Lee, Y.-H.; Chung, S.W.; Auh, Q.-S.; Hong, S.-J.; Lee, Y.-A.; Jung, J.; Lee, G.-J.; Park, H.J.; Shin, S.-I.; Hong, J.-Y. Progress in Oral Microbiome Related to Oral and Systemic Diseases: An Update. Diagnostics2021, 11, 1283.
Lee, Y.-H.; Chung, S.W.; Auh, Q.-S.; Hong, S.-J.; Lee, Y.-A.; Jung, J.; Lee, G.-J.; Park, H.J.; Shin, S.-I.; Hong, J.-Y. Progress in Oral Microbiome Related to Oral and Systemic Diseases: An Update. Diagnostics 2021, 11, 1283.
The human oral microbiome refers to an ecological community of symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms found in the oral cavity. The oral cavity is a suitable environment that provides various kinds of biological niches such as teeth, tongue, and oral mucosa. The oral cavity is the gateway between the external environment and the human body, maintaining oral homeostasis, protecting the mouth, and preventing disease. On the flip side, the oral microbiome plays an important role in triggering, development, and progression of oral and systemic diseases. Currently, disease diagnosis through the analysis of the human oral microbiome has been realized with the recent development of innovative detection technology, and is overwhelmingly promising compared to the previous era. It has been found that patients with oral diseases and systemic diseases have variations in the oral microbiome compared to normal subjects. This narrative review provides insight into the pathophysiological role that oral microbiome plays in influencing oral and systemic diseases, and updates the knowledge related to the oral microbiome over the past 30 years. A wide range of updates was provided with the latest knowledge of the oral microbiome to help researchers and clinicians in both academic and clinical aspects. The microbial community information can be utilized in non-invasive diagnosis and help develop a new paradigm in precision medicine, which will benefit human health in the era of post-metagenomics.
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