REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0529.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Oral microbiome; oral cavity; dysbiosis; oral diseases; systemic diseases
Online: 22 June 2021 (07:47:57 CEST)
The human oral microbiome refers to an ecological community of symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms found in the oral cavity. The oral cavity is a suitable environment that provides various kinds of biological niches such as teeth, tongue, and oral mucosa. The oral cavity is the gateway between the external environment and the human body, maintaining oral homeostasis, protecting the mouth, and preventing disease. On the flip side, the oral microbiome plays an important role in triggering, development, and progression of oral and systemic diseases. Currently, disease diagnosis through the analysis of the human oral microbiome has been realized with the recent development of innovative detection technology, and is overwhelmingly promising compared to the previous era. It has been found that patients with oral diseases and systemic diseases have variations in the oral microbiome compared to normal subjects. This narrative review provides insight into the pathophysiological role that oral microbiome plays in influencing oral and systemic diseases, and updates the knowledge related to the oral microbiome over the past 30 years. A wide range of updates was provided with the latest knowledge of the oral microbiome to help researchers and clinicians in both academic and clinical aspects. The microbial community information can be utilized in non-invasive diagnosis and help develop a new paradigm in precision medicine, which will benefit human health in the era of post-metagenomics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: oral health , pre-diabetic, diabetic, oral systemic, screening, H1A1c, Findrisk , periodontal
Online: 27 August 2019 (11:58:44 CEST)
Pre-diabetes is a serious health condition where blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough yet to be diagnosed as type 2 diabetes. Pre-diabetes puts one at an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and heart disease Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 384 patients aged 20-70 years old, attending the dental clinics to assess the risk for diabetes, using the FINDRISC questionnaire, HbA1c blood test and a periodontal examination. Results: The mean age of participants was 38.90±10.74. 32.3% were categorized as no risk, 46.6% low risk, while 19% and 2.1% moderate and high risk of developing diabetes respectively. Tests for serum HbA1c Level showed 46.1 % had normal HbA1c followed by 18.0% and 3.6 % were pre-diabetic and diabetic respectively. 19.3% of participants had periodontal pockets measuring more than 4mm and 15.9% measuring more than 6mm. Conclusion: The study has proven to be useful in identifying patients at high-risk of developing diabetes. Controlling and managing periodontal disease could be a new aspect to include in the standards for diabetes care. Dental settings could be a successful platform to carry out the screening and risk stratification of pre-diabetic patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0170.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: oral dysbiosis; human oral microbiome; yet-un cultivable organisms; systemic diseases
Online: 20 March 2018 (07:06:45 CET)
The human body supports the growth of a wide array of microbial communities in various niches, such as the oral cavity, gastro-intestinal and urogenital tracts and on the surface of the skin. These host associated microbial communities include yet-un-cultivable bacteria and are influenced by various factors. Together, these communities of bacteria are referred to as the human microbiome. Human oral microbiome consists of both symbionts and pathobionts. Deviation from symbiosis among the bacterial community leads to “dysbiosis”—a state of community disturbance. Dysbiosis occurs due to many confounding factors that predispose to a shift in the composition and relative abundance of microbial communities. Dysbiotic communities have been a major cause for many microbiomes related systemic infections. Such dysbiosis is directed by certain important pathogens called the “keystone pathogens” that could modulate community microbiome variations. One such persistent infection is oral infection, mainly periodontitis, where a wide array of causal organisms has been implied to systemic infections such as cardio vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis and Alzheimer’s disease. The keystone pathogens co-occur with many yet-cultivable bacteria and their interactions lead to dysbiosis. This has been the focus of recent research. While immune evasion is one of the major modes that lead to dysbiosis, new processes and new virulence factors of bacteria have been shown to be involved in this important process of that determine disease or health state. This review focuses on such dysbiotic communities, their interactions and their virulence factors that predispose the host to other systemic implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0051.v1
Online: 3 December 2021 (11:00:57 CET)
Total edentulism is the loss of all teeth for any cause by a multifactorial process that involves biological and patient-related factors. Studies on edentulism and risk factors in Mexico are limited, and the epidemiological surveillance data is scarce and controversial since official governmental reports are not statistically representative of the country. We estimate the distribution for edentulism according to sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables in adults from a low-income state in 2003 and its progress in Mexico. We analyzed data from the National Performance Evaluation Survey in Oaxaca, Mexico, and the annual reports of the Epidemiological Surveillance System of Oral Pathologies in 2009-2019 using X2. Oaxacan patients older than 75 y.o (17.9%, p<0.05), those with lower schooling (11.2%), and diabetes (14.5%) presented the highest percentage of edentulism. We do not observe differences in edentulism between sex or residence (p>0.05). From 2009 to 2019, country data reports the lowest rate of edentulism in adults over 20 y.o (0.32%; 95% CI 0.18%-0.48%) and the most affected population over 79 y.o. (7.29%; 95% CI 5.2%-9.30%). As it is a cumulative phenomenon, it is necessary to establish better surveillance, prevention, and treatment programs to improve the oral health of older thus reducing edentulism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0449.v1
Online: 20 August 2020 (08:36:03 CEST)
Objectives: to assess the knowledge level of parents from the central region of Saudi Arabia about oral health and care of preschool children and its relation with sociodemographic variables, parents‟ self-perception toward their dental health, importance of teeth and frequency of dental visits. Methods: a random sample of 754 parents participated in this cross-sectional study and completed an internationally accepted questionnaire. Chi square test and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data (p<0.05). Results: mean knowledge score of the parents was 4.8 (out of 11). Less than 20% of the parents were knowledgeable about the best position for tooth brushing, the concentration of fluoride in a child‟s toothpaste, timing of first dental check-up, and best time to give a sugary snack. Mothers, parents with high educational level and family income, parents with positive attitude towards teeth and excellent self-perception of their dental health were significantly more likely to score higher (p<0.05). Conclusions: knowledge of parents about oral health and care of preschool children in the central region of Saudi Arabia was deficient. Gender, education level of parents, family income, attitude about teeth and self-perception of parents‟ own dental health were factors which influenced their knowledge. To improve parents‟ knowledge, role of health professionals should be improved and TV commercials directed toward the areas which had gaps in knowledge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0183.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Biomarkers; Drug Signature Identification; Key pathways; Oral Cancer; Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Online: 13 June 2022 (10:14:58 CEST)
Background: Oral cancer (OC) is serious health concerning issue that has a high fatality rate. The oral cavity has seven kinds of OC, including the lip, tongue, and floor of the mouth, as well as the buccal, hard palate, alveolar, retromolar trigone, and soft palate. The goal of this study is to look into new biomarkers and important pathways that might be used as diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic candidates in OC. Methods: Publicly available repository the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) was responsible to collect OC-related datasets. GSE74530, GSE23558, and GSE3524 microarray datasets were collected to apply analysis. Minimum cut-off criteria of |log fold-change (FC)| > 1 and adjusted p < 0.05 were applied to figure out the up-regulated and down-regulated differential expression genes (DEGs) from the three datasets. After that only common DEGs in all three datasets were collected to apply further analysis. Gene ontology (GO) and Pathway analysis were implemented to explore the functional behaviors of DEGs. Then protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were built to identify the most performed genes, clustering algorithm was also implemented to identify complex parts of PPI. TF-miRNA networks were also constructed to study deeply about OC-associated DEGs. Finally, top gene performers from PPI networks were used to apply drug signature analysis. Results: After applying filtration and cut-off criteria 2508, 3377, and 670 DEGs were found for GSE74530, GSE23558, and GSE3524 respectively, and 166 common DEGs were found in every dataset. The GO annotation remarks that most of the DEGs were associated with the terms of type I interferon signaling pathway. The pathways of KEGG reported that the common DEGs are related to the Cell cycle and Influenza A. The PPI network holds 88 nodes and 492 edges and CDC6 had the highest number of connections. 4 clusters were identified from the PPI. Drug signatures doxorubicin and resveratrol showed high significance according to the hub genes. We anticipate that our bioinformatics research will aid in the definition of the pathophysiology and the development of new therapies for OC.
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: ifnα; polymeric nanoparticles; oral protein delivery; in vitro intestinal permeability; oral pharmacokinetics
Online: 23 September 2019 (07:33:59 CEST)
Interferon alpha (IFNα) is a protein drug used to treat viral infections and cancer diseases. Due to its poor stability in the gastrointestinal tract, only parenteral administration ensures bioavailability, which is associated with severe side effects. We hypothesized that the nanoencapsulation of IFNα within nanoparticles of the mucoadhesive polysaccharide chitosan would improve the oral bioavailability of this drug. In this work, we produced IFNα-loaded chitosan nanoparticles by the ionotropic gelation method. Their size, size distribution and concentration were characterized by dynamic light scattering and nanoparticle tracking analysis. After confirming their good cell compatibility in Caco-2 and WISH cells, the permeability of unmodified and PEGylated nanoparticles was measured in monoculture (Caco-2) and co-culture (Caco-2/HT29-MTX) cell monolayers. Results indicated that the nanoparticles cross the intestinal epithelium mainly by the paracellular route. Finally, the oral pharmacokinetics in BalbC mice of nanoencapsulated IFNα revealed that it was absorbed reaching an area-under-the-curve of 56.9 pg.h/mL.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0003.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Anti-platelets; Anti-rheumatic drugs; Bisphosphonates; Oral anticoagulants; Oral contraceptives; Vitamin K antagonist
Online: 2 May 2020 (11:50:24 CEST)
More than 15,000 prescriptions and over the counter drugs are available according to the US Food and Drug Administration website. Moreover, several herbal medicines and dietary supplements are readily available to add to the list of possible drugs, which can potentially cause adverse drug interactions. These are a pressing concern for all as they can interfere with many dental procedures. Additionally, the number of geriatric patients seen in routine dental practice has increased over time. This implies that there are more patients with multiple diseases and health conditions like hypertension, diabetes, problems associated with the cardiovascular, renal and gastrointestinal systems, arthritis, osteoporosis, etc. All these require patients to be on certain medications. Furthermore, advancement in the dental field has led to more complex dental procedures (implants, grafts) being carried out in a general dental practice. These advanced and slightly more invasive treatments require the use of certain drugs before, during and after the treatment like local anesthetics, vasoconstrictors, anxiolytics, analgesics and antibiotics. All of these can possibly interact with medications a patient is already taking and can also interfere with the current dental treatment and create complications. This article aims to provide necessary information about commonly encountered systemic diseases and associated treating medications, their mechanism of action, possible complications and their management. The classes of drugs discussed include anti-platelet agents, vitamin K antagonists, novel oral anticoagulants, bisphosphonates, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and oral contraceptives.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0065.v1
Online: 3 September 2021 (13:51:11 CEST)
Cancer is a prevalent disease worldwide and treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy sometimes lead to adverse events. Oral mucositis is one of the most disabling and clinical guidelines do not take into account nutritional interventions. The primary endpoint was to gather the evidence about the efficacy of nutritional interventions in the prevention and/or treatment of antineoplastic induced oral mucositis in oncological patients. It was carried out a bibliographic review in PubMed data base by combining MesH terms with boolean operators. Articles were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria; 50 final articles were found. Although further evidence is needed, glutamine, honey and vitamins appear to be a good therapeutic option. The rest of the compounds presented controversial or insufficient results to draw conclusions over their utilization as prevention or treatment options. Low evidence is reported about oral mucositis nutritional interventions in spite of being attainable and affordable compounds. Scarce evidence is shown in paediatric patients compared to adults. Developing higher quality studies and combinations with the compounds researched is necessary to create stronger evidence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0306.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Anemia; dental; management; oral manifestations
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:45:35 CET)
Anemia is a condition of decreased red blood cell number or hemoglobin concentration, or of disturbance in their function, ultimately leading to decreased oxygen transport to tissues. Many factors and diseases may lead to anemia, with wide manifestations systemically as well as orally. Therefore, a sound understanding of this condition is essential for the dental practitioner, with emphasis on alerting signs, dental management and proper communication with patient’s physician.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0788.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: DNA; RNA; bioactive compounds; excipients; surfactants; mouthwash; oral gels; oxidative stress; reconstituted oral epithelium; bioreactors
Online: 31 March 2021 (17:45:14 CEST)
Background: DNA-RNA compounds have shown promising protection against cell oxidative stress. This study aimed to assess the cytotoxicity, protective, or preventive effect of different experimental formulations on oral epithelia’s oxidative stress in vitro. Methods: Reconstituted human oral epithelia (RHOE) were grown air-lifted in a continuous-flow bioreactor. Mouthwash and gels containing DNA-RNA compounds and other bioactive molecules were tested on a model of oxidative stress generated by hydrogen peroxide treatment. Epithelia viability was evaluated using a biochemical MTT-based assay and confocal microscopy; structural and ultrastructural morphology was evaluated by light microscopy and TEM. Results: DNA-RNA showed non-cytotoxic activity and effectively protected against oxidative stress, but not in its prevention. Gel formulation did not express adequate activity compared to the mouthwash. Excipients played a fundamental role in enhancing or even decreasing the bioactive molecules’ effect. Conclusion: A mouthwash formulation with hydrolyzed DNA-RNA effectively protected against oxidative stress without additional enhancement by other bioactive molecules. Active compounds such as hyaluronic acid, β-Glucan, allantoin, bisabolol, ruscogenin, and essential oils showed a protective effect against oxidative stress, which was not synergistic with the one of DNA-RNA. Surfactant agents showed harmful activity against oral epithelia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0166.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: antibacterial photodynamic therapy; Oral hygiene; Periodontitis
Online: 12 October 2022 (08:59:58 CEST)
A single-site, randomized clinical trial was designed to determine the efficacy of regular home use of Lumoral® dual-light antibacterial aPDT in periodontitis patients. For the study, 200 patients are randomized to receive non-surgical periodontal treatment (NSPT), including standardized hygiene instructions and electric toothbrush, and scaling and root planing, or NSPT with adjunctive Lumoral® treatment. A complete clinical intraoral examination is conducted in the beginning, at three months, and at six months. This report presents the three-month results of the first 59 consecutive randomized subjects. At three months, bleeding on probing (BoP) was lower in the NSPT+Lumoral®-group than in the NSPT group (p=0.045), and more patients in the NSPT+Lumoral®-group had their BoP below 10% (52% vs. 29%, respectively, p=0.008). Patients in the NSPT+Lumoral®-group improved their oral hygiene by visible-plaque-index (p=0.0002), while the NSPT group showed no statistical improvement as compared to baseline. Both groups significantly reduced the number of deep periodontal pockets, but more patients with a reduction in their deep pocket number were found in the NSPT+Lumoral® group (92% vs. 63%, p=0.01). Patients whose number of deep pockets was reduced by 50% or more were also more frequent in the NSPT+Lumoral®-group (70% vs. 33%, p=0.01). Patients with initially less than ten deep pockets had fewer deep pockets at three-month follow-up in the Lumoral® group (p=0.02). In conclusion, adjunctive use of Lumoral® in NSPT results in improved treatment outcomes at three months post-therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Bullying; Oral health; Indigenous; Children; Australia
Online: 23 February 2022 (05:26:35 CET)
Making life better for Indigenous peoples is a global priority. Although bullying and oral health have always been a topic of concern, there is limited information regarding the impact of this problem in the general population, with no evidence in this regard among the Australian Indigenous population. Thus, we aimed to quantify the relationship between bullying victimization and oral health problems by remoteness among 766 Australian Indigenous children aged between 10–15-year-olds using data from the LSIC study. Bivariate and multilevel mixed-effect logistic regression analyses were employed. Findings indicated children self-reported bullying more than parents reported their children were being bullied (44% vs 33.6%), with a higher percentage from rural/remote areas than urban areas. Parents reported oral health problem increases the probability (OR 2.20, p<0.05) of being bullied in Indigenous children living in urban areas. Racial discrimination, lower level of parental education and poor child oral hygiene increase the risk of bullying victimization. Parental happiness with life and a safe community was associated with a lower risk of bullying. Dental problems are linked with Australian Indigenous children experiencing bullying victimization. Cultural resilience and eliminating discrimination maybe two modifiable paths to ameliorating health issues associated with bullying in the Australian Indigenous community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0150.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Oral Health; Adolescent; Knowledge, Practice, Behaviour
Online: 11 January 2022 (15:48:40 CET)
The aims of this study were to assess oral health knowledge, attitudes, and practices among orthodontic patients between the ages of 15 and 17 years old compared to adolescents without orthodontic treatment. This cross-sectional study included 392 adolescents drawn from various French teaching hospitals. A closed-ended questionnaire was used to collect data. Adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment had a higher knowledge of oral health than adolescents without orthodontic treatment. The majority of adolescents for both groups (69%) claimed to brush their teeth twice a day. Regarding complimentary dental material, 81.9% of adolescents without orthodontic treatment never used an interdental brush and 78.8% never used dental floss. For those undergoing orthodontic treatment, 48.5% never used interdental brush. Only 4% of adolescents without and 3% of adolescents with orthodontic treatment never consumed fizzy drinks, 4.9% and 3% never consumed sweets, 4% and 8.4% never ate fast-food. Adolescents without treatment consumed more sodas (p=0.04) and more fast food (p=0.03). Adolescents had insufficient knowledge of oral health. Health education programmes should be implemented to improve adolescents' knowledge and individual oral prophylaxis with interdental brushes.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0392.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: oral leukoplakia; Bayesian Networks; malignant transformation
Online: 22 November 2021 (13:05:31 CET)
Oral squamous cell carcinoma often arises from an oral potentially malignant disorder called oral leukoplakia (OL). With this work we aimed to develop a novel data-driven predictive model based on gene expression profiles to distinguish OL patients who underwent malignant transformation from those who did not. We used the Tree Augmented Naïve (TAN) Bayes classifier to predict the posterior probability of having oral cancer given the data. 86 patients were included with a median follow-up of 7.11 years. Fifty-one patients (51/86; 59%) underwent malignant transformation. We found that 16 genes were predictors of oral cancer in patients with OL and these included SLC7A11, SPINK6, SERPINA12, VIT, ATP1B3, CST6, FLRT2, ELMOD1, AZGP1, RNASE13, DIO2, ECM1, CYP4F11, SYTL4, AKR1C1, and AKR1C3. In conclusion, we showed that Bayesian gene networks are a data-driven approach which could be used also in other predictor models in oncology.
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Chryseobacterium indologenes; Oral abscess; Ball Python
Online: 11 May 2021 (14:53:22 CEST)
Abstract: Chryseobacterium indologenes is an opportunistic pathogen isolated from human infec-tions and rarely from some aquatic animals. A 3-year-old male ball python (Python regius) was admitted to the veterinary clinic by a pet owner because of acute respiratory and swallowing failure. During physical examinations, oral secretions and abscesses were observed on the mouth cavity and throat of the animal. After microbiological analysis including isolation, identi-fication, and 16s rRNA sequencing; Ch. indologenes was detected as the main cause of the oral abscess in this case. Phylogenetic relatedness analysis showed a close relationship between this isolate and other strains isolated from human infections. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing re-vealed that the isolate was multi-drug resistant. However, it was very sensitive to minocycline, ceftazidime, and tetracycline. The patient was treated by antibiotic therapy and completely re-covered after two weeks. To our best knowledge, this is the first incidence of Ch. indologenes in an oral abscess in a ball python. As result we would consider this organism as an opportunistic animal pathogen with zoonotic potentiality.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0711.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: oral hygiene; hand hygiene; adolescents; Caribbean
Online: 29 September 2020 (12:49:06 CEST)
The study aimed to estimate the prevalence and correlates of oral hygiene (OH) and hand hygiene (HH) behaviour among school adolescents in three Caribbean countries. In all, 7,476 school adolescents (median age 14 years), from Dominican Republic, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago responded the cross-sectional “Global School-based Student Health Survey” (GSHS) in 2016-2017. The prevalence poor OH (tooth brushing <2 times/day) was 16.9%, poor HH (not always before meals) was 68.2%, poor HH (not always after toilet) was 28.4% and poor HH (not always with soap) was 52.7%. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, current cannabis use, inadequate fruit and vegetable intake, poor mental health and low parental support increased the odds for poor OH. Rarely or sometimes experiencing hunger, trouble from alcohol use, inadequate fruit and vegetable intake, poor mental health, and low parental support were associated with poor HH (before meals, and/or after toilet, and/or with soap). The survey showed poor OH and HH behaviour practices. Several sociodemographic factors, health risk behaviours, poor mental health and low parental support were found associated with poor OH and/or HH behaviour that can assist with tailoring OH and HH health promotion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0137.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: oral health; students; medical; behavior; iran
Online: 11 October 2019 (07:30:00 CEST)
Aim: The purpose of this examination is determining predictors to oral health behaviors predict in Iranian students in district 1 Tehran based on the health belief model with added commitment to plan construct. Methods: This cross-sectional study were randomly selected conducted on 351 eligible four grade female students in the first district of Tehran, Iran in 2017. The random Multi‑stage random cluster sampling method was used to recruit students. The inclusion criteria were being graded, four female students (aged 9-11 years), or education at the fourth grade of one of the elementary schools studied in the first district of Tehran and, The health of the student from a physical and psychological of view. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the variables that predict oral health behaviors. To assess the predictors of oral health behaviors, all the expanded Health Belief Model constructs with the construct of “Commitment to Plan of Action” from “Health Promotion Model were examined as risk factors to see if they influence on the probability of brushing behavior and dental floss behavior occurrence and were interpreted through odds ratio (OR). SPSS version 19 was used to analyze the data. Results: Totally 308 four grade female students with mean age of 9.32 ± 0.81 years old took part in the study. The total 31.8% of the students reported that they were brushing behavior less than twice a day and 55.2% students claimed, use of dental floss behavior once a week or less than once a day. The results indicated that perceived self-efficacy (OR=1.46, 95% CI=0.57-3.78, P<0.001), Commitment to plan (OR=1.13, 95% CI=1.04-1.23, P<0.001) and Cues to action (OR=1.42, 95% CI=1.14–1.76, P=0.002) were the significant predicting variables which is the key factor of brushing twice a day, and use of dental floss once a day or more (OR=1.02, 95% CI=0.23-3.53, P=0.003). Conclusion: This study has shown the effectiveness of the health belief model with added commitment to plan construct to predict oral health behavior in female students. So, it seems that the model as a framework for designing training programs to improve students to improve oral health behavior can be used.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0477.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: oral lichen planus; immunoglobulin; serum; saliva
Online: 25 September 2018 (06:17:41 CEST)
Background and Aim: Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, and IgM) are significant anti-inflammatory factors. The meta-analysis aimed to assess the serum and salivary levels of Igs as more important immunoglobulins in patients affected by oral lichen planus (OLP) compared to the healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Four databases, including PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library as well as Iranian databases were checked up to January 2018 without language restriction. The quality of each involved study was done using the NOS questionnaire. A random-effects model analysis was done by RevMan 5.3 software applying the mean difference (MD) plus 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The CMA 2.0 software was applied to calculate the publication bias among the studies. Results: Out of 70 studies found in the databases, eight studies were involved and analyzed in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis included 282 OLP patients and 221 healthy controls. The pooled MDs of serum levels of IgA, IgG, and IgM were -0.13 g/L [95%CI: -0.24, -0.02; P = 0.02], 1.01 g/L [95%CI: -0.91, 2.93; P = 0.30], and -0.06 g/L [95%CI: -0.25, 0.14; P = 0.56], respectively; whereas, the salivary IgA and IgG levels were 71.54 mg/L [95%CI: 12.01, 131.07; P = 0.02] and 0.59 mg/L [95%CI: -0.20, 1.38; P = 0.14], respectively. Conclusions: Considering the few studies performed on saliva, the results suggested that the salivary levels, especially IgA level had a higher diagnostic value than the serum levels. Therefore, the salivary immunoglobulins can play a significant function in the OLP pathogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0280.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Fanconi anemia; oral cancer; oral potentially malignant lesion; liquid biopsy; saliva; oral rinse; plasma; next generation sequencing; cancer gene panel; early diagnosis; diagnostic test; deep sequencing
Online: 16 January 2023 (09:10:06 CET)
Fanconi anemia (FA) patients display an exacerbated risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and precursor lesions at young ages, mainly at the oral cavity. As patients have defects in DNA repair mechanisms, standard-of-care treatments to OSCC such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy give rise to severe toxicities. New methods for early diagnosis are urgently necessary to allow treatments in early disease stages and achieve better clinical outcomes. We have conducted a prospective, longitudinal study whereby liquid biopsies from sixteen lesion/tumor-free patients were analyzed for the presence of mutations in cancer genes. DNA from saliva and plasma were sequentially collected and deep-sequenced, and the clinical evolution followed during a median time of around 2 years. In 9/16 FA patients we detected mutations in cancer genes (mainly TP53) with molecular allele frequencies (MAF) down to 0.07 %. Importantly, all patients having mutations and clinical follow-up data after mutation detection (n=6) developed oral precursor lesions or OSCC. Lead-time between mutation detection and tumor diagnosis ranged from 23 to 630 days. Strikingly, FA patients without mutations display significantly lower risk of developing precursor lesions or OSCC. Therefore, our diagnostic approach could help to stratify FA patients into risk groups, which would allow closer surveillance for OSCC or precursor lesions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0456.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: oral; drugs; nanoparticles; polymers; systematic; meta-analysis
Online: 31 January 2022 (12:47:01 CET)
The oral route remains one of the most popular and important routes of administration that warrants the development of advanced drug delivery systems such as the polymeric nanoparticles capable of enhancing the absorption and bioavailability of the used drugs. In this work, systematic reviewing through several databases followed by a meta-analysis study were utilized in order to navigate the published studies and reach literature-based evidence about the capability of polymeric nanoparticulate systems of augmenting the absorption and the bioavailability of the orally administered drugs. The pharmacokinetic parameter; area under the curve (AUC) was utilized as the “effect” of the meta-analysis study. The meta-analysis study demonstrated the significant increase AUC as compared to the conventional formulations. Furthermore, comparing the synthetic polymeric nanoparticles versus the naturally-based counterparts, as subgroups of the meta-analysis, revealed no significant differences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0577.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Oral health; edentulism; chronic diseases; elders; Mexico
Online: 24 March 2021 (11:38:36 CET)
Objective: To determine the association of edentulism with different chronic diseases in Mexicans aged 60 years and over. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out using data from the World Health Survey for Mexico, which had a probabilistic, multi-stage and cluster sampling. The results of the self-report of chronic diseases (diabetes, arthritis, depression, angina pectoris, asthma and schizophrenia) and of edentulism were analyzed. Dental data were available for 20 of the 32 States of the Mexican Republic. Statistical analysis was performed in Stata 14.0 using the svy module for complex samples. Results: In total, 4213 subjects were included, representing a population of 7,576,057 individuals. The mean age was 70.13 ± 7.82 years (limits 60 to 98). Women represented 56.2%. The chronic diseases analyzed were presented as follows: diabetes 15.0% (N = 1,132,693); arthritis 13.2% (N = 1,001,667); depression 5.5% (N = 414,912); angina pectoris 4.5% (344,315); asthma 3.6% (N = 269,287); and schizophrenia 2.2% (N = 16,988). The prevalence of edentulism was 26.3%, which represents 1,993,463 people aged 60 years and over with this characteristic. For the presence of angina in women aged 60 to 69 years (p <0.05) and depression in men aged 70 years and over (p <0.0001), a higher prevalence of edentulism was observed. Conclusions: In general, there was no observation of association between edentulism was observed on the different chronic diseases included in the study. In the stratified analysis, only in women aged 60 to 69 years, for angina, and in men aged 70 and over, for depression, were associated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0754.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: ME/CFS; dentistry; interdisciplinary care; oral health
Online: 31 July 2020 (14:02:48 CEST)
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a disabling condition affecting millions of adults and children worldwide. Despite the development of multiple criteria sets for defining this disorder, agreement on the core symptoms and other implications of ME/CFS point to the importance of understanding their role in oral health care. Overall, care for the homebound and bedbound population with ME/CFS issues has been under-addressed in the literature to date and there has been little consideration of the oral health needs of this population. Evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of dental concerns may be hindered by many of the diverse symptoms of ME/CFS. The present paper utilizes the International Consensus Criteria (ICC) in discussing treatment considerations for the most severely affected patients with ME/CFS, both in oral evaluation and active care. While no specific dental pathology is linked to ME/CFS, proper care for the patient so affected must take into account the disorder’s symptoms and severity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: oral health; quality of life; postmenopausal women
Online: 13 August 2016 (03:14:09 CEST)
Interrelationships between traditional dental variables are becoming more evident in far reaching aspects of life such as psychosocial interaction, self-esteem, overall health and even occupational performance. This study compares quality of life (QoL) in postmenopausal women (PMW) with poor oral health (POH) with QoL in PMW with good oral health. 200 randomly recruited PMW received a dental evaluation and completed Utian Quality of Life Survey. The participants were divided into POH and healthy groups based on dental exam. Mean scores were calculated for each QoL item, domain and the overall summary score. For each of the four parameters for periodontitis diagnosis, periodontitis patients’ QoL outcomes were compared to those of healthy patients using T-test with threshold of significance at p<0.05. QoL in all fields measured were significantly poorer in the POH compared to the healthy patients, occupational (19.95±5.35vs. 27.56±6.13), health (18.02±8.23 vs. 26.59 ±6.45), emotional (15.68±10.22vs. 21.15±9.15), sexual (6.2±5.98vs. 10.02±5.35), and total score (60.21±25.85 vs. 84.26±22.35). This study finds that PMW with POH, report significantly poorer quality of life. Clinicians caring for PMW should be aware of that oral health impacts QoL and make appropriate referral decisions for patients’ dental care. Keywords: Quality of Life, Oral Health, Post-menopause, Women
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0553.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: oral squamous cell carcinoma; oral cancer; Brd4; c-Myc; p53; cytology; liquid-based cytology; immunocytochemistry; 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide
Online: 26 July 2021 (08:19:05 CEST)
Most oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) arise from oral epithelial dysplasia; however, there is no useful marker for early OSCC detection, likely owing to the inability to continuously observe the carcinoma sequence. We aimed to establish an experimental model to observe changes in the sequential expression pattern of mRNA and protein in the same rat using liquid-based cytology techniques. Cytology specimens were collected from a 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced rat tongue cancer model at 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, and 21 weeks. We examined candidate biomarker expression using immunocytochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR. The percentage of positively stained nuclei was calculated as the labeling index (LI). All rats had OSCC of the tongue at 21 weeks. Brd4 (Brd4), Myc (c-Myc), and Tp53 (p53) mRNA levels were upregulated during progression from negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy to SCC. Brd4- and c-Myc-LI were increased in low- and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and SCC specimens. p53-LI was significantly increased in SCC specimens. Our experimental model allowed the observation of sequential morphological changes and mRNA and protein expression patterns in the same rat during carcinogenesis. By reducing the false negative rate, BRD4 and c-Myc can be useful markers for the early detection of OSCC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0080.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: cannabidiol; electric cell-substrate impedance sensing; oral cancer
Online: 7 October 2022 (14:32:52 CEST)
Cannabidiol (CBD) is an active diterpenoid compound that is extracted from the leaves and stem of Cannabis sativa. Previous studies show that CBD is a non-psychotropic compound with significant anti-cancer effects. This study determines its cytotoxic effect on oral cancer cells and OECM1 cells and compares the outcomes with a chemotherapeutic drug, cisplatin. This study determines the effect of CBD on the viability, apoptosis, morphology and migration of OECM1 cells. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) is used to measure the change in cell impedance for cells that are treated with a series concentration of CBD for 24 hours. AlamarBlue and annexin V/7-AAD staining assays show that CBD has a cytotoxic effect on cell viability and induces cell apoptosis. ECIS analysis shows that CBD decreases the overall resistance and morphological parameters at 4 kHz in a concentration-dependent manner. There is a significant reduction in the wound-healing recovery rate for cells that are treated with 30 μM CBD. This study demonstrates that ECIS can be used for in vitro screening of anticancer drugs and is more sensitive, functional and comprehensive than traditional biochemical assays. CBD also increases cytotoxicity on cell survival and the migration of oral cancer cells, so it may be a therapeutic drug for oral cancer
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0146.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Essential medicines; affordability; NCD prevention; oral healthcare; access
Online: 15 April 2022 (10:46:26 CEST)
Background: Fluoride toothpaste (FT) has recently been included in the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Model List of Essential Medicines. Whereas it is essential for preventing dental caries, its current affordability around the globe remains unclear. This study aimed to analyse the affordability of FT in as many as possible countries worldwide. Methods: A standardized protocol was developed to collect country-specific information about the characteristics of the cheapest FT at a common point of purchase. 82 members of the WHO Global Oral Health Network of Chief Dental Officers (CDOs), directors of WHO Collaborative Centres and other oral health experts collected data using mobile phone technology. The Fluoride Toothpaste Affordability Ratio (FTAR) was calculated as the price associated with the recommended annual consumption of FT, relative to the daily wage of the lowest-paid unskilled government worker (FTAR >1 = unaffordable spending on fluoride toothpaste). The daily expenditure per capita of the poorest 15% of the income distrubition was used as the main proxy of the daily wage, using World Bank data. Alternatively, we used the daily minimum wage as a proxy of the daily wage. Stratified descriptive statistics were undertaken with respect to different World Bank Income Groups and WHO Regions. Results: There are significant discrepancies in the affordability of FT across 78 countries. FT was strongly affordable in high-income countries, relatively affordable in upper middle-income countries, and strongly unaffordable in lower middle-income and low-income countries. The affordability of FT across WHO Regions was dependent upon the economic mix of WHO Regions’ member states. Conclusion: FT is still unaffordable for many people, particularly in low-resource settings. Health policy members should develop better strategies to address and improve the universal affordability of FTs, for the incidence of dental caries to be reduced at a global level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0465.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: food allergy; oral immunotherapy; IgE, reaction; anaphylaxis; pediatrics
Online: 22 February 2021 (12:20:56 CET)
The prevalence of food allergy has increased in recent years, especially in children. Food allergen avoidance and symptomatic drugs in case of an allergic reaction remain the standard of care in food allergy. Nevertheless, increasing attention has been given to the possibility to treat food allergy, through immunotherapy, particularly oral immunotherapy (OIT). Several OIT protocols and clinical trials have been published. Most of them focus on children allergic to milk, egg, or peanuts, although recent studies developed protocols for other foods, such as wheat and different nuts. OIT efficacy in randomized controlled trials is usually evaluated as the possibility for patients to achieve desensitization, while the issue of a possible long-term sustained unresponsiveness has not been completely addressed. Here, we evaluated current OIT knowledge, focusing on the results of clinical trials and current guidelines. Specifically, we wanted to highlight what is known in terms of OIT efficacy and effectiveness, safety, and impact on quality of life. For each aspect, we reported the pros and the cons, inferable from published literature. In conclusion, even though many protocols, reviews and meta-analysis have been published on this topic, OIT remains a controversial therapy and no definitive generalized conclusion may be drawn so far. It should be an option provided by specialized teams, when both patients and their families are prone to adhere to the proposed protocol. Efficacy, long-term effectiveness, possible role of adjuvant therapies, risk of severe reactions including anaphylaxis or eosinophilic esophagitis, and impact on the quality of life of both children and caregivers are all aspects that should be discussed before starting OIT. Future studies are needed to provide firm clinical and scientific evidence, which should also consider patient reported outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0139.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Dentistry; hyperthyroidism; hypothyroidism; management; oral manifestations; thyroid gland.
Online: 8 January 2021 (10:41:21 CET)
The thyroid gland secretes essential hormones for the growth regulation and the metabolic activity of the body. Thyroid dysfunction includes many conditions that can indirectly affect dental treatments. Therefore, the practitioner must be aware of these pathologies and their signs and symptoms in order to elaborate specific dental treatment plans, thus avoiding any per- and/or postoperative complications. Moreover, the dentist can help in the screening of undiagnosed thyroid dysfunction among patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: BCG; Eudragit, oral vaccine; tuberculosis; in vitro viability
Online: 5 April 2019 (11:59:53 CEST)
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) in humans and animals. It is most commonly administered parenterally but oral delivery is highly advantageous for immunisation of cattle and wildlife hosts of TB in particular. Since BCG is susceptible to inactivation in the gut, vaccine formulations were prepared from suspensions of Eudragit L100 copolymer powder and BCG in PBS, containing Tween 80, with and without the addition of mannitol or trehalose. Samples were frozen at -20oC, freeze-dried and the lyophilised powders were compressed to produce BCG-Eudragit matrices. Production of the dried powders resulted in a reduction in BCG viability. Substantial losses in viability occurred at the initial formulation stage and at the stage of powder compaction. Data indicated that the Eudragit matrix protected BCG against simulated gastric fluid (SGF). The matrices remained intact in SGF and dissolved completely in SIF within three hours. The inclusion of mannitol or trehalose in the matrix provided additional protection to BCG during freeze-drying. Control needs to be exercised over BCG aggregation, freeze-drying and powder compaction conditions to minimise physical damage of the bacterial cell wall and maximise the viability of oral BCG vaccines prepared by dry powder compaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0024.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: oral mucositis; glycine; intercellular signaling peptides and proteins
Online: 3 September 2018 (11:09:30 CEST)
Oral mucositis is most frequently a toxic effect of chemotherapeutic and/or radiotherapeutic treatment, resulting from complex multifaceted biological events involving DNA damage. The clinical manifestations have a negative impact on the life quality of cancer patients. Preventive measures and curative treatment of mucositis are still not well established. The glycine has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and cytoprotective actions, being a potential therapeutic in mucositis. The objective was to evaluate the effects of glycine on the expression of collagen and growth factors, platelet and epidermal in oral mucositis. The mucositis of which was induced by the protocol of Sonis. 40 hamsters were used, divided into two groups: Group I- control; Group II- supplemented with 5% intraperitoneal glycine, 2,0 mg/g diluted in hepes. Histopathological sections were used to perform the immune-histochemical method, the evaluation collagen expression and the growth factors: EGF and PDGF. It was observed that the group supplemented with glycine higher amounts of collagen expression and predominance type of collagen I. The glycine group presented lower immunoexpression of the growth factors, EGF and PDGF. The group supplemented with glycine showed a marked healing process of the oral mucosite, demonstrated by the predominance of collagen type I and reduction of growth factors, EGF and PDGF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0076.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Oral cancer; mTOR pathway; secreted glycoprotein; drug resistance
Online: 3 May 2018 (12:47:14 CEST)
Oral cancer is a major public health burden worldwide. The lack of biomarkers for early diagnosis has increased the difficulty in managing this disease. Recent studies have reported that neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a secreted glycoprotein, is upregulated in various tumors. In our study we found that NGAL was significantly downregulated in primary malignant and metastatic tissues of oral cancer compared to normal tissues. The downregulation of NGAL was strongly correlated with the degree of differentiation and stage (I-IV), and can serve as a prognostic biomarker for oral cancer. Tobacco carcinogens were also found to be involved in the downregulation of NGAL. Mechanistic studies revealed that knockdown of NGAL increased oral cancer cell proliferation, survival, and migration, and also induced resistance against cisplatin. Silencing of NGAL activated mTOR signaling and reduced autophagy by the LKB1-AMPK-p53-Redd1 signaling axis. Moreover, cyclin-D1, Bcl-2, and MMP-9 were upregulated, and caspase-9 was downregulated, suggesting that silencing of NGAL increases oral cancer cell proliferation, survival, and migration. Thus, from our study it is evident that downregulation of NGAL activates the mTOR pathway and helps in the progression of oral cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0126.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: development; methods; oral preaching; written preaching; Dakwah; innovation
Online: 11 August 2016 (11:07:45 CEST)
Musabaqah Tilawatil Qurân (MTQ/Al Quran Reciting Competition) is often regarded as a big and important momentum for the process of Islamic preaching in Indonesia. It has even become a tradition for Indonesian people, although Al-Quran reciting is a common activity and a universal phenomenon in the Islamic world. In the MTQ event, the participants compete at various fields, including Tilawah (the art of reciting Al-Quran), Fahmil Qurân (comprehension of Al-Quran contents), and hifzul Qurân (memorization of Al-Quran verses). In 2003, a new field was initiated in the MTQ competition; i.e Musabaqah Makalah Ilmiah Al-Qurân (M2IQ/Al-Qurân Academic Writing Competition). Since its first exhibition on the 2003 Regional MTQ in West Java Province, and later on the 2008 National MTQ, the M2IQ, which is based on written-preach (dakwah bilkitabah), is considered as an innovation of preaching method in Indonesia. Islamic preaching (dakwah) in Indonesia has always been leaning heavily on the oral-preaching (dakwah bilisan) method, as represented by other fields contested in an MTQ. This development warrants a comprehensive study to understand what considerations underlying the emergence of M2IQ, how the process is, and what contributions it provides to the development of Islamic preaching in Indonesia. This study utilizes analytic-descriptive approach to discover the phenomenon. The findings indicate that M2IQ has accentuated the intellectual aspect of MTQ. In addition, M2IQ widens the spectrum of Al-Qurân preaching in Indonesia; opening a new chapter of Islamic preaching (dakwah) in the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0170.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: biopharmaceutical; nephroprotective; oral absorption; self-micellizing solid dispersion; thymoquinone.
Online: 10 January 2023 (03:09:17 CET)
The present study was designed to develop a self-micellizing solid dispersion (SMSD) containing Thymoquinone (TQM), a phytonutrient obtained from Nigella sativa seeds, aiming to improve its biopharmaceutical and nephroprotective functions. The apparent solubility of TQM in polymer solutions was used to choose an appropriate amphiphilic polymer that could be used to make an SMSD system. Based on the apparent solubility, Soluplus® was chosen as an appropriate carrier, and mixing with TQM, SMSD-TQM with different loadings of TQM (5–15%) was made by solvent evaporation and freeze-drying techniques, respectively, and the formulations were optimized. The optimized SMSD-TQM was evaluated in terms of particle size distribution, morphology, release characteristics, pharmacokinetic behavior, and nephroprotective effects in a rat model of acute kidney injury. SMSD-TQM significantly improved the dissolution characteristics (97.8%) of TQM in water within 60 min. Oral administration of SMSD-TQM in rats exhibited a 4.9-fold higher systemic exposure than crystalline TQM. In a cisplatin-induced (6 mg/kg, i.p.) acute kidney-damaged rat model, oral SMSD-TQM (10 mg/kg) improved the nephroprotective effects of TQM based on the results of kidney biomarkers and histological abnormalities. These findings suggest that SMSD-TQM might be efficacious in enhancing the nephroprotective effect of TQM by overcoming biopharmaceutical limitations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0372.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: biopharmaceutical; nephroprotective; oral absorption; self-micellizing solid dispersion; thymoquinone.
Online: 21 November 2022 (04:43:27 CET)
Nigella sativa's thymoquinone (TQM), a water-insoluble phytonutrient exhibits nephroprotective effects. This study intends to develop a self-micellizing solid dispersion (SMSD) of TQM for better biopharmaceutical and nephroprotective performance. Soluplus®-based SMSD of TQM was created and tested for physicochemical properties, solubility, and pharmacokinetics in rats. Plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), nephrotoxic indicators, and oxidative stress biomarkers were also tested. During SMSD preparation, TQM was found amorphous, boosting solubility. Minimal band changes between TQM and Soluplus® indicate insignificant drug-carrier interactions. SMSD-TQM generated fine micelles in water, improving TQM's solubility by 97.8% in 60 min. SMSD-TQM was 4.9 times more bioavailable orally in rats than crystalline TQM. In a rat model of acute renal damage by cisplatin (6 mg/kg, i.p.), SMSD-TQM (10 mg-TQM/kg, p.o.) reduced blood creatinine and BUN by 56% and 63.2%, respectively. These findings imply that SMSD-TQM may be a potent dosage option for enhancing TQM's nutrient value.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0308.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Xenobiotic; Drug; Oral fibro epithelial polyps; Rothia mucilaginosa; Bacteriome
Online: 16 November 2022 (12:45:26 CET)
The proportion of human cells to the microbial cell is 1:1. These procaryotes use efflux pumps and enzymes to prevent cellular intoxication of ions and compounds respectively. There is promising evidence on the role of the gut microbiome and its enzymes in metabolizing xenobiotics. The genetic potential of oral bacteria in drug and xenobiotic metabolism is yet to be unveiled. This study aimed to characterize the bacteriome associated with oral fibroepithelial polyps (FEP) and to predict the genetic potential. A representative sub-sample of 22 clinically diagnosed oral FEP (the control group) was selected from a main case-control study. Amplification of nucleotides of extracted DNA from frozen tissues was performed for the V1 to V3 region and sequencing of the amplicon with Illumina’s 2 X 300–bp chemistry. Classification of high-quality nonchimeric merged reads was done to the species level with a prioritized BLASTN-based algorithm. Downstream compositional analysis was performed with QIIME (Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology). Functional prediction of bacteriome was obtained by PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States). Rothia mucilaginosa, Streptococcus mitis, Gamella haemolysans, Streptococcus sp. oral taxon 431, and Rothia dentocariosa accounted for the top five taxa among 810 bacterial species according to the percentage of average relative abundance. Rothia mucilaginosa was elevated statistically significantly (p< 0.05). The genetic potential of xenobiotics and drug metabolism catalyzed by the P450 enzymes was observed for the first time as an attribute of bacteriome associated with oral FEP tissues dominated by R. mucilaginosa. This finding needs further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0351.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: oral microbiota; gut microbiota; networks analysis; ecological niche; newborns
Online: 21 September 2021 (09:13:34 CEST)
The onset and progression of the salivary and gut microbiota, the transmission and the impact of the salivary microbiota on the development of early fecal microbial communities was herein explored. We characterized the microbiota of 82 faecal and 80 salivary samples, collected from 82 healty newborns at birth, 7, 15, 30, 90 and 180 days of life, by 16S rRNA targeted-metagenomics approach. Correlation heat-maps and co-occurrence networks were used to investigate microbial taxa relationship in saliva, gut and between the two ecosystems. In saliva microbiota, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus appeared as early commensals, dominating this ecosystem through the time, while Fusobacterium, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Granulicatella and Veillonella were late colonizers. anaerobes as Enterobacteriace, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus, were gut microbiota pioneers, followed by the anaerobic Bifidobacterium, Veillonella, Eggerthella and Bacteroides. Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and Veillonella were shared by gut and saliva ecosystems (core microbiota). Early saliva and gut microbiota seem to evolve independently driven by local adaptation strategies, with the only exception for the oral Streptococcus and Veillonella genera, involved in gut microbiota development as seeding species. A more comprehensive knowledge of how oral microbiota may impact pathophysiological conditions of gut microbiota may open new avenues on the design of postbiotics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0436.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: silver nanoparticles; biofilm; orthodontic wire; drug resistance; oral-Streptococcus
Online: 19 February 2021 (12:23:26 CET)
Among various metal-based nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) manifest superior inhibitory effect against several microorganisms. In fact, the AgNPs based therapy has been reported to inhibit both sensitive as well resistant isolates of bacteria and other disease causing microbes with equal propensity. Keeping this fact into consideration, we executed bio-mediated synthesis of AgNPs employing Hibiscus rosa sinensis flower extract. The as-synthesized AgNPs were evaluated for their potential to inhibit Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), one of the main causative bacteria for dental caries. Beside several other reasons, orthodontic appliances have also been reported to facilitate infliction of oral cavity with a range of microbes including S. mutans. To determine the growth inhibitory and anti-adherence activity of AgNPs on orthodontic appliance, we performed microbiological assays employing AgNPs adsorbed on to the orthodontic wires. Topographic analysis of orthodontic wires was executed by scanning electron microscopy. In addition to antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against oral S. mutans, the as-fabricated AgNPs demonstrated significant inhibitory and anti-biofilm properties against other biofilm forming bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: multiparticulates, administration device, acceptability, paediatric formulation, mouthfeel, oral syringe
Online: 6 August 2020 (12:00:05 CEST)
The popularity of multiparticulate formulations (MPs) as a paediatric dosage form continues to increase. MPs comprise of multiple small units that are easy-to-swallow. Currently, MPs are commonly manufactured into unit doses that are either swallowed whole or opened prior to administration. While this is an acceptable approach, dosing is envisioned to be optimized with a ‘standard’ paediatric device which can better harness the flexible dosing potential of MPs. We evaluated a novel oral syringe (SympfinyTM) that is being developed as a tool to dispense and administer MPs to children. Forty children, 4-12 years old, received 0.5, 1.2, and 2.0 mL doses of placebo MPs using the oral syringe with spring water or a drink of choice to complete sample intake. Acceptability was recorded as those able to completely swallow the dose and participants also rated dose acceptability on a 5-point scale. The ability to completely swallow the dose decreased as dose volume increased; the smallest dose was completely swallowed by 87.5% (35/40) children, and 69.4% (27/39) of children confirmed their willingness to take the sample as a daily medicine. Larger doses, 1.2 and 2.0 mL, gave values of 55% and 57.5% for the doses completely swallowed and 58.8% and 51.72% for willingness to take the sample as a daily medicine, respectively. Use of a drink of choice showed no increase in swallowability as compared with water. The novel oral syringe being developed is an appropriate device for dispensing doses flexibly and administering neutral tasting MPs directly to the mouth in the lower dose range without the need for a co-administration vehicle in children aged 4-12 years.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: COVID-19; pandemics; pediatric dentistry; oral health prevention; coronavirus
Online: 16 May 2020 (18:11:49 CEST)
During the period of health emergency linked to the current COVID-19 pandemic, the management of children's oral health presents specific problems related to the infectious spread of the disease. These problems must be faced on the one hand by acting on the oral health prevention methods, and on the other by implementing specific protocols relating both to the conditions of oral pathologies that normally do not represent an emergency, and to those clinical situations that fall into the category of pediatric dental emergencies. In this perspective, in addition to defining rigorous and highly effective infection control protocols in the dental settings, it is of fundamental importance to work on remote communication and education aimed at maintaining the oral health of the children. This article, after an analysis of the risk factors from COVID-19 associated with pediatric dental treatment, presents a series of considerations on potential oral prevention strategies and on the management of emergency and non-emergency dental procedures in a context of disease transmission control, proposing new approaches and models of treatment based also on remote interaction techniques which will then retain their usefulness even at the end of the current emergency period.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0357.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: coronavirus; COVID-19; SARS-CoV2; dentistry; oral health; transmission
Online: 20 April 2020 (02:14:36 CEST)
On March 11th 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV2) as a pandemic. Until an effective treatment or a vaccine is developed, the current recommendations are to contain the disease, and control its transmission. It is now clear that the primary mode of SARS-CoV2 transmission is aerosol/droplet spread, and by contacting virus contaminated surfaces acting as fomites (inanimate vectors). Furthermore, recent data indicate that the live virus particles are present in saliva, and, more alarmingly, asymptomatic individuals may transmit the infection. By virtue of the nature of the practice of dentistry where intrinsically, a high volume of aerosols are produced, as well as the close proximity of dentists and patients during treatment, dentists and allied dental staff are considered the highest risk health professional group for acquiring SARS-CoV2 during patient management. Therefore, several organizations and specialty associations have proposed guidelines and recommendations for limiting the transmission of SARS-COV2 from carriers to dentists and vice versa. This paper aims to provide a review of these guidelines, and concludes with a brief look at how the practice of dentistry may be impacted by COVID-19, in the post-pandemic era.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: ellagic acid; oral administration; bioavailability; microformulations; nanoformulations; solubility enhancement
Online: 7 April 2020 (12:02:54 CEST)
Ellagic acid, a polyphenolic compound present in fruits and berries, has recently been object of extensive research for its antioxidant activity, which might be useful for the prevention and treatment of cancer, cardiovascular pathologies, and neurodegenerative disorders. Its protective role justifies numerous attempts to include it in functional food preparations and in dietary supplements not only to limit the unpleasant collateral effects of chemotherapy. However, ellagic acid use as chemopreventive agent has been debated because of its poor bioavailability associated to low solubility, limited permeability, first pass effect, and interindividual variability in gut microbial transformations. To overcome these drawbacks, various strategies for oral administration including solid dispersions, micro-nanoparticles, inclusion complexes, self-emulsifying systems, polymorphs have been proposed. Here, we have listed an updated description of pursued micro/nanotechnological approaches focusing on the fabrication processes and the features of the obtained products, as well as on the positive results yielded by in vitro and in vivo studies in comparison to the raw material. The micro/nano-sized formulations here described might be exploited for pharmaceutical delivery of this active, as well as for the production of nutritional supplements or for the enrichment of novel foods.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Oral cancer; Oropharyngeal cancer; Tumor-suppressor genes; Promoter hypermethylation
Online: 19 March 2019 (12:56:24 CET)
Silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) by DNA promoter hypermethylation is an earlyevent in carcinogenesis; Hence TSGs may serve as early tumor biomarkers. We determinedthe promoter methylation levels of p16INK4a, RASSF1A, TIMP3 and PCQAP/MED15 TSGs in salivary DNA from oral cancer (OC), and oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) patients, using methylation specific PCR coupled with densitometry analysis. We assessed the association between DNA methylation of individual TSGs with OC and OPC risk factors. We evaluated the performance and the clinical validity of this quadruple methylation marker panel in discriminating OC and OPC patients from healthy controls using CombiROC web tool. Our study reported that RASSF1A, TIMP3 and PCQAP/MED15 TSGs were significantly hypermethylated in OC and OPC cases compared to healthy controls. We found that DNA methylation levels of TSGs were significantly augmented by smoking, alcohol use and betel quid chewing by indicating that the fact that frequent exposure to risk factors may drive oral and oropharyngeal carcinogenesis through TSG promoter hypermethylation. Also, this quadruple-methylation marker panel of p16INK4a, RASSF1A, TIMP3 and PCQAP/MED15 TSGs demonstrated excellent diagnostic accuracy in the early detection of OC at 91.7% sensitivity and 92.3% specificity, and OPC at 99.8% sensitivity and 92.1% specificity, from healthy controls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0044.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cancer prevention; carcinogenesis; oral cancer; pharynx cancer; mouthrinses; ethanol.
Online: 6 March 2018 (14:28:22 CET)
Objective: To provide mechanistic evidence for the epidemiological link between long-term use of alcohol containing mouthwashes and oral cancer.Methods: Human epithelial keratinocytes were exposed for 30 seconds to concentrations of ethanol commonly present in mouthwashes. After a recovery period, cell viability was assessed with the MTT assay.Results: A marked cytotoxic effect was observed for ethanol concentrations of 20% and above. Conclusions: The cytotoxicity of ethanol can explain the epidemiological association between mouthwash use and oral cancer. Recent findings indicate that the risk of developing cancer in a tissue is strongly determined by the number of stem cell divisions accumulated by the tissue during a person's lifetime; cell division is a major source of mutations and other cancer-promoting errors. Since cell death activates the division of stem cells, the cytotoxicity of ethanol on the cells lining the oral mucosa will promote the division of the stem cells located in deeper layers to produce new cells to regenerate the damaged epithelium. If we regularly use mouthwashes containing cytotoxic concentrations of ethanol, we will force the stem cells of the oral cavity to divide more often than usual and our risk of developing oral cancer will probably increase.Clinical significance: Many mouthwashes contain percentages of ethanol above 20%. Because ethanol is not crucial to prevent and reduce gingivitis and plaque, members of the dental team should consider the potential risk of oral cancer associated with frequent use of alcohol containing mouthwashes when advising their patients.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0351.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: oral cancer; machine learning; gene prioritization; genomic datasets; data mining
Online: 24 October 2022 (07:10:08 CEST)
Delayed cancer detection is one of the common causes of poor prognosis in case of many cancers including the cancers of the oral cavity. Despite improvement and development of new and efficient gene therapy treatments, very little has been done to algorithmically assess the impedance of these carcinomas. In this work, we attempt to annotate viable attributes in oral cancer gene datasets for identification of gingivobuccal cancer (GBC). We further apply supervised and unsupervised machine learning methods to the gene datasets revealing key candidate attributes for GBC prognosis. Our work highlights the importance of automated identification of key genes responsible for GBC that could perhaps be easily replicated to other forms of oral cancer detection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0249.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: mouthwash; mouth rinse; oral rinse; covid19; SARS-COV-2; coronavirus
Online: 9 June 2021 (09:10:08 CEST)
There is a relatively high risk of virus transmission in dental procedures and oropharyngeal examinations. We investigated the effects of mouthwashes on covid-19 viral load reduction during dental practices and oro-pharyngeal assessments. We performed a systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane library for relevant studies up to February 2021. Papers evaluating patients with covid-19 infection (patients) who rinse mouthwashes (intervention) compared to patients who don’t rinse them (comparison) for reducing covid-19 viral load or reducing cross-infection of covid-19 (outcome) in the randomized and non-randomized clinical trial and quasi-experimental studies (study) were included due to PICOS question. Three independent authors conducted literature screening and data extraction. We extracted the most relevant data and we evaluated the risk of bias from the included studies. Out of 344 potentially eligible articles, six studies were included in this systematic review. Regarding viral load and negative cycle threshold (ct) values, 1% PVP_I and Listerine mouthwash were effective. 0.12% CHX mouthwash was effective 0-2 hours post rinsing, but it was not effective after 2 hours. A mixture solution of 0.2% Chlorhexidine gluconate and 6% Hydrogen peroxide was effective on day 5 of intervention. Gargling 1% hydrogen peroxide, 0.075% Cetylpiridinum Chloride (CPC), 0.5%PVP-I and 0.2% CHX mouthwashes was not effective on SARS-COV-2. It cannot be guaranteed that rinsing a specific kind of mouthwash prevents cross-infection of covid-19; however, the viral load of SARS-COV-2 in saliva will be decreased after rinsing mouthwashes containing 1%PVP-I and Listerine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0162.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: biofilm; Candida albicans; E-cadherin; Enterococcus faecalis; FISH; oral mucosa.
Online: 8 October 2020 (08:20:36 CEST)
Candida albicans as an opportunistic pathogen exploits the host immune system and causes a variety of life-threatening infections. The polymorphic nature of this fungus gives it tremendous advantage to breach mucosal barriers and cause a variety of oral and disseminated infections. Enterococcus faecalis, another opportunistic pathogen co-exists with C. albicans in several niches in the human body, including the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. However, interactions between E. faecalis and C. albicans on oral mucosal surfaces remain unknown. Here, for the first time, we comprehensively characterized the interactive profiles between laboratory and clinical isolates of C. albicans (SC5314 and BF1) and E. faecalis (OG1RF and 846) on an organotypic oral mucosal model. Our results demonstrated that the two species formed robust biofilms on the mucosal tissue surface with profound surface erosion and fungal invasion. Specifically, this effect was more pronounced in the laboratory isolates than in the clinical isolates. Notably, several genes of C. albicans involved in tissue adhesion, hyphal formation, fungal invasion, and biofilm formation were significantly upregulated in the presence of E. faecalis. This study highlights the strain-dependent cross-kingdom interactions between E. faecalis and C. albicans on oral mucosa, demonstrating the requisite to study more substrate-dependent polymicrobial interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0145.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; Periodontitis; Periodontal disease; Mendelian Randomization; Bioinformatics; Oral Health
Online: 7 October 2020 (08:26:14 CEST)
Latest evidence revealed a possible association between Parkinson’s disease (PD) and periodontitis. We explored the causal relationship of this association through two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) in European ancestry populations. To this end, we used openly accessible data of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on PD and periodontitis. As instrumental variables for periodontitis, seventeen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a GWAS of periodontitis (1817 periodontitis cases vs. 2215 controls) and forty-five SNPs from a GWAS of PD (20,184 cases and 397,324 controls). Eight non-overlapping SNPs of periodontitis from an additional GWAS assisted in the validation of association being studied. Multiple approaches of MR were carried-out. There was no evidence of genetic liability of periodontitis being associated with a higher risk of PD (B= -0.0003, Standard Error [SE] 0.0003, P = 0.26). The eight independent SNPs (B= -0.0000, SE 0.0001, P = 0.99) validated this outcome. We found no association of genetically primed PD towards periodontitis (B= -0.0001, SE 0.0001, P = 0.19). This MR study found no conclusive evidence to support a bidirectional causal genetic liability between PD and periodontitis. Further GWAS studies are needed to confirm the consistency of these results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0016.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; elderly; proton pump inhibitors; antipsychotics; metformin; oral antidiabetics
Online: 2 May 2020 (15:48:33 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 is a disease of the elderly as 95% of deaths related to COVID-19 occur in people over 60 years of age. Despite the urgent need for a preventive treatment there are currently no serious leads, other than the vaccination. Objective: To find a preventive treatment of COVID-19 in elderly patients. Design: Retrospective case-control study. Setting: Robertsau Geriatric Hospital of the University Hospitals of Strasbourg, France. Patients: 179 elderly patients who had been in contact with the SARS-CoV-2, of whom 89 had tested RT-PCR-positive (COVID-pos) for the virus and 90 had tested RT-PCR-negative (COVID-neg). Measurements: Treatments within 15 days prior to RT-PCR (including antihypertensive drugs, antipsychotics, antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), paracetamol, anticoagulant, oral antidiabetics (OADs), corticosteroids, immunosuppressants), comorbidities, symptoms, laboratory values, and clinical outcome were all collected using the electronic patient record. Results: COVID-pos patients more frequently had a history of diabetes (P=.016) and alcoholism (P=.023), a lower leukocyte count (P=.014) and a higher mortality rate– 29.2% versus 14.4% – (P=.014) when compared to COVID-neg patients. Patients on PPIs were 2.3 times less likely (odds ratio [OR] = 0.4381, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.2331, 0.8175], P=.0053) to develop COVID-19 infection, compared to those not on PPIs. No other treatment decreased or increased this risk. COVID-19 patients on antipsychotics (P=.0013) and OADs (P=.0166) were less likely to die. Limitations: retrospective study. Conclusion: PPIs treatment lowered the risk of development of COVID-19 infection, and antipsychotics and OADs decreased the risk of mortality in geriatric patients. If further studies confirm this finding, PPIs could be used preventatively in the elderly in this pandemic context. Moreover, OADS and antipsychotics should be tested in clinical trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0079.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Keywords: Chemoradiation; Oral Cancer Stem cells; CD47; Radiotherapy techniques; Radioresistance
Online: 4 July 2019 (13:13:40 CEST)
Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), with poor prognosis and high mortality rates, is one of the most diagnosed head and neck cancers. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) - epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) loop is increasingly implicated in the therapy-resistance, relapse, and metastasis of OSCC patients. Accumulating evidence indicate that aberrantly expressed CD47 is associated with cell-death evasion, invasion and cancer metastasis; however, the role of CD47 in the modulation of CSCs-like phenotypes, including therapy-resistance and metastasis, with its underlying mechanism in OSCC remains largely underexplored. Methods: This study investigated the CSCs- modulating potential of CD47 in OSCC cell lines SAS, TW2.6, HSC-3 and FaDu using bioinformatics approach, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence staining, migration, invasion, colony and orosphere formation, as well as radiosensitivity assays. Results: We demonstrated that the characteristic ectopic expression of CD47 in OSCC patients was associated with ~ 20% 2-year survival disadvantage (p = 0.01) and positively correlated with the expression of pluripotency factors; while shRNA silencing of CD47 significantly suppressed cell viability and markedly inhibited orosphere formation, resulting in smaller and fewer orospheres, and downregulated CD133, SOX2, OCT4 and c-Myc mRNA and protein expression levels. We also showed that CD47 downregulation attenuates EMT, migration and clonogenicity of OSCC cells, with associated E-cadherin upregulation and suppression of Vimentin, Slug, Snail, and N-cadherin expression. Conclusion: Of therapeutic relevance, combined with radiotherapy, CD47 knockdown enhanced the anti-OSCC effect of radiotherapy. Thus, we demonstrate the therapeutic feasibility of a CD47-mediated anti-CSCs strategy, and suggest a role for CD47 suppression in potentiating the therapeutic efficacy of radiation therapy in OSCC patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0273.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: satiety; oral processing; lubrication; mastication; snack; appetite; chewing; food intake
Online: 15 August 2018 (14:59:00 CEST)
As overeating, overweight and obesity remain public health concerns, it is crucial to design satiety-enhancing foods that suppress appetite and lower snack intake. Existing research identifies oro-sensory targets to promote satiation and satiety within the “satiety cascade” yet it remains unclear as to whether it is ‘chewing’ or ‘oral lubrication’ that might amplify satiation signals.Here we have combined techniques from experimental psychology, food material science and mechanical engineering to measure the role of chewing and lubrication using novel, model foods as preloads on subjective appetite and intake of a salty snack. Three mint flavoured hydrogels were engineered to vary in their texture (fracture stress) and lubrication (inverse of friction coefficient) properties, and a control group received a mint tea. Results showed that snack intake was suppressed by 32% after eating the low chewing/high lubricating preload as compared to the high chewing/low lubricating preload (p<0.05). No other significant effects were found for snack intake. Hunger ratings decreased from t1 to t3 (p<0.05), however differences between conditions were subtle and not significant. Thus, this proof-of-concept study demonstrates that manipulating oral lubrication is a promising new construct to reduce snack intake that merits future research in the oro-sensory satiety domain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0110.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: oral cancer; radiotherapy; intra-arterial chemotherapy; head and neck cancer
Online: 7 May 2018 (08:48:20 CEST)
Purpose: The aim of present study was to compare the treatment results of daily cisplatin (CDDP), weekly docetaxel (DOC) intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy (DIACRT) regimen and weekly CDDP intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy (WIACRT) for patients with tongue cancer. Materials and Methods: Between January 2007 and December 2016, a total of 11 patients treated with WIACRT and 45 patients treated with DIACRT were enrolled in present study. In DIACRT group, 25 patients had T2, 20 patients had T3. A total of 9 patients had T2 and 2 had T3 in WIACRT (p = NS). In DIACRT, the treatment schedule consisted of intra-arterial chemotherapy (DOC, total 60 mg/m2; CDDP, total 150 mg/m2) and daily concurrent radiotherapy (RT) (total, 60 Gy). In WIACRT, the treatment schedule consisted of intra-arterial chemotherapy (CDDP, total 360 mg/m2) and daily concurrent RT (total, 60 Gy). Results: The median follow-up periods for DIACRT and WIACRT were 61 and 66 months respectively. The 5-year local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) rate were 94.5% and 89.6% for DIACRT group, 60.6% and 63.6% for WIACRT group respectively. The LC rate and OS of DIACRT group were significantly higher than that of WIACRT group. As regards toxicities, no treatment-related deaths were observed during the follow-up periods both in two groups. Conclusions: DIACRT was found to be feasible and effective for patients with tongue cancer and could become a new treatment modality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0398.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs); Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF); Real-world experience
Online: 19 August 2021 (10:32:56 CEST)
The aim is to evaluate a program for direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) management in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients, according to patient profiles, appropriateness of dosing, patterns of crossover, effectiveness and safety. This is an observational and longitudinal retrospective study in a cohort of patients attended in daily clinical practice in a single regional hospital in Spain with a systematic follow-up plan for up to 3 years for patients initiating dabigatran, rivaroxaban or apixaban between JAN/2012-DEC/2016. We analyzed 490 episodes of treatment (apixaban 2.5 mg: 9.4%, apixaban 5 mg: 21.4%, dabigatran 75 mg: 0.6%, dabigatran 110 mg: 12,4%, dabigatran 150 mg: 19.8%, rivaroxaban 15 mg: 17.8% and rivaroxaban 20 mg: 18.6%) in 445 patients. 13.6% of patients on dabigatran, 9.7% on rivaroxaban, and 3.9% on apixaban, switched to other DOACs or changed dosing. Apixaban was the most frequent DOAC switched to. The most frequent reasons for switching were toxicity (23.8%), bleeding (21.4%) and renal deterioration (16.7%). Inappropriateness of dose was found in 23.8% of episodes. Patients taking apixaban 2.5 mg were older, had higher CHA2DS2VASc score and lower creatinine clearance. Patients taking dabigatran 150 mg and rivaroxaban 20 mg were younger, had lower CHA2DS2VASc and higher creatinine clearance. Rates of stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) were 1.64/0.54 events/100 patients-years, while rates of major, clinically relevant non-major (CRNM) bleeding and intracranial bleeding where 2.4, 5, and 0.5 events/100 patients-years. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary bleeding were the most common type of bleeding events (BE). On multivariable analysis, prior stroke (RR: 4.2; CI: 1.5-11.8; p=0.006) and age (RR: 1.2; CI: 1.1-1.4; p=0.006) were independent predictors of stroke/TIA. Concurrent platelet inhibitors (RR: 7.1; CI: 2.3-21.8; p=0.001), male gender (RR: 2.1; CI: 1.2-3.7; p=0.0012) and age (RR: 1.1; CI: 1.02-1.13; p=0.005) were independent predictors of BE. This study complements the scant data available on the use of DOACs in NVAF patients in Spain, confirming a good safety and effectiveness profile
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0497.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: road dusts; active mine; metal(loids); oral bioaccessibility; human health risk
Online: 21 May 2021 (07:44:30 CEST)
Aiming the characterization of road dusts on the surrounding villages of an active mine and to assess metal(loids) bioaccessible fractions, a dust samples survey was undertaken. To achieve these objectives, pseudototal element concentration, mineralogical composition, Enrichment factor and in vitro extraction UBM assay for both gastric (G) and gastrointestinal (GI) phases, were determined. Results obtained revealed that arsenic represents the higher risk to humans, with mean pseudototal values higher than the maximum reference value range. Enrichment factor points to As significant to very high enrichment in all villages. Particles enriched in As, Ca, Fe, Cu, Al, Ti were identified by SEM-EDS in weathered agglomerates, linked to mine wastes and long-distance transport, both by wind and/or traffic. Arsenic bioaccessibility fraction (%BAF) presents low values in the studied samples, possibly due to low Fe complexes solubility with adsorbed As, limiting arsenic release and reducing its bioaccessibility. Concentrations of Cd bioaccessible G and GI phases are within the reference values range, while for Cu are above and for Pb are lower, than reference value range. Results show that the pseudototal fraction risk is overestimated when comparing to BAF (bioaccessible fraction), nevertheless, total G and GI risk are above the carcinogenic target risk (1.00E-06) in most samples. Carcinogenic risk of the bioaccessible contaminants shows that As is the element that represents higher risk for developing cancer over a lifetime, being ingestion the main risk route.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0455.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: NHANES; periodontal diseases; periodontitis; tooth loss; inflammation; diet; nutrition; oral health
Online: 17 November 2020 (14:44:20 CET)
Background: We aimed to assess the association between DII and PD and the mediation effect of DII in the association of PD with systemic inflammation. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2010, 2011-2012 and 2013-2014, participants that received periodontal exam and provided dietary recall data were included. The inflammatory potential of diet was calculated via DII. Periodontitis was defined according to the 2012 case definition. The clinical outcomes of interest were mean periodontal probing (PPD), mean clinical attachment loss (CAL) and thresholds of PPD and CAL. White blood cells (WBC), segmented neutrophils and C-reactive protein (CRP) were used as proxies for systemic inflammation. The periodontal measures were regressed across DII values using adjusted multivariate linear regression. Adjusted mediation analysis appraised the influence of DII in the association of periodontitis and systemic inflammation. 10,178 participants were included. DII was significantly correlated with mean PPD, mean CAL, thresholds of PPD and CAL, WBC, segmented neutrophils and DII (p<0.01). A linear regression logistic adjusted for multiple confounding variables confirmed the association between DII and mean PPD (B = 0.02, Standard Error [SE]: 0.02, p<0.001) and CAL (B = -0.02, SE: 0.01, p<0.001). The association of mean PPD and mean CAL with both white blood cells and segmented neutrophils were mediated by DII (from 2.1 to 3.5%, p<0.001). In the 2009-2010 subset, the association of mean CAL with serum CRP was mediated by DII (52.0%, p<0.01). In conclusion, inflammatory diet and PD may be associated. Also, the inflammatory diet significantly mediated the association of leukocyte counts and systemic inflammation with periodontitis.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0363.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Oral lichen planus; Koebner phenomenon; mechanical trauma; dental cusps; psychological distress
Online: 30 June 2020 (10:09:06 CEST)
Mucosal irritation caused by cusps of upper and lower teeth represents a source of persistent, low grade mechanical trauma. This type of trauma can initiate and/or perpetuate oral lichen planus in a few susceptible patients. Here, we report a rare case of bilateral white linear striations in the buccal mucosa of a young patient, associated with sharp cusps. Oral lesions demonstrated a unique cuspal signature highlighting the causal role of subtle mucosal trauma in the genesis of reticular-oral lichen planus. Lesions appeared to be exacerbated by significant psychological distress experienced by the patient. Although the Koebner phenomenon is well reported in the cutaneous lichen planus literature, such presentations are relatively rare in the oral cavity. This report emphasizes the potential role of low-grade cuspal trauma/irritation in conjunction with psychological distress in the genesis of oral lichen planus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0135.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); Oral and maxillofacial; Urgency and emergency;
Online: 7 May 2020 (15:29:53 CEST)
The World Health Organization has defined the outbreak of the new coronavirus as a public health emergency of international concern. The average age of patients affected by the disease caused by the virus ranges from 49 to 59 years. The symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection include fever, cough, acute respiratory disease, and, in severe cases, the disease may progress to pneumonia and renal failure that may lead to death. Many oral and maxillofacial hospital procedures produce aerosol and droplets contaminated by blood, bacteria, and viruses. The purpose of this study is to gather recommendations from health authorities and scientific articles in order to educate surgeons regarding the procedures to assist and treat in oral and maxillofacial surgeries. The objective is to prevent the transmission of COVID-19 during the treatment of patients in urgent and emergency situations. The study’s methodology used the guidelines provided by the Brazilian College of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, in addition to the recommendations and epidemiologic data from national and international health authorities. The implementation of special precautions in oral and maxillofacial surgeries may elucidate questions related to the transmission of the disease by asymptomatic carriers and help control the spread of the virus.
Online: 27 August 2019 (10:06:32 CEST)
Cotton is one of the most important economic crops in the world, whereas insect attacks is a prime cause of its losses on yield and quality. Despite it is important, little is known about the mechanism of cotton response to insect. In this study, we simulated insect feeding by applying insect oral secretions (OS) to wounds, and combined transcriptome and metabolome analysis to comprehensively investigate how OS from two major pest species (Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura) affect cotton defense responses. Obvious differences were observed that 12,668 and 13,379 genes differently expressed respectively in cotton after being treated with different OS when compared with wounding along. Upon the addition of OS, JA-signaling pathway were rapidly and strongly induced, however SA-biosynthesis related gens were significantly down-regulated. By constructing the co-expression gene network, we identified a hub gene which encoding a leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase may play important role in recognition and signal transduction at early stage. We also found that OS from different insect species altered abundance of flavonoid related compound with different patterns. Interestingly, Gossypol which is a well-known anti-insect compound was kept a relative low content after OS application relative to wounding which implied the existence of the suppression effects of OS to cotton defense response. This study illustrated the transcriptional and metabolic changes of cotton in responding to OS from two chewing insect species, identified potential key gene during the interaction process and finds the evidence for OS’s inhibition effects on cotton defense response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0150.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: oral; mucosa; mucins; tight junctions; wound-healing; E-liquids; cytotoxicity; viability; confluency
Online: 9 January 2023 (07:35:28 CET)
Background: Understanding in vitro expansion of OKF6/TERT-2 oral epithelial cells is important for studying molecular biology of disease and pathology affecting the oral cavity. The media used for any cell culture is paramount in terms of efficient output. Therefore, this study aims to compare two different media for OKF6/TERT-2 cultures: Keratinocyte Serum-Free Medium (KSFM) and a composite medium comprised of DMEM/F-12 mixed with KSFM (referred to as DFK). For application purposes, this investigation also compares the toxicological effects of flavored electronic cigarette liquids (E-liquids) on OKF6/TERT-2 cultures grown in both media. Methods: Cells were grown in KSFM and DFK media and cellular growth, morphology, gene expression of mucins and tight junctions, as well as wound-healing were determined. Additionally, cellular viability and cytotoxicity were indexed after E-liquid exposures. Results: While overall cellular morphologies remained unaltered, cells grown in DFK reached confluency faster. Except for claudin-1, there is no appreciable difference in expression of the other genes tested. Additionally, cultures in DFK appear more sensitive to E-liquids ± flavors. Conclusions: DFK is an alternative medium for cultivation of OKF6/TERT-2 cells to study molecular biology of disease and pathology, such as their responses to E-liquids ± flavors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0497.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: cognitive impairment; dementia; oral pathogens; periodontitis; inflammatory biomarkers; anti-bodies; systematic review
Online: 27 December 2022 (01:41:02 CET)
Introduction: Periodontitis is a severe oral infection that can contribute to systemic inflammation. A large body of evidence suggests a role for systemic inflammation in the initiation of neurodegenerative disease. This systematic review synthesized data from observational studies to investigate the association between periodontitis and neuroinflammation in adults. Methods and materials: A systematic literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) was performed for studies published from the date of inception up to September 2021. Search terms for the exposure “oral disease” and outcome “dementia”, “neuroinflammation” and “cognitive decline” were used. Study selection and data extraction were independently undertaken by two reviewers. The final eligible articles were included only if the exposure is periodontitis and the outcome is cognitive impairment or dementia or a topic related to this condition, and if the study was conducted in an adult population. The quality and risk of bias were assessed by Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS). Qualitative synthesis was used to narratively synthesize the results. Six cohort studies, three cross-sectional studies, and two case-control studies met the inclusion criteria. These eleven studies were only narratively synthesized. Meta-analysis was not performed due to the methodological heterogeneity of the studies. Results: All the included studies show evidence of an association between periodontitis and cognitive im-pairment or dementia and Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Conclusion: Nonetheless, the mechanisms responsible for the association between periodontitis and dementia are still unclear.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0552.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: periodontitis; obstructive sleep apnea; oral microbiota; pathogenic microbiota; chronic diseases; MALDI-TOF
Online: 29 November 2022 (13:09:35 CET)
Commonly the periodontitis has been linked to periodontopathogens categorized in Socransky's microbial complexes, however, there is a lack of knowledge regarding “other microorganisms” or "cryptic microorganisms", which are rarely thought of as significant oral pathogens and are neither previously categorized nor connected to illnesses in the oral cavity. This study hypothesized that these cryptic microorganisms could contribute to the modulation of oral microbiota present in health or disease (periodontitis and/or OSA patients). For this purpose, the presence and the correlation among these cultivable cryptic oral microorganisms were identified and their possible role in both conditions was determined. Data from oral samples of individuals with or without periodontitis and with or without OSA were obtained from a previous study. Demographic data, clinical oral characteristics, and genera and species of cultivable cryptic oral microorganisms identified by MALDI-TOF were recorded. The data of 75 participants were analyzed to determine the relative frequencies of cultivable cryptic microorganisms’ genus and species, microbial clusters and correlations tests were performed. According to periodontal condition, Gingivitis - dental biofilm-induced in reduced periodontium and stage III periodontitis were found to have the highest diversity of cryptic microorganism species. Based on the experimental condition these findings showed that there are genera related to disease conditions and others related to healthy conditions, with species that could be related to different chronic diseases being highlighted as comorbidities periodontitis and OSA. The cryptic microorganisms within the oral microbiota of patients with periodontitis and OSA are present as potential pathogens, promoting the development of dysbiotic microbiota, and the occurrence of chronic diseases, which have been previously proposed to be common risk factors for periodontitis and OSA. Understanding the function of possible pathogens in the oral microbiota will take more research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0330.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: megalin; oral squamous cell carcinoma; lymph node metastases; vascular invasion; overall survival
Online: 21 October 2022 (10:17:46 CEST)
Megalin (LRP2) is a rapidly recycling multiligand endocytic receptor, primarily expressed in polarized epithelial cells. Despite megalin could promote tumor growth and invasiveness through several mechanisms, it has been understudied in the field of molecular oncology so far. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of megalin expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) on disease progression. Megalin expression was evaluated immunohistochemically in 63 OSCC specimens. Data obtained were retrospectively compared with patients’ clinicopathological features and survival. The proportion of megalin-expressing cells in primary OSCC tissue was significantly associated with metastatic spreading to lymph nodes, vascular invasion and lower overall survival rate. Results obtained by the study suggest that megalin can be considered as a novel molecule involved in OSCC pathogenesis, but also useful as a potential biomarker for cancer progression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0680.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: patient activation; patient engagement, behavioral health change; self-administered therapy, oral oncolytic
Online: 28 June 2021 (15:32:14 CEST)
Oncology clinical pharmacists are uniquely positioned to make interventions to increase patient activation and engagement. To accomplish this goal, pharmacists can target health system-related, provider-related, and patient-related factors to help enhance patient-centered care and drive behavioral health changes. Interventions that pharmacists must tackle include educating team members and patients on the medication acquisition process, communicating urgency of treatment, optimizing workflows, facilitating guideline recommendations, preventing, and managing treatment toxicities, and promoting patient self-advocacy through education and shared decision-making. As crucial members of the healthcare team, oncology clinical pharmacists can simplify highly complex treatment regimens to facilitate and optimize patients’ ownership of their care. This review will focus on the example of venetoclax treatment in acute myeloid leukemia to demonstrate the impact that pharmacists provide that leads to behavioral change of patients and clinicians.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0471.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: bathing waters; coronavirus; environmental transmission; faecal-oral route; infection risk; waterborne illness
Online: 20 July 2020 (12:02:45 CEST)
The recent detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in feces has led to speculation that it can be transmitted via the fecal-oral/ocular route. This review aims to critically evaluate the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, the quantity and infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 in feces and urine, and whether these pose an infection risk in sanitary settings, sewage networks, wastewater treatment plants, and the wider environment (e.g. rivers, lakes and marine waters). Overall, severe GI dysfunction is only evident in a small number of COVID-19 cases, with 11 ± 2% exhibiting diarrhea and 12 ± 3% exhibiting vomiting and nausea. In addition to these cases, SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be detected in feces from some asymptomatic, mildly- and pre-symptomatic individuals. Fecal shedding of the virus peaks in the symptomatic period and can persist for several weeks, but with declining abundances in the post-symptomatic phase. SARS-CoV-2 RNA is occasionally detected in urine, but reports in fecal samples are more frequent. The abundance of the virus genetic material in both urine (ca. 102-105 gc/ml) and feces (ca. 102-107 gc/ml) is much lower than in nasopharyngeal fluids (ca. 105-1011 gc/ml). There is strong evidence of multiplication of SARS-CoV-2 in the GI tract and infectious virus has occasionally been recovered from both urine and stool samples. The level and infectious capability of SARS-CoV-2 in vomit remain unknown. In comparison to enteric viruses transmitted via the fecal-oral route (e.g. norovirus, adenovirus), the likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 being transmitted via feces or urine appears lower due to the lower relative amounts of virus present in feces/urine. The biggest risk of transmission will occur in clinical and care home settings where secondary handling of people and urine/fecal matter occurs. In addition, while SARS-CoV-2 RNA genetic material can be detected by in wastewater, this signal is greatly reduced by conventional treatment. Our analysis also suggests the likelihood of infection due to contact with sewage-contaminated water (e.g. swimming, surfing, angling) or food (e.g. salads, shellfish) is extremely low or negligible based on very low predicted abundances and limited environmental survival of SARS-CoV-2. These conclusions are corroborated by the fact that over eight million global cases of COVID-19 have occurred, but exposure to feces or wastewater has never been implicated as a transmission vector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0445.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: oral cancer; cancer-associated fibroblasts; metastasis; cell migration; cell invasion; Akt; EGFR
Online: 27 May 2020 (08:25:20 CEST)
Oral cancer cells (TYS) and the signalling pathways involved in metastasis, in response to cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs, COM) and normal oral mucosal fibroblasts (MM1) was studied. Metastatic cell behaviour was observed by cell-scatter, 3D-collagen gel migration and 3D-spheroid invasion assays. Akt, MAPK, EGFR, TGFβRii and CXCR4 inhibitors were used to identify the signalling pathways involved. Signalling pathway protein expression and activation were assessed by SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting. COM-CM (conditioned medium) and MM1-CM stimulated cancer cell scattering, which was blocked only by the Akt inhibitor. COM-CM induced scattered cancer cells showed higher levels of Akt phosphorylation than the negative control and MM1-CM. Migration and invasion of TYS cells into the collagen gels from the spheroids was stimulated by CM from both sources, compared to the negative control. COM cells stimulated TYS, cancer cell invasion into the collagen more than MM1 and the control. Akt and EGFR inhibitors effectively blocked CM and COM cell-induced invasion. Akt-silenced cancer cells were not stimulated to migrate and invade by fibroblast-CM and did not survive addition of the EGFR inhibitor. This suggests that CAFs stimulate oral cancer cell migration and invasion in an Akt- dependent manner. EGFR and Akt are potential therapy targets in metastatic oral cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0335.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: knowledge; attitude; practice; children’s oral health practice; school going children; rural area
Online: 21 May 2020 (04:01:10 CEST)
Introduction: Oral health knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of parents have a direct influence on their child’s oral health maintenance, dietary habits and encourage healthy behaviors. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, and attitude of parents with regards to the oral health practice of their children and its associated factors. Methods: A self -administered structured questionnaire was administered to parents or guardians of learners aged 5 to 12 years at a low socio-economic rural primary school in the uGu district, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa to collect demographic variables, knowledge of dental health, use of toothbrush, use of toothpaste, dietary practices and dental visits; practice with respect to dental care and attitudes towards oral health. The questionnaire was translated from English to IsiZulu was used. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess the association between parent’s sociodemographic factors with their oral health knowledge and practice scores. Results: One hundred and forty four completed survey instruments were received with an eighty percent (118) representation of mothers. Ninety five percent of the parents (136) had a positive attitude towards oral health with 86% (124) of the children brushed their tongue and 89% (128) of the children brushed their teeth happily. The mean knowledge score was 70% with a median of 72%. Children were significantly more likely to brush their tongues (AOR: 3.20 95% CI: 1.06-9.66) and were more likely to be happier when brushing their teeth (AOR: 4.65 95% CI: 1.41-15.38) when the caregivers were their mothers, and when parents had an above average knowledge score (AOR: 1.86 95% CI: 0.72-4.85) and had positive attitudes (AOR: 3.20 95%CI: 0.46-22.00). Conclusion: To reduce the gaps in knowledge, oral health promotion should be integrated into all point of care contact with parents at health facilities, increased community awareness and advertising campaigns as well as a more focused school health oral program that addresses primary prevention, screening and appropriate referrals to health facilities
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0409.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: chlorhexidine; bioactive liquid; oral wound healing; pain index score; early wound healing score
Online: 27 September 2022 (03:37:27 CEST)
After surgery, oral cavity healing occurs in a hostile environment and requires proper oral care and hygiene to accelerate recovery. The aim of the current study is to investigate and compare the bioreactivity characteristics of chlorhexidine based (CHX) mouth rinse and a novel bone bioactive liquid (BBL) mouth rinse on oral healing within seven days application post-surgery. A randomized, double blind clinical trial conducted in 81 patients. The mouth rinses were applied twice a day for a period of 7 days. The visual analog scale (VAS) protocol was applied to measure pain index. Early wound healing score (EHI) was determined in evaluate the oral cavity healing progress. No adverse effects were observed using the mouth washes, but CHX resulted in teeth staining. CHX and BBL were sufficient to reduce pain over a period of 7 days. However, the BBL group demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in VAS stating day 4. Relative to CHX group, the EHI scores were significantly higher in the BBL group, independent from the tooth location. No gender differences were observed in both VAS and EHI scores. Relative to the commercially available CHX, BBL mouth rinse reduced pain and accelerated oral cavity healing. Suggesting an improvements of oral cavity microenvironment at the wound site that mediates soft tissue regeneration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0051.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: African swine fever; vaccination; efficacy; domestic pigs; wild boar; oral vaccine; intramuscular vaccine
Online: 2 August 2022 (08:36:03 CEST)
African swine fever (ASF) is a pandemic threat to the global pig industry and wild suids. A safe and efficacious vaccine could monumentally assist in disease eradication. In the past years, promising live attenuated vaccine candidates emerged in proof-of-concept experiments, among them, “ASFV-G-∆MGF”. In our study, we tested the vaccine candidate in three animal experiments intramuscularly in domestic pigs one orally in wild boar. Further, a macrophage-grown vaccine virus and a virus grown on permanent cells could be employed. Irrespective of the production system of vaccine virus, a two-dose intramuscular immunization could induce close to sterile immunity with full clinical protection against challenge infection. After oral immunization, 50% of the vaccinees seroconverted and all responders were completely protected against subsequent challenge. All non-responders developed ASF upon challenge with two acute lethal infections and two mild and transient courses. The latter results show a lower efficiency after oral administration that would have to be taken into consideration when designing vaccination-based control measures. Our findings suggest that “ASFV-G-∆MGF” could help to contain the disease under an appropriate vaccination campaign. Further research is needed to characterize safety aspects and define possible improvements of oral efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0073.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: focus group; patient reported outcome measures; oral health; education; COVID-19; dental problem
Online: 4 March 2022 (07:08:57 CET)
This study reports results of focus groups with school nurses and teachers from elementary, middle, and high schools to explore their perceptions of child and adolescent oral health. Participants included 14 school nurses and 15 teachers (83% Female; 31% Hispanic, 21% White, 21% Asian, 14% African American, and 13% Others). Respondents were recruited from Los Angeles County schools and scheduled by school level for six one-hour focus groups, using Zoom. Audio recordings were transcribed, reviewed, and saved with anonymization of speaker identities. NVivo software was used to facilitate content analysis and identify key themes. The nurses’ rate of “Oral Health Education” comments statistically exceeded that of teachers, while teachers had higher rates for “Parental Involvement” and “Mutual Perception” “Need for Care” was perceived to be more prevalent in immigrants to the United States based on student behaviors and complaints. “Access to Care” was seen as primarily the nurse’s role. Strong relationships between community clinics and schools were viewed by some as integral to students achieving good oral health. The results suggest dimensions and questions important to item development for oral health surveys of children and parents to address screening, management, program assessment, and policy planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0726.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: oral administration; lactic acid bacteria metabolites; skin barrier function; water content; atopic dermatitis
Online: 30 October 2018 (14:18:16 CET)
The effects of orally administered lactic acid bacteria metabolites on the skin were studied using an atopic dermatitis-like murine model created by feeding mice with HR-AD. The lactic acid bacteria metabolites were obtained by inoculating 35 strains of 16 species of lactic acid bacteria into soy milk and culturing them. The atopic dermatitis-like murine model was created by feeding HR-1 mice HR-AD for 40 days. The skin condition of mice that were fed HR-AD worsened compared with normal mice, i.e., reduced water content in the stratum corneum, increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL), reduced ceramide AP content in the stratum corneum, and increased epidermis thickness. When mice that had been fed the HR-AD diet was administered a raw liquid of lactic acid bacteria metabolites orally, the measured values related to water content in the stratum corneum, TEWL, ceramide AP content in the stratum corneum, and epidermis thickness improved. To find out the active components for these effects, filtrate and residue from the raw liquid of lactic acid bacteria metabolites and lipid components extracted from the raw liquid were examined at the same time. Results showed that the water-soluble components or residue after filtration did not demonstrate effects but the raw liquid and the lipid fraction did. These findings suggest that lactic acid bacteria metabolites improve skin injury in an atopic dermatitis-like murine model.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: periodontal disease; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; exercise; clinical trial; oral microbiota; saliva components
Online: 14 January 2021 (13:13:47 CET)
Exercise can be hypothesized to play an important role in NAFLD treatment by changing the oral bacterial flora and in the mechanism underlying periodontal disease. We performed salivary component analysis before and after an exercise regimen, and genome analysis of the oral bacterial flora to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Obese middle-aged men with NAFLD and periodontal disease were allocated to 12-week exercise (n=49) or dietary restriction (n=21) groups. We collected saliva to compare the oral microflora; performed predictive analysis of metagenomic functions; and measured the salivary immunoglobulin A, cytokine, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and lactoferrin concentrations. The exercise group showed improvements in clinical indices of oral environment. Salivary component analysis revealed significant reductions in LPS, and lactoferrin during the exercise regimen. Diversity analysis of oral bacterial flora revealed higher alpha- and beta-diversity after the exercise regimen. Analysis of the microbial composition revealed that the numbers of Campylobacter (+83.9%), Corynebacterium (+142.3%), Actinomyces (+75.9%), and Lautropia (+172.9%) were significantly higher and that of Prevotella (−28.3%) was significantly lower. The findings suggest that an exercise regimen improves the oral environment of NAFLD patients by increasing the diversity of the oral microflora and reducing the number of periodontal bacteria that produce LPS and its capability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0308.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Oral health care products; cyclooxygenase; lipoxygenase; periodontal disease; Candida albicans; Candida glabrata; medicinal herbs
Online: 19 May 2020 (03:45:56 CEST)
Background: Given the increasing request for natural pharmacological molecules, this study assessed the antimicrobial capacity of Pistacia lentiscus L. essential oil (PLL-EO) obtained from the leaves of wild plants growing in North Sardinia (Italy), toward a wide range of periodontal bacteria and Candida including laboratory and clinical isolates sp., together with its anti-inflammatory activity and safety; Methods: PLL-EO was screened by gas chromatography / mass spectrometry. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The anti-inflammatory activity was measured by cyclooxygenase (COX 1/2) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition while the antioxidant capacity was determined electro-chemically and by the MTT assay. The WST-1 assay was used to ascertain cytotoxicity toward four line of oral cells; Results: According to the concentrations of terpens, PLL-EO is a pharmacologically active phytocomplex. MICs against periodontal bacteria ranged between 3.13 and 12.5 µg/ml, while against Candida sp. were between 6.25 and 12.5 µg/ml. Oxidation by COX 1/2 and LOX was inhibited by 80% and 20% µg/mL of the oil respectively. Antioxidant activity seemed negligible, and no cytotoxicity arose; Conclusions: PLL-EO exhibits a broad-spectrum activity against periodontal bacteria and Candida, with an interesting dual inhibitory capacity toward COX2 and LOX inflammatory enzymes and without side effects against oral cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0111.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: aldo-keto reductases; cigarette smoke; smokeless tobacco products; nicotine; oral cavity cells; xenobiotic metabolism
Online: 25 January 2017 (04:20:07 CET)
Smoking has been established as a major risk factor for developing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but less attention has been paid to the effects of smokeless tobacco products. Our objective is to identify potential biomarkers to distinguish the biological effects of combustible tobacco products from those of non-combustible using oral cell lines. Normal human gingival epithelial cells (HGEC), non-metastatic (101A) and metastatic (101B) OSCC cell lines were exposed to different tobacco product preparations (TPPs) including cigarette smoke total particulate matter (TPM), whole-smoke conditioned media (WS-CM), smokeless tobacco extract in complete artificial saliva (STE), or nicotine (NIC) alone. We performed microarray-based gene expression profiling and found 3456 probe sets from 101A, 1432 probe sets from 101B, and 2717 probe sets from HGEC to be differentially expressed. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) revealed xenobiotic metabolism and steroid biosynthesis were the top two pathways that were upregulated by combustible but not by non-combustible TPPs. Notably, aldo-keto reductase genes, AKR1C1 and AKR1C2, were the core genes in the top enriched pathways and were statistically upregulated more than 8 fold by combustible TPPs. Our qRT-PCR results statistically support AKR1C1 as a potential biomarker for differentiating the biological effects of combustible from non-combustible tobacco products.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0271.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: oral microbiome; systemic disease; gingival sulcus; junctional epithelium; mucosal barrier; biofilm; leaky gut; leaky gum
Online: 22 February 2022 (11:18:15 CET)
The oral cavity is the gateway for microorganisms into your body where they disseminate not only to the directly connected respiratory and digestive tracts, but also to the many remote organs. Oral microbiota, traveling to the end of the intestine and circulating our body through blood vessels, not only affect a gut microbiome profile, but also many systemic diseases. By gathering information accumulated from the era of focal infection theory to the age of revolution in microbiome research, we propose a pivotal role of “leaky gum”, as an analogy of “leaky gut”, to underscore the importance of the oral cavity in systemic health. The oral cavity has unique structures, the gingival sulcus (GS) and the junctional epithelium (JE) below the GS, which are rarely found anywhere else in our body. The JE is attached to the tooth enamel and cementum by hemidesmosome (HD), which is structurally weaker than desmosome and is thus vulnerable to microbial infiltration. In the GS, microbial biofilms can build up for life, unlike the biofilms on the skin and intestinal mucosa that fall off by natural process. Thus, we emphasize that the GS and the JE are the weakest leaky point for microbes to invade human body, making the leaky gum just as important as, or even more important than, the leaky gut.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Intraoral Scanners; Intra-Oral Scanners; CAD/CAM; Digital Dentistry; Trueness; Precision; Accuracy; Scanners; Lab Scanners
Online: 10 May 2021 (10:44:19 CEST)
(1) Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the full arch scan accuracy (precision and trueness) of nine digital intra-oral scanners and four lab scanners. Previous studies have compared the accuracy of some intra-oral scanners, but as this is a field of quickly developing technologies, a more up-to-date study was needed to assess the capabilities of currently available models.; (2) Methods: The present in vitro study compared nine different intraoral scanners (Omnicam 4.6; Omnicam 5.1; Primescan; CS 3600; Trios 3; Trios 4; Runyes; i500 and DL206) as well as four lab light scanners (Einscan SE; 300e; E2 and Ineos X5) to investigate the accuracy of each scanner by examining the overall trueness and precision. Ten aligned and cut scans from each of the intra-oral and lab scanners in the in vitro study were brought into CloudCompare. A comparison was made with the master STL using the CloudCompare 3D analysis best-fit algorithm. The results were recorded along with individual standard deviation and a colorimetric map of the deviation across the surface of the STL mesh; a comparison was made to the master STL, quantified at specific points. ; (3) Results: In the present study, the Primescan had the best overall trueness (17.3 ± 4.9). Followed by (in order of increasing deviation) the Trios 4 (20.8 ± 6.2), i500 (25.2 ± 7.3), CS3600 (26.9 ± 15.9), Trios 3 (27.7 ± 6.8), Runyes (47.2 ± 5.4), Omnicam 5.1 (55.1 ± 9.5), Omnicam 4.6 (57.5 ± 3.2) and Launca DL206 (58.5 ± 22.0). Regarding the lab light scanners, the Ineos X5 had the best overall trueness with (0.0 ± 1.9). Followed by (in order of increasing deviation) the 3Shape E2 (3.6 ± 2.2), Up3D 300E (12.8 ± 2.7), and Einscan SE (14.9 ± 9.5); (4) Conclusions: This study confirms that all current generations of intra-oral digital scanners can capture a reliable, reproducible full arch scan in dentate patients. Out of the intra-oral scanners tested, no scanner produced results significantly similar in trueness to the Ineos X5. However, the Primescan was the only one to be statistically of a similar level of trueness to the 3Shape E2 lab scanner. All scanners in the study had mean trueness of under 60-micron deviation. While this study can compare the scanning accuracy of this sample in a dentate arch, the scanning of a fully edentulous arch is more challenging. The accuracy of these scanners in edentulous cases should be examined in further studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0464.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: tumor-associated macrophage; exosomes; extracellular vesicles; heat shock proteins; oral cancer; fluorescent labeling of exosomes
Online: 19 April 2021 (11:50:52 CEST)
Tumor-associated macrophages are a key component in the tumor microenvironment, secreting extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as exosomes and other various factors for intercellular communication. However, macrophage-derived EVs heterogeneity and their cytotoxicity to cancer cells has not been well understood. Here, we aimed to separately isolate various types of macro-phage-EVs by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) method and investigate EV transmission and cytotoxicity to oral cancer cells. For fluorescence-labeling of cellular and EV membranes, palmitoylation signal-fused GFP and tdTomato were expressed in THP-1 monocytic cells and HSC-3 oral cancer cells, respectively. We found that fluorescence-labeled EVs secreted by macrophages were highly transmissive to oral cancer cells than those from parental monocytic cells. In a co-culture system and conditioned medium (CM), a macrophage-secreted unidentified factor was cytotoxic to oral cancer cells. We fractionated macrophage-derived EVs by the SEC method and performed western blotting to characterize various EV types. Three fractions were characterized: small exosomes (EXO-S: < 50 nm) fraction containing HSP90α, HSP90β, CD63 (EV marker) and β-actin; large exosomes (EXO-L: 50-200 nm) fraction containing CD9 (EV marker) and HSP90β; large EVs (100-500 nm) fraction. Notably, the macrophage-derived small exosomes fraction was cytotoxic to oral cancer cells, while large exosomes and large EVs were not. There-fore, it was implicated that macrophage-derived small exosomes are cytotoxic with high trans-mission potential to cancer cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0090.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: periodontal disease; periodontitis; early tooth loss; predictive model; risk factors; oral health; public health; epidemiology
Online: 5 January 2021 (13:03:13 CET)
The aim of this study was to develop and validate a predictive early tooth loss multivariable model for periodontitis patients before periodontal treatment. A total of 544 patients seeking periodontal care at a university dental hospital were enrolled in the study. Teeth extracted after periodontal diagnosis and due to periodontal reasons were recorded. Clinical and sociodemographic variables were analyzed, considering the risk of short-term tooth loss. This study followed the Transparent Reporting of a multivariable prediction model for Individual Prognosis Or Diagnosis (TRIPOD) guidelines for development and validation, with two cohorts considered as follows: 455 patients in the development phase and 99 in the validation phase. As a result, it was possible to compute a predictive model based on tooth type and clinical attachment loss. The model explained 25.3% of the total variability and correctly ranked 98.9% of the cases. The final reduced model area under the curve (AUC) was 0.809 (95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 0.629 - 0.989) for the validation sample and 0.920 (95% CI: 0.891 - 0.950) for the development cohort. The established model presented adequate prediction potential of early tooth loss due to periodontitis. This model may have clinical and epidemiologic relevance towards the prediction of tooth loss burden.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0345.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: action planning; coping planning; health education; oral care behavior; periodontal disease; theory of planned behavior
Online: 30 September 2019 (08:15:24 CEST)
Background: Strengthening adherence to self-care behaviors in patients with periodontal disease (PD) and reducing plaque index is crucial for improving PD treatment. We evaluated the effectiveness of a theory of planned behavior (TPB)-based health education intervention involving planning strategy on self-care behaviors in patients with PD. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted; 158 and 139 patients comprised the experimental group (EG) and control group (CG), respectively. Both groups received a leaflet, and the EG also received a planning intervention, which was a brief one-on-one counseling session with a planning sheet. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Between-group comparisons of TPB measures revealed significant differences in all domains when controlling for baseline covariates. The EG exhibited significantly higher levels of action and coping planning than the CG at 2-week follow-up (effect size (ES) = 5.54 and 5.57, respectively) and 6-week follow-up (ES = 5.66 and 5.66, respectively). Between-group differences in changes of brushing behaviors increased significantly. More frequent use of dental floss was observed in the EG than in the CG at 2-week and 6-week follow-ups (24.7% and 22.8%, respectively). Conclusions: The intervention involving planning strategy effectively promoted adherence to self-care behaviors in patients with PD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0179.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: oral squamous cell carcinoma; HLA class I; antigen processing machinery; immune cell infiltration; immune escape; prognosis
Online: 11 January 2021 (10:47:25 CET)
Progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been associated with an escape of tumor cells from the host immune surveillance due to an increased knowledge of its underlying molecular mechanisms and its modulation by the tumor microenvironment and immune cell repertoire. In this study the expression of HLA class I (HLA-I) antigens and of components of the antigen processing machinery (APM) was analyzed in 160 pathologically classified human papilloma virus (HPV)-negative OSCC lesions and correlated to the intra-tumoral immune cell response, IFN- signaling and to the patients outcome. A heterogeneous, but predominantly lower constitutive protein expression of HLA-I APM components was found in OSCC sections when compared to non-neoplastic cells. Tumoral HLA-I APM component expression was further categorized into the three major phenotypes HLA-Ihigh/APMhigh, HLA-Ilow/APMlow and HLA-Idiscordant high/low/APMhigh. In the HLA-Ihigh/APMhigh group, the highest frequency of intra-tumoral CD8+ T cells and lowest number of CD8+ T cells close to FoxP3+ cells was found. Patients within this group presented the most unfavorable survival, which was significantly evident in stage T2 tumors. Despite a correlation with the number of intra-tumoral CD8+ T cells, tumoral JAK1 expression as a surrogate marker for IFN- signaling was not associated with HLA-I/APM expression. Thus, the presented findings strongly indicate the presence of additional factors involved in the immunomodulatory process of HPV-negative OSCC with a possible tumor-burden-dependent complex network of immune escape mechanisms beyond HLA-I/APM components and T cell infiltration in this tumor entity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0238.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: oral squamous cell carcinoma; HLA class I; antigen processing machinery; immune cell infiltration; immune escape; prognosis
Online: 10 September 2020 (11:37:28 CEST)
Progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been associated with an escape of tumor cells from the host immune surveillance with growing evidence of its underlying molecular mechanisms and its interaction with the immune cell control. In this study the expression of HLA class I (HLA-I) antigens and of components of the antigen processing machinery (APM) was analyzed in 160 consecutive human papilloma virus (HPV)-negative OSCC lesions and correlated to tumor specific parameters, the intratumoral immune cell response and to the patients outcome. A heterogeneous, but predominantly lower constitutive protein expression of HLA-I APM components was seen in OSCC sections when compared to non-neoplastic cells. Based on the expression levels of HLA-I APM components three main OSCC subgroups were detected and categorized into HLA-Ihigh/APMhigh, HLA-Ilow/APMlow and HLA-Idiscordant high/low/APMhigh phenotypes. In the HLA-Ihigh/APMhigh group, the highest frequency of intratumoral CD8+ T cells and lowest number of CD8+ T cells close to FoxP3 cells was found. Despite being associated with the highest T cell infiltration, patients within this group presented the most unfavorable survival, which was most evident in stage T2 tumors. Thus, the presented findings strongly indicate the presence of additional factors involved in the immunomodulatory process of HPV-negative OSCC with a possible tumor-burden-dependent complex network of immune escape mechanisms beyond HLA-I/APM components and T cell infiltration in this tumor entity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0557.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: transplantation; dental implant; marginal bone loss; implant failure rate; systematic review; periodontitis; periodontal diseases; oral health
Online: 25 August 2020 (13:45:34 CEST)
This systematic review investigates the failure rate and marginal bone loss (MBL) of dental implants placed in Solid-organ transplant (SOT) patients compared to healthy controls. Three databases (PubMed, Web of Sciences and the Cochrane Library) were searched up to June 2020 (PROSPERO CRD42019124896). Case-control and cohort studies reporting data failure rate and marginal bone loss (MBL) of dental implants placed in SOT patients were included. The risk of bias of observational studies was assessed through the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Four case-control studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, all of low risk of bias. Meta-analyses revealed consistently lower implant failure rate than control populations at patient and implant levels. SOT patients had a significant difference of -18% (p-value <0.001) of MLB towards healthy patients. SOT status poses no serious threat to implant survival. Overall, this group of patients presented lower levels of dental implant failure rate and marginal bone loss compared to otherwise healthy patients. Further intervention trials with wider sample size and longer follow-ups are necessary to confirm these summary results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0301.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: tumor blood vessel; Tumor Angiogenic Inhibition Triggered Necrosis (TAITN); CXCR4 antagonist; oral squamous cell carcinoma; hypoxia
Online: 28 June 2019 (15:18:43 CEST)
CXCR4 is a chemokine receptor crucial in tumor progression, although the angiogenic role of CXCR4 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has not been investigated. Here we show that CXCR4 is crucial for tumor angiogenesis thereby supports tumor survival in OSCC. Immunohistochemistry on human clinical specimens revealed that CXCR4 and a tumor vasculature marker CD34 were co-distributed in tumor vessels in human OSCC specimens. To ask the effects of CXCR4 inhibition, we treated the OSCC-xenografted mice with AMD3100, so-called plerixafor, an antagonist of CXCR4. Notably, we found a unique pathophysiological structure defined as Tumor Angiogenic Inhibition Triggered Necrosis (TAITN) induced by the CXCR4 antagonism. Treatment with AMD3100 increased necrotic area with the induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in the xenografted tumors, suggesting that AMD3100-induced TAITN was involved in hypoxia and ischemia. Taken together, we demonstrated that CXCR4 plays a crucial role in tumor angiogenesis required for OSCC progression, whereas TAITN induced by CXCR4 antagonism could be an effective anti-angiogenic therapeutic strategy in OSCC treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0595.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: nanoemulsion; oral delivery; ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid derivative; MDA-MB-231; triple-negative breast cancer
Online: 30 September 2018 (05:14:34 CEST)
Lipid-based drugs are emerging as an interesting class of novel anticancer drugs with the potential to target specific cancer cell metabolic pathway linked to their proliferation and invasiveness. In particular, ω−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) derivatives such as epoxides and their bioisosteres have demonstrated the potential to suppress growth and promote apoptosis in triple-negative human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231. In this study 16-(4’-chloro-3’-trifluorophenyl)carbamoylamino]hexadecanoic acid (ClFPh-CHA), an anticancer lipid derived from ω−3,17,18-epoxyeicosanoic acid, was formulated as a stable nanoemulsion with size around 150 nm and narrow droplet size distribution (PDI<0.200) through phase-inversion emulsification process followed by high pressure homogenization in view of an oral administration. The ClFPh-CHA-loaded nanoemulsions were able to significantly decrease the relative tumor volume in mice bearing an intramammary tumor xenograft at all doses tested (2.5, 10 and 40 mg/kg) after 32 days of daily oral administration. Furthermore, absolute tumor weight was decreased to 50% of untreated control at 10 and 40 mg/kg, while intraperitoneal administration could achieve a significant reduction only at the highest dose of 40 mg/kg. Results suggest that oral administration of ClFPh-CHA formulated as a nanoemulsion has a sufficient bioavailability to provide an anticancer effect in mice and that the activity is at least equal if not superior to that obtained by a conventional parenteral administration of equivalent doses of the same drug.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: oral health; dental checkup; Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES); dental care; dental service utilization
Online: 15 March 2021 (10:57:43 CET)
To identify gender- and age-related associations between adult dental checkups and unmet dental care needs, we analyzed data of 14,000 participants, ages ≥ 19, from the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2016–2018) (KNHANES VII). Data was collected via self-report questionnaires and interviews. Complex sample chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis indicated 31.7% of participants had unmet dental care needs; in the prior 12months, 67.1% had not utilized dental services, and 43.3% had not received dental checkups. Odds ratios (ORs) for dental checkups and unmet dental needs were 8.87 (CI:7.80–10.09, p < 0.001) for those who used dental services and 1.28 (CI: 1.13–1.44, p < 0.001) for those who had not. Significant age-dependent associations between those not receiving dental checkups and the rate of unmet dental care include men and women aged 50–59 years (OR: 1.77; CI = 1.22–2.58 and OR: 1.43; CI: 1.02–2.02; p = 0.040, respectively) and women ≥ 70 years (OR = 1.79, CI = 1.20–2.66, p = 0.004). Reducing unmet dental care needs requires greater public health promotion and education regarding regular dental checkups; additional practical strategies could enhance dental checkup compliance.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: alcohol; cancer; ethanol; tobacco; carcinogenesis; oral cavity; pharynx; esophagus; stem cells; stem cell division theory of cancer
Online: 16 August 2016 (09:45:33 CEST)
Epidemiological data indicate that 5.8% of cancer deaths world-wide are attributable to alcohol consumption. The risk of cancer is higher in tissues in closest contact on ingestion of alcohol, such as the oral cavity, pharynx and esophagus. The risk of these cancers is increased even in people who have only one alcoholic drink per day. However, since ethanol is not mutagenic and the carcinogenic metabolite of ethanol (acetaldehyde) is mostly produced in the liver, it is not clear why alcohol use preferentially exerts a local carcinogenic effect. It is well known that ethanol causes cell death at the concentrations present in alcoholic beverages; however, this effect has been overlooked probably because dead cells cannot give rise to cancer. Here I discuss that the cytotoxic effect of ethanol on the cells lining the oral cavity, pharynx and esophagus activates the division of the stem cells located in deeper layers of the mucosa to replace the dead cells. Every time stem cells divide, they become exposed to unavoidable errors associated with cell division (e.g., mutations arising during DNA replication and chromosomal alterations occurring during mitosis) and also become highly vulnerable to the genotoxic activity of endogenous and exogenous DNA-damaging agents (e.g., reactive oxygen species, acetaldehyde and tobacco carcinogens). Alcohol consumption probably increases the risk of developing cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx and esophagus by promoting the accumulation of cell divisions in the stem cells that maintain these tissues in homeostasis. Because the cytotoxic activity of ethanol is concentration-dependent, the risk of these cancers will not only increase with increasing amounts of ethanol, but also with increasing concentrations; an ounce of whisky is probably more carcinogenic when taken undiluted than when taken mixed with non-alcoholic beverages. The local cytotoxic effect of ethanol can also explain the known synergistic effect of alcohol and tobacco use on the risk of these cancers. Understanding the mechanisms of carcinogenicity of alcohol is important to reinforce the epidemiological evidence and to raise public awareness of the strong link between alcohol consumption and cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0407.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: Parenteral fluids in premature infants; late premature infants; infections associated with the use of lines; early oral feeds
Online: 5 September 2022 (13:05:52 CEST)
Introduction: Some of the practices in medicine are carried out of habit without proven benefits. This is the case of premature babies from 30 to 34 weeks of gestation who are always given parenteral fluids, even though this practice has been associated with an increase incidence of infection. At the end of 2017, we started a protocol of rationalization in the use of parenteral fluid. To administer nutrition/fluids, we used oral fluids by suction if this was possible or otherwise by oral/nasogastric tube at volumes of 70-80 mL/Kg/day divided every 3 hours, with 5 mL increments every 12-24 hours until 200 mL/K/day was achieved, always using breast milk when possible. Material and methods: The present study sought to compare results before and after this new policy. For this work, we review all premature babies between 30-34 weeks of gestation in two time periods, the first from 01/01/2010 to 12/31/2017 and the second from 01/01/2018 to 08/15/2022. The number of cases with and without parenteral fluids (PF), the incidence of infection, the weight at admission and discharge, and the change in the weight Z score between birth and discharge were compared. Both the anthropometric and outcome variables were compared using the different statistical methods according to each variable. Results: were found 920 cases with the described characteristics. The groups before and after the intervention did not show significant differences in their general demographic characteristics. We observed a decrease use of PF in the second period, from 425 cases (82.0%) before to 297 (26.2%) after implementation, p <0.0001 and fewer days of use (4.1 days/average before vs 1.3 after, p <0.0001) of PF. The weight at discharge and the change in weight Z-score were the same in both groups. Infections went from nine cases before to two cases after but it was not statistically significant. There were no complications due to less use of PF. Discussion: This study showed that the use of PF is not associated with significant changes in outcomes of interest, which reinforces that its use does not generate any benefit for the patient. Larger number of cases is required to detect differences in low incidence events such as infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0023.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: plant defense; herbivory; mechanical wounding; oral secretions; induced volatiles; SpitWorm; MecWorm; Phaseolus lunatus; Spodoptera littoralis; volatile organic compounds
Online: 1 July 2019 (16:08:11 CEST)
Induction of jasmonate-mediated plant defense against insect herbivory is initiated by a combination of both, mechanical wounding and chemical factors. In order to study both effects independently on plant defense induction, SpitWorm, a computer-controlled device which mimics the damage pattern of feeding insect larvae on leaves and, in addition, can apply oral secretions (OS) or other solutions to the ‘biting site’ during ‘feeding’, was developed and evaluated. The amount of OS left by a Spodoptera littoralis larva during feeding on Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean) leaves was estimated by combining larval foregut volume, biting rate, and quantification of a fluorescent dye injected into the larvae’s foregut prior to feeding. For providing OS amounts by SpitWorm equivalent to larval feeding, dilution and delivery rate were optimized. The effectiveness of SpitWorm was tested by comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions of P. lunatus leaves treated with either SpitWorm, MecWorm or S. littoralis larvae. Identification and quantification of emitted VOCs revealed that SpitWorm induced a volatile bouquet that is qualitatively and quantitatively similar to herbivory. Additionally, RT-qPCR of four jasmonic acid responsive genes showed that SpitWorm, in contrast to MecWorm, induces the same regulation pattern as insect feeding. Thus, SpitWorm mimics insect herbivory almost identical to real larvae feeding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0185.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: pediatric pharmacy; complementary alternative medicine; dietary interventions; oral manifestations; chronic pediatric conditions; ketogenic diet; gluten free casein free diet
Online: 8 November 2018 (03:55:15 CET)
Complementary and alternative treatment approaches are becoming more common among children with chronic conditions. The pravelance of CAM use among US adults was estimated to be around 42% in 2015, and around 44% to 50% among adults with neurologic disorders. Studies report children with chronic illnesses such as cancer, asthma, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), genetic disorders, and other neurodevelopmental disorders are treated with complementary and alternative treatments at higher rates. Dietary therapies are gaining increasing popularity in the mainstream population, due to the heavy media involvement. Although, majority of “fad” diets do not have enough supporting evidence, some dietary therapies have been utilized for decades and have numerous published studies. The objective of this review is to describe the dietary interventions used in children with the specific chronic conditions, to evaluate their efficacy based on published data, and to encourage pharmacist involvement in the management and care of such patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: vitamin D3, D2, calcitriol, oral, topical, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, psoriasis, skin diseases, UVB, phototherapy, sunshine, COVID-19, regulatory T lymphocytes
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:44:17 CET)
Vitamin D, sunshine and UVB phototherapy were first reported in the early 1900s to control psoriasis, cure rickets and cure tuberculosis (TB). Vitamin D also controlled asthma and rheumatoid arthritis with intakes ranging from 60,000 to 600,000 International Units (IU)/day. In the 1980s interest in treating psoriasis with vitamin D rekindled. Since 1985 four different oral forms of vitamin D (D2, D3, 1-hydroxyvitaminD3 (1(OH)D3) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitaminD3 (calcitriol)) and several topical formulations have been reported safe and effective treatments for psoriasis—as has UVB phototherapy and sunshine. In this review we show that many pre-treatment serum 25(OH)D concentrations fall within the current range of normal, while many post-treatment concentrations fall outside the upper limit of this normal (100 ng/ml). Yet, psoriasis patients showed significant clinical improvement without complications using these treatments. Current estimates of vitamin D sufficiency appear to underestimate serum 25(OH)D concentrations required for optimal health in psoriasis patients, while concentrations associated with adverse events appear to be much higher than current estimates of safe serum 25(OH)D concentrations. Based on these observations, the therapeutic index for vitamin D needs to be reexamined in the treatment of psoriasis and other diseases strongly linked to vitamin D deficiency, including COVID-19 infections, which may also improve safely with sufficient vitamin D intake or UVB exposure.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery; Weight loss; Food intake; Oral glucose tolerance; Leptin; Leptin receptors; Zucker Fatty fa/fa rats
Online: 12 February 2021 (13:11:41 CET)
Leptin is the archetypal adipokine that promotes a negative whole-body energy balance largely through its action on brain leptin receptors. As such, the sustained weight loss and food intake suppression induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery have been attributed to enhancement of leptin receptor signalling. We formally revisited this idea in Zucker Fatty fa/fa rats, an established genetic model of leptin receptor deficiency, and carefully compared their body weight, food intake and oral glucose tolerance after RYGB with that of sham-operated fa/fa (obese) and sham-operated fa/+ (lean) rats. We found that RYGB rats sustainably lost body weight, which converged with that of lean rats and was 25.5 % lower than that of obese rats by the end of the 4 week study period. Correspondingly, daily food intake of RYGB rats was similar to that of lean rats from the second postoperative week, while it was always at least 33.9 % lower than that of obese rats. Further, oral glucose tolerance of RYGB rats was normalized at the forth postoperative week. These findings assert that leptin is not an essential mediator of the sustained weight loss and food intake suppression as well as the improved glycemic control induced by RYGB, and instead point to additional circulating and/or neural factors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0249.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: X-linked hypophosphatemia; fibroblast growth factor 23; osteomalacia; enthesopathy; secondary hyperparathyroidism; tertiary hyperparathyroidism; chronic kidney disease; oral disease; quality of life; burosumab
Online: 19 May 2022 (04:03:47 CEST)
Adult X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) patients present with specific symptoms, including enthesopathies (e.g., ossification of the longitudinal ligament (OPLL), osteophytes around the large joint, and enthesopathy in the Achilles tendon), the development of severe secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT/THPT) and the subsequent progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In addition, these patients exhibit the typical phenotypes of osteomalacia, such as pseudofracture and fracture in weight-bearing bones, odontitis, and tooth abscess. The mechanism underlying enthesopathy development is unknown; however, a common underlying mechanism among XLH and autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets, ARHR1.2, due to mutations in PHEX, DMP1, and ENPP1, is assumed. Clarification of the pathogenesis and drug discovery for this complication is an urgent issue to address, as many adult XLH patients suffer subsequent debilitating nervus symptoms or impingement syndrome, and existing treatments are ineffective. Severe SHPT and THPT are associated with conventional therapy, including active vitamin D and phosphate supplementation, and complicated and careful adjustment of the dosage by experienced clinicians is required to avoid SHPT/THPT. Burosumab is a very effective therapy without risk for the development of SHPT/THPT. However, the indication of this drug should be carefully considered along with the cost-effectiveness, guidelines or recommendations and health care system of each country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0744.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Aerosols; dental clinics; infection control; high-volume evacuation; extra-oral suction device; particle concentration; sensor network; dispersion modeling; exposure assessment; air quality
Online: 28 April 2021 (10:32:57 CEST)
Human exposure to infectious aerosols results a transmission of diseases, such as influenza, tuberculosis, and COVID-19. Most dental procedures generate a significant number of aerosolized particles, increasing transmission risk in dental settings. Since the generation of aerosols in dentistry is unavoidable, many clinics started using intervention strategies such as area-filtration units and extraoral evacuation equipment, especially under the relatively recent constraints of the pandemics. However, the effectiveness of these devices in dental operatories has not been studied. Therefore, the dental personnel's ability to position and operate such instruments efficiently is also limited. To address these challenges, we utilized a real-time sensor network for assessment of aerosol dynamics during dental restoration and cleaning producers with and without intervention. The strategies tested during the procedures were (i) local area high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and (ii) extra-oral suction device (EOSD). The study was conducted at the University of Washington School of Dentistry using a network of thirteen fixed sensors positioned within the operatory and one wearable sensor worn by the dental operator. The sensor network provides time and space-resolved particulate matter (PM) data. Three-dimensional (3D) visualization informs aerosol persistence in the operatory. It was found that area filters did not improve the overall aerosol concentration in dental offices significantly. An average of 16% decrease in PM concentration was observed when EOSD equipment was used during the procedures. The combination of real-time sensors and 3D visualization can provide dental personnel and facility mangers with actionable feedback to effectively assess aerosol transmission in medical settings and develop evidence-based intervention strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0233.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: primate hand use; primate grooming; manual grooming; object manipulation; primate evolution; oral grooming; object play; tool use; Machiavellian Intelligence; Bayesian decision theory
Online: 20 September 2019 (06:39:59 CEST)
The evolution of manual grooming and its implications have received little attention in the quest to understand the origins of simian primates and their social and technical intelligence. All simians groom manually, whereas prosimians groom orally despite comparable manual dexterity between some members of the two groups. Simians also exhibit a variable propensity for the manipulation of inanimate, non-food objects, which has culminated in tool making and tool use in some species. However, lemuriform primates also seem capable of tool use with training. Furthermore, lemuriforms appear to understand the concept of a tool and use their own body parts as “tools”, despite not using inanimate objects. This suggests that prosimian primates are pre-adapted for proprioceptive object manipulation and tool use, but do not express these cognitive abilities by default. This essay explores the paleontological, anatomical, cognitive, ethological, and neurological roots of these abilities and attempts to explain this behavioural divide between simians and prosimians. Common misconceptions about early primate evolution and captive behaviours are addressed, and chronological inconsistencies with Machiavellian Intelligence are examined. A “licking to picking” hypothesis is also proposed to explain a potential link between manual grooming and object manipulation, and to reconcile the inconsistencies of Machiavellian Intelligence. Bayesian decision theory, the evolution of the parietal cortex and enhanced proprioception, and analogies with behavioural changes resulting from artificial selection may help provide new insights into the minds of both our primate kin and ourselves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0141.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Regenerative dentistry; 3D printing; biomimetic; bioinspired materials; MSC; cell colonization; Tissue engineering; Regenerative medicine; Oral Bone; Tissue Regeneration; biocolonization; CDHA, MTT; LDH; SEM; FDM
Online: 8 November 2022 (03:03:17 CET)
This paper presents a proof-of-concept study on the biocolonization of 3D-printed hydroxyapatite scaffolds with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Three-dimensional (3D) printed biomimetic bone structure made of Calcium Deficient HydroxyApatite (CDHA) intended as future bone graft was made from newly developed composite material for FDM printing. The biopolymer polyvinyl alcohol serves in this material as a thermoplastic binder for 3D molding of the printed object with a passive function and is completely removed during sintering. The study presents the material, the process of fused deposition modeling (FDM) of CDHA scaffolds and its post-processing at three temperatures (1200, 1300, 1400 °C), as well it evaluates the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of scaffolds with MTT and LDH release assays after 14 days. The study also includes a morphological evaluation of the cellular colonization with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in two different filament orientations (rectilinear and gyroid). The results of the MTT assay showed that the tested material was not toxic, and cells were preserved in both orientations, with most cells present on the material fired at 1300°C. Results of the LDH release assay showed a slight increase in LDH leakage from all samples. Visual evaluation of SEM confirmed the ideal post-processing temperature of the 3D-printed FDM framework for samples fired at 1300°C and 1400°C, with a porosity of 0.3 mm between filaments. In conclusion, the presented fabrication and colonization of CDHA scaffolds have great potential to be used in the tissue engineering of bones.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0361.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; foodborne viruses; enteric viruses; fecal-oral transmission; fresh produce, berries, fruits, hepatitis A virus, Norovirus, ready-to-eat foods.
Online: 18 September 2020 (10:35:33 CEST)
Background:Although highly strict social distancing and viral spread protection guidelines are in force, the reported numbers of COVID-19 cases across the world are still increasing. This indicates that we are still unable to completely understand the transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2. One of the possible routes that can play a significant role is the fecal-oral transmission since SARS-CoV-2 can replicate in the intestines as demonstrated by isolation of infectious virus from fecal samples of COVID-19 cases. Scope and approach:In this review, we compare the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 with the distinctive characteristics of enteric foodborne viruses. We also discuss and respond to the arguments given in some reports that downplay the importance of foodborne transmission route of SARS-CoV-2. Key findings and conclusions:Enteric viruses such as human noroviruses (HuNoVs) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are known to transmit through foods such as fresh produce and berries, leading to frequent multistate foodborne disease outbreaks all over the world. SARS-CoV-2 was found to share four distinctive characteristics of foodborne viruses that allow them to transmit through foods. This similarity in characteristics, recent report of detecting SARS-CoV-2 particles from frozen food packages in China, and recent suspected foodborne COVID-19 case in New Zealand, indicate that foodborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is more evident than previously thought possible. To support or deny this route of transmission, urgent research needs to be undertaken to answer two primary questions and many secondary ones as described in this review.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0153.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; 2019-nCoV; COVID-19; angiotensin converting enzyme 2; Receptor; Live Attenuated Oral Vaccine; Intestine; proximal and distal enterocytes; herd immunity
Online: 9 April 2020 (13:10:50 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2/2019-nCoV) infection is an emerging pandemic. The virus binds to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and TMPRSS2 which are abundantly expressed on various human cells including lung epithelial cells and intestinal cells and the virus can infect these cells. Currently no specific treatments or vaccines are available for this disease. A per oral live attenuated vaccine can be beneficial in SARS-Cov-2 infection because the attenuated virus initially infects the gut, stimulates the mucosa associated immune system sparing the respiratory system during the initial immune response. The live virus can also spread in the community boosting herd immunity.