ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0599.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: 4-Methylacetophenone; Refractory metals; Solvent extraction; Selective recovery
Online: 30 July 2018 (22:03:33 CEST)
A study has been carried out on Ta and Nb recovery by liquid-liquid extraction process using 4-methylacetophenone (4-MAcPh) as organic phase. The 4-MAcPh was compared to methylisobutylketone (MIBK) with respect to extraction efficiencies (kD values) at different concentrations of H2SO4 in the aqueous phase. The results showed a similar extraction of Nb for both solvents. However, for Ta extraction efficiency is increased by a factor of 1.3 for 4-MAcPh. In addition, the MIBK solubilized completely after 6 mol L-1 of H2SO4 against only a loss of 0.14 to 4% for 4-MAcPh between 6 and 9 mol L-1 of H2SO4. The potential of 4-MAcPh has also been studied to selectively recover Ta from a model capacitor waste solution. The results showed a selectivity for Ta in the presence of impurities such as Fe, Ni, Mn. The 4-MAcPh also presents the advantage of having physicochemical properties adapted to its use in liquid-liquid extraction technologies such as mixer-settlers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0186.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Chaga (Inonotus obliquus); Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE); myconutrients; Swiss water process (SWP); Green extraction; pH; Temperature
Online: 8 July 2021 (10:02:51 CEST)
Mushrooms have long rich history in folk medicine, traditional and functional foods due to high content of dietary myco-nutrients. Currently, there is increased interest in finding appropriate food-grade green ex-traction systems capable of extracting these bioactive compounds from dietary mushrooms for applica-tions in various food, pharmacological or nutraceutical formulations. Herein, we evaluated a modified Swiss water process (SWP) method using alkaline and acidic pH at low and high temperature under pressurized conditions as a suitable green food grade solvent to obtained extracts enriched with my-co-nutrients (dietary phenolics, total antioxidants (TAA), vitamins, and minerals) from Chaga. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution accurate mass tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRAMS-MS/MS) was used to assess the phenolic compounds and vitamin levels in the extracts, while inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine the mineral con-tents. Over twenty phenolic compounds were quantitatively evaluated in the extracts and the highest total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was observed at pH11.5 at 100°C. The most abundant phenolic compounds present in Chaga extracts included phenolic acids such as protocatechuic acid 4-glucoside (0.7-1.08µg/mL), syringic acid (0.62-1.18µg/mL), and myricetin (0.68-1.3µg/mL). Vitamins are being reported for the first time in Chaga. pH 2.5 at 100°C treatment shows superior effects in extracting the B vitamins whereas pH 2.5 at 60 and 100°C treatments were outstanding for extraction of total fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamin E content was the highest for the fat-soluble vitamins in the Chaga extract under acidic pH (2.5) and high temp. (100°C) and ranges between 50 to 175 µg/100g Chaga. Antioxidant minerals ranged from 85.94 µg/g (pH7 at 100°C) to 113.86 µg/g DW (pH2.5 at 100°C). High temperature 100°C and a pH of 2.5 or 9.5. The treatment of pH11.5 at 100°C was the most useful for recovering phenolics and antioxidants from Chaga including several phenolic compounds reported for the first time in Chaga. SWP is being proposed herein for the first time as a novel, green food-grade solvent system for the extraction of myco-nutrients from Chaga and have potential applications as a suitable approach to extract nutrients from other matrices. Chaga extracts enriched with bioactive myconutrients and antioxidants may be suitable for further use or applications in the food and nutraceutical industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0331.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: capacitive imaging; skin hydration; solvent penetration; water content; solvent content
Online: 21 June 2018 (05:21:42 CEST)
Capacitive contact imaging has shown potential in measuring skin properties including hydration, micro relief analysis, as well as solvent penetration measurements. Through calibration we can also measure the absolute permittivity of the skin, and from absolute permittivity we then work out the absolute solvent content in skin. In this paper, we present our latest study of capacitive contact imaging for skin characterizations and vivo skin solvent penetration. We will show how to use capacitive occlusion measurements to characterize skin damages, and how to calculate the absolute water content and solvent content in skin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0076.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: polymer solar cells; solvent additive; DIO; PCDTBT
Online: 6 May 2022 (11:44:55 CEST)
The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of polymer solar cells (PSCs) are strongly depended on the bulk-heterojunction active layer. Here, the 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) additives have been added into the PCDTBT: PC70BM blend PSCs. Based on the higher boiling point than host solvent ODB and better solubility of PC71BM, the device photovoltaic properties with DIO additive were changed obviously. The investigations of EQE indicate that the DIO can influence the charge recombination and transportation process, and absorption studies demonstrate that the charge carriers generation process can also be affected by DIO. The overall impact reflected on the decreased equivalent resistant. With 3% v/v DIO, the Jsc, Voc and FF are both increased. Correspondingly, a highest PCE is achieved of 6.15%, while the reference device without DIO only has a PCE of 5.23%. Hence, adding DIO solvent additive is a effective method for the photovoltaic properties improving of PCDTBT: PC70BM blend PSCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0268.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Soybeans, Soxhlet extraction, Oil extract, solvent, Yield
Online: 26 August 2019 (13:54:14 CEST)
This work is aimed at promoting a healthier means of livelihood by investigating insignificant areas of pollution. In this work, soy candles produced from soybeans were proven as healthier alternatives to paraffin candles. Soxhlet extraction method was used with hexane as solvent. The extracted oil were then solidified. The wax was moulded into candle and tests were carried out to prove its claims as a safer alternative to paraffin wax. The results supported this claims that soy candles is more economical and produced lesser soot than the paraffin candles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0157.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Other Keywords: Janus particles; Amphiphilicity; Polycarbonate; Polymethylsilsesquioxane; Solvent displacement
Online: 9 July 2018 (16:23:43 CEST)
Immobilizing particles on beads, fibers or filaments, when only one side is exposed to the reaction medium and therefore can be selectively functionalized, is a scalable and easy to control strategy for the fabrication of amphiphilic Janus particles. Here we describe a new, robust method for the fabrication of amphiphilic Janus particles based on immobilization of polymethylsilsesquioxane (PMSQ) particles on polycarbonate (PC), a high impact-resistance polymer with superior mechanical properties. The immobilization of the particles on the PC microspores is preformed via inverse solvent displacement method. PMSQ particles are added to a PC solution in tetrahydrofuran (THF), a good solvent for PC. The solution is then precipitated by the introduction of aqueous surfactant solution (anti solvent for PC) under an ultrasonic field. It is important to note that THF and water are miscible and do not form emulsion. During precipitation, PMSQ particles are assembled onto the surface of the PC spherical precipitates/microspheres. The exposed hemispheres of the PMSQ particles are then selectively silanized by (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) to introduce amine groups on their surface. To increase the polarity of the functionalized hemispheres, the amine groups are further modified to introduce carboxyl groups. SEM characterization confirms the fine embedment of PMSQ particles onto the PC microspheres. Covalent attachment of silica nanoparticles (NPs) to the functionalized hemispheres of the resulting particles along with fluorescent confocal microscopy conclusively proof the successful fabrication of amphiphilic Janus particles. The immobilization of particles onto highly rigid polymeric microspheres such as PC may pave the way to the development of a robust fabrication procedure with high resistance to temperature fluctuations and harsh mixing conditions that can arise during preparation. This method can be implemented toward a large variety of other synthetic commercial polymers such as polyamide, polyether sulfones, Polyether ether ketone or similar.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0207.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Ganoderic acid; Nanodispersion; Ultrasound; RSM; Solvent evaporation; Encapsulation
Online: 11 April 2023 (07:32:37 CEST)
Ganoderic Acid (GA), a major bioactive compound isolated from an oriental medicinal mushroom, i.e. Ganoderma tsugae, has traditionally been found to have significant medicinal properties. As a result of GA's poor solubility in water, formulation poses several challenges. Additionally, the traditional method of administering it via alcohol always results in unfavorable patient side effects. In order to overcome these problems, Ganoderma Tsugae extracts obtained by ethanol extraction were encapsulated in nanodispersions by ultrasonic cavitation and solvent evaporation to maximise bioavailability. Resultant nanodispersions contained Ganoderic acid in a hydrophobic core with a mean particle size of no more than 200 nm and a very narrow particle distribution. An analysis of the interactions between the control variables and the process optimisation was conducted using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Based on the results of the experiment, it was found that the particle size of nanodispersions was influenced by the Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) number and the evaporation temperature. Moreover, the physical stability of micellar systems is generally determined by the organic phase within them. Regarding formulation stability, the zeta average of the nanodispersions remained virtually unchanged in solutions with different pH levels and short-term storage (14 days) at room temperature. Overall, it has been demonstrated that Ganoderic acid nanodispersions can be efficiently generated by combining ultrasound cavitation and solvent evaporation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0100.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: graphene; graphene oxide; mechanochemistry; solvent-free; one-step
Online: 9 October 2019 (10:39:18 CEST)
Graphene oxide was synthesized by a one-step environmentally friendly mechanochemistry process directly from graphite and characterized by Raman, FT-IR and UV/vis spectroscopies, Atomic Force Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric Analysis. Spectroscopic analysis shows that the functional groups and oxygen content of the synthesized material are comparable with those of graphene oxide synthesized by other previously reported methods (Hummers). Thermogravimetric analysis reveals thermal stability up to 400 °C.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0095.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: bimetallic nanoparticles, solvent free hydrogenation, nitrobenzene and chloronitrobenzene.
Online: 5 August 2018 (23:00:14 CEST)
Selective hydrogenation of nitrobenzene was carried out under solvent-free conditions using supported AuPd nanoparticles catalyst, prepared by modified impregnation method (MIm), as efficient catalyst. >99% yield of aniline (AN) was obtained after 15 hours at 90 °C, 3 bar H2 that can be used without any further purification or separation, therefore reducing cost and energy input. Supported AuPd nanoparticles catalyst, prepared by MIm, was found to be active and stable even after 4 recycle experiments whereas the same catalyst prepared by SIm deactivated during the recycle experiments. The most effective catalyst was tested for the chemoselective hydrogenation of 4-chloronitrobenzene (CNB) to 4-chloroaniline (CAN). The activation energy of CNB to CAN was found to be 25 kJ mol-1, while that of CNB to AN was found to be 31 kJ mol-1. Based on this, the yield of CAN was maximized (92%) by lowering the reaction temperature to 25 °C.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0377.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: p-nitrophenyl hydrazone; solvent-free; green synthesis; p-nitrophenyl hydrazine; mechanochemistry; dichloro p-nitrophenyl hydrazone; methoxy p-nitrophenyl hydrazone; solvent-based; spectroscopy; elucidation.; p-Nitrophenyl hydrazone; solvent-free; green synthesis; p-Nitrophenyl hydrazine; mechanochemistry; dichloro and methoxy p-Nitrophenyl hydrazone; solvent-based; structure elucidation; spectroscopy
Online: 29 March 2022 (08:53:22 CEST)
We conducted a comparative study on the development of two synthetic methods. The solvent-free synthesis is a green chemistry method developed in a bid to ameliorate environmental adverse effects of the conventional solvent-based synthesis. The synthesis of novel dichloro and polymethoxy p-nitrophenylhydrazones through solvent free technique gave moderate to high yields which were however lower than those of the solvent-based method. The established solvent-free approach has several benefits, including universality and simplicity of the approach, catalyst-free conditions, non-use of an organic solvent, quick reaction time, fast and efficient workup, and un-solvated pure products in moderate to high yields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1420.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Alkylation reaction; deep eutectic solvent; mild; response surface methodology
Online: 19 May 2023 (09:52:53 CEST)
The synthesis 2-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol is of great significance because of its widely application in industry, and the development of highly efficient catalyst is necessary to the alkylation of p-cresol and tert-butyl alcohol. Here, an efficient and mild method was established, caprolactam was chosen as hydrogen-bonding acceptor, p-toluenesulfonic acid was employed as hydrogen-bonding donor, and deep eutectic solvent (DES) was prepared to catalyze the alkylation reaction. The structure of the DES catalyst was characterized by 1H NMR spectra, thermogravimetric analysis and fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR). In addition, response surface design based on Box-Behnken method was employed to optimize the alkylation reaction process parameters, the study of reaction kinetics was also carried out subsequently. The recycle performance of the catalyst was evaluated by recovery experiments, and a good result was obtained. Comparing with the literature reported, we here provide a mild method to the synthesis of 2-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0069.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: reconstituted lipid nanoparticles; drug delivery systems; solvent diffusion method
Online: 3 November 2022 (03:57:32 CET)
Nanomedicine holds great potential to devise better drug delivery systems (DDSs). However, many reported nanomedicines still fall short of commercial requirements including specific targetability, scale-up manufacturing and safety. Cell/tissue based carriers, including cell membrane vehicle and exosome, are biocompatible and targeting platforms but usually suffered from low yields and unstable reproducibility. Here in this study, we proposed the concept and preparation of reconstituted lipid nanoparticles (rLNPs) to develop highly reproducible cell/tissue based lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) for drug delivery, which holds the potential as a versatile drug delivery platform. The whole lipids of cell or tissue were firstly extracted and then prepared into rLNPs using solvent diffusion method. In this way, the preparation of ultra-small (~20 nm) rLNPs can be easily applied to both cell (mouse breast cancer cell line, 4T1) and tissue (mouse liver tissue). Our results demonstrated that mouse liver tissue derived rLNPs can be further labeled/modified with imaging, targeting or other functional moieties. Furthermore, rLNPs were highly biocompatible and capable of loading different drugs including doxorubicin hydrochloride (Dox) and curcumin (Cur). Most importantly, Dox loaded rLNPs (rLNPs/Dox) showed preferable in vitro and in vivo anticancer performance. Therefore, rLNPs might be a versatile drug delivery platform for future application in the treatment of a variety of diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0383.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: linear fluorinated graphene nanoscrolls; solvent sensitive; synthesis; cathode material
Online: 19 October 2020 (13:58:55 CEST)
In this work, fluorinated graphene nanoscrolls (FGN) were synthesized via facile chemical methods under simple and mild conditions. Interestingly, the formation of the featured FGN was significantly solvent sensitive. Experimental results indicated that in the presence of aprotic solvent, for example, N,N dimethylformamide (DMF), the reaction system inclined to form the interesting FGN nanostructures. The structure and morphology of the prepared FGN were detailed characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) etc. The obtained FGN was used as a cathode material for primary lithium ion batteries with superior discharge specific capacity (eg. 979.3 mAhg-1), stable discharge platform and high energy density (eg. 2287.9 Wh kg-1), which fosters it a high density, low cost and durable candidate for cathode material for lithium ion batteries..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0400.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: polypropylene powder; solvent method; selective laser sintering; 3D print
Online: 25 June 2018 (16:48:10 CEST)
The application of solvent method in the preparation of polypropylene powders was investigated, including the influence of various technological conditions, such as the raw material melt index of polypropylene, processing temperature, dosage of the solvent and the packing pressure. The experimental data show that using solvent method can effectively produce polypropylene powder, and the optimal technological conditions are: melt index of polypropylene being about 17.8 g/10min, processing temperature being about 166.0 ℃, dosage of the solvent being about 0.067g/ml and the packing pressure being about 0.7MPa.Under this technological conditions, polypropylene powder with excellent sphericity could be prepared, the apparent density of powder can reach 0.40 g/cm3 and the prepared powder displayed a narrow size distribution with the mean size of about 42.7 µm.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1371.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: ionic liquid; deep eutectic solvent; cyclodextrin; sorbent disc; water environment
Online: 19 May 2023 (04:04:11 CEST)
With the development of health service, animal husbandry, aquaculture and chemical industry, more and more pollutants are discharged into the water environment, including antibiotics and heavy metal ions. These hazard substances pose a great threat to environment safety and human health. As two kinds of new green solvents, ionic liquids (ILs) and deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are widely used in various fields including separation and environmental engineering, which are attracting huge attention from academia and industry. In this study, the optimal ionic liquid and deep eutectic solvent were selected and their complex with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) were firstly prepared by simple and effective inclusion way. After necessary characterization and analysis, two kinds of complex were applied to prepare a special sorbent disc with two different sides by adding diluent (excipient) and pressing under 5~15 MPa. As the result, the IL and DES could be stably immobilized on the disc and play the key role in selective adsorption for targets. Besides that, the experiments of different hazardous substances achieved the expected results. Based on this study, the complex disc showed a lot of merits in the separation performance, easy preparation and use, simple operation, and good stability. It was believed to be a useful tool for water purification and detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0195.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: perovskite solar cells, electron transport layer, 2D perovskite, anti-solvent
Online: 7 June 2021 (16:15:59 CEST)
Surface passivation, which has been intensively studied recently, is essential for the perovskite solar cells (PSCs), due to the intrinsic defects in perovskite crystal. A series of chemical or physical methods have been published for passivating the defects of perovskite, which effectively suppressed the charge recombination and enhanced the photovoltaic performance. In this study, the n-type semiconductor of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) is dissolved in chlorobenzene (CB) for the surface passivation during the spin-coating process for depositing the two-dimensional (2D) perovskite film. This approach simplifies the fabrication process of 2D PSCs and benefits the film quality. As a result, the defects of perovskite film are effectively passivated by this method. A better perovskite/PCBM heterojunction is generated, exhibiting an increased film coverage and improved film morphology of PCBM. It is found that this technology results in an improved electron transporting performance as well as suppressed charge recombination for electron transport layer. As a result, PSCs based on the one-step formed perovskite/PCBM heterojunctions exhibit the optimized power conversion efficiency of 15.69% which is about 37% higher than that of regular perovskite devices. The device environmental stability is also enhanced due to the quality-improved electron transport layer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0151.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: color tests; thin layer chromatography; chemotaxonomy; secondary metabolites; solvent system
Online: 24 February 2018 (08:28:11 CET)
Presence and identity of secondary metabolites are two of the main components of lichen taxonomy. Aromatic compounds formed via the acetyl-polymalonate pathway are the most studied lichen substances. In addition, compounds derived from the mevalonic acid pathway (e.g., terpenes and steroids) are sometimes detected in the medulla. However, their identity and value as diagnostic characters in the genus Usnea are yet poorly understood despite the fact that they were mentioned in several taxonomical papers. We conclude that i) aside from the previously recognized polyphenolic compounds, carbohydrates and steroids are also detected in the medulla of some Usnea species; ii) the use of sulfuric anisaldehyde reagent greatly improves the detection of terpenes, carbohydrates and steroids compared with the sulfuric acid reagent routinely used in thin layer chromatography; iii) among carbohydrates, we detected arabitol and sucrose in the medulla; iv) steroids and terpenes remain unidentified and deserve further investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0056.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: active subunit combination; sulfonylurea benzothiazoline; solvent-free synthesis; safener activity
Online: 14 September 2017 (10:01:38 CEST)
A series of novel sulfonylurea benzothiazoline were designed by splicing active groups and bioisosterism. A solvent-free synthetic route was developed for the sulfonylurea benzothiazoline derivatives via the cyclization and carbamylation. All the compounds were characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HRMS. The biological activity tests indicated the compounds could protect maize against the injury caused by chlorsulfuron to some extent. The molecular docking result showed that the new compound competed with chlorosulfuron to bind with the herbicide target enzyme active site to attain detoxification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0306.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Oil-producing microorganism; Rhodotorula mucilaginosa; liquid fermentation; extraction; green organic solvent
Online: 11 March 2021 (10:45:25 CET)
This study was focused on the development of oil-producing microorganisms to generate lipids. The yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (R. mucilaginosa) was selected for liquid-state cultivation, and the conditions for growth of the yeast cells were assessed. Additionally, the relationships between different nutrient elements and the growth of R. mucilaginosa were explored. The lipid accumulation of R. mucilaginosa is increased under nitrogen-restricted conditions. As the concentration of the carbon source increases, the accumulation of lipids is increased. However, if the carbon source concentration is further increased, the growth of yeast is inhibited. From a large-scale liquid fermentation culture with a fixed inoculation amount of 5%, and from a batch of culture experiments, it was determined that a suitable oil-producing culture was obtained on the 6th day, and the optimum conditions involved a carbon source concentration of 60 g/L, a nitrogen source concentration of 0.5 g/L, and a KH2PO4 concentration of 7.0 g/L. After utilizing different carbon sources in this study, it was found that glucose was the carbon source most conducive to the accumulation of R. mucilaginosa lipids. In addition, the extraction method and solvent for the extraction of R. mucilaginosa lipids were chosen. The acid-heat method using the green organic solvent ethyl acetate exhibited the best performance for extraction of yeast lipids under environmentally friendly and safe conditions. The analysis of lipids showed that the fatty acids obtained primarily contained C16:0, C18:1 and C18:2, and especially C18:1 (41%) lipids, indicating that R. mucilaginosa lipids are a good bio-oil source for the production of biodiesel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0007.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Basic drugs; selective bonded-phase; in silico; solvent effect; electron localization
Online: 2 September 2020 (04:20:56 CEST)
Abstract: The quantitative analysis of the chromatographic behavior of basic compounds was performed in silico. The liquid chromatography (LC) data measured with pentyl-, hexenyl-, and octyl-bonded silica gels were analyzed in silico employing model phases. The main retention force was the van der Waals (VW) interaction, and the main desorption force was an electrostatic (ES) interaction. The contribution of hydrogen bonding (HB) was weak compared to that for acidic compounds. The quantitative explanation was achieved utilizing the calculated VW, HB, and ES energy values obtained from a molecular mechanics program. The electron localization was observed at the molecular interaction-site calculated MOPAC program. This fundamental approach was like that of explaining chemical reactions. The difference was electron localization in chromatography or electron transfer in a chemical reaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0516.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Melt-blend extrusion; 3D filament; brominated flame retardants; solvent extraction; acetone smoothing
Online: 30 March 2023 (02:41:32 CEST)
Less than half of e-waste plastics is sorted worldwide and this rate is likely to decline as major processing countries have banned importation of e-waste plastics. This forces the development of decentralized processing facilities, also known as microfactories. The present work investigates the recyclability of different grades of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) copolymer, polycarbonate, and polypropylene, which were found to be very abundant in a recycling site in the UK. The determination of the matrix relied on the resin identification code imprinted in the e-waste plastic and subsequent FTIR analysis. The melt-blend extrusion technology enabled the valorization of the wasted thermoplastics as 3D filament without significant degradation of the polymers. The recycled materials maintained the tensile strength around 2.5 MPa in agreement with the specifications offered by virgin polymers. Further characterization was done by means of laser microscope, thermogravimetric analysis, and XRF to determine the commercial viability of the recycled filament. A modified solvent-based method was developed with acetone to remove the brominated flame retardants: 25g/100mL, 30 minutes of contact time, and 4 extraction steps. The FTIR results show that the degradation of the rubbery dispersed phase corresponding to the butadiene can be accumulated in the less soluble fraction of the waste ABS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0327.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy; water structure; hydrogen bonds; protein solution; solvent properties
Online: 18 August 2022 (03:25:26 CEST)
This work presents the first evidence that dissolved globular proteins change the arrangement of hydrogen bonds in water, with different proteins showing quantitatively different effects. Using ATR-FTIR (Attenuated Total Reflection – Fourier Transform Infrared) spectroscopic analysis of OH-stretch bands, we obtain quantitative estimates of the relative amounts of the previously reported four subpopulations of water structures coexisting in a variety of aqueous solutions. Where solvatochromic dyes can measure the properties of solutions of non-ionic polymers, the results correlate well with ATR-FTIR measurements. In protein solutions to which solvatochromic dye probes cannot be applied, NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) spectroscopy was used for the first time to estimate the hydrogen bond donor acidity of water. We found strong correlations between the solvent acidity and arrangement of hydrogen bonds in aqueous solutions for several globular proteins. Even quite similar proteins are found to change water properties in dramatically different ways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0340.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: dietary plants; medicinal plants; extraction; solvent; phytoconstituents; antioxidants; anti-nutrients; radical scavenging
Online: 22 July 2022 (13:16:10 CEST)
Sesamum indicum is considered an underutilized oil-bearing seed in the semi-arid regions of Ghana. Nonetheless, it is a promising source of food with both nutritional and therapeutic benefits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties S. indicum seeds using different extraction solvents. The seeds were obtained from the local farmers and prepared for analysis. The bioactive compounds present in the seeds were extracted using hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water and their yields quantified. Total phenolic content (TPC), Condensed tannin content (TTC) and Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) , and DPPH radical scaveging assay were analyzed using standard methods. Antinutrients such as saponins, alkaloids, phytates and oxalates were also analyzed from the powdered seeds. Two chemometric methods; hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and Pearson correlation were employed to evaluate the interdependence of the various parameters to result in their antioxidant properties. The re-sults revealed that the solvents utilized had a significant impact on the extraction yield, phyto-chemical component concentration, and antioxidant activities. Hexane extracts of S. indicum seeds significantly exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (p < 0.05). It was marked with the highest TAC value of 232.6 ± 6.267 mg/g AAE and a strong DPPH scavenging activity with an IC50 of 52.81 ± 2.30 µg/mL. Correlations (p < 0.05) was established between TPC,CTC, TAC and DPPH radical scavenging activity) of the extracts. Antinutrients such as; phytate, oxalate, saponins and alkaloids were found to be 7.691 ± 0.8576, 1.501 ± 0.1375, 21.33 ± 4.619 and 317.33 ± 30.29 mg/g respectively. Data obtained suggest that S. indicum possess rich bioactive compounds that can be used in neutraceuticals and food products.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0192.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: caffeine; colloidal coffee; optical absorption; pH sensor; solute-solvent interactions; UV absorber
Online: 19 August 2019 (04:14:30 CEST)
Coffee and caffeine have been used as solar absorbers and also to increase the thermal stability and efficiency of perovskite solar cells. In this work, we report the sensing of extremely alkaline pH by colloidal coffee solution aided by generation of an optical absorption band in the near-UV region. This generation of absorption band could be explained by the orientation induced dipole-dipole interactions arising from differing caffeine-solvent interactions with varying pH. Such a generation leads to the lowering of direct as well as indirect bandgaps from 4 eV-->2.8 eV& 3.4 eV-->2.5 eV, respectively. We also estimate the changes in optical energy storage efficiency, inferring it to be highest for pH 11 having the highest intensity of the generated absorption band (λ_abs≈360 nm). With these observations and further deductions, the work reported in this paper would be of immense interest to the researchers working in the field of development of chemical pH sensors and also in the development of novel UV absorbers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1268.v1
Subject: Engineering, Metallurgy And Metallurgical Engineering Keywords: slag; copper; nickel; cobalt; recovery; high-pressure leaching; solvent extraction; complexation; hydrometallurgy; waste
Online: 18 May 2023 (05:01:03 CEST)
In pursuit of carbon neutrality, the demand for metals that are necessary for the development of clean energy technologies is rapidly increasing. Metallurgical waste, such as slag, presents a promising secondary source of these key metals. This research aims to develop an eco-friendly hydrometallurgical process to recover Cu, Ni, and Co from discarded copper/nickel slag. The high-pressure acid leaching (HPAL) was used to selectively leach Ni, Cu, and Co from the fayalite slag, yielding high leaching efficiencies of 99.9%, 89.4%, and 99.9%, respectively, with low Fe and Si tenors to the pregnant leach solution (PLS). The solvent extraction (SX) technique utilizing LIX 984N was used to selectively extract and enrich copper from the dilute PLS to about 23 g/L Cu with a very low Fe concentration of 0.05 g/L. Potassium amyl xanthate (PAX) solution was used to form Ni and Co xanthate complexes from the raffinate solution. Nickel was selectively recovered using ammonia solution, while cobalt xanthate complex was thermally decomposed and recovered as cobalt oxide solids of about 25 wt.% Co. A comprehensive process flowsheet is presented, furthermore, to realize the real application of the developed slag cleaning process, a preliminary economic evaluation was performed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0221.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Polycaprolactone; Hydroxyapatite; Composites; Solvent casting; Melt blending; 3D printing; Cytocompatibility; Bone tissue engineering
Online: 17 January 2022 (11:29:33 CET)
Bone tissue engineering has been developed in the past decades, with the engineering of bone substitutes on the vanguard of this regenerative approach. PCL based scaffolds are fairly applied for bone regeneration, and several composites have been incorporated, as to improve the devices’ mechanical properties and tissue ingrowth. In this study, HA was incorporated on PCL based scaffolds with two different proportions, 80:20 and 60:40. Devices were produced with two different techniques, SC and MB, and further investigated with regards to their mechanical characteristics and in vitro cytocompatibility. Results show the MB devices to present more promising mechanical properties, along with the incorporation of HA. The latter is also related to an increase in osteogenic activity and promotion. Overall, this study suggest PCL:HA scaffolds to be promising candidates for bone tissue engineering, particularly when produced by the MB method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0045.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Polyamide solvent, composite, coated-fabric, Nylon, single-polymer composite, all-polyamide composite coated-fabric
Online: 5 February 2018 (16:19:09 CET)
Polyamides (PAs) are one of the most important engineering polymers; however, the difficulty in dissolving them hinders their applications. Formic acid (FA) is the most common solvent for PAs, but it has industrial limitations. In this contribution, we proposed a new solvent system for PAs by replacing a portion of the FA with urea and calcium chloride (FAUCa). Urea imparts the hydrogen bonding and calcium ion from the calcium chloride, as a Lewis acid was added to the system to compensate for the pH decrease due to the addition of urea. The results showed that the proposed solvent (FAUCa) could readily dissolve PAs, resulting in less decrease in the mechanical properties during the dissolution. The composite prepared using the FAUCa has almost the same properties like the one prepared using the FA solution. The solution was applied on a polyamide 66 fabric to make an all-polyamide composite coated-fabric, which then was characterized. The FAUCa solution had a higher viscosity than the one prepared using the neat FA solvent, which can be an advantage in the applications which needs higher viscosity like preparing the all-polyamide composite coated-fabric. A more viscouse solution makes a denser coating which will increase the water-/gas-tightness. In conclusion, using the FAUCa solvent has two merits: 1. replacement of 40 % of the FA with less harmful and environmentally-friendly chemicals and 2. enabling for the preparation of more viscouse solutions, which makes denser coating.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0033.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: willow-leaf sunflower; Jerusalem artichoke; supercritical extraction; water as co-solvent; antimicrobial activity; biocidal effect
Online: 2 November 2020 (11:47:35 CET)
The extracts from the aerial parts of Helianthus salicifolius A. Dietr and Helianthus tuberosus L. collected in June were obtained using carbon dioxide supercritical fluid extraction with water as co-solvent. The antimicrobial activity in vitro of these extracts were determined against the reference species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi, representing by the yeast species of Candida spp. The following parameters were estimated: minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) or minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Both extracts were found to possess antimicrobial activity with MIC = 0.62-5 mg mL-1 for bacteria and MIC = 5-10 mg mL-1 for yeasts, showing bactericidal (MBC/MIC = 2-4) or fungicidal effect (MFC/MIC = 1-2 ). The highest activity was observed against S. aureus ATCC 29213 (MIC = 0.62 mg mL-1 for H. salicifolius extract; MIC = 2.5 mg mL-1 for H. tuberosus extract). Bactericidal effect of both extracts against S. aureus ATCC 29213 was confirmed by time-kill assay. Higher antioxidant activity was found for H. tuberosus extract (EC50 = 0.332 mg mL-1) as compared to that of H. salicifolius (EC50 = 0.609 mg mL-1). The total polyphenol content (TPC) expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) was 13.75 ± 0.50 mg GAE (g of H. salicifolius extract)-1 and 33.06 ± 0.80 mg GAE (g of H. tuberosus extract)-1. There was a correlation between the antioxidant potential of both extracts and TPC but not between antistaphylococcal activity and TPC. The obtained data suggest potential application of these extracts as the natural preparations with the biocidal activity, including those with antistaphylococcal activity. Besides, both extracts may be regarded as potential natural conservants in cosmetics as well as natural preservatives in food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0199.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: Catalyst; antibacterial activity; solvent-free conditions; heterogeneous catalysis; Synthesis; cyanopyridines; pyrimidines; nano-structured Na2CaP2O7; catalyst recovery
Online: 21 April 2022 (09:26:25 CEST)
A facile and novel synthesis of thirteen 2-amino-3-cyanopyridine derivatives 5(a-m), by a one-pot multicomponent reaction (MCRs), is described for the first time, starting from aromatic aldehydes, malononitrile, methyl ketones, or cyclohexanone and ammonium acetate in the presence of the nanostructured diphosphate Na2CaP2O7 (DIPH) at 80 °C, under solvent-free conditions. These compounds were synthesized in short reaction times with good to excellent yields (84-94%). The diphosphate Na2CaP2O7 is used as an efficient catalyst, environmentally, easy handling, non-toxic, stable, and reusable. Our study was strengthened by the synthesis of five new pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives 6(b, c, g, h, j) by intramolecular cyclization of 2-amino-3-cyanopyridines 5(b, c, g, h, j), with formamide. The synthesized products were characterized by FT-IR, SEM, XRD, TEM, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, TLC, and BET. The operating conditions were optimized using a model reaction in which the catalyst amount, temperature, time, and solvent effect were evaluated. The antibacterial activity was tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains for the synthesized compounds.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0171.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: principal component analysis; collective variables; molecular dynamics; energy landscape; solvent effects; linear response theory; independent component analysis
Online: 12 May 2022 (10:53:37 CEST)
Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to reduce the dimensionalities of high dimensional datasets in a variety of research areas. For example, biological macromolecules, such as proteins, exhibit many degrees of freedom, allowing them to adopt intricate structures and exhibit complex functions by undergoing large conformational changes. Therefore, molecular simulations of and experiments on proteins generate a large number of structure variations in high dimensional space. PCA and many PCA-related methods have been developed to extract key features from such structural data, and these approaches have been widely applied for over 30 years to elucidate macromolecular dynamics. This review mainly focuses on the methodological aspects of PCA and related methods, and their applications for investigating protein dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0263.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Amino acid ionic liquid; phase change solvent; high CO2 absorption capacity; mechanism of phase change; recycling ability
Online: 21 December 2018 (15:26:24 CET)
As novel materials for carbon capture, phase change solvents can separate into two immiscible phases during the CO2 capturing procedure under a certain temperature. The solvent systems can significantly decrease the energy consumption since the solvents can be regenerated by only heating the rich-CO2 phase. In this work, amino acid ionic liquids (AAILs) were synthesized using quaternary ammonium salts and amino acids as raw materials, and the aqueous solutions were prepared as novel liquid-solid phase change solvents. The results showed that the solvents had excellent CO2 absorption capacity, and the AAILs functionalized by glycine and tryptophan exhibited significant phase change properties. The mechanism of phase-change of the solvent were mainly due to the lower solubility of the product after reaction between AAILs and CO2. The solvent with tryptophan as anion could be regenerated by only heating the CO2-riched solid phase, which might significantly decrease energy consumption of regeneration. And the absorbent could be reused with the regenerated absorption ratio up to 79%. The solvent system has great potential in industrial application due to the easy operation process and efficient recycling ability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0302.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: phylogenomics; protein structure; secondary structure; relative solvent accessibility CAT model; non-stationary models; RY coding; metazoan phylogeny; ctenophora; porifera
Online: 27 October 2019 (11:00:50 CET)
Phylogenomics, the use of large datasets to examine phylogeny, has revolutionized the study of evolutionary relationships. However, genome-scale data have not been able to resolve all relationships in the tree of life; this could reflect, at least in part, the poor-fit of the models used to analyze heterogeneous datasets. Some of the heterogeneity may reflect the different patterns of selection on proteins based on their structures. To test that hypothesis, we developed a pipeline to divide phylogenomic protein datasets into subsets based on secondary structure and relative solvent accessibility. We then tested whether amino acids in different structural environments had distinct signals for the topology of the deepest branches in the metazoan tree. The most striking difference in phylogenetic signal reflected relative solvent accessibility; analyses of exposed sites (on the surface of proteins) yielded a tree that placed ctenophores sister to all other animals whereas sites buried inside proteins yielded a tree with a sponge-ctenophore clade. These differences in phylogenetic signal were not ameliorated when we repeated our analyses using the CAT model, a mixture model that is often used for analyses of protein datasets. In fact, the heterogeneous CAT model resulted in several rearrangements that are unlikely to represent evolutionary history. However, analyses conducted after recoding amino acids to limit the impact of deviations from compositional stationarity increased the congruence in the estimates of phylogeny for exposed and buried sites; after recoding amino acids both trees supported placement of ctenophores sister to all other animals. These results provide striking evidence that it is necessary to achieve a better understanding of the constraints due to protein structure to improve phylogenetic estimation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0018.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Citrus reticulata L. peels; essential oils; solvent extraction; petroleum ether; n-hexane; natural bio-pesticide; Trialeurodes vaporariorum W. (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)
Online: 3 April 2023 (08:33:29 CEST)
The excessive use of synthetic insecticides in modern agriculture has led to the contamination of the environment and the development of insect resistance. In this study, we evaluated the potential of tangerine (Citrus reticulata L.) peel essential oil (EO) as a natural insecticide against greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum W. (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)), a common pest in greenhouse production. Petroleum ether (PET) and n-hexane (HEX) were used as solvents to extract essential oil (EO) from tangerine peels. The yield of EO was 1.59 % and 2.00 % (m/m) for PET and HEX, respectively. The insecticidal activity of EO was evaluated by measuring the mortality rate (MR) of greenhouse whiteflies at different time intervals. The results showed that PET and HEX extracts of tangerine EO effectively controlled the greenhouse whitefly. With both solvents, it was observed that with doses of 12.5% (v/v), similar results were achieved as with the positive control (corresponding to the commercial insecticide imidacloprid). Additionally, the FTIR analysis found that the EO contained d-limonene, which may be the source of its insecticidal properties. Therefore, tangerine peel essential oil is an excellent natural insecticide candidate for controlling greenhouse whiteflies effectively and sustainably.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0390.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: protein structure; relative solvent accessibility; secondary structure; phylogeny; models of sequence evolution; gene tree-species tree discordance; incomplete lineage sorting; Ctenophora; Porifera
Online: 19 January 2021 (16:46:25 CET)
Despite the long history of using protein sequences to infer the tree of life the potential for different parts of protein structures to retain historical signal remains unclear. We propose that it might be possible to improve analyses of phylogenomic datasets by incorporating information about protein structure; we test this idea using the position of the root of Metazoa (animals) as a model system. We examined the distribution of “strongly decisive” sites (alignment positions that support a specific tree topology) in a dataset comprising >1,500 proteins and almost 100 taxa. The proportion of each class of strongly decisive sites in different structural environments was very sensitive to the model used to analyze the data when a limited number of taxa were used but they were stable when taxa were added. As long as enough taxa were analyzed, sites in all structural environments supported the same topology (ctenophores sister to other animals) regardless of whether standard tree searches or decisive sites were used to select the optimal tree. However, the use of decisive sites revealed a difference between the support for minority topologies for sites in different structural environments; buried sites and sites in sheet and coil environments exhibited equal support for the minority topologies whereas solvent exposed and helix sites had unequal numbers of sites supporting the minority topologies. Given the plausible trees equal support for minority topologies is consistent with discordance among gene trees, making it possible the relatively slowly evolving buried (and sheet and coil) sites are giving an accurate picture of the true species tree as well as the amount of conflict among gene trees. Alternatively, the apparent support could reflect currently uncharacterized processes of molecular evolution. Regardless, it is clear that analyses of the deepest branches in the animal tree of life using sites in different structural environments are associated with a subtle data type effect that results in distinct phylogenetic signals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0267.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: surface-initiated vapor deposition polymerization; N-carboxyanhydrides; ring-opening polymerization; poly (γ-benzyl L-glutamate); solvent-free polymerization; solid state polypeptide synthesis
Online: 30 March 2018 (10:08:14 CEST)
Despite huge effort has been devoted to the design of the initiators and reaction conditions, it remains challenging to synthesize high molecular weight polypeptides with conventional solution phase synthesis. In this work, surface-initiated vapor deposition polymerization (SI-VDP) was utilized to graft synthetic polypeptides poly (γ-benzyl L-glutamate) (PBLG) from polystyrene (PS) resin beads by ring-opening polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs). It was demonstrated for the first time that high molecular weight bulk PBLG (> 500,000) could be readily obtained within one hour via solvent-free synthetic method which paves the way for the synthesis of copolypeptides with high molecular weight.