ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0061.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: adaptive filtering; set-membership filtering; quaternion; SM-QNLMS; wind profile prediction; quaternionic adaptive beamforming
Online: 5 December 2018 (04:21:21 CET)
In this paper, we propose the set-membership quaternion normalized least-mean-square (SM-QNLMS) algorithm. For this purpose, first, we review the quaternion least-mean-square (QLMS) algorithm, then go into the quaternion normalized least-mean-square (QNLMS) algorithm. By having the QNLMS algorithm, we propose the SM-QNLMS algorithm in order to reduce the update rate of the QNLMS algorithm and avoid updating the system parameters when there is not enough innovation in upcoming data. Moreover, the SM-QNLMS algorithm, thanks to the time-varying step-size, has higher convergence rate as compared to the QNLMS algorithm. Finally, the proposed algorithm is utilized in wind profile prediction and quaternionic adaptive beamforming. The simulation results demonstrate that the SM-QNLMS algorithm outperforms the QNLMS algorithm and it has higher convergence speed and lower update rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0127.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: hybrid adaptive; unscented kalman filtering; maximum a posteriori; maximum likelihood criterion
Online: 17 March 2017 (01:49:42 CET)
In order to overcome the limitation of the traditional adaptive Unscented Kalman Filtering (UKF) algorithm in noise covariance estimation for statement and measurement, we propose a hybrid adaptive UKF algorithm based on combining Maximum a posteriori (MAP) criterion and Maximum likelihood (ML) criterion, in this paper. First, to prevent the actual noise covariance deviating from the true value which can lead to the state estimation error and arouse the filtering divergence, a real-time covariance matrices estimation algorithm based on hybrid MAP and ML is proposed for obtaining the statement and measurement noises covariance, respectively; and then, a balance equation the two kinds of covariance matrix is structured in this proposed to minimize the statement estimation error. Compared with the UFK based MAP and based ML, the proposed algorithm provides better convergence and stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0253.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: adaptive filtering; set-membership filtering; affine projection; data censoring; big data; outliers
Online: 12 October 2018 (04:57:08 CEST)
In this paper, the set-membership affine projection (SM-AP) algorithm is utilized to censor non-informative data in big data applications. To this end, the probability distribution of the additive noise signal and the excess of mean-squared error (EMSE) in steady-state are employed in order to estimate the threshold parameter of the single threshold SM-AP (ST-SM-AP) algorithm aiming at attaining the desired update rate. Furthermore, by defining an acceptable range for the error signal, the double threshold SM-AP (DT-SM-AP) algorithm is proposed to detect very large errors due to the irrelevant data such as outliers. The DT-SM-AP algorithm can censor non-informative and irrelevant data in big data applications, and it can improve misalignment and convergence rate of the learning process with high computational efficiency. The simulation and numerical results corroborate the superiority of the proposed algorithms over traditional algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0707.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: search-based software engineering; adaptive systems; configurable systems; multiobjective evolutionary algorithms
Online: 9 August 2023 (10:46:11 CEST)
Self-adaptive systems are capable of reconfiguring themselves while in use to reduce the risks forced by environments for which they may not have been specifically designed. Run-time validation techniques are required because complex Self-adaptive systems must consistently offer acceptable behavior for important services. The run-time testing can offer further confidence that a Self-adaptive system will continue to act as intended even when operating in unknowable circumstances. This article introduces an evolutionary framework that supports adaptive testing for Self-adaptive systems. To ensure that the adaptive systems continue to operate following its requirements and that both test plans and test cases continuously stay relevant to shifting operational conditions. The proposed approach using the SPEA2 algorithm facilitates both the execution and adaptation of run-time testing operations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0482.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Q-learning; Fuzzy logic; Adaptive controller; BLDC motor
Online: 19 November 2020 (10:09:42 CET)
Reinforcement learning (RL) is an extensively applied control method for the purpose of designing intelligent control systems to achieve high accuracy as well as better performance. In the present article, the PID controller is considered as the main control strategy for brushless DC (BLDC) motor speed control. For better performance, the fuzzy Q-learning (FQL) method as a reinforcement learning approach is proposed to adjust the PID coefficients. A comparison with the adaptive PID (APID) controller is also performed for the superiority of the proposed method, and the findings demonstrate the reduction of the error of the proposed method and elimination of the overshoot for controlling the motor speed. MATLAB/SIMULINK has been used for modeling, simulation, and control design of the BLDC motor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0102.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: line array cameras; pavement crack detection; feature analysis; adaptive lifting
Online: 15 February 2018 (16:41:25 CET)
This paper proposes a crack recognition method based on high-resolution line array cameras and adaptive lifting algorithm. By defining the crack rate, this algorithm calculates the ratio of the crack area to the area of the entire collected image to characterize the damage extent of the current section. The algorithm first uses image preprocessing to reduce the image noise, then uses histogram equalization to enhance the feature of the crack region, divides the whole image into multiple sub-blocks, and extracts region features in the sub-block. At the same time, this algorithm defines related feature descriptors, and constructs weak classifiers according to each feature descriptor, and converts the weak classifiers into strong classifiers by using an adaptive lifting algorithm. Finally, this algorithm realizes the division of the crack regions. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can meet the actual needs and is better than other classical algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0517.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: fractal dimension; surface defect identification; adaptive fractal filtering; edge extraction; image denoising
Online: 30 August 2018 (05:53:25 CEST)
In addition to image filtering in the spatial and frequency domains, fractal characteristics induced algorithms offers considerable flexibility in the design and implementations of image processing solutions in areas such as image enhancement, image restoration, image data compression and spectrum of applications of practical interests. Facing up to a real-world problem of identifying workpiece surface defects, a generic adaptive fractal filtering algorithm is proposed, which shows advantages on the problems of target recognition, feature extraction and image denoising at multiple scales. First, we reveal the physical principles underlying between signal SNR and its representative fractal dimension indicative parameters, validating that the fractal dimension can be used to adaptively obtain the image features. Second, an adaptive fractal filtering algorithm (Abbreviated as AFFA) is proposed according to the identified correlation between the image fractal dimensions and the scales of objects, and it is verified by a benchmarking image processing case study. Third, by using the proposed fractal filtering algorithm, surface defects on a flange workpiece are identified. Compared to conventional image processing algorithms, the proposed algorithm shows superior computing simplicity and better performance Numerical analysis and engineering case studies show that the fractal dimension is eligible for deriving an adaptive filtering algorithm for diverse-scale object identification, and the proposed AFFA is feasible for general application in workpiece surface defect detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0550.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Wireless Body Area Networks; Adaptive Routing; Two-way Communication in BANs; Routing protocol in BAN; Fuzzy logic
Online: 23 July 2020 (11:35:54 CEST)
Wireless Body Area Networks are composed of sensor nodes that may be implanted in the body or worn on it. A node is composed of a sensing unit, a processor and a radio unit. One of the nodes, the sink, acts as a gateway between the body area network and other networks such as the Internet. We propose a routing protocol that constructs paths between nodes such that the final network topology is a tree rooted at the sink. The protocol's aim is to increase network lifetime and reliability, and to adapt to network conditions dynamically. Moreover, the protocol enables communications between nodes and sink both in the upstream direction, from nodes to sink, and in the downstream direction from sink to nodes. When the network tree is constructed, a node chooses its parent, i.e., next hop to sink, by using one of various criteria. Namely, these are the number of hops between parent and sink, energy level of parent, received signal strength from parent, number of current parent's children, and a fuzzy logic function that combines multiple criteria. Moreover, as time progresses the tree structure may dynamically change to adapt to conditions such as the near-depletion of a routing node's energy. Simulation results show improvements in network lifetime and energy consumption over the older version of the protocol.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0288.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Fuzzy Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization; Graph Transformation System; Model Checking; Reachability Property; State Space Explosion
Online: 14 October 2020 (08:21:28 CEST)
Nowadays, model checking is applied as an accurate technique to verify software systems. The main problem of model checking techniques is the state space explosion. This problem occurs due to the exponential memory usage by the model checker. In this situation, using meta-heuristic and evolutionary algorithms to search for a state in which a property is satisfied/violated is a promising solution. Recently, different evolutionary algorithms like GA, PSO, etc. are applied to find deadlock state. Even though useful, most of them are concentrated on finding deadlock. This paper proposes a fuzzy algorithm in order to analyze reachability properties in systems specified through GTS with enormous state space. To do so, we first extend the existing PSO algorithm (for checking deadlocks) to analyze reachability properties. Then, to increase the accuracy, we employ a Fuzzy adaptive PSO algorithm to determine which state and path should be explored in each step to find the corresponding reachable state. These two approaches are implemented in an open-source toolset for designing and model checking GTS called GROOVE. Moreover, the experimental results indicate that the hybrid fuzzy approach improves speed and accuracy in comparison with other techniques based on meta-heuristic algorithms such as GA and the hybrid of PSO-GSA in analyzing reachability properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0119.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: short-term load forecasting; radial basis function neural network; support vector regression; particle swarm optimization; adaptive annealing learning algorithm
Online: 29 September 2016 (12:22:20 CEST)
A reinforcement learning algorithm is proposed to improve the accuracy of short-term load forecasting (STLF) in this article. The proposed model integrates radial basis function neural network (RBFNN), support vector regression (SVR), and adaptive annealing learning algorithm (AALA). In the proposed methodology, firstly, the initial structure of RBFNN is determined by using SVR. Then, an AALA with time-varying learning rates is used to optimize the initial parameters of SVR-RBFNN (AALA-SVR-RBFNN). In order to overcome the stagnation for searching optimal RBFNN, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) is applied to simultaneously find promising learning rates in AALA. Finally, the short-term load demands are predicted by using the optimal RBFNN. The performance of the proposed methodology is verified on the actual load dataset from Taiwan Power Company (TPC). Simulation results reveal that the proposed AALA-SVR-RBFNN can achieve a better load forecasting precision as compared to various RBFNNs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0231.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: mixture distribution; mixture model; high dimensional statistics; nonparametric maximum likelihood; primal-dual interior-point method; adaptive grid
Online: 20 September 2019 (05:17:17 CEST)
In this paper we describe a nonparametric maximum likelihood (NPML) method for estimating multivariate mixing distributions. Given $N$ independent observations, convexity theory shows that the NPML estimator is discrete with at most $N$ support points. The original infinite NPML problem then becomes the finite dimensional problem of finding the location and probability of the support points. The probability of the support points is found by a Primal-Dual Interior-Point method; the location of the support points is found by an Adaptive Grid method. Our method is able to handle high-dimensional and complex multivariate mixture models.An important application is discussed for the problem of population pharmacokinetics and a non-trivial example is treated.Our algorithm has been successfully applied in hundreds of published pharmacometric studies. In addition to population pharmacokinetics, this research also applies to empirical Bayes estimation and many other areas of applied mathematics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0412.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Computational complexity analysis; High parallelizability; Improved genetic algorithm; Adaptive layered clustering framework; Large-scale traveling salesman problem
Online: 24 February 2023 (01:20:06 CET)
Traveling salesman problems (TSPs) are well-known combinatorial optimization problems, and most existing algorithms are challenging for solving TSPs when its scale is large. To improve the efficiency of solving large-scale TSPs, this work presents a novel adaptive layered clustering framework with improved genetic algorithm (ALC\_IGA). The primary idea behind ALC\_IGA is to break down a large-scale problem into a series of small-scale problems. First, the $k$-means and improved genetic algorithm are used to segment the large-scale TSPs layer by layer and generate the initial solution. Then, the developed two phases simplified $2$-opt algorithm is applied to further improve the quality of the initial solution. The analysis reveals that the computational complexity of the ALC\_IGA is between $O(n\log n)$ and $O(n^2)$. The results of numerical experiments on various TSP instances indicate that, in most situations, the ALC\_IGA surpasses the state-of-the-art algorithms in convergence speed, stability, and solution quality. Specifically, the ALC\_IGA can solve instances with $2 \times 10^5$ nodes within 0.15h, $1.4 \times 10^6$ nodes within 1h, and $2 \times 10^6$ nodes in three dimensions within 1.5h.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0464.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: harmonic identification; adaptive linear neutral network; least mean M-estimate; electro-hydraulic servo shaking table; harmonic distortion
Online: 28 June 2018 (10:55:10 CEST)
Since the electro-hydraulic servo shaking table exists many nonlinear elements, such as, dead zone, friction and blacklash, its acceleration response has higher harmonics which result in acceleration harmonic distortion, when the electro-hydraulic system is excited by sinusoidal signal. For suppressing the harmonic distortion and precisely identify harmonics, a combination of the adaptive linear neural network and least mean M-estimate (ADALINE-LMM), is proposed to identify the amplitude and phase of each harmonic component. Namely, the Hampel’s three-part M-estimator is applied to provide thresholds for detecting and suppressing the error signal. Harmonic generators are used by this harmonic identification scheme to create input vectors and the value of the identified acceleration signal is subtracted from the true value of the system acceleration response to construct the criterion function. The weight vector of the ADALINE is updated iteratively by the LMM algorithm, and the amplitude and phase of each harmonic, even the results of harmonic components, can be computed directly online. The simulation and experiment are performed to validate the performance of the proposed algorithm. According to the experiment result, the above method of harmonic identification possesses great real-time performance and it has not only good convergence performance but also high identification precision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0031.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: chaotic systems; Van der Pol oscillator; drive-response; synchronization of chaotic systems; global chaos synchronization; deterministic artificial intelligence; feedforward; feedback; non-linear adaptive control; online estimation; recursive least squares (RLS); exponential forgetting; Kalman filter; least mean squares (LMS).
Online: 2 February 2023 (06:17:48 CET)
The Van der Pol oscillator is a chaotic non-linear system. Small perturbations in initial conditions may result in wildly different trajectories. Because of its chaotic nature, controlling, or forcing, the behavior of a Van der Pol oscillator is difficult to achieve through traditional adaptive control methods. Connecting two Van der Pol oscillators together where the output of one oscillator, the driver, drives the behavior of its partner, the responder, is a proven technique for controlling the Van der Pol oscillator. Deterministic AI (DAI) is an adaptive feedback control method that leverages the known physics of the Van der Pol system to learn optimal system parameters for the forcing function. We assessed the performance of DAI employing three different online parameter estimation algorithms. Our evaluation criteria include mean absolute error (MAE) between the target trajectory and the response oscillator trajectory over time. RLS with exponential forgetting (RLS-EF) had the lowest MAE overall, with a 2.46% reduction in error. However, another method was notable. Least Mean Squares with normalized gradient adaptation (LMS-NG) had worse initial error in the first 10% of the simulation, but after that point had consistently better performance. We found that over the last 90% of the simulation, DAI with LMS-NG had a 48.7% reduction in MAE compared to feedforward alone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0222.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Lithium ion battery pack; state of charge; square root; unscented Kalman filter; adaptive covariance matching
Online: 10 October 2018 (14:45:10 CEST)
The state of charge estimation is an important part of the battery management system, the estimation accuracy of which seriously affects the working performance of the lithium ion battery pack. The unscented Kalman filter algorithm has been developed and applied to the iterative calculation process. When it is used to estimate the SOC value, there is a rounding error in the numerical calculation. When the sigma point is sampled in the next round, an imaginary number appears, resulting in the estimation failure. In order to improve the estimation accuracy, an improved adaptive square root - unscented Kalman filter method is introduced which combines the QR decomposition in the calculation process. Meanwhile, an adaptive noise covariance matching method is implied. Experiments show that the proposed method can guarantee the semi-positive and numerical stability of the state covariance, and the estimation accuracy can reach the third-order precision. The error remains about 1.60% under the condition of drastic voltage and current changes. The conclusion of this experiment can provide a theoretical basis of the state of charge estimation in the battery management of the lithium ion battery pack.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0302.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: M3C control; adaptive control; PMSM; model reference adaptive control; adaptive passivity-based control
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:24:54 CEST)
There has been growing interest in using permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) for pumping applications to improve energy efficiency. One promising approach for powering these motors in variable speed applications is using modular multilevel cascaded converters based on a Triple-Star Bridge Cell (M3C) due to their inherent fault tolerance capability. However, M3C converters require a more complex control system than simpler converters. For instance, A basic M3C control system for power transmission requires seventeen (17) PI controllers, whose adjustment depends on the M3C’s dynamical model parameters’ value knowledge needing extensive and time-consuming testing to obtain them. To solve this control system issue, we propose an adaptive M3C control system for variable speed drives powering multiple PMSM-driven centrifugal pumps that reduces the number of controllers to six (6). Furthermore, the proposal does not require knowledge of the converter, motor, or load parameters, making it more practical and versatile. The proposal introduces an ad-hoc hybrid passivity-based model reference adaptive controller in cascade with a passivity-based control. It has been validated through theoretical stability proof and comparative simulation results with a basic control system under normal and fault operations. As a result, the proposal effectively follows the required rotor speed while enhancing performance by decreasing the current consumption and recovering from a 10% input phase imbalance, a cell short circuit, and an open cell.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0323.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Intrusion Detection System (IDS); HNADAM-SDG(Hybrid Nestrov-Accelerated Adaptive Moment Estimation –Stochastic Gradient Descent); Network-based Intrusion Detection System (NIDS); Host-based Intrusion Detection System (HIDS); Signature-based Intrusion Detection System (SIDS); Anomaly-based Intrusion Detection System (AIDS); Algorithms; Machine Learning.
Online: 21 December 2021 (11:45:39 CET)
A single Information security is of pivotal concern for consistently streaming information over the widespread internetwork. The bottleneck flow of incoming and outgoing data traffic introduces the issue of malicious activities taken place by intruders, hackers and attackers in the form of authenticity desecration, gridlocking data traffic, vandalizing data and crashing the established network. The issue of emerging suspicious activities is managed by the domain of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS). The IDS consistently monitors the network for identifica-tion of suspicious activities and generates alarm and indication in presence of malicious threats and worms. The performance of IDS is improved by using different signature based machine learning algorithms. In this paper, the performance of IDS model is determined using hybridization of nestrov-accelerated adaptive moment estimation –stochastic gradient descent (HNADAM-SDG) algorithm. The performance of the algorithm is compared with other classi-fication algorithms as logistic regression, ridge classifier and ensemble algorithm by adapting feature selection and optimization techniques
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0645.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Logic Keywords: adaptive dynamics; evolution; cooperation
Online: 29 October 2018 (02:15:33 CET)
Evolution of cooperation has traditionally been studied by assuming that individuals adopt either of two pure strategies, to cooperate or defect. Recent work have considered continuous cooperative investments, turning full cooperation and full defection into two opposing ends of a spectrum and sometimes allowing for the emergence of the traditionally-studied pure strategies through evolutionary diversification. These studies have typically assumed a well-mixed population in which individuals are encountered with equal probability, Here, we allow for the possibility of assortative interactions by assuming that, with specified probabilities, an individual interacts with one or more other individuals of the same strategy. A closely related assumption has previously been made in evolutionary game theory and has been interpreted in terms of relatedness. We systematically study the effect of relatedness and find, among other conclusions, that the scope for evolutionary branching is reduced by either higher average degree of, or higher uncertainty in, relatedness with interaction partners. We also determine how different types of non-linear dependencies of benefits and costs constrain the types of evolutionary outcomes that can occur. While our results overall corroborate the conclusions of earlier studies, that higher relatedness promotes the evolution of cooperation, our investigation gives a comprehensive picture of how relatedness affects the evolution of cooperation with continuous investments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0706.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Interferon; Innate; Adaptive; Genetic; Molecular
Online: 26 September 2023 (11:35:53 CEST)
Interferons were the original prototype cytokine system discovered in 20th-century research. As the name implies, they were originally thought to be synthesised and secreted between cells. Thanks to technological advances, the processes involved in protein secretion can be explained comparatively more clearly at both the genetic and biochemical levels. The discovery of interferon (IFN) occurred when genetic research was still in its infancy. Franklin and Wilkins discovered the structure and function of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) at the same time as Crick and Watson; however, Isaacs and Lindemann, two scientists, described the first IFN in 1957. Mutations can be caused by inherent genetic protein synthesis and during infection as well as within IFN regulation pathways affecting cell proliferation. This remains central to host cell IFN synthesis and effects through IFN protein receptor subunits defined by 6 protein domains. Type II IFN is key to immune cell function secreted by a variety of immune cells, mainly natural killer (NK) as well as T cells. Single–stranded and/or double–stranded RNA/DNA viruses, as well as bacterial infections (e.g., Escherichia coli) and fungal infections (e.g., Aspergillus), also affect IFN regulation. Pathogenic proteins utilise intra/extracellular proteins that sense foreign antigens like Toll–like Receptors (TLRs), affected by mutations within the human cellular IFN transduction pathways. Since the discovery of the third IFN type in 2003, when immune cell phenotypes were further characterised, questions remain about the immunological mechanisms contributing to the regulation of the innate and adaptive host immune system. Alterations in the synthesis of type I/II/III host IFNs can differentially and beneficially alter homeostatic cellular pathways in pathological disease, with type I IFN being synthesised in cancer as well as by homeostatic cells. Therefore, considered here are the overall IFN molecular, cell regulatory mechanisms in the context of immune cell research developments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1386.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: multi-terminal; force tracking; Adaptive
Online: 19 May 2023 (05:48:25 CEST)
This paper proposes a multi-terminal adaptive collaborative operation method to solve the problem of unstable internal force tracking in clamping and handling unknown objects by multi-terminal robots. In the proposed method, the internal command force changes the complex internal force control problem into an internal force tracking problem from multi-slave to master. Moreover, we develop an algorithm for multi-slave setups to estimate object stiffness and motion uncertainty in the direction of the internal command force according to Lyapunov theory. Finally, the impedance control generates a reference trajectory for the multi-slave to maintain the desired internal force and track the master’s motion. Several experiments are conducted on a self-made robot equipped. The experimental results show that the oscillation amplitude of each slave end is less than 1 mm, the directional oscillation amplitude is less than 1 degree during the tracking of the desired commanded internal force. For objects with low stiffness, the error of the commanded internal force is less than 1 N (6%) per slave. The error in tracking the commanded internal force for objects with high stiffness is less than 2 N (8%). The results prove the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0695.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Adaptive; Ebola; Filoviridae; Immunology; Innate; Molecular
Online: 12 September 2023 (02:40:32 CEST)
Ebola virus is a zoonotic virus comprised of 6 different species designated within the family Filoviridae and genus Ebolavirus. The first recorded outbreak of an Ebola virus (EBOV) was in Yambuku, Zaire (ZEBOV) in 1976, followed by Sudan Ebola virus (SUBOV) later that year. Outbreaks have been increasing throughout the 21st century, and mortality rates can reach up to 90%. Such extraordinary virulence is evidenced with few pathogens, similarly with Marburg virus (MARV) that originated in Uganda and was first detected in Germany in 1967. The virulent nature of filovirus disease has established these related viruses as a formidable global concern. There are currently four types of Ebolaviridae species known to infect humans, with two more recently identified in other animals that are genomically different with respect to cellular pathogenesis or aetiology of disease. Recent advances into understanding the pathogenesis of filovirus disease infections have been remarkable, yet the immunological response to filovirus infection remains unknown. Scientific analysis of cellular mechanisms can provide insight into virulence factors utilised by other pathogenic viruses that also cause febrile illness with occasional haemorrhagic fever in humans. In this review, we aim to provide a brief summary of EBOV proteins and the role of innate and adaptive immune cells known since 2000. We will consider the relevance and implications of immunological proteins measured by CD marker, alongside cytokine, chemokine and other biologically relevant pathways, as well as genetic research. Thorough understanding of immunological correlates affecting host responses to Ebola viruses will facilitate both clinical and applied research knowledge, contributing towards protection against potential public health threats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0092.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Adaptive Algorithm; Tremor Suppression; LMS; Parkinson
Online: 6 February 2023 (09:09:01 CET)
The increase in life expectancy, according to the World Health Organization, is a fact, and with it rises the incidence of age-related neurodegenerative diseases. The most recurrent symptoms are those associated with tremors resulting from Parkinson's Disease (PD) or Essential Tremors (ET). The main alternatives for the treatment of these patients are medication and surgical intervention, which sometimes have restrictions and side effects. Through computer simulations in Matlab software, this work investigates the performance of adaptive algorithms based on least mean squares (LMS) to suppress tremors in upper limbs, especially in the hands. The signals resulting from pathological hand tremors, related to PD, present components at frequencies that vary between 3~Hz and 6~Hz, with the more significant energy present in the fundamental and second harmonics, while physiological hand tremors, referred to as ET, vary between 4~Hz and 12~Hz. We simulated and used these signals as reference signals in adaptive algorithms, Filtered-x Least Mean Square (Fx-LMS), Filtered-x Normalized Least Mean Square (Fx-NLMS), and a hybrid Fx-LMS\&NLMS purpose. Our results showed that the vibration control provided by the Fx-LMS\&LMS algorithm is the most suitable for physiological tremors. For pathological tremors, we have used a proposed algorithm with a filtered sinusoidal input signal, Fsinx-LMS, which presented the best results in this specific case.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0348.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: floods; vulnerability; exposure; adaptive capacity; Uganda
Online: 24 October 2022 (05:08:58 CEST)
The research study assessed the level of household exposure, sensitivity, and capacity to cope with flood hazards in Kasese municipality, Kasese district, Uganda. The study used an indicator-based methodology. About 210 respondents were randomly sampled for interview. Individual weights for each indicator were allocated using Principal Component Analysis. Vulnerability indices were constructed at the household level and then aggregated at the division level. A Chi Square test at a significance level of 5% was used to test for differences in the level of household vulnerability. The results revealed that Nyamwamba division was most exposed while Central was least exposed to floods. The Central division was also found most sensitive while Bulembia was least sensitive to floods. Central division had better capacity to cope with floods while Bulembia had the least capacity. Results revealed a significant difference in the level of households’ vulnerability across the divisions. However, overall, Nyamwamba was found most vulnerable and Central least vulnerable to floods. About 43.8% of the households in Kasese municipality were found highly vulnerable to floods. Therefore, urgent attention by the government through policy action measures towards climate change adaptation should be given to address the high levels of vulnerability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0082.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Trypanosomosis, adaptive immunity, parasitemia control, infection
Online: 6 May 2021 (12:53:49 CEST)
Salivarian trypanosomes are extracellular parasites affecting humans, livestock and game animals. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense are human infective sub-species of T. brucei causing Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT - sleeping sickness). The related T. b. brucei parasite lacks the resistance to survive in human serum, and only inflicts animal infections. Animal Trypanosomosis (AT) is not restricted to Africa, but is present on all continents. T. congolense and T. vivax are the most widespread pathogenic trypanosomes in sub-Sahara Africa. Trough mechanical transmission, T. vivax has however been introduced into South America. T. evansi is a unique animal trypanosome that is found in vast territories around the world and can cause atypical Human Trypanosomosis (aHT). All salivarian trypanosomes are well adapted to survival inside the host’s immune system. This is not a hostile environment for these parasite, but this is the place where they thrive. Here we provide an overview of the latest insights into the host-parasite interaction and the unique survival strategies allowing trypanosomes to outsmart the immune system. In addition, we review new developments in treatment and diagnosis as well the issues that have hampered the development of field-applicable anti-trypanosome vaccines for the implementation of sustainable disease control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0301.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: adaptive; balancing; counterweight; mechatronic system; robot
Online: 17 September 2018 (11:00:54 CEST)
Present paper is dealing with the adaptive static balancing of robot or other mechatronic arms that are moving in vertical plane and whose static loads are variable, by using counterweights and springs. Some simple passive and approximate solutions are proposed and an example is shown. The active and exact solutions by using adaptive real time control in the case of unknown variation of static loads are simulated on VIPRO platform developed at Institute of Solid Mechanics of Romanian Academy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1823.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: Plasmodium falciparum; polyclonal infection; adaptive immune responses
Online: 26 May 2023 (03:12:17 CEST)
Malaria remains a major public health problem worldwide, with eradication efforts thwarted by drug and insecticide resistance and the lack of a broadly effective malaria vaccine. In continuously exposed communities, polyclonal infections are thought to reduce the risk of severe disease and promote the establishment of asymptomatic infections. We sought to investigate the relationship between the complexity of P. falciparum infection and underlying host adaptive immune responses in an area with high prevalence of asymptomatic parasitaemia in Cameroon. A cross-sectional study of 353 individuals aged 2 to 86 years (median age = 16 years) was conducted in five villages in the Centre Region of Cameroon. Plasmodium falciparum infection was detected by multiplex nested PCR in 316 samples, of which 278 were successfully genotyped. Of these, 60.1% (167/278) were polyclonal infections, the majority (80.2%) of which were from asymptomatic carriers. Host-parasite factors associated with polyclonal infection in the study population included peripheral blood parasite density, participant age and village of residence. The number of parasite clones per infected sample increased significantly with parasite density (r = 0.3912, p<0.0001) but decreased with participant age (r = -0.4860, p<0.0001). Parasitaemia and number of clones per sample correlated negatively with total plasma levels of IgG antibodies to three highly reactive P. falciparum antigens (MSP-1p19, MSP-3 and EBA175) and two soluble antigen extracts (merozoite and mixed stage antigens). Surprisingly, we observed no association between the frequency of polyclonal infection and susceptibility to clinical disease as assessed by the recent occurrence of malarial symptoms or duration since the previous fever episode. Overall, the data indicate that in areas with high perennial transmission of P. falciparum, parasite polyclonality is dependent on underlying host adaptive immune responses, with the majority of polyclonal infections occurring in persons with low levels of protective anti-plasmodial antibodies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0301.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: machine learning; adaptive control; time-varying systems
Online: 11 March 2021 (08:40:08 CET)
Machine learning (ML) is growing in popularity for various particle accelerator applications including anomaly detection such as faulty beam position monitor or RF fault identification, for non-invasive diagnostics, and for creating surrogate models. ML methods such as neural networks (NN) are useful because they can learn input-output relationships in large complex systems based on large data sets. Once they are trained, methods such as NNs give instant predictions of complex phenomenon, which makes their use as surrogate models especially appealing for speeding up large parameter space searches which otherwise require computationally expensive simulations. However, quickly time varying systems are challenging for ML-based approaches because the actual system dynamics quickly drifts away from the description provided by any fixed data set, degrading the predictive power of any ML method, and limits their applicability for real time feedback control of quickly time-varying accelerator components and beams. In contrast to ML methods, adaptive model-independent feedback algorithms are by design robust to un-modeled changes and disturbances in dynamic systems, but are usually local in nature and susceptible to local extrema. In this work, we propose that the combination of adaptive feedback and machine learning, adaptive machine learning (AML), is a way to combine the global feature learning power of ML methods such as deep neural networks with the robustness of model-independent control. We present an overview of several ML and adaptive control methods, their strengths and limitations, and an overview of AML approaches. A simple code for the adaptive control algorithm used here can be downloaded from: https://github.com/alexscheinker/ES_adaptive_optimization
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0004.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Quad-rotor; Parameters identification; CIFER; Adaptive LADRC
Online: 2 November 2018 (10:49:15 CET)
In accordance with problems such as difficulty in obtaining aerodynamic parameters of a quad-rotor model, the change of model parameters with external interference affects the control performances, an aerodynamic parameter estimation method and an adaptive attitude control method based on LADRC are designed. Firstly, the motion model, dynamics model and control distribution model of quad-rotor are established by using the aerodynamic and Newtonian Euler equations. Secondly, the identification tool CIFER is used to identify the aerodynamic parameters with large uncertainties in frequency domain and a more accurate attitude model of the quad-rotor is obtained. Then an adaptive attitude decoupling controller based on LADRC is designed to solve the problem of poor anti-interference ability of the quad-rotor, so that the control parameter b0 can be automatically adjusted to identify the change of the moment of inertia in real time. Finally, a semi-physical simulation platform is used for simulation verification. The results show that the adaptive LADRC attitude controller designed can effectively estimate and compensate the system's internal and external disturbances, and the tracking speed of the controller is faster and the precision is higher which can effectively improve system's anti-interference and robustness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0557.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: emergence; complex adaptive systems; ecosystems; biosphere; Gaia
Online: 30 July 2018 (05:11:32 CEST)
A speculative argument is presented which suggests the possible existence of a global metasystem that would be characterized as an emerging from the interaction of the units that make up the planetary system. The metasystem´s units would be the different physical, chemical and biological processes occurring in the subsystems that form the metasystem: magnetosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. The revised global metasystem is broader than that considered in the Gaia theory or in Earth System Science, where the Earth's crust and upper atmosphere, i.e., the volume where the presence of life occurs, are considered as the limits of the system. The maintenance of the dynamic state of the global metasystem it is achieved by dissipating the free energy derived from the electromagnetic radiation of the Sun, the obtained from the Earth-Moon gravitational interaction and the energy resulting from the dynamics of the Earth core and mantle, which produces the magnetic field and much of tectonic activity. For the human species, the importance of a greater understanding of global metasystem is based on the fact that natural resources and the climate system are products of the subsystems of the global metasystem. It is possible therefore that human activities that modify the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere, change the dynamics of global metasystem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0377.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: machine learning; prediction; adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system; adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system; diffuse fraction; multilayer perceptron
Online: 17 September 2020 (05:46:25 CEST)
The accurate prediction of the solar Diffuse Fraction (DF), sometimes called the Diffuse Ratio, is an important topic for solar energy research. In the present study, the current state of Diffuse Irradiance research is discussed and then three robust, Machine Learning (ML) models, are examined using a large dataset (almost 8 years) of hourly readings from Almeria, Spain. The ML models used herein, are a hybrid Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), a single Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) and a hybrid Multi-Layer Perceptron-Grey Wolf Optimizer (MLP-GWO). These models were evaluated for their predictive precision, using various Solar and Diffuse Fraction (DF) irradiance data, from Spain. The results were then evaluated using two frequently used evaluation criteria, the Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The results showed that the MLP-GWO model, followed by the ANFIS model, provided a higher performance, in both the training and the testing procedures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0072.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: adaptive response; complex environment; functional ecology; functional trait; Index for Adaptive Responses; phenotypic plasticity; plasticity index; whole organism response
Online: 1 September 2023 (11:36:38 CEST)
The focus of recent research shifts towards complex ‘whole organism’ responses (i.e., in multiple functional traits) in adaptation to or to defend against stressors under complex environmental conditions. This increasing complexity is challenging to analyse and demands sophisticated tools to drive meaningful conclusions from those data. Trait-based regression models, multivariate analyses, like principal component analyses, and plasticity indices can be used to tackle challenges with those complex investigations. But those methods have substantial limitations, like the need for high sample size, multi-dimensionality of results or the need for trait coordination in high-dimensional space, or the calculation on the population level, which might buffer or cover the de facto occurring individual effects. To improve and simplify studies on ‘whole organism’ responses, analyses, and their interpretation, we developed the Index for Adaptive Responses. This straightforward framework can unite all traits of an organism in one number. A newly developed transformation method, included in this framework, comprises a normalisation and standardisation to a baseline or control without changing the data or variance structure of the original data. We assessed the performance and accuracy of the framework with an application in an extensive predator-prey case study, with simulations and application examples using literature data. We show that the Index for Adaptive Responses respects adaptations as well as maladaptations and outperforms established approaches. The framework is robust against outliers and non-gaussian distribution. We further show that the qualitative prediction of the adaptiveness of included traits is highly accurate, even under challenging conditions, e.g., low replicate numbers. Functions and algorithms of the framework are provided with an R package but can easily be translated into other programming languages. The Index for Adaptive Responses will simplify future research on complex adaptive responses and improves our understanding of these responses’ ecological as well as evolutionary implications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0263.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: rabbit; immunization; humoral and adaptive response; tick; antigen
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:56:37 CEST)
Studies evaluating candidate tick-derived proteins as anti-tick vaccines in natural hosts have been limited due to high costs. To overcome this problem, animal models are used in immunization tests. The aim of this article was to review the use of rabbits as an experimental model for the evaluation of tick-derived proteins as vaccines. A total of 57 tick proteins have been tested for their immunogenic potential using rabbit as model for vaccination. The most commonly used rabbit breeds were New Zealand (73.8%), Japanese white (19%), Californians (4.8%) and Flemish lop-eared rabbit (2.4%). Anti-tick vaccines efficacy resulted in up to 99.9%. Haemaphysalis longicornis (17.9%) and Ornithodoros moubata (12.8%) were the most common tick model in vaccination trials. Experiments in rabbits have revealed that some proteins (CoAQP, OeAQP, OeAQP1, Bm86, GST-Hl, 64TRP, serpins and voraxin) can induce immune responses against various tick species. In addition, in some cases it was possible to determine that the vaccine efficacy in rabbits was similar to experiments performed in natural hosts (e.g. Bm86, IrFER2, RmFER2, serpins and serine protease inhibitor). In conclusion, results have shown that prior to performing anti-tick vaccination trials using natural hosts, rabbits can be used as suitable experimental models for these studies
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0287.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: autonomous driving; object detection; Position Adaptive Convolution; FANet
Online: 5 June 2023 (09:15:40 CEST)
3D object detection is essential for an accurate and reliable autonomous driving system. Currently, the methods used by the state-of-the-art two-stage detectors are not flexible enough and their fea-ture extraction capabilities are very limited to cope effectively with the disorder and irregularity of point clouds. In this paper, we combine the advantages of both PV-RCNN and PAConv (Position Adaptive Convolution) to create a completely new network, FANet, in order to overcome the ir-regularity and disorder of point clouds. The convolution in our network builds convolutional ker-nels from a basic weight matrix, whose combined coefficients are learned adaptively by LearnNet from relative points. This network allows for flexible modeling of complex spatial variations and geometric structures in the 3D point cloud, enabling better extraction of point cloud features and producing high-quality 3D proposal boxes. Compared to other methods, FANet is superior in terms of 3D object detection accuracy. Extensive experiments on the KITTI dataset have shown a signif-icant improvement in our approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0679.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: numerical simulations; adaptive mesh refinement; fire spread; optimization
Online: 28 June 2021 (15:30:15 CEST)
Fires are complex multi-physics problems that span wide spatial scale ranges. Capturing this complexity in computationally affordable numerical simulations for process studies and “outer-loop” techniques (e.g., optimization and uncertainty quantification) is a fundamental challenge in reacting flow research. Further complications arise for propagating fires where a priori knowledge of the fire spread rate and direction is typically not available. In such cases, static mesh refinement at all possible fire locations is a computationally inefficient approach to bridging the wide range of spatial scales relevant to fire behavior. In the present study, we address this challenge by incorporating adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) in fireFoam, an OpenFOAM solver for simulations of complex fire phenomena involving pyrolyzing solid surfaces. The AMR functionality in the extended solver, called fireDyMFoam, is load balanced, models gas, solid, and liquid phases, and allows us to dynamically track regions of interest, thus avoiding inefficient over-resolution of areas far from a propagating flame. We demonstrate the AMR capability and computational efficiency for fire spread on vertical panels, showing that the AMR solver reproduces results obtained using much larger statically refined meshes, but at a substantially reduced computational cost. We then leverage the computational efficiency of the AMR solver to demonstrate an optimization framework for fire suppression based on the open-source Dakota toolkit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0288.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Adaptive Protection; Fault Detection; Microgrids; Directional Overcurrent Relay
Online: 11 February 2021 (16:19:02 CET)
In this research work, an adaptive scheme for the coordinated protection of AC Microgrids using directional overcurrent (DOCR) relays is presented. Protection of AC MGs is a complex and challenging issue due to the dynamic nature of the network including, a) its capability to reconfigure the modes of operation ranging from grid-connected to the islanded mode, c) bidirectional-power flow capability, and c) integration of intermittent renewable energy resources with real-time variations in the resource availability. Consequently, the fault current contributions may largely vary depending upon the incident conditions on the network. Conventional protection schemes, generally designed for radial networks, and unidirectional power flow from the source end to the load may either mal-operate or exhibit very poor performance, if not adapted according to the dynamic conditions of the network. To address this issue, a communication-based adaptive protection scheme capable to adapt its settings according to the generation resource availability and network configuration is presented in this work. The proposed scheme consists of an intelligent central protection unit (ICPU) capable to update the settings and communicate it to the individual relays based on the pre-calculated offline settings. The directional overcurrent relays employed in the scheme use two-stage settings, i.e. definite time and inverse definite minimum time characteristics for the effective coordination among the downstream and upstream relays. An adaptive algorithm for ICPU operation is presented and a case study is implemented for a modified IEEE 9-bus system using DigSilent Power factory. The results for various scenarios including, a) grid-connected mode of operation, b) islanded mode of operation, and c) variable distributed generation mode are obtained and compared to the static scheme, which validates the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: obesity; bariatric surgery; adaptive complex system; network analysis.
Online: 4 February 2021 (11:59:54 CET)
Weight gain affects about 10-20% of patients after bariatric surgery. It is a phenomenon that is difficult to understand and to intervene due to its complexity and etiological heterogeneity. In the present study, we investigated, from a network analysis perspective, the associations between weight regain, psychological, sociodemographic factors and physical activity in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. The sample consisted of 124 patients, of both sexes, aged 39 ± 9.1 years, who had undergone surgical intervention for more than 18 months. After voluntary consent, respondents answered questionnaires and instruments directly on the Google Forms platform. The results indicated that weight gain was negatively associated with the items of depression, anxiety and stress, binge eating and with the dimensions of the personality questionnaire (negative affectivity -0.182; detachment -0.078; antagonism -0.107; disinterest - 0.198 and psychoticism -0.158). The centrality indicators revealed that the characteristics of disinterest and negative affectivity and most of the items on the depression, anxiety and stress scale had a greater expected influence (values from 1,043 to 1,502), indicating that these are the most sensitive variables to intervention and who need more attention from health professionals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0737.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: adaptive design; sustainability of construction; BIM environment; formwork
Online: 29 December 2020 (16:44:42 CET)
Progressive technologies and practices are shifting the possibilities of building design and improving work efficiency. Constantly changing site conditions require different procedures and designs that take into account these changing conditions, whether it is a design solution, a change in environmental conditions, or just sustainability factors. Adaptive building design offers opportunities to cope with changing factors to achieve the highest possible level of building quality. This case study deals with the topic of adaptive formwork design for building renovation, taking into account sustainability. Aim of the article is an investigation and demonstration of the building information modelling (BIM) environment used for the adaptive design of formwork elements for the building renovation in the context of sustainability. The object of the case study is a building in the center of Kosice, Slovakia. BIM environment allows prompt and correct adaptation of the formwork design to changing conditions of lighting, ventilation, heating and temperature during the design of the building.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0016.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: mast cells; adaptive immunity; dendritic cells; T cells
Online: 2 November 2020 (10:27:12 CET)
Although Mast cells are known as key drivers of type I allergic reactions, there is increasing evidence for their critical role in host defense. MCs do not only play an important role in initiating innate immune responses, but also influence the onset, kinetic and amplitude of the adaptive arm of immunity, or fine-tune the mode of the adaptive reaction. Intriguingly, MCs have been shown to affect T cell activation by direct interaction or indirectly by modifying properties of antigen-presenting cells, and can even modulate lymph node-borne adaptive responses remotely from the periphery. In this review, we provide a summary of recent findings that explain how MCs act as a link between the innate and the adaptive immunity, all the way from sensing inflammatory insult to orchestrating the final outcome of the immune response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0123.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: positioning system; neural-fuzzy network; adaptive control; buoys
Online: 8 April 2020 (08:51:47 CEST)
Recently, various relations and criteria have been presented to establish a proper relationship between control systems and control Global Positioning System (GPS)-intelligent buoy system. Given the importance of controlling the position of buoys and the construction of intelligent systems, in this paper, dynamic system modeling is applied to position marine buoys through the improved neural network with a backstepping technique. This study aims at developing a novel controller based on adaptive fuzzy neural network to optimally track the dynamically positioned vehicle on water with unavailable velocities and unidentified control parameters. In order to model the network with the proposed technique, uncertainties and the unwanted disturbances are studied in the neural network. The presented study aims at developing a neural controlling which applies the vectorial back-stepping technique to the surface ships, which have been dynamically positioned with undetermined disturbances and ambivalences. Moreover, the objective function is to minimize the output error for the neural network (NN) based on closed-loop system. The most important feature of the proposed model for the positioning buoys is its independence from comparative knowledge or information on the dynamics and the unwanted disturbances of ships. The numerical and obtained consequences demonstrate that the controller system can adjust the routes and the position of the buoys to the desired objective with relatively few position errors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0186.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: preschool; leukaemia; adaptive behaviour; developmental skills; healthy peers
Online: 16 July 2019 (06:04:09 CEST)
Early childhood is considered to be a period of rapid development, with the acquisition of abilities predicting future positive school competences. Motor, cognitive and social difficulties related to cancer therapies heavily impact the development of children with cancer. This study focused on two main aims: to assess the developmental pathways of preschool children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia one year post-treatment and to compare these abilities both with those of a control group of healthy peers and with Italian norms. Forty-four children and their families, recruited through the Haematology-Oncologic Clinic of the Department of Child and Woman Health (University of Padua), agreed to participate to this study. The children’s mean age was 4.52 years (SD = 0.94, range = 2.5-6 years), equally distributed by gender, all diagnosed with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia. Matched healthy peers were recruited through paediatricians’ ambulatories. Each family was interviewed adopting the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales. Paired sample Wilcoxon tests revealed that children were reported to have significantly more developmental difficulties than their healthy peers. When compared with Italian norms they scored particularly low in verbal competence, social and coping skills. No significant association were found between treatment variables and developmental abilities. These findings suggest that the creation of specialized interventions both for parents and children may fill the possible delays in children’s development probably due to stress, lack of adequate stimulation or difficult adaptation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0086.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: preschool; leukaemia; adaptive behaviour; developmental skills; healthy peers
Online: 8 May 2019 (09:39:26 CEST)
Early childhood is considered to be a period of rapid development, with the acquisition of abilities predicting future positive school competences. Motor, cognitive and social difficulties related to cancer therapies heavily impact the development of children with cancer. This study focused on two main aims: to assess the developmental pathways in preschool children with leukaemia one year post-treatment; and to compare these abilities with those of a control group of healthy peers. Forty-eight children and their families, recruited through the Haematology-Oncologic Clinic of the Department of Child and Woman Health (University of Padua), agreed to participate in this study. The children’s mean age was 4.36 years (SD = 1.07, range = 1.91–6 years), equally distributed by gender, most of whom were diagnosed with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (N = 44). Matched healthy peers were recruited through paediatricians’ ambulatories. Each family was interviewed adopting the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales. Paired sample t-tests revealed that children, especially aged 42–72 months, were reported to have significantly more developmental difficulties than their healthy peers, particularly in verbal competence, social and coping skills and gross motor abilities. These findings suggest that the creation of specialized interventions for both parents and children may fill the possible delays in children’s development due to toxic therapies and their associated hospitalisation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0372.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: novel lncRNA; lncRNA conservation; copaifera; epigenetics; adaptive response
Online: 20 July 2018 (04:31:16 CEST)
LncRNA are involved in multiple regulatory pathways, its versatile mode of action has disclosed a new layer in gene regulation. They are reportedly modulated during plant development, with specific tissue functions and in response to stresses. In this study, we analyzed LncRNA from leave samples collected from the legume Copaifera langsdorffii (copaiba) from two divergent ecosystems: Cerrado (CER) and Atlantic Rain Forest (ARF). We identified 8020 novel lncRNAs, from which 2893 transcripts were regulated above 2-fold and 566 above 5-folds in either condition. This putative lncRNA set was compared with seven Fabaceae genomes, of which 1747 and 1879 transcripts (from ARF and CER, respectively) aligned to at least two genomes. Further, 2194 copaiba lncRNAs were successfully mapped to at least one of six Fabaceae transcriptomes. The secondary structures of the lncRNAs that were conserved and differentially expressed between the populations were predicted using in silico methods. Our results indicate the potential involvement of lncRNAs in the adaptation of C. langsdorffii to two different biomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0673.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Orthopoxvirus; Molecular; Health; Immunology; Monkeypox; Smallpox; Innate; Adaptive; Cells
Online: 12 September 2023 (02:45:52 CEST)
Since 2019, notable global viral outbreaks have occurred necessitating further research and healthcare system investigations. Following the COVID—19 pandemic, an unexpected duality has occurred of SARS–CoV–2 and monkeypox virus (MPXV) infections. Monkeypox virus is of the Orthopoxviridae genus, belonging to the family Poxviridae. Zoonotic transmission (animal to human transmission) may occur. The Orthopoxviridae genus includes other Orthopoxviruses (OPXV) present in animal host reservoirs that include cowpox viruses (CPXV), vaccinia virus (VACV) and variola virus (VARV), with the latter being causal agent of smallpox and excessive mortality. The aim in this review is to present facts about MPXV specific pathogenesis, epidemiology, and immunology alongside historical perspectives. Monkeypox virus was rarely reported outside Africa before April 2000. Early research since 1796 contributed towards eradication of VARV leading to immunisation strategies. The World Health Organisation (WHO) announcement that VARV had been eradicated was confirmed in 1980. On the 23rd of July 2022, the WHO announced MPXV as a health emergency. Therefore, concern due to propagation of MPXV causing MPOX disease requires clarity. Infected hosts display symptoms like extensive cellular initiated rashes and lesions. Infection with MPXV makes it difficult to differentiate from other diseases or skin conditions. Anti–viral therapeutic drugs were typically prescribed for smallpox and MPOX disease; however, the molecular and immunological mechanisms with cellular changes remain of interest. Furthermore, no official authorised treatment exists for MPOX disease. Some humans across the globe may be considered at risk. Historically, presenting symptoms of MPOX resemble other viral diseases. Symptoms include rashes or lesions like Streptococcus, but also human herpes viruses (HHV) including Varicella zoster (VZV).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0739.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Deep learning; fault diagnosis; adaptive activation function; pumping unit
Online: 9 August 2023 (07:22:09 CEST)
Due to the complex underground environment, pumping machines are prone to produce numerous failures. The indicator diagrams of faults are similar in a certain degree, which produces indistinguishable samples. As the samples increases, manual diagnosis becomes difficult, which decreases the accuracy of fault diagnosis. For accurately and quickly judging the fault type, we propose an improved adaptive activation function and apply it to five types of neural networks. The adaptive activation function improves the negative semi-axis slope of the ReLU activation function by combining the gated channel conversion unit to improve the performance of the deep learning model. The proposed adaptive activation function is compared with the traditional activation function through the fault diagnosis data set and the public data set. The results show that the activation function has better nonlinearity, can improve the generalization performance of deep learning model, the accuracy of fault diagnosis. In addition, the proposed adaptive activation function can also be well embedded in other neural networks.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2055.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: CD4+ T cell; Primary Immunodeficiencies; Cell Migration; Adaptive Immunity
Online: 31 July 2023 (10:04:55 CEST)
CD4+ T cells orchestrate and regulate immunity within jawed vertebrates, yet our understanding of their evolution, development, and cellular physiology has only begun to be unearthed in the past few decades. Discoveries of genetic diseases that ablate this cellular population have provided insight into their critical functions while transcriptomics, proteomics, and highresolution microscopy have recently revealed new insights into CD4+ T cell anatomy and physiology. This article compiles historical, microscopic, and multi omics data which can be used as a reference atlas to dissect cellular physiology within these influential cells and further understand pathologies like HIV infection that inflict human CD4+ T cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1928.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: photobiomodulation; acupuncture points, oxidative metabolism; microcirculation; vegetative adaptive reactions
Online: 27 June 2023 (14:42:34 CEST)
The development of anti-pain technologies in the complex treatment of pain syndromes is one of the most urgent tasks of modern medicine. We have undertaken a placebo-controlled experimental study of the therapeutic potential of low-intensity laser radiation when applied to acupuncture points, which are directly related to the autonomic nervous system. The adaptation effect of puncture photobiomodulation on the induction of stress-mediated autonomic reactions, oxidative metabolism and microcirculation in animals during the acute phase of pain stress was revealed. The data obtained are of interest for use in the complex rehabilitation of patients with pain syndrome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1513.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Adaptive Gamification; Science Education; Adapted game Elements; Students' Motivation
Online: 21 June 2023 (09:33:46 CEST)
In recent years, gamification has captured the attention of researchers and educators, particularly in science education, where students often express negative emotions. Gamification methods aim to motivate learners to participate in learning by incorporating intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors. However, the effectiveness of gamification has yielded varying outcomes, prompting researchers to explore adaptive gamification as an alternative approach. Nevertheless, there needs to be more research on adaptive gamification approaches, particularly concerning motivation, which is the primary objective of gamification. In this study, we developed and tested an adaptive gamification environment based on specific motivational and psychological frameworks. This environment incorporated adaptive criteria, learning strategies, gaming elements, and all crucial aspects of science education for six classes of 3rd-grade students in primary school. We employed a quantitative approach to gain insights into the motivational impact on students and their perception of the adaptive gamification application. We aimed to understand how each game element experienced by students influenced their motivation. The findings of our study revealed encouraging results in terms of increased motivation and engagement among students, as well as the influence of different game elements when connected with an individual's profile based on a multidimensional adaptive framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0974.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Adaptive routing; dyamic programming; shortest paths; acyclic directed graphs
Online: 15 May 2023 (04:33:40 CEST)
Routing a person through a traffic network presents a tension between selecting a fixed route that is easy to navigate and selecting an aggressively adaptive route that minimizes the expected travel time. We propose to create non-aggressive adaptive routes in the middle-ground seeking the best of both these extremes. Specifically, these routes still adapt to changing traffic conditions, however we limit the number of adjustments made in the route. This improves the user experience, by providing a continuum of options between saving travel time and minimizing navigation. We design strategies to model single and multiple route adjustments, and investigate enumerative techniques to solve these models. To alleviate the intractability with handling real-life traffic data, we develop efficient algorithms with easily computable lower and upper bounds. We finally present computational experiments highlighting the benefits of limited adaptability in terms of reducing the expected travel time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0098.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Adaptive; Tuning; Modelling; Estimation parameters; Propagation loss; NLOS; LOS
Online: 11 April 2022 (13:53:30 CEST)
Wireless cellular communication technology has developed into a very resourceful commodity worldwide. Today, people of all races can hardly live without means of voice and data cellular communication technology. Imprecise propagation loss estimation leads to high power waste, high co-channel interference and poor service quality in cellular communication system networks. This paper proposes a realistic adaptive fine-tuning method for distinctive propagation loss estimation over a microcellular communication radio links based on signal power measurements from Long Term Evolution radio broadband networks, taking non-line of sight (NLOS) and line of sight (LOS) environments into consideration. The methodology is verified by measurements taken in non-line of sight and line of sight signal propagation scenarios. The results showed that the estimated propagation losses using the proposed realistic adaptive tuning models were more accurate than the existing Cost -231 modelling estimation approach
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0095.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Adaptive; Tuning; Modelling; Estimation parameters; Propagation loss; NLOS; LOS
Online: 11 April 2022 (11:03:43 CEST)
Wireless cellular communication technology has developed into a very resourceful commodity worldwide. Today, people of all races can hardly live without means of voice and data cellular communication technology. Imprecise propagation loss estimation leads to high power waste, high co-channel interference and poor service quality in cellular communication system networks. This paper proposes a realistic adaptive fine-tuning method for distinctive propagation loss estimation over a microcellular communication radio links based on signal power measurements from Long Term Evolution radio broadband networks, taking non-line of sight (NLOS) and line of sight (LOS) environments into consideration. The methodology is verified by measurements taken in non-line of sight and line of sight signal propagation scenarios. The results showed that the estimated propagation losses using the proposed realistic adaptive tuning models were more accurate than the existing Cost -231 modelling estimation approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0648.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: self-adaptive systems, environment, concept, model, systematic literature review
Online: 26 April 2021 (10:22:54 CEST)
The runtime environment is an important concern for self-adaptive systems (SASs). Although researchers have proposed many approaches for developing SASs that address the issue of uncertain runtime environments, the understanding of these environments varies depending on the objectives, perspectives, and assumptions of the research. Thus, the current understanding of the environment in SAS development is ambiguous and abstract. To make this understanding more concrete, we describe the landscape in this area through a systematic literature review (SLR). We examined 128 primary studies and 14 unique environment models. We investigated concepts of the environment depicted in the primary studies and the proposed environment models based on their ability to aid in understanding. This illustrates the characteristics of the SAS environment, the associated emerging environmental uncertainties, and what is expressed in the existing environment models. This paper makes explicit the implicit understanding about the environment made by the SAS research community and organizes and visualizes them.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0477.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomeylitis, Adaptive Immunity, Innate Immunity
Online: 18 November 2020 (12:50:18 CET)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by varying degrees of demyelination of uncertain etiology, and is associated with specific environmental and genetic factors. Upon recognition of CNS antigens, the immune cells initiate an inflammatory process which leads to destruction and deterioration of the neurons. Innate immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells and natural killer cells are known to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of MS. Also, the activation of peripheral CD4+ T cells by CNS antigens leads to their extravasation into the CNS causing damages that exacerbates the disease. This could be accompanied by dysregulation of T regulatory cells and other cell types functions. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a mouse model used to study the pathophysiology of MS disease. In this review, we highlight the roles of innate and adaptive immune players in the pathogenesis of MS and EAE.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: data transmission; erasure communication channel; adaptive coding; satellite formation
Online: 3 November 2020 (12:39:08 CET)
The paper deals with the navigation data exchange between two satellites moving in a swarm. It is focused on reduction of the inter-satellite demanded communication channel capacity taking into account dynamics of the satellites relative motion and possible erasing in the channel the navigation data. The feedback control law is designed ensuring regulation of the relative satellites motion. The adaptive binary coding/decoding procedure for the satellites navigation data transmission over the limited capacity communication channel is proposed and studied for the cases of ideal and erasure channels. Dependence of the regulation time on the data transmission rate is numerically evaluated. Results of the numerical study of the closed-loop system performance and accuracy of the data transmission algorithm on the communication channel bitrate and erasure probability are obtained based on the extensive simulations. These results provide dependence of the required load of the communication channel on the desired quality of the regulation process. It is shown that both data transmission error and regulation time depend inversely proportional on the communication rate, and that for the significantly high data transmission rate erasure of data in the channel with probability up to 0.3 does not make an effect on the regulation time.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: adaptive death; ageing; altruism; C. elegans; kin selection; salmon
Online: 4 August 2020 (11:26:31 CEST)
Standard evolutionary theory, supported by mathematical modelling of outbred, dispersed populations predicts that ageing is not an adaptation. We recently argued that in clonal, viscous populations, programmed organismal death could promote fitness through social benefits and has, in some organisms (e.g. Caenorhabditis elegans), evolved to shorten lifespan. Here we review previous adaptive death theory, including consumer sacrifice, biomass sacrifice, and defensive sacrifice types of altruistic adaptive death. In addition we discuss possible adaptive death in semelparous fish, coevolution of reproductive and adaptive death, and adaptive reproductive senescence in C. elegans. We also describe findings from recent tests for the existence of adaptive death in C. elegans using computer modelling. Such models have provided new insights into how trade-offs between fitness at the individual and colony levels mean that senescent changes can be selected traits. Exploring further the relationship between adaptive death and social interactions, we consider examples where adaptive death results more from action of kin than from self-destructive mechanisms and, to describe this, introduce the term adaptive killing of kin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0272.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: adaptive capacity; climate change vulnerability; exposure; resilience; sensitivity; vegetation
Online: 22 May 2019 (09:55:45 CEST)
We applied a framework to assess climate change vulnerability of 52 major vegetation types in the western United States to provide spatially-explicit input to adaptive management decisions. The framework addressed climate exposure and ecosystem resilience; the latter derived from analyses of ecosystem sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Measures of climate change exposure used observed climate change (1981-2014) and then climate projections for the mid-21st century (2040-2069 RCP 4.5). Measures of resilience included (under ecosystem sensitivity) landscape intactness, invasive species, fire regime alteration, and forest insect & disease risk, and (under adaptive capacity), measures for topo-climate variability, diversity with functional species groups, and vulnerability of any keystone species. Outputs are generated per 100km2 hexagonal area for each type. As of 2014, moderate climate change vulnerability was indicated for >50% of the area of 50 of 52 types. By the mid-21st century, all but 19 types face high or very high vulnerability with >50% of the area scoring in these categories. Measures for resilience explain most components of vulnerability as of 2014, with most targeted vegetation scoring low in adaptive capacity measures and variably for specific sensitivity measures. Elevated climate exposure explains increases in vulnerability between the current and mid-century time periods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0101.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: adaptive capacity; multiple stressors; sustainable livelihoods; organic cattle raising
Online: 10 January 2019 (15:42:26 CET)
Using the sustainable livelihoods analytical framework, adaptability of cattle raising to multiple stressors (e.g. climate change and market conditions) in the dry tropics of Chiapas, Mexico was evaluated. Three case studies located in the Frailesca region of Chiapas were analyzed: (I) peasant cattle raising in a rural village in the Frailesca Valley; (II) peasant cattle raising in a rural village in a natural protected area in the Frailesca Highlands; and (III) holistic cattle raising by farmers with private land ownership in the Frailesca Valley. Adaptability was evaluated using an index on a scale of one to a hundred; average values were: case I = 20.9 ± 1.4; case II = 32.1 ± 1.8; and case III = 63.6 ± 3.5. In order to increase farms adaptability and reduce the vulnerability of cattle raising families, there is a need to modify public policy to take into account the conditions of the most vulnerable farmers (cases I and II). Given the economic, environmental, and social context of Mexico´s dry tropics, establishing ecological or organic cattle raising and silvopastoral systems may reduce the vulnerability of farm families and increase their level of adaptability of their farms to multiple stressors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0043.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: rotary machinery; adaptive order tracking; online real-time monitoring.
Online: 3 September 2018 (15:02:45 CEST)
When a rotary machine is running, from which the acquired vibro-acoustic signals enable to reveal its operation status and health condition. The study proposed a DSP-based adaptive angular-velocity Vold-Kalman filtering order tracking (AV2KF_OT) algorithm with an online real-time nature for signal interpretation and machine condition monitoring. Theoretical derivation and numerical implementation of computation schemes are briefly introduced. An online real-time monitoring system based on the AV2KF_OT algorithm, which was implemented through both a digital signal processor and a user interface coded by using LabVIEW, was developed. Two experimental tasks were applied to justify the proposed technique, including (i) the detection of startup on the fluid-induced whirl performed through a journal-bearing rotor rig, and (ii) the separation of close orders from the measured signals of a multifunction transmission-element ball-bearing bench.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0400.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Adaptive Force; maximal isometric Adaptive Force; holding capacity; muscle function; Long COVID; post COVID syndrome; muscle weakness; fatigue; neuromuscular control; biomechanical parameter
Online: 22 November 2022 (03:04:41 CET)
Neuromuscular symptoms in long COVID patients are common. Since adequate diagnostics are still missing, investigating muscle function might be beneficial. The holding capacity (maximal isometric Adaptive Force; AFisomax) was previously suggested to be especially vulnerable for impairments. This longitudinal, non-clinical study aimed to investigate the AF in long COVID patients in recovery process. AF parameters of elbow/hip flexors were assessed in 17 patients at three timepoints (pre: long COVID state, post: immediately after first treatment, end: recovery) by an objectified manual muscle test. The tester applied an increasing force on the limb of the patient, who had to resist isometrically for as long as possible. The intensity of 13 common symptoms were queried. At pre, patients started to lengthen their muscles at ~50% of the maximal AF (AFmax), which was then reached during eccentric motion, indicating unstable adaptation. At post and end, AFisomax increased significantly to ~99% and 100% of AFmax, respectively, reflecting stable adaptation. AFmax was statistically similar for all three timepoints. Symptoms intensity decreased significantly from pre to end. In conclusion, maximal holding capacity seems to be impaired in long COVID patients and increases with substantial health improvement. AFisomax might be a suitable sensitive functional parameter to assess long COVID patients and to support therapy process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1915.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Adaptive control; neural networks; stability analysis; piezoactuators; noncanonical nonlinear systems
Online: 27 July 2023 (12:10:20 CEST)
To describe the hysteresis nonlinearities in smart actuators, numerous models have been presented in the literature, among which the Preisach operator would be the most effective one due to its capability in capturing multi-loop or sophisticated hysteresis curves. When such an operator is coupled with uncertain nonlinear dynamics, especially in noncanonical form, it is a challenging problem to develop techniques to cancel out the hysteresis effects, and at the same time achieve asymptotic tracking performance. To resolve this problem, in this paper, we investigate the problem of iterative inverse-based adaptive control for an uncertain noncanonical nonlinear systems with unknown input Preiasch hysteresis, and a new adaptive version of the closest match algorithm is proposed to compensate for the Preisach hysteresis. With our scheme, the stability and convergence of the closed-loop system can be established. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is illustrated by simulation and experiment results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0773.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Geometry And Topology Keywords: Dual spline curves; Adaptive curve refinement; Curve modeling; Geometry defeaturing
Online: 12 July 2023 (05:50:49 CEST)
The present paper provides a new definition for dual spline curves in a geometric intuitive way based on adaptive curve refinement techniques. The dual spline is an implementation of the interpolatory subdivision scheme for curve modeling, which is comprised of polynomial segments of different degrees. Specially, the dual spline curves are mainly aims to solve the difficult geometry defeaturing problems in the existing computer-aided technology. Dual spline curves maintain various desirable properties of conventional curve modeling methods, such as local adaptive subdivision, high interpolation accuracy and convergence, continuous and discontinuous boundary approximation. By adding fictitious and intrinsic nodes inside or at the vertices of interpolation elements, the dual spline is flexible and convenient for approximating a set of ordered points or discrete segments. Combined with the Lagrange interpolation polynomial and meshless method, the proposed approach is capable of approximating the non-smooth boundary for geometry defeaturing. Experimental results are given to verify the validity, robustness, and accuracy of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1839.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: adaptive compensator; converter control; quality of electricity; tunable magnetic device
Online: 27 June 2023 (02:50:58 CEST)
The work focuses on the possibility of application of tunable magnetic devices in electrical power systems with adaptive features. The idea underlying this type of operation, which depends on interaction with magnetic fluxes in a quassi-linear range of magnetic core characteristics, is a new approach to the design of magnetic elements. The suitable examples of adaptive electrical power systems can be devices for improving the quality of electricity. When used in compensators of reactive power or both reactive and distortion power, tunable magnetic devices offer much wider possibilities for the compensation, compared to “standard“ solutions, involving compensators based on fixed inductors. Nevertheless, the application of the proposed device in electrical systems such as is only an example of its possible implementations in the area of electrical power. In this work the following issues are covered: exemplary solution of an adaptive ‘passive’ compensator, rules for the operation of tunable magnetic device, and results investigation of the laboratory model of an electrical system based on such device.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0755.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Convolutional neural network; Chest CT images; Classification; Adaptive Feature Extraction
Online: 12 June 2023 (04:29:17 CEST)
Deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) are favored methods widely used in medical image processing due to their assured shown performance. Recently, the emergence of new lung diseases and the possibility of early detection of their symptoms has attracted many researchers to classify diseases by training deep CNNs on lung CT images. The trained networks are expected to distinguish between lung indications in diﬀerent diseases, especially at the early stages of them. With the hope of achieving this purpose, we proposed an eﬃcient deep CNN called AFEX-Net with adaptive feature extraction layers that successfully extract distinguishing features and classify chest CT images. The eﬃciency of the proposed network has two aspects: it is a lightweight network with low number of parameters and fast training and it has adaptive pooling layers and adaptive activation functions to increase its level of compatibility to the input data. The proposed network has been evaluated on a dataset with more than 10K chest CT slices, while an eﬃcient pre-processing method is developed to remove any bias from the images. Additionally, we evaluated the performance of the proposed model on the public COVID-CTset dataset to prove the generalisability of our model. The obtained results conﬁrm the competence of the proposed network in confronting medical images, where prompt and accurate learning is required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0478.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Green Climate Funds; Readiness Grants; Adaptation; SIDS; mainstreaming; adaptive capacity
Online: 8 May 2023 (08:44:10 CEST)
The impacts of climate change are already felt across the globe, and (SIDS) are at the forefront. Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) are extremely vulnerable to climate change and adaptation is crucial, however they often lack funding or the fiscal capacity to make the necessary invest-ments and require support from climate finance instruments. The Green Climate Fund (GCF) was designed with the objective of achieving a “paradigm shift” towards low-carbon and climate resilient country-driven development pathway. Despite the amounts invested, assessing the impacts of climate finance on adaptation and adaptive capacity, particularly at the institutional level remains a challenge. Researchers identified two key components for more efficient adapta-tion policies at the national level: the degree of adaptation mainstreaming and institutional adaptive capacity. In SIDS, institutional capacity at the national level is seen as a key component to achieve the objectives of climate change strategies, and is supported by several programmes, including the Green Climate Fund Readiness Preparatory Support Programmes. However, to date few studies have analysed the linkages between climate finance, adaptation mainstreaming and adaptive institutional capacity. Through the review of the Readiness Grants and semi-structured interviews in three Caribbean SIDS, this research assess how climate finance may promote in-stitutional change through the mainstreaming of adaptation policies at the national level and contribute to more institutional adaptive capacity. It shows that the grants had a positive impact, which can be limited to by the strength of the institutions in place. These results demonstrate that access to climate finance can create a window of opportunity for countries to accelerate institu-tional change and allow to make recommendations on how to maximise the impacts adaptation funds. More in-depth studies would be needed to examine the complementary influence of the different climate finance flows (multilateral or bilateral) and their interplay with national institu-tional mechanisms.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0111.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Transplantation Keywords: Xenotransplantation; chemorepulsion; adaptive immunity; innate immunity; dysregulated coagulation; complement cascade
Online: 10 April 2023 (09:14:25 CEST)
Recently, two pig-to-human kidney transplants and a pig-to-human heart transplant were completed. The kidney trials involved a patient who was deceased and a patient who was brain dead. They seemed to indicate that pig kidneys can be at least somewhat functional in humans. However, patients still have to be under severe immunosuppression - and the first patient to receive a porcine heart passed away after two months. It is difficult to know exactly which proteins we need to overexpress or underexpress/knockout in a porcine organ to negate the human recipient’s immunological response to it. And testing different porcine organ genetic modifications in baboons can cost around $500,000 per transplant. But there might be a way to decrease immunogenicity where we don’t have to worry so much about modifying the animal’s organs genetically. First, however, we would have to prevent complement factor-mediated lysis of the porcine vascular endothelial cells, which we have made much progress on with triple knockout animals. Then, we could modify the porcine organ so that the cells of said organ secrete a small molecule or peptide that acts as a chemorepellent for the host immune cells. The host immune cells can be modified via bone marrow transplant or vector delivery to express the chemorepulsion receptor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0392.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: forest management methods; adaptive forest management; climate change; ecological norm
Online: 27 July 2022 (04:40:00 CEST)
The compelling effects of climate change on forests may have been underestimated in the past few decades in practical forestry. Although the first attempts to draw attention to this complex problem appeared almost half a century ago, the debate has been conceptual rather than experimental and applicative. At first glance, the con-cerns were mainly related to sustainable forest management (SFM) issues, which obviously needed attention. Over time, the effects of climate change have been mainly considered in the context of the SFM; they started from various and somewhat different scales and goals. Over time, more research and awareness of the im-portance of SFM under the pressure of climate change have led to the development of a clearer field that can be defined as ‘adaptive forest management’ - to climate change. One of the characteristics of this discipline is to be featured by the absence of univocal methods and / or objectives to be pursued but to identify, verify, and adapt methods to the various climatic and forest types and conditions found in the field. Therefore, this work shows some phases of forest planning and management concepts and criteria over time and recalls some innovative and / or adaptive methods related to the approach to forest planning and management under climate change
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0337.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Transfer learning; Reinforcement learning; Adaptive operator selection; Artificial bee colony
Online: 21 December 2021 (13:41:06 CET)
In the past two decades, metaheuristic optimization algorithms (MOAs) have been increasingly popular, particularly in logistic, science, and engineering problems. The fundamental characteristics of such algorithms are that they are dependent on a parameter or a strategy. Some online and offline strategies are employed in order to obtain optimal configurations of the algorithms. Adaptive operator selection is one of them, and it determines whether or not to update a strategy from the strategy pool during the search process. In the filed of machine learning, Reinforcement Learning (RL) refers to goal-oriented algorithms, which learn from the environment how to achieve a goal. On MOAs, reinforcement learning has been utilised to control the operator selection process. Existing research, however, fails to show that learned information may be transferred from one problem-solving procedure to another. The primary goal of the proposed research is to determine the impact of transfer learning on RL and MOAs. As a test problem, a set union knapsack problem with 30 separate benchmark problem instances is used. The results are statistically compared in depth. The learning process, according to the findings, improved the convergence speed while significantly reducing the CPU time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0699.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: adaptive computing; dynamic deep neural structure; adpative convolution; dynamic training
Online: 30 July 2021 (12:25:45 CEST)
The colossal depths of the deep neural network sometimes suffer from ineffective backpropagation of the gradients through all its depths. Whereas, The strong performance of shallower multilayer neural structures prove their ability to increase the gradient signals in the early stages of training which easily gets backpropagated for global loss corrections. Shallow neural structures are always a good starting point for encouraging the sturdy feature characteristics of the input. In this research, a shallow, deep neural structure called PrimeNet is proposed. PrimeNet is aimed to dynamically identify and encourage the quality visual indicators from the input to be used by the subsequent deep network layers and increase the gradient signals in the lower stages of the training pipeline. In addition to this, the layerwise training is performed with the help of locally generated errors which means the gradient is not backpropagated to previous layers, and the hidden layer weights are updated during the forward pass, making this structure a backpropagation free variant. PrimeNet has obtained state-of-the-art results on various image datasets, attaining the dual objective of (1) compact dynamic deep neural structure, which (2) eliminates the problem of backwards-locking. The PrimeNet unit is proposed as an alternative to traditional convolution and dense blocks for faster and memory-efficient training, outperforming previously reported results aimed at adaptive methods for parallel and multilayer deep neural systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0361.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: adaptive streaming; HTTP/3; QUIC; cross-protocol; unfairness; congestion control
Online: 14 June 2021 (12:53:47 CEST)
With the introduction of HTTP/3, whose transport is no longer the traditional TCP protocol but the novel QUIC protocol, research for solutions to the unfairness of Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (HAS) has become more challenging. That is, because of different transport layers, the HTTP/3 may not be available for some networks and the clients have to use HTTP/2 for their HAS applications instead. Therefore, the scenario that HAS over HTTP/3 (HAS/3) compete against HTTP/2 (HAS/2) must be considered seriously. However, there have been a shortage of investigations on the performance and the origin of the unfairness in such a cross-protocol scenario in order to produce proper solutions. Therefore, this paper provides a performance evaluation and root-cause analysis of the cross-protocol unfairness between HAS/3 and HAS/2. It is concluded that, due to differences in the congestion control mechanisms of QUIC and TCP, HAS/3 clients obtain larger congestion windows, thus requesting higher video bitrates than HAS/2. As the problem lies in the transport layer, existing client-side ABR-based solutions for the unfairness from the application layer may perform suboptimally for the cross-protocol case.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0465.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: terrestrial orchids; threatened; species; conservation; propagation; translocation; pollination; adaptive management
Online: 26 April 2020 (02:17:01 CEST)
This paper presents a comprehensive and adaptive framework for orchid conservation programs illustrated with data from published and unpublished case studies. There is a specific focus on West Australian terrestrial orchids, but many of the approaches have universal relevance. Aspects of the framework include (1) setting appropriate objectives, (2) establishing effective collaborations between scientists, volunteers and regulators to fill knowledge and funding gaps, (3) use of survey and demographics data to determine extinction risks and management requirements for species, (4) effective habitat management to overcome threats such as grazing, (5) finding potential new habitats by modelling climate and site data, (6) investigating the effectiveness of pollinators and (7) using seed baiting to detect mycorrhizal fungi. The relative cost and effectiveness of different methods used to propagate orchids for translocation are compared. Methods known to be successful, in order of complexity, include placement of seed in situ, vegetative propagation, symbiotic germination in non-sterile organic matter, symbiotic germination in sterile culture, asymbiotic sterile germination and clonal division in tissue culture. These form a continuum of complexity, cost, time required, faculties needed, as well as the capacity to maintain genetic diversity and produce seedlings preadapted to survive in situ. They all start with seed collection and lead to seed storage, living collections used as tuber banks and seed orchards, as well as translocation for conservation. They could also lead to commercial availability and sustainable ecotourism, both of which are needed to reduce pressure on wild plants. Overall, there has been a strong preference to use relatively complex, expensive and time-consuming methods for orchid conservation, despite evidence that simpler approaches have also been successful. These simpler methods, which include in situ seed placement and non-sterile germination on inorganic substrates, should be trialled in combination with more complex orchid propagation methods as part of an adaptive management framework. It is essential that orchid conservation projects harness the unique biological features of orchids, such as abundant seed production and mycorrhizal fungi which are far more widespread than their hosts. This is necessary to increase the efficiency and coverage of recovery actions for the largest and most threatened plant family.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0315.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: adaptive streaming; HTTP/2; server push; unfairness; network-assisted; proxy
Online: 20 March 2020 (10:13:07 CET)
HTTP/2 video streaming has caught a lot of attentions in the development of multimedia technologies over the last few years. In HTTP/2, the server push mechanism allows the server to deliver more video segments to the client within a single request in order to deal with the requests explosion problem. As a result, recent research efforts have been focusing on utilizing such a feature to enhance the streaming experience while reducing the request-related overhead. However, current works only optimize the performance of a single client, without necessary concerns of possible influences on other clients in the same network. When multiple streaming clients compete for a shared bandwidth in HTTP/1.1, they are likely to suffer from unfairness, which is defined as the inequality in their bitrate selections. For HTTP/1.1, existing works have proven that the network-assisted solutions are effective in solving the unfairness problem. However, the feasibility of utilizing such an approach for the HTTP/2 server push has not been investigated. Therefore, in this paper, a novel proxy-based framework is proposed to overcome the unfairness problem in adaptive streaming over HTTP/2 with the server push. Experimental results confirm the outperformance of the proposed framework in ensuring the fairness, assisting the clients to avoid rebuffering events and lower bitrate degradation amplitude, while maintaining the mechanism of the server push feature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0172.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Fixed-time stabilization; Sliding mode control; Adaptive control; Neural network
Online: 16 September 2019 (16:47:55 CEST)
In this paper, the fixed-time stabilization problem for a class of uncertain chained system is addressed by using a novel nonsingular recursive terminal sliding mode control approach. A fixed-time controller and an adaptive law are designed to guarantee the uncertain chained form system both Lyapunov stable and fixed-time convergent within the settling time. The advantage of the controller based on the sliding mode is that the settling time does not depend on the system initial state. Furthermore, we use RBF neural network to estimate the uncertainty of the system. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate the performance of the control laws.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0195.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: adaptive bilateral; marker watershed; PSO; fuzzy C-mean; GLCM; SVM
Online: 20 June 2019 (09:22:05 CEST)
Recently, the medical image processing is extensively used in several areas. In earlier detection and treatment of these diseases is very helpful to find out the abnormality issues in that image. Here there are number of methods available for segmentation to detect the lung nodule of computer tomography (CT) image. The main result of this paper, the earlier detection of lung nodules using Pre-processing techniques of top-hat transform, median and adaptive bilateral filter was compared both filtering methods and proved the adaptive bilateral filter is suitable method for CT images. The proposed segmentation technique uses novel strip method and the image is split into number of strips 3, 4, 5 and 6. A marker- watershed method based on PSO and Fuzzy C-mean Clustering method was proposed method. Firstly, the input image was reduced noise reduction and smoothing and the filter image is using strips method and then the image is segmented by marker watershed method. Secondly, the enhanced PSO technique was used to locate the better accurate value of the clustering centers of Fuzzy C-mean Clustering. Final stage, with the accurate value of centers and the enhanced target function and the small region of the segmented object was clustered by Fuzzy C-mean. In segmentation algorithm presented in this paper gives 95% of accuracy rate to detect lung nodules when strip count is 5.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0092.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: idiographic approach; computerized adaptive practicing; intraindividual variation; cognitive development; mathematics
Online: 13 February 2018 (08:40:04 CET)
Molenaar’s manifesto on psychology as idiographic science brought the N = 1 times series perspective firmly to the attention of developmental scientists. The rich intraindividual variation in complex developmental processes requires the study of these processes at the level of the individual. Yet, the idiographic approach is all but easy in practical research. One major limitation is the collection of short interval times series of high quality data on developmental processes. In this paper we present a novel measurement approach to this problem. We developed an online practice and monitoring system which is now used by thousands of Dutch primary school children on a daily or weekly basis, providing a new window on cognitive development. We will introduce the origin of this new instrument, called Math Garden, explain its setup, and present and discuss ways to analyze children’s individual developmental pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0063.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Durand Adaptive Psychopathic Traits Questionnaire; French translation; France; Canada; psychometrics
Online: 14 June 2017 (06:36:48 CEST)
This study presents a French translation and validation of the Durand Adaptive Psychopathic Traits Questionnaire (DAPTQ), an instrument for assessing adaptive traits known to correlate with the psychopathic personality. Bilingual (French and English) individuals from France and Canada (N = 141, 52% in France, Mage = 29.73, SD = 9.09) completed both versions of the DAPTQ (French and English), alongside measurements of perceived stress, trait anxiety, authentic leadership and creativity. Correlation between the DAPTQ total and subscales across versions showed strong associations (r = .84 to .96). The DAPTQ – French version also demonstrated good internal consistency (α = .87), convergent validity, and concurrent validity. These findings support the cross-cultural equivalence of the DAPTQ and therefore its effectiveness as a valid assessment method of adaptive traits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: morphing blade; adaptive geometry; computational fluid dynamics; fluid-structure coupling
Online: 16 May 2017 (13:06:29 CEST)
The concept of smart morphing blades, which can control themselves to reduce or eliminate the need for active control systems, is a highly attractive solution in blade technology. In this paper an innovative passive control system based on Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) is proposed. On the basis of previous thermal and shape characterization of a single morphing blade for a heavy-duty automotive cooling axial fan, this study deals with the numerical analysis of the aerodynamic loads acting on the fan. By coupling CFD and FEM approaches it is possible to analyze the actual blade shape resulting from both the aerodynamic and centrifugal loads. The numerical results indicate that the polymeric blade structure ensures proper resistance and enables shape variation due to the action of the SMA strips.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0615.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: fractional order chaotic system; finite-time synchronization; sliding controller; robust adaptive
Online: 11 September 2023 (09:28:53 CEST)
This study presents finite-time synchronization of chaotic fractional order systems with disturbance uncertainty and unknown time delay. First, a PID sliding surface is presented. Then, for the finite-time synchronization of the master and slave systems, a robust sliding-adaptive control method is provided. Update rules have been retrieved to estimate the system parameters by using the Lyapunov function while establishing the stability of the suggested mechanism and assuring the convergence of errors to zero. The proposed approach was used to solve the fractional order system of Gensou-Tsei with time-varying parameters, and the simulation results show that the presented approach performs well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0319.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: hydropower systems; Francis turbine; synchronous generator; dynamic modeling; adaptive learning; simulations
Online: 6 September 2023 (02:39:00 CEST)
In the development of a digital twin (DT) for hydropower turbines, dynamic modeling of the system (e.g., penstock, turbine, speed control) is crucial, along with all the necessary data interface, virtualization, and dashboard designs. Since the DT must mimic the actual dynamics of the hydropower turbine accurately, adaptive learning is required to train these dynamic models online so that the models in the DT can effectively follow the representation of the actual hydropower turbine dynamics accurately and reliably. This study presents an adaptive learning method for obtaining the hydropower turbine models for DT development of hydropower systems using recursive least squares algorithm. To simplify the formulation, the hydropower turbine under consideration was assumed to operate near a fixed operating point, where the system dynamics can be well represented by a set of linear differential equations with constant parameters. In this context, the well-known six-coefficient model for the Francis turbine was formulated as the starting point to obtain input and output models for the turbine. Then, an adaptive learning mechanism was developed to learn model parameters using the real-time data from a hydropower turbine testing system. This led to a semi-physical modeling in which the first principles and data-driven modeling are integrated to produce dynamic models for the DT development. Applications to a pilot system at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) were made, and the models learned adaptively using the data collected from the university’s pilot system. Desired modeling and validation results were obtained.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1324.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: karyotype diversity; genome stability; species richness; species eveneness; non-adaptive radiation
Online: 31 July 2023 (10:51:13 CEST)
A strong correlation between karyotype diversity and species richness in mammals was first reported over forty years ago: in mammalian phylogenetic clades, standard deviation of karyotype diversity (KD) closely corresponds to the standard deviation of species richness (SR). These initial studies, however, did not control for phylogenetic signal, raising the possibility that the correlation was due to phylogenetic relatedness among species in a clade. Accordingly, karyotype diversity trivially reflects species diversity simply as a passive consequence of adaptive radiations. A more recent study in mammals has controlled for phylogenetic signal and established the correlation as phylogenetically independent, suggesting that species diversity cannot, in itself, explain the observed corresponding karyotype diversity. The correlation is therefore remarkable because the mechanisms contributing to karyotype diversity are evolutionarily independent of the mechanisms contributing to species diversity. Recently, it was shown in salamanders that the two processes generating genetic diversity and species diversity are indeed independent and operate in parallel, suggesting a potential non-adaptive and non-causal relationship between the two fundamental variables involved in adaptive radiations. The following will examine the relationship between KD and SR in the context of Motoo Kimura’s theory of non-adaptive radiation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1926.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: 5G; mmWave; Massive MIMO; Machine Learning; Adaptive Beamforming; System Level Simulations.
Online: 28 July 2023 (03:22:42 CEST)
The goal of this paper is the performance evaluation of a deep learning approach when deployed in fifth-generation (5G) millimeter wave (mmWave) multicellular networks. To this end, the optimum beamforming configuration is defined by two neural networks (NNs) that are properly trained, according to mean square error (MSE) minimization. The first network has as input the requested spectral efficiency (SE) per active sector, while the second network the corresponding energy efficiency (EE). Hence, channel and power variations can now be taken into consideration during adaptive beamforming. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated with the help of a developed system level simulator via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. According to the presented results, machine learning (ML)-adaptive beamforming can significantly improve EE compared to the standard non-ML framework. Although this improvement comes at the cost of increased blocking probability (BP) and radiating elements (REs) for high data rate services, the corresponding increase ratios are significantly reduced compared to the EE improvement ratio. In particular, considering 21.6 Mbps per active user and ML adaptive beamforming, then EE can reach up to 5.3 Mbps/W, which is significantly improved compared to the non-ML case (0.9 Mbps/W). In this context, BP does not exceed 2.6%, which is slightly worse compared to 1.7% in the standard non-ML case. Moreover, approximately 20% additional REs are required, with respect to the non-ML framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0931.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: adaptive facade; shape memory polymer (SMP); actuator; thermoresponsive; building perfromance; simulation
Online: 14 July 2023 (03:13:29 CEST)
Shape Memory Polymer (SMP) actuators are smart materials that adapt and switch shape in response to environmental conditions, allowing controlled and dynamic building systems. The integrated SMP strip enabled the adaptive facade shading system to operate independently and with flexibility under certain thermoresponsive conditions to regulate building performance. This study aims to improve adaptive façade performance in a hot-humid climate by determining optimal thermal activation factors for the shape memory polymer. This was achieved by comprehensively examining and analysing the impact of various SMP activation parameters on energy efficiency, thermal comfort, and visual comfort. In addition, dynamic IES-VE building energy simulation was used to evaluate the thermal performance of the adaptable facade. The results were validated using a multicriteria approach to compare with the existing glass façade of a high-rise apartment. The results showed that the coactivation technique, which combines solar radiation and air temperature triggers, proved to be the most efficient strategy to improve the performance of the adaptive façade. This strategy minimised heat gain, lowered indoor temperatures, reduced glare, and enhanced daylight comfort, resulting in notable energy savings through reduced cooling consumption. The study concluded that the utilisation of SMP actuators with fine-tuning activation parameters significantly optimised adaptive façade performance, promoting functionality, efficiency, and sustainability in buildings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0691.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: diabetic retinopathy, adaptive optics, rtx-1 technology, cone morphology, retinal microcirculation
Online: 11 July 2023 (08:11:09 CEST)
Background: With the increasing global incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM), diabetic retinopathy (DR) has become one of the leading causes of blindness in developed countries. DR leads to changes in retinal neurons and microcirculation. Rtx1TM (Imagine Eyes, France) is a microscope that allows histological visualisations of cones and retinal microcirculation throughout the DM duration. Objective: This study aimed to analyse the cones and retinal microvascular changes in 50 diabetic individuals and 18 healthy volunteers. The patients participated in the initial visit and two fol-low-up appointments: one and two years after the study, beginning with rtx1 image acquisition, visual acuity assessment, macular OCT scans and blood measurements. Results: The study revealed significant differences in the cone density, mosaic arrangement and vascular morphology between healthy and diabetic patients. The final measurements have shown decreased photoreceptor and microvascular parameters in the DR group compared to the control group. Furthermore, in the 2-year follow-up, both groups' rtx1-acquired morphological changes were statistically significant. Conclusions: Rtx-1 technology was successfully used as a non-invasive method of photoreceptors and retinal vasculature assessment over time in patients with diabetic retinopathy. The study has revealed a trend toward more vascular morphological changes occurring over time in diabetic patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1823.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Hybrid unmanned aerial underwater quadrotor; Robust control; Disturbance observer; Adaptive laws
Online: 26 June 2023 (14:14:29 CEST)
The development of hybrid unmanned aerial underwater vehicles (HAUVs) compatible with the advantages of the aerial vehicles and the underwater vehicles is of great significance. This paper presents the first study on a new HAUV layout using four rotors to realize the medium crossing motion of a transverse slender body similar to the fuselage of a missile or a submarine, that is the hybrid aerial underwater quadrotor (HAUQ). Then a robust control strategy is proposed for the take-off HAUQ on the water in the presence of unknown disturbances and complex model dynamic uncertainties. As a semi-submersible HAUQ rises straightly from the water, the inside of the slender fuselage placed horizontally is filled with water. The center of the mass, the moment of inertia, and the arm of force of the HAUQ will change rapidly in the takeoff phase from the water since the rapid non-uniform change of mass caused by the passive fast drainage. It is difficult to establish a accurate mathematical model of the complex dynamic changes caused by the multi-media dynamics, the fast changing buoyancy, and the added mass crossing air–water surface. Therefore, an uncertain kinematic and dynamic model is established through the passive fast nonuniform change and the complex dynamics are considered as the unknown terms, and the external disturbances of gust and other factors are assumed as the bounded disturbance input. A robust design approach is introduced to deal with the fast time-varying mass disturbance based on the input-to-state stability (ISS) theorem. The complex dynamics are estimated using the basis function and the unknown weight parameters, and the adaptive laws are adopted for the on-line estimation of the unknown weight parameters. Consider the residual disturbance of the uncertain nonlinear system as a total disturbance term, a disturbance observer is introduced for disturbance observation. The numerical simulation shows the feasibility and robustness of the proposed algorithm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0281.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Infrared dim small targets; Object detection; Adaptive Fusion Attention Module; ISVD
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:47:09 CEST)
Infrared detection plays an important role in the military, aerospace, and other fields, which has the advantages of all-weather, high stealth, and strong anti-interference. However, infrared dim small target detection suffers from complex backgrounds, low signal-to-noise ratio, blurred targets with small area percentages, and other challenges. In this paper, we proposed a multiscale YOLOv5-AFAM algorithm to realize high-accuracy and real-time detection. Aiming at the problem of target intra-class feature difference and inter-class feature similarity, the Adaptive Fusion Attention Module - AFAM was proposed to generate feature maps that are calculated to weigh the features in the network and make the network focus on small targets. This paper proposed a multiscale fusion structure to solve the problem of small and variable detection scales in infrared vehicle targets. In addition, the downsampling layer is improved by combining Maxpool and convolutional downsampling to reduce the number of model parameters and retain the texture information. For multiple scenarios, we constructed an infrared dim and small vehicle target detection dataset, ISVD. The multiscale YOLOv5-AFAM was conducted on the ISVD dataset, compared to YOLOv7, mAP@0.5 achieves a small improvement while the parameters are only 17.98% of it. By contrast with the YOLOv5s model, mAP@0.5 was improved by 4.3% with a 6.6% reduction in the parameters. Experiments results demonstrate that the multiscale YOLOv5-AFAM has a higher detection accuracy and detection speed on infrared dim and small vehicles.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0112.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: immunity; obesity; insulin resistance; innate and adaptive; treg; glutathione; cytokine storm
Online: 2 June 2023 (02:11:22 CEST)
The risks for complications of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection are higher in obese individuals. Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation, with high leptin levels due to leptin resistance, high basal levels of other pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, MCP-I and IL-6, and low adiponectin levels, thus contributing to a state of defective innate immunity as well as impaired B and T cell responses. Obesity is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and hypertension. It has been observed that pre-existence of these diseases confers a higher risk of severe SARS CoV2 infection as well as the need for intensive care; even below the age of 60 years if their body mass index (BMI) is greater than 30 kg/m2, and even more so if it is > 35 kg/m2. The metabolic factors contributing to the changes in altering the immune mechanisms in obese individuals and how this enhances the susceptibility to infection and development of serious SARS-CoV2 infection have been the subject of many debates. Future development of targeted therapy and guidelines will be benefited by greater understanding into these metabolic pathways.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1794.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: oligonucleotide vaccines; SARS-CoV-2; phosphorothioate oligonucleotides; innate immunity; adaptive immunity
Online: 25 May 2023 (10:13:35 CEST)
The main problem in creating anti-coronavirus vaccines that target mainly proteins of the outer membrane of the virus remains the rapid variability of the RNA genome of the pathogen that encodes these proteins. In addition, the introduction of technologies that can provide affordable and fast production of flexible vaccine formulas that easily adapt to the emergence of new subtypes of SARS-CoV-2 is required. Universal oligonucleotide vaccine can take into account the dynamics of rapid changes in the virus genome, as well as be synthesized on automatic DNA synthesizers in large quantities in a short time. In this brief report, the effectiveness of four phosphorothioate constructs of the La-S-so type oligonucleotide vaccine will be evaluated for the first time on transgenic mice [B6.Cg-Tg (K18-ACE2)2]. In our primary trials, the oligonucleotide vaccine increased the survival rate of animals infected with SARS-CoV-2 and also reduced the destructive effects of the virus on the lung tissue of mice. The obtained results show the perspective of the development of vaccine constructs of the La-S-so type for the prevention of coronavirus infections, including those caused by SARS-СoV-2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1775.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Electric vehicles; Power calculation; Harmonics; Non-stationary; Adaptive chirp mode decomposition.
Online: 25 May 2023 (08:47:37 CEST)
Due to nonlinear components in the charging piles of electric vehicles, harmonics and non-stationary signals in the electric vehicle charging load brings voltage and current distortion, seriously affecting the accuracy of the power-related calculation in non-sinusoidal environments. This paper proposed a new approach to calculate the active power and root mean square values from decomposed components using the adaptive chirp mode decomposition (ACMD) method on voltage and current. The advantage of the ACMD-based method is that it correctly provides the power-related quantities of harmonics or non-stationary components for the electric vehicle charging load. The performance of the proposed method was verified using synthetic signals and simulation tests. The experimental results presented better estimations for each quantity defined in IEEE Standard 1459-2010, compared with the discrete wavelet transform approach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1389.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: adaptive strategies; competitiveness; stress tolerance; ruderalism; natural selection; forest dynamics; Lithuania
Online: 19 May 2023 (07:24:46 CEST)
Forest vegetation dynamics (succession and dominance) is an ecological phenomenon that is still difficult to characterize and integrate into management practices. In this study, the understanding of forest dynamics is explored based on Grime’s theoretical triangular model of plant adaptive strategies using the example of Lithuania’s forest ecosystems. The idea behind this is the hypothesis that forest dynamics is linked to natural selection as an evolutionary process that exhibits differential species responses to competition, stress, and disturbance. The aim of this study is to explore the adaptive relationships in hemi-boreal forests. Grime’s and Pierce’s secondary CSR strategies, which describe various equilibria between competitiveness (C), stress tolerance (S), and ruderalism (R), were considered to reflect four establishment and development adaptive specialization characteristics of forest tree species. As a result of the study, four types of tree functional groups were identified: stress-resistant ruderals, competitive stress-sensitive ruderals, ruderal stress-sensitive competitors, and stress-resistant competitors. Based on this, we propose that reforestation move away from single species regeneration by implementing the maintenance of these four types of functional groups. In conclusion, forest management must consider the existence of the established equilibria between plant competitiveness, stress tolerance, and ruderalism. The formal concepts presented in this article can serve as a guide for future relevant research and development of appropriate methods for studying real forests. This study is unique in that no previous work has linked forest dynamics and natural selection in the context of Lithuania’s forest ecosystems.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0675.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Central sleep apnea; adaptive servo ventilation; oxygen therapy; sleep positional therapy
Online: 10 May 2023 (03:28:11 CEST)
Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is well known to often improve with non-supine positioning as opposed to su¬pine positioning. Emerging research supports a role for sleep position management in patients with central sleep apnea (CSA) as well. We report a case of de novo Complex Sleep apnea Syndrome (CompSAS) in a 78-year-old female, who presented after a car accident due to unclear syncope. Diagnostic polysomnography (PSG) showed a moderate OSA. A CompSAS developed under Automatic positive airway pressure (APAP), while download data of 4 years showed a good adherence. No significant benefit was reported under Adaptive Servo Ventilation (ASV) and BiPAP-ST, while a reduction of CSA in non-supine position was noticed. Oxygen and sleep positional therapy (SPT) were considered resulting in a significant improvement of CSA and sleep quality. Further research on the prevalence of positional CSA is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0370.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: socio-ecological systems; sustainability; adaptive cycle; panarchy; commodity frontiers; world-ecology.
Online: 25 October 2022 (02:03:32 CEST)
This article investigates the dynamics of socio-ecological systems (SESs) unsustainability. By adopting a theoretical standpoint grounded in systems’ theory, the analysis shows how SESs’ teleology (or final cause) is of the utmost relevance for understanding unsustainability and how it is pivotal for envisioning possible evolutionary trajectories towards sustainability. Building on the contributions of both system and social scientists, the study argues that SES’s teleology is determined by dominant social ontologies that require a dialectical lens to be properly dealt with. The article therefore proposes the adoption of the adaptive cycle heuristic complemented by an historical-geographical approach based on world-ecology theory as a means to dynamically model of SESs’ behaviour. Such a perspective allows for the direct comparison between the four stages of the panarchy cycle (reorganization, exploitation, conservation, and release) and the four stages theorized by the world-ecology dialectics (expansion, appropriation, capitalization, crisis). In conclusion, the article claims that both system and social scientists would benefit from including in their analysis concepts and definitions from the other field, since both provide valuable insights about SESs' processes of change and both are necessary to envision transition pathways towards sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0205.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Adaptive radiotherapy; Lymph node; MR-linac; MRgRT; Oligometastases; SBRT; prostate cancer
Online: 14 October 2022 (08:53:36 CEST)
Introduction: The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of a daily-adaptive MR-guided SBRT on 1.5 T MR-linac in patients affected by lymphnode oligometastases from PCa. Materials and Methods: The present study is a prospective observational study conducted in a single institution (protocol n°: MRI / LINAC n. 23748). Patients with oligometastatic lymphnodes from PCa treated with daily-adaptive MR-guided SBRT on 1.5T MR-linac were included in the study. Minimum required follow-up of 3 months after SBRT. Primary end-point was local progression-free survival (LPFS). Secondary end-points were: nodal progression-free survival (NPFS), and progression-free survival (PFS), and toxicity. Results: 118 lymphnode oligometastases from PCa were treated with daily-adaptive 1.5T MR-guided SBRT in 63 oligometastatic patients. 63.5% patients were oligoprogressive and 36.5% oligoprogressive. Two-year LPFS was 94.5%. Median NPFS was 22.3 months, and the 2-year NPFS was 46.5%. Having received hormone therapy before SBRT was correlated with lower NPFS at the multivariate analysis (1-y NPFS 87.1% versus 42.8%; p= 0.002 - HR 0.199, 95% CI 0.073-0.549). Furthermore, the oligorecurrent state during ADT was correlated with a lower NPFS than the oligoprogressive state. Median PFS was 10.3 months, the 2-year PFS was 32.4%. Patients treated with hormone therapy before SBRT had a significantly lower 1-year PFS the others (28% versus 70.4%; p= 0.01 - HR 0.259, 95% CI 0.117-0.574). No acute and late toxicities occurred during treatment. Conclusion: the present is the largest prospective study of 1.5T lymphnode SBRT on MR-linac in patients with PCa. Lymphnode SBRT by 1.5T MR-linac provides high local control rates with an excellent toxicity profile.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0015.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: energy policy; stakeholder requirements; adaptive/transformative; heat decarbonisation; energy system architecture
Online: 1 September 2022 (09:15:02 CEST)
It is a truism that whole energy system models underpin the development of policies for energy system decarbonisation. But recent reviews have thrown doubt on the appropriateness of such models for addressing the multiple goals for future energy systems, in the face of emergent real-world complexity and the evolution of stakeholder’s priorities. Without an understanding of the changing priorities of policy makers and expectations of stakeholders for future systems, system objectives and constraints are likely to be ill-defined, and there is a risk that models may be inadvertently instrumentalised. Adopting a system architecture perspective, the authors have undertaken a three-year programme of research to explore strategies for decarbonising heat in the UK, with interaction with and elicitation of needs from stakeholders at its heart. This paper presents the procedure, methods, and results of an exercise in which experts from stakeholder organisations across the energy system were interviewed. Analysis of interview data reveals two broad approaches to heat decarbonisation which can be broadly defined as either adaptive or transformative. Specific insights gained from these interviews enabled our modelling teams to refocus their work for exploration with a wider circle of stakeholders. Results suggests that this iterative approach to formalising model-policy interaction could improve the transparency and legitimacy of modelling and enhance its impact on policy making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0356.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: sedentary behaviour; smartphone; mobile app; just-in-time adaptive intervention (JITAI)
Online: 19 August 2022 (05:29:57 CEST)
Breaking up prolonged sitting by short bouts of light physical activities including standing and walking has been shown to be beneficial for people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This paper presents the development of an android mobile app to deliver a just-in-time adaptive intervention (JITAI) to reduce sedentary time in people with T2D. A total of six design workshops were conducted with seven experts to identify design requirements, a behavioural framework, and required contextual adaptations for the development of a bespoke mobile app (iMOVE). Moreover, a focus group was conducted among people with T2D as potential end-users (N=10) to ascertain their perceptions of the app. Feedback from the focus group was used in subsequent iterations of the iMOVE app. Data were analysed using an inductive qualitative thematic analysis. Based on workshops, key features of iMOVE were developed, including simplicity (e.g., navigation, login), colours and font sizes, push notifications, messaging algorithms and a triggering system for breaking up sitting time and moving more. Based on the user testing results, a goal setting tab was added, font sizes were made larger, the brightness of colours was reduced, and a colour indicator was used to indicate device connectivity with an activity tracker. A user-centric app was developed to support people with T2D to transition from sedentary to active lifestyles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0249.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Adaptive Cruise Control; Driver behvaiour; Deep learning; Engine Operating Point; NARX
Online: 18 October 2021 (14:48:11 CEST)
The ACC feature when activated augments the engine performance in real-time. This article presents a novel methodology to predict the optimal adaptive cruise control set speed profile (ACCSSP) by considering all the effecting parameters. This paper investigates engine operating conditions (EOC) criteria to develop a predictive model of ACCSSP in real-time. We developed a deep learning (DL) model using the NARX method to predict engine operating point (EOP) mapping the vehicle-level vectors (VLV). We used real-world field data obtained from Cadillac test vehicles driven by activating the ACC feature for developing the DL model. We used a realistic set of assumptions to estimate the VLV for the future time steps for the range of allowable speed values and applied them at the input of the developed DL model to generate multiple sets of EOP’s. We imposed the defined EOC criteria on these EOPs, and the top three modes of speeds satisfying all the requirements are derived for each second. Thus three eligible speed values are estimated for each second, and an additional criterion is defined to generate a unique ACCSSP for future time steps. Performance comparison between predicted and constant ACCSSPs indicates that the predictive model outperforms constant ACCSSP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0479.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: software quality, Adaptive Neural Fuzzy, ISO standard, quality model, Inference system
Online: 20 May 2021 (10:31:56 CEST)
Computer systems are involved in many critical human applications today, so that a small error can lead to serious and dangerous problems. These errors can be from an error in the incorrect design of the user interface to an error in the program code. The success of a software product depends on several factors. Given that different organizations and institutions use software products, the need to have a quality and desirable Software according to the goals and needs of the organization makes measuring the quality of software products. an important issue for most organizations and institutions, To be sure of having the right software. It is necessary to use a standard quality model to examine the features and sub-features for a detailed and principled study in the quality discussion. In this study, the quality of Word software was measured by Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System. In recent years, powerful systems called fuzzy inference systems on The basis of adaptive neural network (ANFIS) has been used in various sciences. Using the power of neural network training and the linguistic advantage of fuzzy systems, these types of systems have been able to realize the advantages of the two in terms of analyzing very powerful complex processes. Considering the importance of software quality and to have a good and usable software in terms of quality and measuring the quality of software during the study. It was applied at different levels to make the result of measuring the quality of Word software more accurate and closer to reality. In this research, the quality of the software product is measured based on the adaptive neural-fuzzy inference system in ISO standard. According to the results obtained in this study, it is understood that quality is a continuous and hierarchical concept and the quality of each part of the software at any stage of production can lead to high quality products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0619.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Adaptive Island; Minimum spanning tree; Load forecasting; Controllable switches; Distributed generations
Online: 24 December 2020 (12:35:42 CET)
The power system vulnerability leads to faults and the severity of the fault may lead to prolonged load-shedding. The power system needs to be configured in extreme failure scenarios for protecting the network from further contingencies and prolonged load-shedding. Distributed generation resources (DGs) can be useful to form intentional islands after faults to maintain the continuity of power supply to loads based on their weightage during faulty periods and to reduce overall load shedding duration. Power system is bound to collapses and secondary collapse in the formed island is possible. This research represents a novel method of impedance based path finding for intentional islanding, which adapts itself with the changes in the demands, DGs outputs or further severities during restoration period. In this adaptive islanding approach, network adjusts itself with the changes in either the load demands or renewable DGs outputs and rearranges the restoration plan by curtailing or adding some of the loads through controllable switches. Further a secondary collapse in the existing island is studied by injecting multiple faults at various positions of the network to validate the system resilience to cope with severities. A short-term load forecasting approach is used to predict changes in load demands and variations in DG outputs during the islanding scheme. During the restoration period, these variations are tracked and the islands are modified accordingly. In order to minimize the overall generation cost by using less fuel, an economical approach is used in the selection of controllable DGs. The proposed approach is formulated as a multi-objective, that incorporates several operational constraints and simulation is carried out using the modified IEEE 69-bus distribution system to assess the efficacy of the proposed model.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0159.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Sex; COVID-19; SARS Cov-2; ACE2; innate immunity; adaptive immunity
Online: 14 June 2020 (03:18:35 CEST)
Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has affected nearly 7 million individuals and claimed more than 0.4 million lives to date. There are several reports of gender differences related to infection and death due to COVID-19. This raises important questions such as “Whether there are differences based on gender in risk and severity of infection or mortality rate?” and “What are the biological explanation and mechanisms underlying these differences?” Emerging evidence has proposed sex-based immunological, genetic, and hormonal differences to explain this ambiguity. Besides biological differences, women have also faced social inequities and economic hardships due to this pandemic. Several recent studies have shown that independent of age males are at higher risk for severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Although susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 was found to be similar across both genders in several disease cohorts, a disproportionate death ratio in men can be partly explained by the higher burden of pre-existing diseases and occupational exposures among men. From an immunological point of view, females can engage a more active immune response, which may protect them and counter infectious diseases as compared to men. This attribute of better immune responses towards pathogens is thought to be due to high estrogen levels in females. Here we review the current knowledge about sex differences in susceptibility, the severity of infection and mortality, host immune responses, and the role of sex hormones in COVID-19 disease.
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: airborne wind energy; kite system; system identification; adaptive algorithms; pole placement
Online: 11 January 2020 (14:32:48 CET)
This paper presents a comparison between a kite model with a constant-length tether and a model based on a system identification algorithm. The concept of system identification is applied to predict the uncertainties related to the variation of the wind speed and the shape deformation of the tethered membrane wing during flight. A pole-placement controller is used to ensure that the kite follows the planned flight path. Thus, we can determine the required locations of the closed loop poles, and then enforce them by changing the controller's gains in real-time. The capability of the system identification algorithm to recognize sudden changes in the dynamic model, and the ability of the controller to stabilize the system in the presence of such changes are confirmed. Furthermore, the system identification algorithm is applied to determine the parameters of a kite with variable-length tether used in a flight test of the 20 kW kite power system of TU Delft. Experimental data of this test were compared with the system identification results in real-time and significant changes were observed in the parameters of the dynamic model which heavily affect the resulting response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0244.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: adaptive lens; piezoelectric devices; fluid-structure interaction; moving mesh; thermal expansion.
Online: 21 October 2019 (13:02:57 CEST)
In this paper, we present a finite element simulation of an adaptive piezoelectric fluid-membrane lens modeled in COMSOL Multiphysics. The simulation couples the piezoelectric effect with the fluid dynamics to model the interaction between piezoelectric forces and fluid forces. Also, the simulation is extended to model the thermal expansion of the fluid. Finally, we compare the simulation and experimental results of the adaptive lens refractive power at different actuation levels and temperatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0060.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: hyperspectral image; spectral characteristics of plants; spectral adaptive grouping; compressive sensing
Online: 8 May 2017 (11:45:34 CEST)
With the development of hyperspectral technology, to establish an effective spectral data compressive reconstruction method that can improving data storage, transmission and maintaining spectral information is critical for quantitative remote sensing research and application in vegetation. By introducing the idea of compressive sensing in compressed reconstruction, the spectral adaptive grouping distributed compressive sensing algorithm is proposed, which enables a distributed compressed sensing reconstruction of plant hyperspectral data. The experimental results showed that comparing with orthogonal matching pursuit(OMP) and gradient projection reconstruction(GPSR), the proposed algorithm can significantly improve the visual effect of image reconstruction in the spatial domain. The PSNR in low sampling rate(sampling rate is lower than 0.2) increases by 13.72dB than OMP and 1.66dB than GPSR. In the spectral domain, the average normalized root mean square error、the mean absolute percentage error and the mean absolute error of the proposed algorithm is35.38%，31.83% and 33.33% lower than GPSR respectively.. Therefore, the proposed algorithm can achieve relatively high reconstructed efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2116.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Lactic Acid Bacteria; Bioprotective cultures; Meat products; Curing agents; Proteomics; Adaptive response
Online: 31 August 2023 (04:10:09 CEST)
During meat processing, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have to competitively adapt to the hostile en-vironment produced by curing additives (CA). The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of Latilactobacillus curvatus CRL 705, a bioprotective strain of meat origin, to adapt to CA. A physiological and proteomic approach was performed. CRL 705 was grown in a chemically de-fined medium (CDM) containing specific concentrations of CA (NaCl, nitrite, sucrose and ascor-bic acid). The results showed minor differences in growth kinetics in the presence of CA. Glucose consumption, present in CDM, and production of lactic acid and bacteriocins were not signifi-cantly affected. Proteomic analyses indicated that most of the identified proteins (36 out of 39) mainly related to carbohydrate metabolism (18%), posttranslational modifications (15.6%), energy production and conversion (11.1%), translation (11.1%) and nucleotide metabolism (8.9%), were under expressed. In response to the studied CA, CRL 705 slowed down its general metabolism, achieving slight changes in physiological and proteomic parameters. The observed performance is another characteristic that extends the well-known competitive profile of CRL 705 as a meat starter- and -bioprotective culture. This is the first report dealing with the impact of CA on LAB proteomics.