density distribution can be presupposed according to the observation data, and then it can be determined by comparing the solution of the equations with the observed data. These assumptions and treatments are supported by theory and observation. The variables of the equations of simplified galactic dynamics are separated from each other, and the equations are well-posed and can be solved according to a definite procedure. Therefore, this simplified dynamic equation system provides a more reasonable and practical framework for the further study of galactic structure, and can solve many practical problems. Besides, it is closely related to the study of dark energy and dark matter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0145.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: General theory of Relativity; Bianchi Type I model; Isotropic and Anisotropic cosmology; Perfect fluid; Fluid mechanics; Quintessence model; cosmological inflation; Viscosity; Gravitational physics
Online: 8 January 2021 (11:19:51 CET)
We propose the Hamiltonian formalism of Bianchi type 1 cosmological model for perfect fluid. We have considered both the equation of state parameter ω and the cosmological constant Λ as the function of volume V(t) which is defined by the product of three scale factors of the Bianchi type 1 line element. We propose a Lagrangian for the anisotropic Bianchi type-1 model in view of a variable mass moving in a variable potential . We can decompose the anisotropic expansion in terms of expansion and shearing motion by Lagrangian mechanism. We have considered a canonical transformation from expanding scale factor to scalar field ø which helps us to give the proper classical definition of that scalar field in terms of scale factors of the mentioned model. This definition helps us to explain the cosmological inflation. We have used large anisotropy(as in the cases of Bianchi models) and proved that cosmic inflation is not possible in such large anisotropy. Therefore we can conclude that the extent of anisotropy is less in case of our universe. Otherwise the inflation theory which explained the limitations of Big Bang cannot be resolved.Part II is contained with some analysis of the lagrangian ; derived in Part I ; on the quintessence model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0467.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Forests; Structure; Biomass; BRDF; MODIS; Multi-angular; NDVI (Fore-Back); Vegetation structure index
Online: 22 February 2021 (12:40:14 CET)
Utilization of Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) model parameters obtained from the multi-angular remote sensing is one of the approaches for the retrieval of vegetation structural information. In this research, the potential of multi-angular vegetation indices, formulated by the combination of multi-spectral reflectance from different view angles, for the retrieval of forest above ground biomass was assessed. This research was implemented in the New England region with the availability of a high quality forest inventory database. The multi-angular vegetation indices were generated by the simulation of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) BRDF/Albedo Model Parameters Product (MCD43A1 Version 6) based BRDF parameters. The effects of seasonal (spring, summer, autumn, and winter) composites of the multi-angular vegetation indices on above ground biomass, angular relationship of the spectral reflectance with above ground biomass, and the interrelationships between the multi-angular vegetation indices were analyzed. Among the existing multi-angular vegetation indices, only the Nadir BRDF-adjusted NDVI ( and Hot-spot incorporated NDVI ( showed significant relationship (more than 50%) with the above ground biomass. This research proposed two more sensitive vegetation structural indices, Fore-scattering Back-scattering NDVI and Vegetation Structure Index (VSI). The Fore-scattering Back-scattering NDVI showed higher sensitivity (R2 = 0.62, RMSE = 52.46) towards the above ground biomass than existing multi-angular vegetation indices. Furthermore, the VSI performed in the most efficient way explaining 64% variation of the above ground biomass, suggesting that the right choice of the spectral channel and observation geometry should be considered for improving the estimates of the above ground biomass. In addition, the right choice of seasonal data (summer) was found to be important for estimating the forest biomass while other seasonal data were either insensitive or pointless. The promising results shown by the VSI suggest that it could be an appropriate candidate for monitoring vegetation structure from the multi-angular satellite remote sensing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0473.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: seminal fluid; seminal plasma; epigenetics; transgenerational plasticity; sperm; paternal effects
Online: 30 September 2022 (03:25:29 CEST)
The evidence supports the occurrence of environmentally induced paternal epigenetic inheritance shaping the offspring phenotype in the absence of direct or indirect paternal care, and the empirical results clearly indicate that sperm epigenetics is one of the major actors mediating these paternal effects. However, sperm often make up only a small fraction of the male ejaculate in animals. Males also have a complex mixture of proteins, peptides, types of small RNAs, and cell-free DNA fragments in their seminal fluid. These molecules are in close contact with reproductive cells, tissues, organs, and other molecules of both males and females during reproduction. Moreover, their production and use are very sensitive to environmental conditions which makes them potential modulators of environmentally and developmentally induced paternal effects on the next generation(s). Although there is some intriguing evidence of seminal fluid-mediated paternal epigenetic effects, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly defined. In this review, I discuss the current evidence regarding the association between seminal fluid and environmentally induced paternal effects, the possible trajectories, and the mechanisms in which seminal fluid can involve to mediate paternal epigenetic inheritance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0372.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: magnetic fluid; thermotropic nematic liquid crystals; terahertz modulation; microfluidic chip
Online: 23 September 2022 (10:27:05 CEST)
In recent years, solid state terahertz (THz) modulators have obtained rapid progress with the widespread use of two-dimensional (2D) materials in the field of THz; however, challenges remain in preparing flexible THz modulators. In this study, flexible ferromagnetic nematic materials were prepared by doping thermotropic nematic liquid crystals 5CB into magnetic fluids, and the influence of hydrogen bonding in water was reduced by a self-made cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) microfluidic chip. THz modulation characteristics of magnetic fluid and ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal (FNLC) under the induction of external magnetic field were compared using a THz time domain spectroscopy system. Under the action of a 91 mT magnetic field, the magnetic fluid has a maximum modulation depth (MD) of 54%. Under the same magnetic field, the maximum MD of the ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal materials increase to 78% because of the rearrangement of Fe3O4 nanoparticles induced by the topological defect of the liquid crystal. We demonstrate that the magneto-optical effect is significantly enhanced in the ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal hybrid system. This strategy of doping thermotropic nematic liquid crystals to enhance the magneto-optical effect has great potential for THz filtering, modulation, and sensing applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0142.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: gold; fluid inclusions; quartz; stable isotopes; gold deposits; Western Tuva
Online: 10 March 2022 (09:26:02 CET)
We examined PT parameters, geochemical peculiarities, and fluid sources of the Ulug-Sair ore occurrence attributable to class of intrusion-related gold deposits and according to ore mineral assemblages corresponding to Au-Bi type with wide Bi minerals (AgBiTe, Bi2Te2Se, Cu3,07BiS3, Bi), tellurides (Au and Ag), Se-tellurides (Ag and Bi), and selenides (Au, Ag, and Hg). We identified that ‘pre-gold’ quartz-tourmaline veins were deposited using an aqueous Mg-Na-K-chloride fluid with a salinity of 8–10 wt % NaCl eq. At 325–370 °C; host breasts were formed due to a CO2-water fluid containing CH4 and N2, with a salinity of 0,18–6,1 wt % NaCl eq. at least 200–400 °C. Gold-bearing mineral assemblages were formed at P ~ 0,75–1,0 kbar (~ 2,3–3 km) due to CO2-water chloride (Na-K±Fe, Mg) fluid with CH4, Na2SO4, and Na2B2O5, and salinities 1,7–12,5 wt % NaCl eq. during the decreasing temperatures from 360 up to 115 °C (gold-sulfide-quartz veins – 360–130 °С, and gold-telluride-sulfide-quartz veins – 330–115 °C) and variations fO2, fS2, fSe2, and fTe2. The isotopic composition of δ34SH2S fluid (-0,7…+2,5 ‰) indicates the juvenile or magmatic origin of fluid and ore elements. The δ34OH2O fluid indicates that, at an early substage, the formation of ore occurrence involved a fluid of magmatic or metamorphic origin (+7,3…+11,4 ‰), and, in the later substage, it mixed with meteoric waters (-2,3…+9,1 ‰).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: biomarker; diagnostic; prognostic; blood; cerebrospinal fluid; multiple sclerosis; disability pregression
Online: 26 February 2022 (03:33:31 CET)
Introduction: multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common immune-mediated chronic neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS), affecting young people. Due to the permanent disability, cognitive impairment, and the enormous detrimental impact MS can exert on the patients’ health-related quality of life. It is of great importance to recognise it in time and commence adequate treatment at an early stage. The currently used disease-modifying therapies (DMT) aim to reduce disease activity and thus halt disability development, which in current clinical practice are monitored by clinical and imaging parameters but not by biomarkers found in blood and/or the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Both clinical and radiological measures routinely used to monitor disease activity lack information on the fundamental pathophysiological features and mechanisms of MS. Furthermore, they lag behind the disease process itself. By the time a clinical relapse becomes evident or a new lesion appears on the MRI scan, potentially irreversible damage has already occurred in the CNS. In recent years several biomarkers that previously have been linked to other neurological and immunological diseases have received increased attention in MS. Additionally, other novel, potential biomarkers with prognostic and diagnostic properties have been detected in the CSF and blood of MS patients. Areas covered: in this review, we summarise the most up to date knowledge and research conducted on the already known and most promising new biomarker candidates found in the CSF and blood of MS patients. Author commentary: the current diagnostic criteria of MS rely on three pillars; MRI imaging, clinical events and the presence of oligoclonal bands in the CSF (which was reinstated into the diagnostic criteria by the most recent revision). Even though the most recent McDonald criteria made the diagnosis of MS faster than the prior iteration, it is still not an infallible diagnostic toolset, especially at the very early stage of clinically isolated syndrome. Together with the gold standard MRI and clinical measures, ancillary blood and CSF biomarkers may not just improve diagnostic accuracy and speed but very well may become agents to monitor therapeutic efficacy and make even more personalised treatment in MS a reality in the near future. The major disadvantage of these biomarkers in the past has been the need to obtain CSF to measure them. However, the recent advances in extremely sensitive immunoassays made their measurement possible from peripheral blood even when present only in minuscule concentrations. This should mark the beginning of a new biomarker research and utilisation era in MS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0357.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: predictive modeling; biomarker; cerebrospinal fluid; cross-sectional study; neurodegenerative disease
Online: 24 January 2022 (12:59:55 CET)
In recent years, metabolomics has been used as a powerful tool to better understand the physiology of neurodegenerative diseases and identify potential biomarkers for progression. We used targeted and untargeted aqueous, and lipidomic profiles of the metabolome from human cerebrospinal fluid to build multivariate predictive models distinguishing patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and healthy age-matched controls. We emphasize several statistical challenges associated with metabolomic studies where the number of measured metabolites far exceeds sample size. We found strong separation in the metabolome between PD and controls, as well as between PD and AD, with weaker separation between AD and controls. Consistent with existing literature, we found alanine, kynurenine, tryptophan, and serine to be associated with PD classification against controls, while alanine, creatine, and long chain ceramides were associated with AD classification against controls. We conducted a univariate pathway analysis of untargeted and targeted metabolite profiles and find that vitamin E and urea cycle metabolism pathways are associated with PD, while the aspartate/asparagine and c21-steroid hormone biosynthesis pathways are associated with AD. We also found that the amount of metabolite missingness varied by phenotype, highlighting the importance of examining missing data in future metabolomic studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0125.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: cows; milk fat; ruminal fluid; milk fatty acids; energy balance
Online: 8 December 2021 (14:08:31 CET)
The trials were performed on 20 multiparous cows of Holstein breed (39.7 ± 0.75 kg of milk) at the end of the first phase of lactation this different milk fat (4.1-2.8%). The aim of the research was to study the characteristics of nutrition, metabolism and biosynthesis of milk components in highly productive dairy cows with normal and low milk fat levels and the timing of their productive use. Study the characteristics of fermentation of scar formation substrates and their use in energy metabolism and biosynthesis of the milk components. Found that low fat milk is not associated with a lack of formation of acetate in the rumen (6.1 vs. 6.6 mmol/dl in the contents of the rumen, р>0.05) and the non change in the hormonal profile, but depends on the reduction of fatty acids synthesis de novo in mammary gland, regulated by conjugated higher fatty acids. The result is a reduction in the need of cows in the exchange energy (reduction of heat transfer by 6.2 MJ), a shorter service period (109.5 vs.139 days) and the prolongation of their productive use (the number of lactations correlated back with the level of fat in milk (r=-0.68, p<0.05, n=1300).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0274.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Ellis fluid; Porous medium; Normal modes; Rayleigh–Bénard instability; Convection.
Online: 15 November 2021 (19:39:24 CET)
The onset of the thermal instability is investigated in a porous channel with plane parallel boundaries saturated by a non–Newtonian shear–thinning fluid and subject to a horizontal throughflow. The Ellis model is adopted to describe the fluid rheology. Both horizontal boundaries are assumed to be impermeable. A uniform heat flux is supplied through the lower boundary, while the upper boundary is kept at a uniform temperature. Such an asymmetric setup of the thermal boundary conditions is analysed via a numerical solution of the linear stability eigenvalue problem. The linear stability analysis is developed for three–dimensional normal modes of perturbation showing that the transverse modes are the most unstable. The destabilising effect of the non-Newtonian shear–thinning character of the fluid is also demonstrated as compared to the behaviour displayed, for the same flow configuration, by a Newtonian fluid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0449.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Femtoscopy; heat-mass transfer; fluid coherence fraction; radiated source characteristics
Online: 20 July 2021 (11:54:10 CEST)
Higher order femtoscopy measured to examine the heat exchanger characterization of the fluid debris produced in the collisions and investigated a remarkable suppression in the bosons interferences measurement. The analogous suppression can be analyzed to explore the coherence of boson thermal particle production sources at unprecedented energies. We illustrate the particles emissions from radiated sources with statistical coherence which induce the thermal particles interferences to probe the peculiarity of the heated sources as well as the distinctions about the heat exchangers in the collisions at higher temperature. We perspicacious that the bosons seem to the pertinent aspirant of heat exchanger, and the normalized three particles correlators evaluate the existence of such hybrid phases significantly. The key point of this research is that we analyze the three particles correlations with their normalized correlations by difference equations to determine the characteristics of heat exchanger and its applications. With such distinctive and efficient approach, we observe a significant difference in the correlation functions at higher temperature and momenta regimes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0546.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: helicopter, tail rotor, aeroacoustic, finite element method, computational fluid dynamic
Online: 20 April 2021 (13:19:15 CEST)
With the increasingly stringent airworthiness standards, the noise generated during the rotorcraft flight is gradually attracting people’s attention. It widely operated helicopters at low altitudes because of their maneuverability. The way to reduce the noise caused by the complex airflow of the helicopter rotor system has progressively become a hot topic for researchers. Using a hybrid acoustic analysis method, this paper investigates the improvement of the noise and thrust of the helicopter’s tail rotor through the tail rotor structural parameters. For the basic model, the turbulence simulation is performed using an incompressible detached eddy simulation (DES) method, and the Lighthill acoustic analog equation is calculated using the finite element method (FEM). We verified the accuracy of the method through wind tunnel tests. We chose a series of structural parameters for sound simulation and fluid simulation calculations. The results indicate that the modified tail rotor noise reduced by 16.5 dBA and the total thrust increased by 19.9% from the prototype model. This work can enhance the duct tail rotor design to improve aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0490.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Environmental effects; oil and gas; produced water; drilling fluid; soil
Online: 21 December 2020 (10:15:14 CET)
Rotary drilling for oil and natural gas uses drilling fluid for lubrication of the bit, to seal off unstable shale layers, and floating out rock cuttings. Drilling fluid is a water-clay chemical mixture. Produced water is a water-sand chemical mixture. Land farming is a common disposal technique of drilling fluid and produced water. In the land farming process, amendments of fluid are repeatedly applied to the soil surface. Plant growth and soil chemical properties may be altered by additions of drilling fluid, because of alkalinity, salinity, trace elements, and petroleum residue contained in waste. The objective of this study was to determine the change in soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total nitrogen and carbon, and extractable nutrient levels following the land application of drilling fluid and produced water. The study was a comparison of three plots with similar soil properties and conditions. The three study plots had various levels of drilling fluid and produced water applications. The data show a major difference from field-to-field for EC, Na, and Cl levels. The EC and salt levels increased with additional applications of drilling fluid and produced water. The percent total nitrogen values and plant available P levels were very low in all fields. High EC and salt values, coupled with low N and P levels, would be detrimental to plant growth and development. To successfully vegetate this land-farm site, application of N and P fertilizer would be required. This study will help to give a better understanding of practical ways to land-farm drilling fluid and produced water in a fashion that both minimizes environmental issues and is economically feasible. Salinity changes to soil were expected to be high; there are excessive amounts of sodium and chloride in spent drilling fluid and produced water.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0005.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: Enzymes, Peptide Hydrolases, Metalloproteases, Biomarkers, Gingival Crevicular Fluid, Atopic Dermatitis
Online: 1 October 2020 (08:55:12 CEST)
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a protease-modulated chronic disorder with heterogenous clinical manifestations which may lead to an imprecise diagnosis. So far, there are no diagnostic protease tests for AD. We explored the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) protease profile of periodontally-healthy individuals with moderate/severe AD compared to healthy controls. An exploratory case-control study was conducted. Matching AD patients (n=6) and controls (n=6) were enrolled at the International Center for Clinical Studies, Santiago, Chile. Complete dermatological and periodontal evaluations (involving the collection of GCF samples) were made. The levels of 35 proteases were analyzed using a human protease antibody array. The GCF levels of zinc-binding ADAM8, ADAM9, MMP8 and Neprilysin/CD10, aspartyl-binding Cathepsin E, and serin-binding Protein convertase9 and uPA/Urokinase proteases were lower in moderate/severe AD patients compared to controls (p<0.05). No inter-group differences in the levels of the other 28 proteases were found. MMP8, Cathepsin E and ADAM9 were the biomarkers with the highest sensitivity and specificity regarding the detection of AD (p < 0.05). The area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for MMP-8+ADAMP-9 was 0.90. In conclusion, differences in the protease profile between AD and control patients associated with MMP8, Cathepsin E and ADAM9. MMP8, ADAM9 and Cathepsin E may be useful as combined diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers of moderate/severe AD.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0113.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; ARDS; bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF)
Online: 9 June 2020 (03:30:05 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), mainly affects the respiratory system with some patients rapidly progressing to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The most common symptoms of the patients are fever, cough, dyspnea, myalgia, and fatigue. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab specimens tested by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are the most commonly used methods to diagnose COVID-19. Herein, we investigate and discuss a young case of COVID-19, without any pre-existing medical conditions, whose both nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab tests of SARS-CoV-2 were negative in the prodromal phase. However, after three days, with severe dyspnea and rapidly progressed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the case was identified as infected by COVID-19 by testing bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The patient was intubated in the intensive care unit (ICU) but expired on the fourth day. This case shows the importance of active and accurate monitoring of the patients showing COVID-19 symptoms. Although the BALF test has a higher exposure risk, it is considered more accurate and recommended if performed by an expert operator.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0204.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: diesel engines; numerical simulation; pollutant emissions prediction; computational fluid dynamics
Online: 16 December 2019 (05:09:55 CET)
In this paper an integrated methodology for the coupling between 1D- and 3D-CFD simulation codes is presented, which has been developed to support the design and calibration of new diesel engines. The aim of the proposed methodology is to couple 1D engine models, which may be available in the early-stage engine development phases, with 3D predictive combustion simulations, in order to obtain reliable estimates of engine performance and emissions for newly designed automotive diesel engines. The coupling procedure features simulations performed in 1D-CFD by means of GT-SUITE and in 3D-CFD by means of Converge, executed within a specifically designed calculation methodology. An assessment of the coupling procedure has been performed by comparing its results with experimental data acquired on an automotive Diesel engine, considering different working points including both part load and full load conditions. Different multiple injection schedules have been evaluated for part-load operation, including pre and post injections. The proposed methodology, featuring detailed 3D chemistry modeling, was proven to be capable to properly assess pollutant formation, specifically to estimate NOx concentrations. Soot formation trend was also well-matched for most of the explored working points. The proposed procedure can therefore be considered as a suitable methodology to support the design and calibration of new Diesel engines, thanks to its ability to provide reliable engine performance and emissions estimations from the early-stage of a new engine development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0304.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cancer; complexity; machine learning; deep learning; fluid dynamics; turbulence; chaos
Online: 27 September 2019 (07:24:43 CEST)
Cancers remain the lead cause of disease-related, pediatric death in North America. The emerging field of complex systems has redefined cancer networks as a computational system with intractable algorithmic complexity. Herein, a tumor and its heterogeneous phenotypes are discussed as dynamical systems having multiple, strange attractors. Machine learning, network science and algorithmic information dynamics are discussed as current tools for cancer network reconstruction. Deep Learning architectures and computational fluid models are proposed for better forecasting gene expression patterns in cancer ecosystems. Cancer cell decision-making is investigated within the framework of complex systems and complexity theory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0153.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: reduced-order model; fluid dynamics; neural network; multistep method; optimization
Online: 17 June 2019 (05:46:09 CEST)
In this effort we propose a data-driven learning framework for reduced order modeling of fluid dynamics. Designing accurate and efficient reduced order models for nonlinear fluid dynamic problems is challenging for many practical engineering applications. Classical projection-based model reduction methods generate reduced systems by projecting full-order differential operators into low-dimensional subspaces. However, these techniques usually lead to severe instabilities in the presence of highly nonlinear dynamics, which dramatically deteriorates the accuracy of the reduced-order models. In contrast, our new framework exploits linear multistep networks, based on implicit Adams-Moulton schemes, to construct the reduced system. The advantage is that the method optimally approximates the full order model in the low-dimensional space with a given supervised learning task. Moreover, our approach is non-intrusive, such that it can be applied to other complex nonlinear dynamical systems with sophisticated legacy codes. We demonstrate the performance of our method through the numerical simulation of a two-dimensional flow past a circular cylinder with Reynolds number Re = 100. The results reveal that the new data-driven model is significantly more accurate than standard projection-based approaches
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0139.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Cancer; Turbulence; Navier-Stokes; Chaos; Complexity; Fractals; Fluid Dynamics; Reprogramming
Online: 14 February 2019 (14:04:51 CET)
Cancers are complex, adaptive ecosystems. They remain the leading cause of disease-related death among children in North America. As we approach computational oncology and Deep Learning Healthcare, our mathematical models of cancer dynamics must be revised. Recent findings support the perspective that cancer-microenvironment interactions consist of turbulent flows. As such, cancer pattern formation, protein-folding and metastatic invasion are discussed herein as processes driven by chemical turbulence within the framework of complex systems theory. Current state-of-the-art quantitative approaches used in reconstructing cancer stem cell networks are reviewed. To conclude, cancer stem cells are presented as strange attractors of the Waddington landscape.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0022.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: pressure drop; CFD; Casson fluid; blood; hematocrit; small-vessel; microfluidics
Online: 3 September 2018 (10:58:39 CEST)
The aim of this study is to provide the scientists with a straightforward correlation that can be applied for predicting the Fanning friction factor and consequently the pressure drop during blood flow in small caliber vessels. Due to the small diameter of the conduit, the Reynolds numbers are low and thus the flow is laminar. The study has been conducted using CFD simulations validated with relevant experimental data acquired using an appropriate experimental set-up. The experiments concern pressure drop measurement during the flow of a blood analogue that follows the Casson model, i.e. an aqueous glycerol solution that contains a small amount of xanthan gum and exhibits similar behavior to blood, in a smooth, stainless steel microtube (L=5.6cm and D=400 μm). The interpretation of the resulting numerical data led to the proposal of a simplified model that incorporates the effect of the flow rate, the hematocrit value (35-55%) and the vessel diameter (300-1800 μm) and predicts with better than ±10% the Fanning friction factor and consequently the pressure drop during laminar blood flow in small caliber vessels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0196.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: traumatic brain injury; fluid percussion injury; neurodegeneration; apoptosis; sensorimotor deficit
Online: 28 December 2017 (08:58:32 CET)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in persistent sensorimotor and cognitive deficits, which occur through a cascade of deleterious pathophysiological events over time. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that neurodegeneration caused by TBI leads to impairments in sensorimotor function. TBI induces the activation of the caspase-3 enzyme, which triggers cell apoptosis in an in vivo model of fluid percussion injury (FPI). We analyzed caspase-3 mediated apoptosis by TUNEL staining and PARP and annexin V western blotting. We correlated the neurodegeneration with sensorimotor deficits by conducting the animal behavioral tests including grid walk, balance beam, inverted screen test, and climb test. Our study demonstrated that the excess cell death or neurodegeneration correlated with the neuronal dysfunction and sensorimotor impairments associated with TBI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0196.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: peptidomimetics; tetramers; macrocycles; spatial structure.
Online: 8 July 2021 (10:59:08 CEST)
The determination of the three-dimensional structure is a key step for the identification of new targets as well as the rational design of bioactive compounds. Herein, we report the synthesis and the structural elucidation of novel tetrameric macrocycles. Measurements were taken in solid and solution states with the help of X-ray scattering and NMR spectroscopy. The investigations made will help to find diverse applications for this new, promising compound class.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: room-temperature superconductivity; thermodynamics; Electronic structure; Effects of material synthesis; crystal structure; chemical composition
Online: 4 February 2021 (11:20:12 CET)
By taking advantage of a stability criterion established recently, the critical temperature Tc is reckoned with help of the microscopic parameters, characterising the normal and superconducting electrons, namely the independent-electron band structure and a repulsive two-electron force. The emphasis is laid on the sharp Tc dependence upon electron concentration and inter-electron coupling, which might offer a practical route toward higher Tc values and help to understand why high-Tc compounds exhibit such remarkable properties.
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: period doubling; electron structure; elementary charge; electron magnetic moment; fine structure constant; Planck scale; Standard Model
Online: 20 August 2020 (04:08:27 CEST)
In the Standard Model of elementary particles, the rest mass, magnetic moment and electric charge of the electron are considered to be natural constants. In this article it is proposed that these properties can be calculated in a simple way from the corresponding Planck units using the well-known period doubling phenomenon in nonlinear dynamical systems. Periods corresponding to the values of the electron and positron properties belong to a subset of stable periods. The periodic structures of the rest energy and magnetic moment consist of three internal degrees of freedom, whereas the Coulomb energy of the electric charge consists of four. The number of period doublings for the elementary charge determines the value of the fine structure constant alpha.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0141.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: hemorrhagic shock; multimodal monitoring; individualized therapy; fluid therapy; critical care; trauma
Online: 8 August 2022 (09:56:33 CEST)
Worldwide, one of the main causes of death among young adults is multiple trauma. In these pa-tients hemorrhagic shock represents the leading cause for worsening of the clinical status and for increased morbidity and mortality. This is due to a multifactorial complex involving cellular, bi-ological, and biophysical mechanisms. The most important mechanisms affecting clinical out-come are oxidative stress, the augmentation of pro-inflammatory status, immune deficiency, dis-ruptions in the coagulation cascade, imbalances in electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis. Poly-trauma patients in hemorrhagic shock need adequate fluid management to ensure hemodynamic stability that must consider not only the maintenance of adequate blood pressure, but also the ad-equate oxygenation of tissues for optimal cellular function. In the current clinical practice, fluid resuscitation in polytrauma patients uses a variety of widely studied pharmacological products, such as crystalloids, colloids, blood transfusions, and the infusion of other blood products. Alt-hough these products exist, an agreement was not reached on a standard administration protocol that could be generally applied for all patients. Moreover, numerous studies have reported a se-ries of adverse events related to fluid resuscitation and to the inadequate use of these products. This review aims at describing the impact the administration of all the solutions used in fluid re-suscitation might have on the cellular and pathophysiological mechanisms in the case of poly-trauma patients suffering from hemorrhagic shock.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0059.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: packed-bed reactor; computational fluid dynamics; FlexPDE; COMSOL Multiphysics; Fischer-Tropsch
Online: 6 June 2022 (04:06:12 CEST)
The present study shows a methodology for analyzing and designing a cylindrical packed-bed reactor considering stationary and dynamic models. The design comprises the reactor's stationary and dynamic governing differential equations for mass and heat transfer under multi-dimensional approaches. The results included simulation of concentration, temperature, and reaction rate profiles via the 1-D and 2-D differential equations solution with FlexPDE software. The analysis was complemented with a scaled 3-D dynamic model implemented in COMSOL Multiphysics. Both FlexPDE and COMSOL Multiphysics relied on the finite element technique to solve the governing differential equations. The simulated concentration and temperature profiles from both FlexPDE and COMSOL models were compared to experimental data gathered from literature (specifically from a Fischer-Tropsch process to produce low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons in a configuration of cylindrical packed-bed reactors). Simulated concentration and temperature profiles from the 2-dimensional dynamic model and the COMSOL model were in good agreement with the trend observed in experimental data. Finally, the predicted reaction rate profiles from the COMSOL model and the 2-dimensional dynamic model followed the temperature trend, thus reflecting the temperature dependence of the reaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0252.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: tank transfer function; neural networks; machine learning; OpenFOAM; computational fluid dynamics
Online: 18 October 2021 (15:17:20 CEST)
Experimental test facilities are generally characterised using linear transfer functions to relate the wavemaker forcing amplitude to wave elevation at a probe located in the wavetank. Second and third order correction methods are becoming available but are limited to certain ranges of waves in their applicability. Artificial intelligence has been shown to be a suitable tool to find even highly nonlinear functional relationships. This paper reports on a numerical wavetank implemented using the OpenFOAM software package which is characterised using artificial intelligence. The aim of the research is to train neural networks to represent non-linear transfer functions mapping a desired surface-elevation time-trace at a probe to the wavemaker input required to create it. These first results already demonstrate the viability of the approach and the suitability of a single setup to find solutions over a wide range of sea states and wave characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0234.v1
Online: 8 June 2021 (13:39:40 CEST)
Heart attacks and strokes are one of the leading causes of death in the world today, and heart attacks caused by clogged arteries that carry blood to the heart muscle are a significant part of these strokes. These are caused by the accumulation of fat particles in the walls of the arteries and the reduction of blood flow through it over a long process. The process of fat penetration in the underlying layers of the Artery wall has been the focus of many researchers, and various researches and Simulations have been done on it, in each of them, the effect of specific parameters has been considered. In the present study, the effect of blood flow rate on the flow pattern in a bifurcate artery with two ducts has been investigated using FLUENT software with Computation fluid dynamic Method. The effect of the angle between the two ducts of the Artery on the flow pattern has been investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0558.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Cerebrospinal fluid; Total protein; Reference interval; Older population; Japanese healthy volunteer
Online: 24 May 2021 (10:38:05 CEST)
The concentration of cerebrospinal fluid total protein (CSF-TP) is important for the diagnosis of neurological emergencies. Recently, some Western studies have shown that the current upper reference limit of CSF-TP is quite low for older patients. However, little is reported about the concentration of CSF-TP in older Asian population. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the CSF-TP concentrations in Japanese healthy older volunteers. CSF samples in 69 healthy Japanese volunteers (age range: 55–73 years) were collected by lumbar puncture, and the data of CSF were retrospectively analyzed. The mean (standard deviation) CSF-TP was 41.7 (12.3) mg/dL. The older group (≥ 65 years old) had higher CSF-TP concentration than the younger group (55–64 years old). The 2.5th percentile and 97.5th percentile of CSF-TP were estimated as 22.5 and 73.2 mg/dL, respectively, which were higher than the current reference range in Japan (10–40 mg/dL).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0064.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: recompression Brayton cycle; supercritical carbon dioxide; fluid mixture; solar thermal plant.
Online: 2 April 2021 (13:54:40 CEST)
In this work, an evaluation and quantification of the impact of using mixtures based on Supercritical Carbon Dioxide "s-CO2" (s-CO2/COS, s-CO2/H2S, s-CO2/NH3, s-CO2/SO2) are made as a working fluid in simple and complex recompression Brayton s-CO2 power cycles configurations that have pressure drops in their components. These cycles are coupled to a solar thermal plant with parabolic-trough collector (PTC) technology. The methodology used in the calculation performance is to establish values of the heat recuperator total conductance (UAtotal) between 5 and 25 MW/K. The main conclusion of this work is that the cycle's efficiency has improved due to s-CO2 mixtures as working fluid; this is significant compared to that obtained using the standard fluid (pure s-CO2). Furthermore, a techno-economic analysis is carried out that compares each configuration's costs using pure s-CO2 and a mixture of s-CO2/COS with a molar fraction (70/30) respectively as working fluid where relevant results are obtained. These results show that the best configuration in terms of thermal efficiency and cost is the RCC-RH for pure sCO2 with values of 41.25% and 2811 $/kWe, while for the mixture sCO2/COS, the RCC-2RH configuration with values of 45, 05% and 2621 $/kWe is optimal. Using the mixture costs 6.75% less than if it is used the standard fluid (s-CO2).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0720.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: microneedle; microneedle array, interstitial fluid; bio sensing, wearable system; ISF sampling
Online: 30 March 2021 (09:55:02 CEST)
Dermal interstitial fluid (ISF) is a novel source of biomarkers that can be considered as an alternative to blood sampling for disease diagnosis and treatment. Nevertheless, in vivo extraction and analysis of ISF are challenging. On the other hand, microneedle (MN) technology can address most of the challenges associated with dermal ISF extraction and is well-suited for long-term, continuous ISF monitoring as well as in situ detection. In this review, we first briefly summarise the different dermal ISF collection methods and compare them with MN methods. Next, we elaborate on the design considerations and biocompatibility of MNs. Subsequently, the fabrication technologies of various MNs used for dermal ISF extraction, including solid MNs, hollow MNs, porous MNs and hydrogel MNs, are thoroughly explained. In addition, different sensing mechanisms of ISF detection will be discussed in detail. Subsequently, we identify the challenges and propose the possible solutions associated with ISF extraction. A detailed investigation is provided for the transport and sampling mechanism of ISF in vivo. Also, the current in vitro skin model integrated with the MN arrays will be discussed. Finally, future directions to develop a point-of-care (POC) device to sample ISF are proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0775.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Modified Gravity; Fluid mechanics; Quintessence model; cosmological inflation; Viscosity; Gravitational physics.
Online: 31 December 2020 (09:15:43 CET)
In this paper we have defined the effect of bulk viscosity on Quintessence model and scaler field potential as well as on classical field. We have shown the same effect for modified gravity with f(R,T)= R+f(T). In the derivation we have predicted the possibility of time dependent evolution of gravitational constant G and anisotropy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0045.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: wells turbine; oscillating water column; wave energy converter; computational fluid dynamics
Online: 2 October 2020 (14:03:41 CEST)
The current need to develop sustainable power sources has led to the development of ocean-based conversion systems. Wells turbine is a widely used converter in such systems which suffers from a lack of operational range and power production capacity under operational conditions. The profile named IFS which is concave in the post-mid-chord region, can produce significantly larger lift forces and show better separation behavior than the NACA profiles. In the present study, we tested this profile for the first time in a Wells turbine. The performance of six different blade designs with IFS and NACA profiles were evaluated and compared using a validated computational fluid dynamic model. Although the substitution of the NACA profile with the IFS profile in all cases increased the torque generated, the most efficient power generation and the largest efficient range were achieved in the design with varying thickness from the hub with a 0.15 thickness ratio reaching to the ratio of 0.2 at the tip. The operational span of this design with the IFS profile was 24.1% greater and the maximum torque generation was 71% higher than the case with the NACA profile. Therefore, the use of the IFS profile is suggested for further study and practical trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0135.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: Pannonian Basin; fractured reservoir; well-log; DFN modelling; fluid inclusion chemostratigraphy
Online: 5 September 2020 (09:31:16 CEST)
Numerous fractured hydrocarbon reservoirs exist in the metamorphic basement of the Pannonian Basin in Hungary. Many decades of experience in production have proven that these reservoirs are highly compartmentalised, resulting in a complex mosaic of permeable and impermeable domains situated next to each other. Consequently, in most fields, only a small amount of the total hydrocarbon reserve can be extracted. This paper aims to locate the potential migration pathways inside the most productive basement reservoir of the Pannonian Basin, using a multiscale approach. To achieve this, evaluation well-log data, DFN modelling and a composition analysis of fluid trapped in a vein-filling zeolite phase are combined. Data on a single well are presented as an example. The results of the three approaches indicate the presence of two highly fractured intervals separated by a barely fractured amphibolite. The two zones are probably part of the communicating fracture system inside the single metamorphic mass. The gas analysis further specifies the migrated fluids and indicates hydrocarbons of a composition similar to that of the recently produced oil. Consequently, we conclude that the two zones do not only form an ancient migration pathway but are also members of a more recent hydrocarbon system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0338.v2
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: aluminum alloys; artificial aging; drilling; surface quality; cutting fluid; burr formation
Online: 27 March 2020 (02:54:29 CET)
This article discuss the effects of heat treatment and lubrication modes on the machinability of an A356 alloy (Al-Si-Mg); the alloy is studied as-received, with solution heat-treated alloy (SHT) as well as with an alloy that is solution heat-treated and then aged at 155, 180 and 220 °C. In the course of machinability evaluation, several criteria including cutting force, surface roughness, tool wears and burr analysis (chip) were studied. The results and analysis in this work indicated that the selected machinability criteria are important and necessary to effectively evaluate the machinability of A356 alloys. The machinability of both materials and tools were estimated in terms of cutting force, chip thickness ratio and burr formation, flank wear and roughness. The effects of different cutting parameters (cutting speed and feed rate) and lubrication modes (dry, mist and wet) on the machinability of the A356 cast alloy were also examined. The influence of heat treatments on the burr formation and surface quality was clearly revealed by the experimental results. Experimental work revealed that cutting forces were influenced significantly by aging and cutting speed. However, the different aging at 155, 180, and 220 °C and the cutting speed significantly affected the machinability of the A356 cast alloy. The results obtained show that a better drilling performance in terms of surface quality occurs at a high feed rate, with dry drilling and artificial aging at T6.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0150.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: C-H-O isotopes; fluid inclusion; Koka deposit; orogenic gold deposit
Online: 15 January 2019 (09:57:18 CET)
The Koka gold deposit is located in the Elababu shear zone between the Nakfa terrane and the Adobha Abiy terrane, NW Eritrea. Based on the paragenetic study two main stages of gold mineralization were identified in the Koka gold deposit: 1) an early stage of pyrite-chalcopyrite-sphalerite-galena-gold-quartz vein; and 2) a second stage of pyrite-quartz veins. NaCl-aqueous inclusions, CO2-rich inclusions, and three-phase CO2-H2O inclusions occur in the quartz veins at Koka. The ore-bearing quartz veins formed at 268℃, from NaCl-CO2-H2O(-CH4) fluids averaging 5 wt% NaCl eq. The ore-forming mechanisms include fluid immiscibility during stage I, and mixing with meteoric water during stage II. Oxygen, hydrogen and carbon isotopes suggest that the ore-forming fluids originated as mixtures of metamorphic water, meteoric water and magmatic water, whereas sulfur isotope suggest an igneous origin. Features of geology and ore-forming fluid at Koka deposit are similar to those of orogenic gold deposits, suggesting the Koka deposit might be an orogenic gold deposit related to granite.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0265.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Droplet Impact, Viscoelastic, Two-phase Flow, Volume of Fluid method (VOF)
Online: 16 July 2018 (09:12:38 CEST)
In this paper, a numerical modeling of the impact, spreading, and eventually rebound of a viscoelastic droplet is reported. The numerical model is based on the volume of fluid (VOF) method coupled with the FENE-CR constitutive equations, and accounts for both the surface tension and the substrate wettability. The FENE-CR constitutive equations are used to model the polymer solution, while taking advantage of its rheological characterization. The comparison is performed between droplets of Newtonian solvent and a monodisperse polymer solution. The droplet impact on both hydrophilic and superhydrophobic substrate is analyzed through a detailed analysis of the spreading diameter evolution. It is found that while the droplet kinematic phase seems independent of the substrate and fluids properties, the recoiling phase is highly related to all of them. In addition, the model infers a critical polymer concentration above which the droplet rebound from a superhydrophobic substrate is suppressed. The simulation is of particular interest to ink-jet processing, and demonstrates the capability of the model to handle complex non-Newtonian droplet dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0008.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: horizontal axis tidal turbine; Computational Fluid Dynamics; mesh independency; NACA 0018
Online: 2 August 2016 (04:45:13 CEST)
This paper numerically investigates a 3D mesh independency study of a straight blade horizontal axis tidal turbine modelled using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The solution was produced by employing two turbulence models, the standard k-ε model and Shear Stress Transport (SST) in ANSYS CFX. Three parameters were investigated: mesh resolution, turbulence model, and power coefficient in the initial CFD, analysis. It was found that the mesh resolution and the turbulence model affect the power coefficient results. The power coefficients obtained from the standard k-ε model are 15% to 20% lower than the accuracy of the SST model. It can also be demonstrated that the torque coefficient increases with the increasing Tip Speed Ratio (TSR), but drops drastically after TSR = 5 and k-ε model failing to capture the non-linearity in the torque coefficient with the increasing TSR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0154.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: oxygen vacancy; extended x-ray absorption fine structure; high-intensity grinding; local structure; quantum effect
Online: 13 April 2019 (05:18:11 CEST)
Prolonged high-intensity grinding can modify the crystal structure of solid substances and/or induce chemical reaction, which is referred to as mechanochemical reaction. Such reactions can exert positive influences on hydrometallurgical processes, therefore, many researchers have applied mechanochemical reactions for metals dissolution from minerals. The mechanism of mechanochemical reaction has been investigated using solid analyses and simulations. Structural changes caused by mechanochemical reaction are not yet sufficiently clarified because the ground samples are amorphous. The objective of this study was to analyze structural changes of cerianite in weathered residual rare earth ore by mechanochemical reduction. Structural change was analyzed by x-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended x-ray absorption fine structure analysis at the cerium LIII- and K-edges. These analyses revealed that the structural change of cerianite in this ore induced by mechanochemical reduction involved oxygen vacancy production. The process of the oxygen vacancy formation was closely coupled with the quantum effect of localization–delocalization of the 4f electron of cerium.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0016.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: Li-ion battery; electrode; porous structure; virtual structure; machine learning; simulation; physico-chemical model; optimization
Online: 1 April 2019 (13:35:13 CEST)
We have proposed a data-driven approach for designing mesoscale porous structures of Li-ion battery electrode with three-dimensional virtual structures and machine learning techniques. Over 2,000 artificial 3D structures assuming positive electrode composed of random packed spheres as active material particles are generated, and charge/discharge resistance has been evaluated using simplified Physico-chemical model. In this model, resistance from Li diffusion in active material particles (diffusion resistance), transfer resistance of Li+ in electrolyte (electrolyte resistance) and reaction resistance on the interface between active material and electrolyte are simulated based on mass balance of Li, Ohm’s law in and linearized Butler-Volmer equation, respectively. Using these simulation results, regression models via Artificial Neural Network (ANN) have been created in order to predict charge/discharge resistance from porous structure features. In this study, porosity, active material particle size and volume fraction, pressure in the compaction process, electrolyte conductivity, and binder volume fraction are adopted as features, associated with controllable process parameters for manufacturing battery electrode. As results, the predicted electrode resistance by ANN regression model is good agreement with the simulated values. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis and optimization of the process parameters have been carried out. The proposed data-driven approach could be a solution as a guiding principle for manufacturing battery electrode.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0050.v1
Online: 5 September 2022 (07:49:30 CEST)
Bunyaviruses represent the largest group of RNA viruses, and are the causative agent of a variety of febrile and hemorrhagic illnesses. Originally characterized as a single serotype in Africa, the number of described bunyaviruses now exceeds over 500, with its presence detected around the world. These predominantly tri-segmented, single-stranded RNA viruses are transmitted primarily through arthropod and rodent vectors, and can infect a wide variety of animal and plants. Although encoding for a small number of proteins, these viruses can inflict potentially fatal disease outcomes, and have even developed strategies to suppress the innate antiviral immune mechanisms of the infected host. This short review will attempt to provide an overall description of the order Bunyavirales, describing the mechanisms behind their infection, replication and their evasion of the host immune response. Furthermore, the historical context of these virus will be presented, starting from their original discovery almost 80 years ago, to the most recent research pertaining to viral replication and host immune response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0123.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: CoGa; electronic structure; magnetism; binary alloys
Online: 7 July 2022 (09:44:18 CEST)
The present work reports on the calculated electronic and magnetic structure of the binary Co-Ga system at high Co content. β-CoGa adopts a simple cubic CsCl type structure. Well-ordered CoGa does not exhibit collective magnetism but is a paramagnetic, metallic compound. Neither Co nor Ga deficiency induces magnetic order, however, ferromagnetism is observed for Co-Ga anti-site disorder. The magnetic moment per cell increases up to about 1.2 μB in the completely disordered body centered cubic structure. With increasing Co content, Co1+xGa1−x maintains the CsCl type structure and becomes ferromagnetic. Most important, a discontinuity of the magnetic order with composition is observed at about 10% excess Co, where a change from a low magnetic moment state to a high moment state is observed. This is accompanied by a change in the electronic structure and transport properties. The discontinuity is forced by the increasing exchange splitting related to the localized moment of the additional Co atoms that replace Ga. Subsequently, the magnetic moment increases continuously up to 2.5 μB for x=0.6. For x≳0.6, the structure changes to face centered cubic with random site occupation and the magnetic moment further increases. Above the magnetic discontinuity, the Curie temperature increases linearly with the Co content from the onset of ferromagnetism, until it reaches its maximum in pure Co.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0492.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: glideosome-associated connector; protein; crystallography; structure
Online: 30 December 2021 (17:13:26 CET)
A model for parasitic motility has been proposed in which parasite filamentous actin (F-actin) is attached to surface adhesins by a large component of the glideosome, known as the glideosome-associated connector protein (GAC). This large 286 kDa protein interacts at the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane with the phosphatidic acid-enriched inner leaflet and cytosolic tails of surface adhesins to connect them to the parasite actomyosin system. GAC is observed initially to the conoid at the apical pole and re-localised with the glideosome to the basal pole in gliding parasite. GAC presumably functions in force transmission to surface adhesins in the plasma membrane and not in force generation. Proper connection between F-actin and the adhesins is as important for motility and invasion as motor operation itself. This notion highlights the need for new structural information on GAC interactions, which has eluded the field since its discovery. We have obtained crystals that diffracted to 2.6-2.9 Å for full-length GAC from Toxoplasma gondii in native and selenomethionine-labelled forms. These crystals belong to space group P212121, cell dimensions are roughly a=119 Å, b=123Å, c=221Å, α=90, β=90, γ=90 with 1 molecule per asymmetric unit, suggesting a more compact conformation than previously proposed.