ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1237.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Metabolic complications; critically ill; nutritrauma; medical nutrition therapy; enteral nutrition; parenteral nutrition.
Online: 16 June 2023 (12:10:10 CEST)
Aims: Medical Nutritional Treatment (MNT) can be complex and associated to potential meta-bolic complications, which has been recently described as Nutritrauma. There is no data on the effect of applying this strategy in clinical practice. The aim of our work is to describe if applica-tion of Nutritrauma concept in real live is useful to detect metabolic complications associated to the prescription of MNT in critically ill patients. Methods: In this descriptive prospective study at a single center, we enrolled 30 consecutive crit-ical ill patients of a 14 beds medical – surgical Intensive Care Unit. The Nutritrauma strategy implementation was based in four M steps: Metabolic screening, MNT prescription, Biochemical Monitoring and Nutritional Management. The primary endpoint was to describe the metabolic complications of the MNT detected with Nutritrauma strategy. Secondary endpoint was to de-scribe the most frequent causes of inappropriate prescription. Results: We analysed 28 patients (mean age 69,7 ± 11,3 years; APACHE II 18,1 ± 8,1, SOFA 7,5 ± 3,7; Nutric Score modified 4,3 ± 2,01 and mean BMI 27,2 ± 3,8). The most frequent disease on admission was sepsis (46,4%). Length of ICU stay was 20,6 ± 15,1 days and 39,3% died during the ICU stay. Enteral nutrition (82,1%) was more frequent than parenteral nutrition (17,9%). During nutritional monitoring 54 specific analytical determinations were made. Hyperglycemia was the most frequent metabolic alteration (83,3% of the determinations). Electrolyte disturbance were hypocalcemia (50%), hypophosphatemia (29,6%) and hypokalemia (27,8%). The most frequent lipid profile abnormality were hypocholesterolemia (64,8%) and hypertriglyceridemia (27,8%). Furthermore, nutritional prescription was modified in the 53,6% of patients: increase protein dosage (25%), increase caloric dosage (21,4%) and change to an organ-specific diet (17,8%). Conclusions: The application of Nutritrauma strategy facilitate the detection of metabolic com-plications and the evaluation of the appropiate prescription of the MNT.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0256.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: workforce nutrition; nutrition outcomes; health outcomes; business outcomes; healthy food; health checks; nutrition counselling; nutrition education; breastfeeding support
Online: 14 March 2023 (12:25:34 CET)
One in three people globally suffer from at least one form of malnutrition, leading to poor health outcomes and low productivity in the workplace. The workplace offers an important, relatively unexploited opportunity to address malnutrition in all its forms. This literature review aims to understand the potential for impact of workforce nutrition programmes on nutrition, health, and business outcomes, based on high-strength-of-evidence studies. We conducted a systematic search on PubMed and a rapid hand-search on Google Scholar to identify systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and randomized controlled trials published between January 2010 and October 2021. In total, 26 records were included. We found that comprehensive workforce nutrition programmes, including a variety of intervention areas, and/or programmes targeting high-risk categories of workers (overweight/obese or (pre-)diabetic) were more likely to be effective on nutrition, health, and business outcomes. Within comprehensive and targeted programmes, individualized counselling and environmental modifications were often mentioned as the most effective components. However, a high degree of heterogeneity in outcome measures and programme designs made it difficult to draw strong conclusions on impact of workforce nutrition interventions. Limited evidence was found on business outcomes, longer-term effects of interventions, and programme implementation in LMICs. Therefore, further research is needed to address these evidence gaps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0820.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Dietary Pattern; Dietary Diversity Score; Nutrition Knowledge; Nutrition Attitudes
Online: 12 June 2023 (10:13:16 CEST)
Healthy eating behaviour of women is critical not only for their health but also for their children's health and well-being. The present study examined the dietary pattern, nutrition knowledge and attitudes of working women in Western Province, Sri Lanka. In addition, identify the factors associated with Dietary Diversity Score (DDS). A cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 working women, aged 20-60 years, in Western Province, Sri Lanka. The data on so-cio-demography, dietary patterns, and nutrition-related knowledge and attitudes were collected. Overall, 38% of the women were overweight and 13% were obese. The median frequency of intake of chicken, fish, eggs, milk and milk products, green leafy vegetables and fruits were 2, 5, 2, 9, 5 and 10 respectively, per week. A large majority of the women (70%) had tea/coffee with sugar and snacks (60%) at least four times a week. Only a third of the women met the minimum DDS, while more than half of the women had good nutrition-related knowledge and attitudes. Multiple regression analysis showed that age and household income were significantly independently related to DDS, while attitudes were negatively associated. While there was a trend, the association of nutrition-related knowledge with DDS was not statistically significant (p=0.057). The overall F ratio (8.46) was highly significant (p=0.000) and the adjusted R2 was 0.093. The results demonstrated that a significant proportion of working women have good basic nutrition-related knowledge and attitudes, while two-thirds of them do not meet the minimum DDS. Furthermore, age, family income and knowledge were positively associated with DDS, while attitudes were negatively associated. Before designing any intervention, further research is needed using a qualitative approach to understand how nutrition knowledge and eating behaviour are related in this population group.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0133.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Cognition; nutrition; metabolism; neurodegeneration; ketone bodies; glycaemia; nutrition therapy
Online: 5 September 2020 (08:29:52 CEST)
Although diet interventions are mostly related to metabolic disorders, nowadays they are used in wide variety of pathologies. From diabetes and obesity to cardiovascular diseases, through cancer or neurological disorders and stroke, nutritional recommendations applied to almost all diseases. Among those disorders, metabolic disturbances and brain function and/or diseases have recently been shown to be linked. Indeed, numerous neurological functions are often associated with perturbations of whole-body energy homeostasis. In this regard, specific diets are used in various neurological conditions such as epilepsy, stroke, or seizure recovery. In addition, Alzheimer’s disease or Autism Spectrum Disorders are also considered as putatively improved by diet intervention. Glycemic index diets are a novel developed indicator expected to anticipate the changes in blood glucose induced by specific foods, and how they can affect various physiological function. Several results provide indications of efficiency of low glycemic index diets in weight management, insulin sensitivity, but also cognitive function, epilepsy treatment, stroke, or neurodegenerative diseases. Overall, studies involving glycemic index could provide new insight in the relationship between energy homeostasis regulation and brain function or related disorders. Therefore, in this review we will summarize main evidences on glycemic index involvement in brain mechanisms of energy homeostasis regulation.
Online: 16 December 2022 (10:10:37 CET)
In the United States, obesity is prevalent, and it could be described as a pandemic. Obesity is excessive fat accumulation, leading to a BMI ≥ 30 (Fruh, 2017). Surveys conducted by the CDC show that the obesity prevalence in the US is on the rise, as several obese people rose from 30.5% to 41.9% between 1999 and 2020 (Bryan et al., 2021). During the same time, several people suffering from severe obesity rose from 4.7% to 9.2% (Bryan et al., 2021). Additionally, childhood obesity is on the rise. Statistics indicate that between 2017-2020 over 19.7% of children and adolescents aged 2-19 years had obesity. During the same period, obesity prevalence in children aged 2-5 years, 6-11 years, and 12-19 years olds was 12.7%, 20.7%, and 22.2%, respectively (Bryan et al., 2021). With so many people suffering from obesity, the WHO declared it a public health crisis (WHO, 2020). The COVID-19 pandemic further exacerbated the prevalence of obesity in the US. According to the surveys, there was a 4.4% increase in obesity between 2019 to March 2020 due to lifestyle changes that were put on people during the COVID-19 pandemic (Akter et al., 2022). Many comorbidities are associated with obesity. Without adequate health interventions, millions of people could suffer severe health disorders like respiratory problems, type II diabetes, psychological issues, gastrointestinal disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. It is also essential to develop health interventions to mitigate obesity due to its strain on the healthcare system. Research shows that people suffering from obesity spend $2,505 more than people with average weight on healthcare (Cawley et al., 2021). Obesity has financial ramifications in every healthcare category: inpatient, outpatient, and prescription drugs (Cawley et al., 2021). One essential action toward the efforts to mitigate the soaring obesity rates is understanding the demographic inequities across populations and how they can be resolved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1742.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: vitamin D; sports nutrition; personalized nutrition; microsampling; VAMS; HPLC-MS/MS
Online: 27 October 2023 (07:14:35 CEST)
Vitamin D is crucial for athletes' health and performance. Although the exact vitamin D requirements for athletes have not been established, maintaining 25(OH)D levels of at least 40 ng/ml is considered beneficial. This study aimed to determine whether an individual loading dose formula for vitamin D supplementation is suitable to meet a target value of 40 ng/ml and is more effective than standardized supplementation. In a 10-week supplementation study during the winter months in Germany, 90 athletes with insufficient vitamin D levels (25(OH)D<30ng/ml) were randomly assigned to receive either a universal dose of 2000 IU/day of vitamin D or a loading dose of 4000 IU/day, followed by a maintenance dose of 1000 IU/day. Total 25(OH)D concentration was measured from dried blood spots at three time points: at baseline, at the computed date of 40ng/ml, and after the 10-week period. Additionally, a vitamin D-specific questionnaire was issued. On the day when 25(OH)D blood concentrations of 40 ng/ml were calculated to prevail, the individualized group had a significantly higher 25(OH)D level than the standardized group (41.1+-10.9 ng/ml vs. 32.5+-6.4 ng/ml, p<0.001). This study demonstrated that the examined formula is suitable for athletes to achieve a 25(OH)D concentration of 40 ng/ml. This indicates that a personalized approach is more effective than a one-size-fits-all approach in restoring adequate vitamin D levels in athletes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0044.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: halophyte; salt-tolerance; N-nutrition; Portulaca oleracea; oxalic acid; ammonium nutrition
Online: 6 April 2020 (09:21:14 CEST)
Halophytic plants are, by definition, well adapted to saline soils. However, even halophytes can face nutritional imbalance and accumulation of high levels of compounds such as oxalic acid (OA), and nitrate (NO3¯). These compounds compromise the potential nutritional health benefits associated with salt tolerant plants such as Portulaca oleracea. Thus, preventing the accumulation of non-nutritional compounds will allow plants to be grown in saline conditions as crops. To this end, two ecotypes (ET and RN) of Portulaca oleracea plants were grown under growth room conditions with two levels of salinity (0, 50 mM NaCl) and three ratios of nitrate: ammonium (0:100%; 33:66%; 25:75% NO3¯:NH4+). The results showed that both ecotypes exposed to elevated NO3¯, showed severe leaf chlorosis, high levels of OA, citric acid, and malic acid, while plants of ecotype ET exposed to elevated NH4+ concentrations (33% and 75%) and 50 mM NaCl displayed a marked reduction in OA content, increased total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, crude protein content, total fatty acid (TFA) and α-Linolenic acid (ALA) thus enhancing leaf quality. This opens the potential to grow high biomass, low OA P. oleracae crops. Lastly, our experiments suggest that ecotype ET copes with saline conditions and elevated NH4+ through shifts in leaf metabolites.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0370.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: alcohol; drugs of abuse; pregnancy; maternal nutrition; fetal nutrition; FASD; IUGR
Online: 25 June 2018 (05:57:21 CEST)
The consumption of alcohol and drugs of abuse among pregnant women has experienced a significant increase in the last decades. Optimal maternal nutritional status is of great importance for proper fetal development, yet is often altered with alcohol or drugs consumption. There is a lack of information on the effects of alcohol and drugs on maternal nutritional status, so the focus of this review was to provide an overview on nutrional status of mother and fetus in abusers pregnant women. Alcohol and drugs consumption can adversely affect the quality and quantity of proper nutrient supply and energy intake, resulting in malnutrition especially of micronutrients (vitamins, omega-3, folic acid, zinc, choline, iron, copper, selenium). When maternal nutritional status is compromised by alcohol and drugs essential nutrients are not available for the fetus, this can result in suboptimal outcomes like Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) or Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). It is critical to determine a means to resolve and reduce the physical and neurological malformations that develop in the fetus as a result of prenatal alcohol and drugs exposure combined with poor maternal nutrition. Prenatal nutrition interventions are required that may prevent or alleviate the development of such abnormalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0161.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: nutrition status; students; achievement
Online: 5 September 2023 (02:30:42 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Optimal learning achievement is often obtained through the consumption of nutritious and balanced food, which prevents poor nutritional statuses, such as severely underweight, underweight, overweight, and obese. This is particularly relevant to Junior High School students aged 11-16 years, who are more prone to malnutrition. Therefore, this study aimed to improve learning achievement through balanced nutrition among Junior High School students. Materials and Methods: The study procedures were carried out using a quantitative approach with a cross-sectional design. The sample population consisted of 350 Junior High School students in Jayapura Municipality, Papua Province, Indonesia. Primary and secondary data were obtained from relevant sources and analyzed using frequency distribution analysis and statistical path analysis tests. Results: The results showed the indirect effect of exogenous variables on the endogenous, where nutritional knowledge and a balanced diet influenced nutritional status (p-value = 0.001), but physical activity had no impact (p-value = 0.167). Meanwhile, the direct effect of exogenous variables on the endogenous showed that nutritional knowledge, interest in learning, and nutritional status influenced students’ achievement (p-value = 0.001). Based on these results, nutritional status played a crucial role in improving the learning achievement of junior high school students.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: cardiac surgery; cardiopulmonary bypass; systemic inflammatory response; nutrition risk stratification; underfeeding; postoperative nutritional management; supplemental parenteral nutrition; enteral nutrition; pharmaconutrition
Online: 8 April 2018 (10:24:31 CEST)
Nutrition support is increasingly recognized as a clinically relevant aspect of the intensive care treatment of cardiac surgery patients. However, evidence from adequate large-scale studies evaluating its clinical significance for patients’ mid- to long-term outcome remains sparse. Considering nutrition support as a key component in the perioperative treatment of these critically ill patients, led us to review and discuss our understanding of the metabolic response to the inflammatory burst induced by cardiac surgery. In addition, we discuss how to identify patients who may benefit from nutrition therapy, when to start nutritional interventions, present evidence about the use of enteral and parenteral nutrition and the potential role of pharmaconutrition in cardiac surgery patients. Although the clinical setting of cardiac surgery provides advantages due to its scheduled insult and predictable inflammatory response, researchers and clinicians face lack of evidence and several limitations in the clinical routine, which are critically considered and discussed in this paper.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1464.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Systematic review; Sarcopenia; aged; Nutrition
Online: 23 November 2023 (04:25:26 CET)
Background: Sarcopenia, a subject of extensive research, has led to numerous clinical trials and systematic reviews (SR). These reviews aid healthcare professionals by summarizing results and conducting meta-analyses, enhancing reliability. However, the abundance of reviews complicates decision-making on sarcopenia management. To address this, SR of SR have emerged, consolidating data from various sources into comprehensive documents. Objective: to assess the isolated impact of dietary interventions on sarcopenia's diagnostic criteria for older individuals. Methods: a study protocol for a SR of SR, following Cochrane and PRISMA recommendations. The search strategy includes the MeSH ‘sarcopenia’ and its subheadings; ‘aged’ and its subheadings; ‘nutrition’ and its subheadings; and filter ‘systematic review’, performed at main databases. Selected studies must include older adults, submitted to nutritional interventions compared to control groups. Quantitative analyses will use inverse variance statistic method (random effects); the effect measures mean difference. Heterogeneity measured with Q-Test. Results: The results of this SR of SR will may provide valuable information about the sarcopenia treatment, deepening the knowledge about. Conclusion: this protocol is reproducible, requires low cost and personnel, and may allow a higher understanding on sarcopenia treatment and management on older people.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1199.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Parental nutrition; Obesity; Pregnancy; Microbiome
Online: 17 May 2023 (05:43:00 CEST)
Appropriate nutrition during pregnancy and the post-partum period is vital to both the parent and their offspring. Both under- and over-nourished status may have important microbial implications on the parental and infant gut microbiomes. Alterations to the microbiome can have implications for a person’s risk of obesity and metabolic diseases. In this review, we examine alterations in the parental gut, vaginal, placental, and milk microbiomes in the context of pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, body composition, gestational diabetes, and parental diet. We also investigate how the infant gut microbiome may be altered by these different parameters. Many of the microbial changes seen in under- and over-nourished states in birthing parents may result in long-term implications to the health of offspring. Differences in diet appear to be a major driver of the parental, and subsequently milk and offspring microbiomes. Further prospective longitudinal cohort studies are needed examining nutrition and the microbiome to better understand its implications. Additionally, trials involving dietary interventions in child-bearing age adults should be explored to improve the parent and child’s risks for metabolic diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0224.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Incompatibility; interaction; enteral nutrition; complication
Online: 14 November 2022 (01:06:35 CET)
Artificial enteral nutrition (AEN) is defined as the delivery of nutrients through feeding tubes for special medical purposes. Patients usually suffer from chronic or critical illnesses and are generally polymedicated, which represents a high probability of interactions and incompati-bilities with the AEN that can cause adverse events and loss of effectiveness of pharmacological treatment. This study aimed to determine the potential incompatibilities and drug-enteral nu-trition interactions in patients hospitalized in a clinic in the city of Cartagena. A retrospective cross-sectional study design was used, in a sample of 218 patients with a stay of at least three days, who were prescribed at least five medications and AEN. The data was collected from medical records. The information was screened with the CheckTheMeds software, using the APPs: drug-interactionchecker and https://www.rccc.eu/ppc/Drogas/DrogasxSNG.htm. A prevalence of pharmaceutical type incompatibilities of 50% and physicochemical type of 31.65%, interactions of pharmacokinetic type 10.55% and physiological type of 6.42% was re-vealed. The adverse events identified were tube obstruction 54.78% (n=126), mobility disorders and/or gastric emptying disorders 22.61% (n=52), diarrhea 12.51% (n=29), mesenteric ischemia with 0.87% (n=2) and seizures 6.96% (n=16). The p and OR values were variable according to the interaction and/or incompatibility vs. adverse events. Drugs-AEN incompatibilities and inter-actions were frequent, which is why active pharmacovigilance is necessary to intervene in the safety, quality and cost-effectiveness of the care provided in the different care services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0131.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: feed formulation; protein requirement; nutrition
Online: 8 December 2021 (14:22:24 CET)
A 52-day experiment was conducted to determine the crude protein (CP) requirements of juvenile matrinxã Brycon amazonicus, and to evaluate their resulting growth performance, hematological parameters and enzymatic activities. Sixty fish (29.03g ± 1.16g) were distributed in 12 tanks (310 L) with a completely randomized design, and maintained at four dietary crude protein levels (270, 320, 350, 390 g.kg-1) for 52 days. The results revealed that the fish fed diet 390 g.kg-1 CP had the best final weight, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and lipid retention rate. The same could be stated for hematocrit, number of circulating erythrocytes, triglycerides and total proteins of the hematological profile (p<0.05). In the whole body composition, dry matter content was lower in the fish fed 390 g.kg-1 CP, while lipid content was higher in the fish fed 350-390 g.kg-1 CP (p<0.05). No differences were observed in CP and ash (p>0.05), or in the activities of digestive enzymes (p>0.05). In short, our findings suggest benefits of the 390 g.kg-1 CP feed for being the most adequate for this species’ juvenile stage.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0394.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Turmeric; Climate change; Improved nutrition
Online: 22 November 2021 (13:27:03 CET)
Turmeric is highly tolerant to several climatic changes and can grow under high temperatures and moderate drought conditions. This herb is very much dependant on optimum rainfall, optimum heat with less chilling or freezing conditions. These conditions if are more than normal would tend to reduce the yields of the crops and also effect the productivity. To reduce such drastic yield losses certain conventional plant breeding methods were employed but were very less effective compared to plant biotechnology. To reduce these loses by stresses, extensive and effective molecular biology methods were employed which identifies the genes that are stress responsive along with certain methods like gene transfer, genetic engineering was also known to be effective. All these methods are quite helpful in mitigating the yield losses and promoting healthy growth in the plants. The maintenance of rhizome size, curcumin content, essential oils etc. is very much necessary for the turmeric crop because of its role, especially in the medical field. Therefore, the yield losses are reduced to a maximum extent so that development of smart turmeric is easy and crop designing is possible only with the advanced techniques involved in agriculture biotechnology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0080.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: child nutrition disorders; animal source foods; diet; food and nutrition; dietary diversity; food assistance
Online: 9 January 2019 (07:49:09 CET)
Introduction: Child undernutrition remains a challenge globally and in the geographically diverse country of Ethiopia. Improving dietary diversity and consumption of animal source foods are important for improving child nutrition and corresponding health outcomes. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify household and community factors associated with consumption of animal source foods among 6 to 36-month-old children from four regions of Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using multistage probability sampling in eight geographic zones and four regions of Ethiopia took place in 2015 with parents/caretakers of 6 to 36-month-old children. Data was collected on demographic information, proxy indicators of socioeconomic status, and food consumed by the child the day before the survey. Results: Increased child age, pastoral livelihood, Muslim religion, and participation in the Productive Safety Net Program were associated with increased consumption of animal source foods. Odds of animal source foods consumption increased 8% with each 3-month age increase. Children from pastoralist households were the most likely to have consumed animal source foods in the preceding 24 hours as compared with those in agro-pastoralist households (0.21 times as likely) or those in agriculturalist/farming households (0.15 times as likely). The odds of consumption of animal source foods for families with food aid or safety net support was 1.7 times greater among those receiving traditional support from the Productive Safety Net Program and 4.5 times greater for those in the direct support arm of the program. Conclusions: The findings illustrate the importance of accounting for local context and community characteristics, such as livelihood and religion, when undertaking programming designed to improve diversity of children’s diets through increasing animal source foods. In addition, the Productive Safety Net program may be a critical determinant of dietary diversity for young children in these regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0589.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Sleep; Social Jetlag; Diet Food and Nutrition; Nutrition Surveys; Cross-sectional; Epidemiology; Adults; Public Health
Online: 30 July 2018 (14:41:06 CEST)
Limited observational studies have described the relationship between sleep duration and overall diet. The present study investigated the association between sleep duration at weekdays and empirically derived dietary patterns in a nationally representative sample of UK adults, aged 19-64 years old, participating in the 2008-2012 UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme. Survey members completed between three to four days of dietary records. Sleep duration at weekdays was categorised into tertiles to reflect short, normal and long sleep duration. Social jetlag was calculated as the difference between sleep duration at weekends and weekdays. The association between sleep duration/ social jetlag and dietary patterns, derived by principal components analysis, was assessed regressing diet on sleep whilst accounting for the complex survey design and adjusting for relevant confounders. Survey members in the highest tertile of sleep duration had on average 0.45 (95% CI -0.78, -0.12) lower healthy dietary pattern score compared to middle tertile (p =0.007). There was an inverted u-shaped association between social jetlag and a healthy dietary pattern, such that when sleep at weekends exceeded weekday sleep by 1h 45min, scores for indicating a healthy dietary pattern declined (p =0.005). In conclusion, long sleep duration at weekdays and an increased social jetlag are associated with a lower healthy dietary pattern score. Further research is required to address factors influencing dietary patterns in long sleepers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0142.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: immunology; growth performance; nutrition; microbiology; hematology
Online: 4 September 2023 (08:33:34 CEST)
The aim of this paper was to test isolated and pre-selected bacteria strains from Nile tilapia intestinal mucus, collected in Brazilian commercial fish farming, to use as probiotics in the feeding. The variable were growth performance, hematology, microbiology and immunology. These strains were submitted to in vitro inhibition tests of pathogenic bacteria. Then, they were identified by PCR and sequencing, and comparing using the BLAST software. The experiment was carried out in the Fisheries Institute, Sao Paulo, Brazil, for 84 days, following the randomized experiment design with seven treatments and three replicates (21 experimental units): T0 – control, T1 – Bacillus velezensis, T2 – Bacillus pumilus, T3 – Bacillus subtilis, T4 –Enterococcus hirae T5 – Enterococcus faecium and T6 – mix of bacteria strains used to this experiment. The variables analyzed were: growth performance, DGGE (Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), phagocytes respiratory burst activity, hematology and bromatology. As result, the bacteria strains B. pumilus (T2) and all bacteria mix (T6), included in Nile tilapia diet, promoted better biomass values, with similar feed conversion rate of control group (p<0,05). Apparently, the microorganisms use does not affect the health and well-fare of the fish. The hematology index, except basophils and thrombocytes numbers do not demonstrated differences among the groups, as well as glycemia, lactate level, respiratory burst and lysozyme activities. In conclusion, the isolated and pre-selected bacteria from intestinal mucus of Nile tilapia, B. pumilus (T2) and mix (T6 - B. velezensis, B. pumilus, B. subtilis, E. hirae and E. faecium) improve the growth performance and may be used as probiotics for Nile tilapia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1831.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Nutrition; epidemiology; sheep; eosinophils; immune response
Online: 28 August 2023 (07:17:00 CEST)
The influence of four levels of dietary supplementation on the development of the immune response and on the biology of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis was evaluated in Dorper lambs under serial artificial mixed-infections with 1000 infective larvae (L3) of each species, given every three days for 12 weeks. For each of the four diets formulated, one infected group (n=7) and one control group (n=4) were set up. Diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 contained 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% of concentrate, respectively. There was an evident immune response to infection in all groups, manifested through eosinophilia and production of anti-L3 immunoglobulins. There was a significant inverse relationship between the levels of nutrients in the diets and the numbers of late fourth-stage larvae, early fifth-stage larvae and adults of H. contortus. Most of the H. contortus parasite population was in hypobiosis at the early-fourth stage, representing 59.5%, 75.8%, 83.3% and 86.3% of the total Haemonchus worm burden, respectively, in the Diets 1, 2, 3 and 4. In the case of T. colubriformis, hypobiosis was not observed and the diet had no influence on establishment of the parasite.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1113.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: carbohydrate; glucan; mushroom; nutrition security; sustainability
Online: 15 August 2023 (09:36:20 CEST)
The aimed of this study was to explore the current state of knowledge of agrobiodiversity to improve nutrition and health. The study focused on wild mushrooms commonly consumed in North-Eastern of Thailand in term of ecology, cooking and preservation method and folk remedies. The monosaccharide, sugar alcohol, glucans and carbohydrate polymer content and the glycemic index of these wild mushrooms was determined using Enzymatic method. The mushrooms collected were belong to three biological groups and mostly saprotrophic and symbiotic. The most abundant mushrooms are Amanita, Boletus and Russula and followed by Calostoma sp., Astraeus asiaticus C. Phosri and Astraeus odoratus C. Phosri. Wild edible mushrooms can be used include food and medicinal purpose. Cooking methods utilized in the area are steaming, boiling and grilling. The carbohydrate profiles results showed that glucose is the major monosaccharide detected in mushroom samples. Xylitol and inositol was found in all mushroom sample while mannitol and arabitol was detected in some samples. Glucan was presented in all mushroom samples ranged from 8.03-31.1 mg/g DW. All mushrooms are classified as low GI food. Therefore, this finding provide important information that may be adopted to enhance and promote the utilization of wild mushroom to improve nutrition security and sustainability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0227.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: Aquaculture nutrition; Phosphorus pollution, Sustainability; Eutrophication
Online: 3 August 2023 (14:20:01 CEST)
Legislation and interest to protect and restore freshwater and marine ecosystems from aquaculture's environmental impact is global. However, aquaculture induced eutrophication continues to be a major environmental issue. Open freshwater fish farms in particular, providing fish with phosphorus-rich feeds pollute aquatic ecosystems since water soluble phosphorus, uneaten feed, feces, and metabolic waste from farmed fish increase phosphorus concentration in the adjacent waters. Several intestinal enzymes, transporters, and regulating factors are implicated in dietary phosphorus retention of farmed fish. For example, alkaline phosphatase and other transporters help the anterior intestine absorb phosphorus, while pH, calcium, and vitamin D affect these enzymes and transporters. Intestinal morphology and gut microbiome may also affect this process. Reducing phosphorus pollution from open-flow fish farms requires a thorough understanding of processes that affect nutrient retention and absorption as well as of the impact of dietary factors, anti-nutritional substances, and intestinal morphology. Optimizing feed composition, adding functional feed ingredients, and managing gut health can reduce phosphorus release and improve aquaculture sustainability. Processing and functional feed additives can mitigate anti-nutritional factors and, addressing these issues will reduce aquaculture's environmental impact, ensuring aquatic ecosystem health and global food security
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0666.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Heavy metal; Mineral Nutrition; Phytohormones; Selenium
Online: 21 April 2023 (03:34:38 CEST)
Abstract: Heavy metals (HMs) contamination is one of the main among abiotic factors affecting crop productivity and also threatens human health via consuming metal contaminated crops as a food source. Over the past few years, HMs have drawn a lot of attention due to their increased use for commercial purposes and their harmful effects on plants and other life forms, thus threatening human survival. However, in recent years, several methods have been adopted to combat the harsh effects of HMs. After phytohormones, use of mineral nutrients such as selenium (Se) in the prevention of HM stress has been explored by the researchers more recently. Selenium is an important micronutrient widely known for its antioxidant properties in both plants and animals. Exogenous Se inhibits metal uptake and its translocation and also improves the antioxidant system, thus imparts resistance to HM toxicity in plants. Moreover, Se also regulates the production of various osmolytes in cells that helps in developing cell osmolarity. Selenium also induces the production of different types of secondary metabolites (SMs) that are also involved in plant's secondary defense mechanisms to different stresses. Uptake of mineral nutrients is a vital process for plant growth and development, which is also positively correlated with Se under metalloid toxicity. However, in order to understand the exact mechanism of Se in HM tolerance, different metabolic processes stimulated by Se and their pathways need to be explored. Hence, this review focuses on the role of Se on nutritional status, antioxidants metabolism, interaction with phytohormones and its role in the regulation of various genes involved in Se induced HM tolerance. Thus, this study will help researchers in the future for the improvement of HM tolerance via Se application in plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0258.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Sports Nutrition; Dietary Supplements; Athletic Performance
Online: 16 January 2023 (01:29:53 CET)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effect of caffeine supplementation on performance in official soccer matches. In double-blind, randomized crossover design, 13 professional soccer players performed two complete matches, with Caffeine (CAF) (6 mg/kg) and placebo (PLA) supplementation. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA showed that there was no effect of supplementation on the total distance covered (p = 0.536; ŋp² =0.033) or the total distance covered at different speeds (p = 0.453; ŋp² = 0.048), acceleration or deceleration (p = 0.387; ŋp² = 0.063) number of sprints (p = 0.521; µ² = 0.035) Heart Rate mean (p = 0.484; ŋp² = 0.042) Heart Rate maximum (p = 0.110; ŋp² = 0.199), Rate Perceived Effort (p = 0.151) or efficiency index (p = 0.480). Therefore, acute caffeine supplementation not effective to increase the performance of soccer players in official matches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0333.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Nanotechnology; Plant Nutrition; Nano Urea; Potato
Online: 19 December 2022 (09:14:27 CET)
In today’s world, it is the need of the hour to adopt new technology to sustain the production of the future. Nanotechnology is gaining popularity for its efficiency in various applied fields of science. In agriculture, nanomaterials have a huge impact on the efficiency of fertilizers pesticides, etc. As it requires very fewer quantities and has a negligible residual effect the environment is safe with the innovation of Nano fertilizer. Keeping this view into account an experimental Trial at a farmer’s field was carried out at Berui village in the Hooghly District of West Bengal during the winter (rabi) season of 2019 – 20 under the supervision of Berui Cooperative, KVK-Hooghly, BCKV, and IFFCO with nano-Urea, nano-Zn and nano-Cu using RBD design with 10 treatments and 3 replications. Experimental results revealed that the highest tuber yield was obtained in T-7 (50% N+100% P & K+ 2 spray of nano-Urea), and that was followed by T-10 (50% N + 100% P & K + 50% Zn + 1 spray each of Nano-Urea, Zn and Cu) and T-8 (100% N-P-K + 50% Zn + 2 spray of Nano-Zn). The performance of nano fertilizers, Nano- Urea, was quite promising and economically viable as compared to the 100% recommended dose with commercial fertilizers (RDF).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0071.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: nutrition screening tools; malnutrition; nutritional assessment
Online: 6 May 2022 (10:01:24 CEST)
Malnutrition is a serious problem with negative impact on the quality of life and the evolution of our patients, contributing to an increase in morbidity, hospital stay, mortality and health spending. Early identification is fundamental to implement the necessary therapeutic actions involving adequate nutritional support to prevent or reverse malnutrition. This review presents two complementary methods of fighting malnutrition: nutritional screening and nutritional assessment. Nutritional risk screening is conducted using simple, quick-to-perform tools and is the first line of action in detecting at-risk patients. It should be implemented systematically and periodically on admission to hospital or residential care, as well as on an outpatient basis for patients with chronic conditions. Once patients with a nutritional risk have been detected they should undergo a more detailed nutritional assessment to identify and quantify the type and degree of malnutrition. This should include health history and clinical examination, dietary history, anthropometric measurements, evaluation of the degree of aggression determined by the disease, functional assessment and, whenever possible, some method of measuring body composition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0115.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Celiac disease; Early programming; Perinatal nutrition
Online: 6 October 2020 (09:49:37 CEST)
Experimental and epidemiological evidence has shown that modifications of the intrauterine environment can have deleterious consequences for individuals, expressed as an increased risk of suffering non-communicable pathologies in adult life, which is known as the hypothesis of the early origin of diseases or programming fetal. On the other hand, changes in gene expression patterns through epigenetic modifications can be the basis for long-term maintenance of the effects of fetal programming. In this sense, epigenetics comprises the study of intrauterine disturbances, which develop diseases in the adult, including Celiac Disease (CD). In addition, early feeding practices could influence the risk of CD development, such as breastfeeding timing and duration and age at gluten introduction in the diet. Gluten acts as a trigger for CD in genetically predisposed subjects, although approximately 30% of the world population has HLA DQ2 or DQ8, the prevalence of the disease is only 1-3%. It is not known what factors act to modify the risk of disease in genetically at risk subjects. Taking into account all these considerations, the aim of the current review is to elucidate the role of early programming and the effect of early nutrition on the development and progression of CD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0166.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: BMI; COVID-19; obesity; overweight; nutrition
Online: 10 May 2020 (14:37:36 CEST)
On March 11, 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). This review focuses on where the body mass index (BMI) value can be used as a tool to evaluate the risk of development and/or aggravation of this disease. Databases were used to search studies published up to April 18, 2020. In total, 4285 articles and other scientific literature were found, and twelve articles were included in this systematic review. The mean BMI value of severe COVID-19 patients ranged from 24.5 to 33.4 kg/m2, versus 22.0 to 24.3 kg/m2 for non-severe patients Articles using the terms obesity or overweight, without indicating the BMI value, in these patients were common, but this is not useful as the nutritional status, when not defined by this index, is confusing due to the classification being different in the West compared to among,, Asian and Korean criteria-based adults. Furthermore, the use of BMI is important during this pandemic, as it should be applied to nutritional support therapy during hospitalization of infected patients, as well as being considered in the home confinement population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0034.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: food marketing; sex/gender; advertising; nutrition
Online: 2 July 2019 (08:27:16 CEST)
In recent years, several brands have received much negative press coverage when trying to market their food and drink products specifically at women. This is, in part, because the taste preferences/sensitivities of men and women are actually quite similar. In fact, perhaps the one and only area where consumers are willing to accept (or should that be swallow) ingested products explicitly targeted at women or men is in the case of nutritional foods/supplements. Such products are not really sold on the basis of their taste/flavour anyway. Many consumers are also sensitive to the so-called pink tax, when near-identical products cost more when sold to women rather than to men (e.g., as in the case of female razors). As the four recent examples discussed in this review make clear, it can be difficult to roll-out a new food or beverage product, or else extend a pre-existing product line, that is especially for women without coming across as sexist/condescending. As such, marketers need to tread carefully, otherwise they may end-up generating unwanted negative publicity. Ultimately, therefore, adopting an implicit approach to gender-based marketing, should that be the direction that a brand wants to take, will likely have more chance of avoiding negative publicity than the explicit targeting of food/beverage-related products in what is undoubtedly a highly-politicized area.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0385.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: One Health, fermented foods, microbiota, nutrition
Online: 19 September 2018 (13:50:00 CEST)
The microbioma is presently one of the hottest areas of scientific and medical research and exerts a marked influence on the host during homeostasis and disease. Fermented foods arise in the human relationship to the microbial environment. Further to the traditionally recognized effects of fermented foods and beverages on the digestive health and well-being there is now strong evidence on their general health benefits, namely the significance on the gut microbiota and brain functionality. We highlight the possibilities in this field, how little is still known, and call for a convergence of interdisciplinary research fields of One Health microbe-nutrition with fermented foods and gut-brain research. A consequence of civilisation, changes in present-day society in diets with more sugar, fat and salt, habits and lifestyle, contributes to the likelihood of an inflammatory microbiome, particularly the global epidemics of obesity and mental health. Although two recent papers claim that probiotics perturb rather than aid in microbiota recovery back to baseline after antibiotic administration in humans, consuming fermented foods has shown to reduce inflammation so improve gut health and the proper function of the body’s immune system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0448.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Intermittent fasting; sport nutrition; sport performance; exercis
Online: 7 December 2023 (03:17:47 CET)
Intermittent fasting is one of the most popular types of diet at the moment because it is an effective nutritional strategy in terms of weight loss. The main objective of this review is to analyze the effects that intermittent fasting has on sports performance. We are going to focus on analyzing physical capacities: aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity, strength and power, we are also going to analyze its effect on body composition. For this, a bibliographic search was carried out in several databases where 25 research articles were analyzed to clarify these objectives. This review was registered in PROSPERO with code ref. 407024, and an evaluation of the quality or risk of bias was performed. After this analysis, results were obtained regarding the improvement of body composition and the maintenance of muscle mass. Finally, it can be concluded that fasting provides benefits in terms of body composition without reducing physical performance, maintenance of lean mass and improvements in maximum power. But despite this, it is necessary to carry out new studies focusing on the sports field since the samples have been very varied.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1442.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: childhood obesity; teachers; nutrition education; professional development
Online: 21 July 2023 (02:38:45 CEST)
Childhood obesity is one of the most prevalent public health challenges in the United States and although rates are declining overall, rates among children living in underserved neighborhoods are increasing. This five-year intervention project seeks to empower teachers (n=92) to invest in their own health and then to integrate nutrition concepts into core subjects’ lessons in elementary schools. The professional development sessions reflect the concepts in the Whole Child, Whole School, Whole Community model. Results indicate that teachers who attended professional development sessions were more likely to implement nutrition lessons in the classroom (r = 0.54, p<0.01) and students demonstrated a significant increase in nutrition knowledge (p < .001, df = 2, F = 9.66). Investing in school-based programs that ensure teacher well-being and professional development can yield positive benefits for both teachers and students.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0338.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Vitamin E, history, animal nutrition, production, activity
Online: 5 July 2023 (13:21:04 CEST)
Vitamin E is a group of eight compounds divided into two subgroups: four tocopherols (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-) and four tocotrienols (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-). α-Tocopherol is considered the most biologically active form. This review paper summarizes the current knowledge and historical progression of vitamin E research, with particular emphasis on its role in animal nutrition. Early studies in the 1920s identified vitamin E’s role in preventing neonatal mortality in rats. Over the following decades, scientists discovered the compound’s chemical structure and its importance for the immune system, skin health, anti-inflammatory properties, hormonal balance, and other bodily functions. Production of vitamin E products has evolved, starting with isolating the vitamin from natural sources and advancing to synthesizing it with greater efficiency and standardized potency units. Early animal studies focused on reproductive health and growth disorders, but further research demonstrated the importance of vitamin E in preventing encephalomalacia in domestic fowl and muscular dystrophy in rabbits and other animals. Today, vitamin E is commonly used as a feed additive to meet animals’ requirements and assure immune function and overall health. Despite much knowledge on vitamin E’s role in animal nutrition, many questions remain unanswered, and current research aims to determine optimal supplementation levels, interactions with other nutrients, impacts on gene expression, cell signaling and communication, and effects of supranutritional dosages in livestock. Vitamin E has a long and fascinating history in scientific research, with significant advancements in understanding its chemical structure and biological activity. In animal nutrition, vitamin E continues to play an important role in improving animal health, and ongoing research will continue to expand our understanding of its benefits and mechanisms of action.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0422.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: children; histamine intolerance; nutrition; diagnostic algorithm; epidemiology
Online: 16 March 2021 (12:19:00 CET)
Histamine intolerance is defined as disequilibrium of accumulated histamine and the capacity for histamine degradation. This clinical term addresses a non-immunologically mediated pathology when histamine ingested with food is not particularly high, but its degradation is decreased. Clinical picture of histamine intolerance in children is similar to that observed in adults apart from male predominance found in paediatric patients. Both in children and adults, histamine-free diet seems to be the treatment of choice. Diamine oxidase supplementation offers another treatment option. There is no symptom and\or test pathognomonic for histamine intolerance. Nevertheless, manifestations of chronic gastrointestinal symptoms, measurement of diamine oxidase deficits, positive results of histamine provocation tests and improvement of symptoms with histamine-free diet greatly increase the probability of histamine intolerance diagnosis. These factors have been included in the proposed in this paper diagnostic algorithm for histamine intolerance. In children histamine intolerance probably co-occur with allergies and bowel diseases, which creates an additional diagnostic challenge. As the evidence for children is weak, further research is needed the establish epidemiology, validate diagnostic algorithms and establish possible treatment options regarding histamine intolerance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0444.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: blueberry; crop modeling; plant nutrition; machine learning
Online: 19 September 2020 (03:27:32 CEST)
Nutrient management of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) depends on several yield-limiting features. Machine learning models can process such yield-impacting variables to predict berry yield. We investigated the effects of local variables on yields and nutrient management of lowbush blueberry. We collected 1504 observations from N-P-K fertilizer trials conducted in Quebec, Canada. Meteorological indices at various phenological stages showed the greatest impact on yield. High mean temperature at flower bud opening and after fruit maturation, and total precipitation at flowering showed positive effects. Low mean temperature and low total precipitation before bud opening, at flowering, and by fruit maturity, as well as number of freezing days (< -5ºC) before flower bud opening, showed negative effects. Soil fertility variables, leaf nutrient compositions and N-P-K fertilization showed smaller effects. Gaussian processes predicted berry yields from historical weather data, soil analysis, fertilizer dosage, and leaf nutrients with a root-mean-square-error of 1447 kg ha-1 on the testing data set. An in-house Markov chain algorithm optimized yields modelled with Gaussian processes from leaf nutrient composition, soil test value, and fertilizer dosage conditioned to specified historical weather features. We propose to use conditioned machine learning models to manage nutrients of lowbush blueberry at local scale.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0026.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: COVID-19; herbs; spices; nutrition; nutrients; immunomodulatory
Online: 2 September 2020 (05:06:56 CEST)
Corona Virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new strain of coronavirus that causes respiratory illnesses with a start of flu like symptoms. This disease is fatal and is spread all over the world. The Scientist are working day and night to find vaccine or a cure. World Health Organisation has declared COVID-19 as pandemic . In the view of the pandemic many treatments are being tried on the patients and various treatment modalities are being followed, the traditional medicine has shown a major role to manage this disease. The traditional medicines include the use of herbs, nutrition and spices that are freely available in Asian countries. These are used in day to day life by Asian population . In this paper we have compiled and reviewed the role of various herbs and spices such as Oregano, Ashwagandha, Ginseng, Basil, Sage, Curcumin, Fenugreek, Ginger and Garlic in building immunity and also in curing pathogenic invasions based on evidence based researches. As there is no cure available for COVID-19 till now so supportive therapy is playing a major role for the patients to fight with this pandemic. The AYUSH ministry has also promoted the use of above herbs for a patient suffering from this disease. The corona virus is present in respiratory system as shown by different studies and it has different strains. The guidelines laid by the ICMR and WHO shows that use of herbs, spices and nutrients can be helpful to manage this virus by increasing the immunity in patients. Hence we are not claiming any cures but the herbs and spices used in day to day life are very much effective in management of COVID-19. World Health Organisation (WHO) has recognised the use of alternative and traditional medicine in the management of COVID-19 but the herbs should be used in prescribed amounts and overdose of them can be harmful for health [1,3]. Therefore the present article will enlighten the readers about the role of herbs, spices and nutrients in improving the conditions in COVID-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0082.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: overview; meta-analyses; stroke; nutrition; geographical areas
Online: 6 August 2019 (16:18:23 CEST)
Stroke is one of the most prevalent cardiovascular diseases worldwide, both in high-income countries and in medium and low-medium income countries. The WHO report on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) indicates that the highest behavioral risk in NCDs is attributable to incorrect nutrition. The objective of our work is to present an overview of meta-analyses that have investigated the impact of different foods and / or drinks in relationship with the risk of stroke events (ischemic/ hemorrhagic). The papers to be included in the overview were sought in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Clinicaltrials.gov, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library and were selected according to PRIMA flow chart. Quality assessment were made according to AMSTAR scale. This overview shows that all primary studies came from countries with high income level. This evidence shows that many countries are not represented. Therefore, different lifestyles, ethnic groups, potentially harmful or virtuous eating habits are not reported. It is important to underline how the choose of foods may help reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and stroke in particular.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0029.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: food marketing; sex/gender; personalization; customization; nutrition
Online: 2 November 2018 (07:00:20 CET)
In recent years, food and drink marketers have become increasingly interested in the question of whether there are any meaningful sex/gender differences in the world of taste/flavour perception. However, it turns out that while there are a large number of individual differences in the experience of food/drink, few, if any, fall neatly along sex/gender lines. As such, the marketers of food and drink need to tread very carefully when it comes to marketing food or beverage products specifically at men, or more usually, women. All too often, the brands entering this space soon find their attempts branded crass and/or sexist. Adopting a stealthy or implicit gender-based product development strategy is therefore perhaps more likely to succeed than the explicit targeting of food/beverage-related products in what is undoubtedly a highly-politicized area. That said, the one area where the public appear willing to accept products that are explicitly targeted at men or women is in the case of nutritional foods/supplements.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0036.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: ERAS Protocol; nutrition support; fasting; colorectal surgery
Online: 2 October 2018 (22:31:38 CEST)
Traditionally, overnight fasting before elective surgery has been the routine in medical practice for risk reduction of pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. Several original study and international societies recommend a 2‐h preoperative fast for clear fluids and a 6‐h fast for solids in most elective patients. We conducted a narrative review of the literature, searching electronic databases (Medline and CINAHL). We used PICO approach. The results of our review suggest that nutrition support in the perioperative period is very important to reduce length of hospital stay and reduced postoperative complication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0066.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: cardiovascular diseases; risk factors; nutrition; ecological study
Online: 8 February 2018 (03:22:54 CET)
The aim of this study was a large-scale ecological analysis of nutritional and other environmental factors potentially associated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the global context. Indicators of CVDs from 158 countries were compared with the statistics of mean intake (supply) of 60 food items between 1993 and 2011, obesity rates, health expenditure and life expectancy. This comparison shows that the relationship between CVD indicators (raised blood pressure, CVD mortality, raised blood glucose) and independent variables in the global context is influenced by various factors such as short life expectancy, religiously conditioned dietary customs, the imprecision of some statistics and undernutrition. However, regardless of the statistical method used, the results always show very similar trends and identify high carbohydrate consumption (mainly in the form of cereals and wheat in particular) as a dietary factor most consistently associated with the risk of CVDs. These findings are in line with the changing view of the causes of CVDs. Because only the statistics of raised blood glucose include people using medications and reflect true prevalence that is independent of healthcare, more objective data on the prevalence of CVDs are needed to confirm these observed trends.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: iodine; pregnancy; qualitative research; awareness; perceptions; nutrition
Online: 2 February 2018 (07:29:44 CET)
Iodine is essential for thyroid hormones synthesis and normal neurodevelopment; however, 60% of pregnant women do not meet the WHO recommended intake. Using a qualitative design, we explored perceptions, awareness and experiences of pregnancy nutrition, focusing on iodine. Women in the perinatal period (n=48) were interviewed and filled in a food frequency questionnaire for iodine. Almost all participants achieved the recommended 150 μg/day intake for non-pregnant adults (99%), but only 81% met the increased demands of pregnancy (250 μg/day). Most were unaware of the importance, sources and recommendations of iodine intake. Attitudes to dairy products consumption were positive (e.g. helps with heartburn; easy to increase). Increased fish consumption was considered less achievable, with barriers around taste, smell, heartburn and morning sickness. Community midwives were the main recognised provider of dietary advice. The dietary advice received focused most often on multivitamin supplements rather than food sources. Analysis highlighted a clear theme of commitment to change behaviour, motivated by pregnancy, with desired focus on user-friendly documentation and continued involvement of the health services. The study highlights the importance of redirecting advice on dietary requirements in pregnancy and offers practical suggestions from women in the perinatal period as the main stakeholder group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0148.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: baobab; phytochemistry; elemental constituents; proximate analysis; nutrition
Online: 23 November 2017 (04:04:18 CET)
Baobab (Adansonia digitata) leaves are usually used in dry form in the preparation of a soup known as ‘miyan kuka’ in Northern Nigeria. The leaves are believed to have nutritional and medicinal benefits and have been used for those purposes in Africa and Asia. However there has been limited research on the detailed constituents of the dry leaves. In this study, phytochemical, elemental and proximate analyses of stored, sun and shade-dried baobab leaves were conducted. The results revealed a great variation in the nutritional contents of the leaves. The study reveals that the leaves are rich in phytochemicals such as glycosides, saponins, steroids and flavonoids while alkaloids, tannins and resins are absent. Also, they are important source of minerals such as zinc, copper, iron and manganese. In addition, they are rich in fibre, crude protein, nitrogen and ash. Contrasting responses were obtained in the samples studied. The implications of these responses are discussed in relation to crop yield.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1838.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: food allergy; children; adequate nutrition; catch-up growth.
Online: 29 November 2023 (09:48:42 CET)
Background: Data suggest that food allergies greatly impact a child’s health and growth due to inadequate nutrient intake. Our study aimed to establish the long-term outcome of children with food allergies compared to a control group. Methods: This study was a retrospective cohort study with longitudinal follow-up with a mean period of 4.85 years from the diagnosis to the last study visit. The patients’ nutritional intake was assessed using a three-day food diary and analysed by a dietitian. Patients (61 boys and 33 girls, mean age 6.9 years) had a single food allergy including 21 patients with cow’s milk, 34 with egg, and 39 with peanut allergies. The control group included 36 children (19 boys and 17 girls, mean age 8.03 years). Blood analysis was performed on all participants. Results: Data from our study showed that patients with cow’s milk, egg or peanut allergies had normal growth and achieved catch-up growth from the diagnosis until the last study visit. In the cow's milk allergy group, the allergy was shown to affect calcium intake (p<0.05), while egg and peanut allergies did not impact the dietary intake of nutrients. None of the investigated food allergies affected blood results (p<0.05). Conclusions: In the present study, we showed that single food allergies do not compromise growth in children if they are provided with appropriate support and that the affected children reach catch-up growth from the diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1095.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: female athletes; winter sports; nutrition; altitude; body composition
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:49:31 CEST)
Eating disorders, especially restrictive eating, are common among female athletes. There are two main types of winter sports, those that are practised outdoors on snow (-25 to +5ºC and 2500 m), such as alpine skiing or snowboarding, and those that are practiced indoors on ice (5-10º C at low altitude), such as figure skating and ice hockey. The aim of this research was to identify the nutritional status and potential risk of female athletes practising winter sports considering the altitude of training. The sample was composed of 58 women (aged 19.81 years (SD: 12.61) who were competitors in some winter sports. Anthropometrics and nutritional variables were taken. Statistically significant differences were found between groups for all the characteristics except thigh skinfold and neither group had an EI that matched their TEE. Both groups met at least 2/3rd of the RDI for all minerals and vitamins, except iodine, fluorine, vit D, E and retinol. This study suggest that female winter sports athletes have insufficient energy, vitamin and mineral intake that can be worsened by altitude.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0520.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Differential responders; Clustering; Personalized nutrition; Type 2 diabetes
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:38:56 CEST)
The global prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has surged in recent decades and the identification of differential glycemic responders can aid tailored treatment for prevention of pre-diabetes and T2DM. A mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT) based on regular foods offers potential to uncover differential responders in dynamical postprandial events. We aimed to fit a simple mathematical model on dynamic postprandial glucose data from repeated MMTTs among partic-ipants with elevated T2DM risk, to identify response clusters and investigate their association with T2DM risk factors and gut microbiota. Data were used from a 12-week multi-center dietary inter-vention trial involving high-risk T2DM adults, comparing high- versus low-glycemic index foods within a Mediterranean diet context (MEDGICarb). Model-based analysis of MMTTs from 155 participants (81 females, 74 males) revealed two distinct plasma glucose response clusters that were associated with baseline gut microbiota. Cluster A, inversely associated with HbA1c and waist circumference and directly with insulin sensitivity, exhibited a contrasting profile to cluster B. Findings imply that a standardized breakfast MMTT using regular foods could effectively distin-guish non-diabetic individuals at varying risk levels for T2DM using a simple mechanistic model.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1913.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: short bowel syndrome; parenteral nutrition; reconstructive gastrointestinal surgery
Online: 29 August 2023 (08:58:41 CEST)
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) in adults is defined as having less than 180 to 200 cm of remaining small bowel [1–4]. Many literature sources do not provide precise epidemiological data, challenges in estimating the prevalence of SBS include its multifactorial etiology and varying definitions [1–7]. The most common pathologies leading to SBS include Crohn disease, mesenteric ischemia, radiation enteritis, post-surgical adhesions, and post-operative complications [1,2,4–6]. In advanced SBS, parenteral nutrition may be required to ensure that all vital nutrients are delivered directly through the venous system, bypassing the gastrointestinal tract [1,8–10]. In this article, we present a clinical case of a patient who underwent parenteral nutrition for four months due to SBS. The surgical team performed reconstructive re-anastomosis of both the small and large bowel, leading to the discontinuation of parenteral nutrition and the resumption of a regular diet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1930.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Biochemical compounds; Blue light; Growth; Immune system; Nutrition
Online: 29 August 2023 (08:51:26 CEST)
The development and use of selenium and iodine elements in agriculture aim to enrich agricultural food products for humans. This study was carried out as a three-factor factorial experiment in a completely randomized design (CRD). Three concentrations of sodium selenate fertilizer (0, 2, 4 mg/l), three potassium iodate (0, 2, 4 mg/l), and two supplementary radiation levels (blue light and sunlight) were used. The results showed that the highest and the lowest (3.44 & 3.12 mg/g f.w) leaf protein value was related to blue light and sunlight treatments, respectively. In the blue light treatment, the maximum and the minimum (4.77 & 3.39 mg/g f.w) leaf sugar amount was observed at 4 and 0 mg/l of the iodine, respectively. At 0 mg/l of selenium, the highest and the lowest (8.63 & 5.34 mg/g f.w) leaf vitamin C amount was recorded at the 4 and 0 mg/l of iodine, respectively. In blue light + 0 mg/l of the selenium, the highest and the lowest (2.94 & 2.10 mg/g f.w) leaf flavonoid quantity was seen at 2 and 0 mg/l of the iodine, respectively. In the blue light conditions, (5.20%) leaf nitrogen content was achieved in the selenium 4 mg/l group. In the same conditions, the maximum and the minimum (3.09 & 2.18%) leaf potassium amount was attained at selenium 2 and 4 mg/l, respectively. Under blue light conditions, the highest and the lowest (0.58 & 0.24 mg/kg dry matter) leaf selenium level was observed at 4 and 0 mg/l, respectively. In sunlightradiation levels, the maximum and the minimum (0.36 & 0.25 mg/kg dry matter) leaf selenium level were found at 4 and 0 mg/l of selenium, respectively. In the blue light conditions, the most and the lowest (1.65 & 0.72 mg/kg dry matter) seed selenium content was related to 4 and 0 mg/l of the selenium, respectively. In the blue light conditions, the highest and the lowest (8.49 & 4.25 mg/kg dry matter) leaf iodine level was recorded at 4 and 0 mg/l of iodine, respectively. In the blue light conditions, the maximum and the minimum (30.56 & 20.62 mg/kg dry matter) seed iodine value was related to 4 and 0 mg/l of the iodine, respectively. In the sunlight, the most and the lowest (24.96 & 20.29 mg/kg dry matter) seed iodine amount was achieved at 4 and 0 mg/l of the selenium, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0925.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: sorghum landraces; diversity; nutrition; minerals; phenolic compounds; antioxidants
Online: 11 August 2023 (09:56:20 CEST)
Sorghum is one of the staple food crops in Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Despite this, limited research attention was given to nutritional and antinutritional profiling of sorghum. Thus, this research was investigated to profile and evaluate the variabilities in protein, starch, minerals, flavonoid, tannin, and antioxidant activities among sorghum landraces of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Protein and starch were analyzed using near infrared spectrophotometer and whereas mineral elements were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Antioxidant activity was analyzed using DPPH free radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and phosphomolybdenum assays. The result revealed significant variation among the landraces for all the evaluated parameters. Protein and starch contents were ranged from 6.21 to 18% and 33.42 to 78.30%, respectively. Wider variations were observed for Fe (32-101), Zn (16.9-42.98), Cu (1.48-5.25), Mn (9.21-20.23), and Cr (0-1.5) as measured in mg/100g. The variabilities were high for total flavonoid (0-665 mgCE/g) and tannin (0.18-7.5 mgCE/100g). DPPH (EC50= 29.09-818.37 µg/ml), ferric reducing antioxidant power (17.85-334.81 mgAAE/g) and total antioxidant activity (1.71-63.88 mgBHTE/g) were also highly variable among the samples. Flavonoid and tannin were strongly correlated (r = 0.90) with antioxidant activity. The relationship between seed color and phenolics as well as antioxidant activities are discussed. Multivariate analysis revealed that the landraces were clustered in to four distinct groups. The rich genetic diversity in the nutritional and antinutritional attributes may be an opportunity for breeding for grain quality improvements of sorghum that in turn helps in addressing malnutrition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0696.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: vitamin D; supplements; sport nutrition; swimming; adolescent athletes.
Online: 9 August 2023 (09:49:06 CEST)
The purpose of this research was two-fold: (a) to observe whether highly trained adolescent swimmers abide to vitamin D supplement recommendations; and (b) to monitor changes in circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) that occur between the autumn and winter months. Twenty swimmers (age: 17 ± 2 years) from a UK high-performance swimming club volunteered to complete two blood spot cards to determine 25(OH)D concentration: the first in an autumn training phase (October) and the second during winter training (January). All swimmers were advised to consume vitamin D3 supplements across the assessment period; however, only 50% of swimmers adhered to this recommendation. Resultantly, a winter decline in 25(OH)D was observed in non-supplementing swimmers (79.6 ± 25.2 to 52.6 ± 15.1 nmol·L-1, p = 0.005), with swimmers either displaying an ‘insufficient’ (60%) or ‘deficient’ (40%) vitamin D status. In comparison, greater maintenance of 25(OH)D occurred in supplementing swimmers (92.0 ± 25.5 to 97.2 ± 38.3 nmol·L-1, p = 0.544), although variable outcomes occurred at the individual level (four increased, three maintained, three declined). These findings highlight possible risks of vitamin D insufficiency during the winter for swimmers in the UK, possibly requiring standardised supplement practices. Moreover, alternative educational strategies may be required for swimmers to transfer knowledge to practice in order to improve supplement adherence in future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1731.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: elderly nutrition; TOPSIS; product development; collagen; sensory analysis
Online: 25 July 2023 (13:56:17 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to develop a highly consumable collagen-containing bar that contributes to enriching the diets of elderly individuals in terms of energy and nutrients. Method: For this purpose, after the development of 5 different bar samples (C, P1, P2, D1, D2) containing different amounts of collagen, date puree, and pumpkin puree, they were evaluated in terms of sensory and nutritional properties. Results: The highest flavor score bars were those with high levels of pumpkin puree (P2) and date puree (D2). By applying the TOPSIS technique, which is used when there are multiple crite-ria among multiple samples, to the snack bar samples with different contents, the most liked sample was found to be the snack bar (D2) with a high level of date puree. One serving of the developed bars contains approximately 300-400 kcal of energy and 6.8-8.8 g of protein. Consid-ering age-related decreased appetite and chewing and swallowing problems in elderly individ-uals, regular consumption of nutrient-rich small meals or snacks with enhanced sensory charac-teristics will contribute to improving their nutritional and functional status.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0418.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: sport nutrition; ergogenic aids; swimming; adolescent athletes.; supplements
Online: 6 July 2023 (10:58:16 CEST)
The aim of this study was to observe the nutritional supplement practices of highly trained swimmers on a national talent pathway, since it is often reported that swimmers engage in widespread supplement use at the elite level. Thus, this study conducted short interviews based on a validated supplement intake questionnaire with forty-four swimmers from a high-performance swimming club, which had three distinct talent stages: development (aged 11–14 years, n = 20), age-group (aged 13 – 17 years, n = 13), and national level (aged ≥16 years, n = 11). Ninety-eight percent of the interviewed swimmers reported using at least one supplement, with performance (34%) and recovery (19%) cited as the primary reasons. National swimmers used more total supplements (8.1 ± 3.4 supplements) compared to age-group (4.8 ± 2.0 supplements, p = 0.003, g = 1.17) and development (3.9 ± 1.7 supplements, p <0.001, g = 1.69) swimmers, mostly because of a greater intake of ergogenic aids (2.4 ± 1.4 supplements vs. age-group: 0.5 ± 0.5 sup-plements, p <0.001, g = 1.12; vs. development: 0.1 ± 0.2 supplements, p <0.001, g = 1.81). Par-ents/guardians were the primary supplement informants of development swimmers (74%, p <0.001, V = 0.50), whereas performance nutritionists informed ~50% of supplements used by age-group and national swimmers (p <0.001, V = 0.51). Based on these results, supplement edu-cation and greater focus on basic sport nutrition practices may be required for parents/guardians at the development level. Moreover, further research is needed to support the high number of ergogenic aids used by national swimmers, with the efficacy of these supplements currently equivocal in the applied setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0148.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: oveweight; obesity; public policy; nutrition education; malnutrition; school
Online: 12 September 2022 (12:26:50 CEST)
Being overweight or obese is a public health problem. This work evaluated a food and nutrition education (EAN) intervention against overweight schoolchildren in four schools in the West Panama Province. A quasi-experimental before-and-after study that implemented a 34-week EAN intervention through workshops with didactic material to 403 children between 8 and 13 years old. The knowledge and attitude survey was used as an evaluation tool before and after the educational intervention. The prevalence of excess weight (40%) did not report differences after the intervention. No differences were reported in the median level of attitude, although higher levels of knowledge were reported in students of both sexes. EAN in schoolchildren can be effective in acquiring knowledge and maintaining a positive attitude towards food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0182.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: oncology; nutrition; supportive care; integrative oncology; metabolism; mitochondria
Online: 9 August 2022 (15:02:55 CEST)
Cancer-related fatigue is a common, burdensome symptom of cancer and side-effect of chemotherapy. While a Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) promotes energy metabolism and overall health, its effects on cancer-related fatigue remain unknown. In a randomized controlled trial, we evaluated a rigorous MedDiet intervention for feasibility and safety as well as preliminary effects on cancer-related fatigue and metabolism compared to usual care. Participants had stage I-III cancer and at least 6 weeks of chemotherapy scheduled. After baseline assessments, randomization occurred 2:1, MedDiet:usual care. Measures were collected at baseline, week 4, and week 8 including MedDiet adherence, dietary intake, and blood-based metabolic measures. Mitochondrial respiration from freshly isolated T cells was measured at baseline and 4 weeks. Participants (n=33) were 51.0±14.6 years old, 94% were female, and 91% were being treated for breast cancer. The study was feasible, with 100% completing the study and >70% increasing their MedDiet adherence at 4 and 8 weeks compared to baseline. Overall, the MedDiet intervention vs. usual care had a small-moderate effect on change in fatigue at weeks 4 and 8. For those with a baseline MedDiet score<5 (n=21), the MedDiet intervention had a moderate-large effect of 0.67 and 0.48 at weeks 4 and 8, respectively. The MedDiet did not affect blood-based lipids, though it had a beneficial effect on fructosamine (ES= -0.55). Fatigue was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction including lower basal respiration, maximal respiration, and spare capacity (p<0.05 for FACIT-F fatigue subscale and BFI, usual fatigue). In conclusion, the MedDiet was feasible and attenuated cancer-related fatigue among patients undergoing chemotherapy, especially those with lower MedDiet scores at baseline.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0330.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Forest nutrition; soil chemistry; geology; cumulative distribution functions
Online: 21 July 2022 (13:26:46 CEST)
Successful fertilization treatments targeted to improve stand productivity while reducing operational complexities and cost depend on a clear understanding of soil nutrient availability under varying environmental conditions. Soil nutrient data collected from 154 forest sites throughout the Inland Northwest, USA were analyzed to examine soil nutrient characteristics on different geologic soil parent materials and to rank soil fertility. Results show that soil parent material explains significant differences in soil nutrient availability. Soils developed from volcanic rocks have the highest CEC and are relatively high in P, K, S, Mg, Cu, Ca, and B, but generally poor in N. Forest soils developed from plutonic rocks exhibit the lowest CEC and are low in N, S, K, Mg, Cu, and Ca, but higher in P. Some soils located on mixed glacial till are low only in K, Cu, Mg, and Ca, but many glacial soils are relatively rich in other nutrients, albeit the second lowest CEC. Soils developed from metasedimentary and sedimentary rocks are among those with lowest soil nutrient availability for P and B. Sulfur was found to have the highest concentrations in metasedimentary influenced soils and the least in sedimentary derived soils. Our results should be useful in designing site-specific fertilizer and nutrient management prescriptions for forest stands growing on soils developed from these major geologies within the Inland Northwest region of the United States.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0140.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Child nutrition; Religion; Ramadan fasting; In-utero exposure
Online: 9 February 2022 (16:00:34 CET)
In this study, we analyse if in-utero exposure to Ramadan fasting period is negatively associated with child nutrition? The data for the analyses come from a retrospective assessment of 924,198 children from 103 demographic and health surveys (DHS) across 56 countries during the period 2003-2020. Considering the month-long Ramadan exposure as a natural experiment, we implement an intent-to-treat framework, comparing outcomes among individuals who were exposed to Ramadan at any time in-utero to those who were not exposed. Our findings do not show significant evidence to conclude that in-utero exposure to Ramadan fasting period is negatively associated with child nutrition. On the contrary, except for stunting in children who had in-utero exposure to Ramadan during the first trimester, among Muslims, we find slightly better nutritional outcomes among children exposed in-utero to Ramadan period. The better nutritional outcomes among children exposed in-utero can be attributed to high nutritious food intake and better hygienic practices during holy months of Ramadan compared to usual months. Our main results are robust to multiple robustness checks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0391.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: celiac disease; orthorexia; eating disorders; ORTHO-15; nutrition
Online: 22 November 2021 (12:56:59 CET)
Evidence points to a link between gluten-free diet or celiac disease and eating disorders, but not with orthorexia. This study is the first to examine adults with celiac disease in terms of the prevalence of risk of orthorexia. The study included 130 adults diagnosed with celiac disease. The standardized ORTHO-15 questionnaire was used to assess the risk of orthorexia. Cronbach's alpha test was used to determine the reliability of the ORTHO-15 questionnaire. Eating habits of the subjects were assessed using a questionnaire. The effect of celiac disease on diet was assessed on a 5-point scale. A risk of orthorexia was found in 69% of subjects with celiac disease. A statistically significant (p<0.005) positive correlation was observed between age and ORTHO-15 test scores (rho=0.37). In the group with orthorexia risk, meals were more often self-prepared (93.3%) compared to those without orthorexia (80%) (p=0.023). For 80% of those at risk for orthorexia versus 20% without risk, mood was a factor influencing dietary choices (p=0.001). The study observed a strong association between celiac disease and the presence of orthorexia risk. The numerous risk factors for orthorexia suggest the need for holistic care, including nutritional and psychological support among individuals with celiac disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0322.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: adolescents; lifestyles; nutrition; overweight and obesity; food intake
Online: 22 October 2021 (09:20:18 CEST)
(1) Objective: This study analyzes the evolution of the body mass index (BMI) throughout the academic year associated with changes in the lifestyle associated with the place where they live during the course and design lifestyle and health strategies to the university community. (2) Methods: 93 first-year nursing students participated in this study. Data were collected throughout the course by administering self-reported questionnaires about eating habits and lifestyles, weight, and height to calculate their BMI and place of residence throughout the course. Data were analyzed using statistical analysis (Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, student's t- test, repeated-measures analysis of variance, and least significant difference tests). (3) Results: We found that the mean BMI increases significantly throughout the course among all students regardless of sex, age, eating habits or where they live during the course. At the beginning course the mean BMI was 22.1 ± 3,642. The mean difference between the beginning of the course and the middle has a value of p value <0. 015 and between the middle of the course and the end a p value <0.009. The group that increased the most is found among students who continue to live in the family nucleus rather than those who live alone or in residence. Students significantly change their eating and health habits, especially those who live alone or in residences.: (4) Conclusions: There is an increase in BMI among students. It is necessary to carry out seminars or talks that can help students understand the importance of good eating practices and healthy habits to maintain their weight and, therefore, their health, in the short, medium, and long term and acquire a good quality of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0014.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Beta-alanine; supplementation; nutrition,; aerob and anaerob performance
Online: 2 August 2021 (10:18:40 CEST)
: Supplement the use of ergogenic aids in cyclist’s directly have been improved the body metabolism and hemodynamic factors that are micro supplement in chancing reactions on the body muscle mass and limb muscle. Mostly knowing that, muscle power development progressive fast glycolytic and short time oxidative systems reactions. Sport competition intervals, therefore, during periods has been used specific drinks supported to cyclists. But, be obtained during should be long race times. Athletes directly needed some drug and fluid intake to prevented from metabolic breakdown rapidly the dynamic physiologic performance factors. Beta-alanine supplementation can be direct muscle performance development affects the anaerobic metabolism and capacity. It should be de-termined how the cyclists will use the competitive and training period intervals can increase the cyclists specific sprint and endurance race performance. Science cyclist International Road doses will be created in which, intervals can random effectively the investigate. This study random a cohort studies is examined the effects of beta-alanine supplementation on aerobic and anaerobic power output in specific cyclists. Therefore, we have been databases PubMed, Scopus and Medline initial search 10 August 2020 were created prospective effect the quality of bias work concluded effect size (ES) 95% confidence interval (CI) were used in participant. Participations (N=66) have age range 25 to 38 of the using beta-alanine in training periods to endurance muscle performance, aerobic power, anaerobic power, and sprint time trials. As a result of beta-alanine improved an-aerobic and aerobic power output on 4-week time-dependent trial performance condition. Signifi-cant values are obtained level factor alpha <0.05 and p-value analysis pre-post interactive stand-ardization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0339.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: microbiota; microbiome; manipulation; fiber; diet; prebiotic; nutrition; supplement
Online: 14 June 2021 (09:19:54 CEST)
Consumption of prebiotic fibers to modulate the human gut microbiome is a promising strategy to positively impact health. Nevertheless, given the compositional complexity of the microbiome and its inter-individual variances, generalized recommendations on the source or amount of fiber supplements remain vague. This problem is further compounded by availability of tractable in vitro and in vivo models to validate certain fibers. We employed a gnotobiotic mouse model containing an a priori characterized 14-member synthetic human gut microbiome (SM) for their ability to metabolize a suit of fibers in vitro; the SM contains 14 different strains belonging to five distinct phyla. Since soluble purified fibers have been a common subject of studies, we specifically investigated the effects of concentrated raw fibers (CRFs)—containing fibers from pea, oat, psyllium, wheat and apple—on the compositional and functional alterations in the SM. We demonstrate that, compared to a fiber-free diet, CRF supplementation increased the abundance of fiber-degraders namely Eubacterium rectale, Roseburia intestinalis and Bacteroides ovatus and decreased the abundance of the mucin-degrader Akkermansia muciniphila. These results were corroborated by a general increase of bacterial fiber-degrading α-glucosidase enzyme activity. Overall, our results highlight the ability of CRFs to enhance the microbial fiber-degrading capacity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0593.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Theobroma cacao; light; abiotic stress; physiology; plant nutrition
Online: 25 May 2021 (08:56:26 CEST)
Cacao is an understory plant cultivated under full-sun monocultures to multi-strata agroforestry systems, where cocoa trees are planted together with fruit, timber, firewood, and leguminous trees, or grown within thinned native forests. Under agroforestry systems of cultivation, cacao is subjected to excess shade due to high density of shade trees, and overgrown or unmanaged pruning of shade trees. Cacao is tolerant to shade, and the maximum photosynthetic rate occurs around irradiance of 400 μmol m−2 s−1 but excess shade reduces the irradiance further which is detrimental to photosynthesis and growth functions. Intra-specific variation is known to exist in cacao for the required saturation irradiance. A greenhouse study was implemented with 58 cacao genotypes selected from four geographically diverse groups: (i) wild cacao from river basins of the Peruvian Amazon, (PWC), (ii) Peruvian farmers’ collection (PFC), (iii) Brazilian cacao collection (BCC) and (iv) national and international cacao collections (NIC). All the cacao genotypes were subjected to 50% and 80% shade where photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) was 1000 and 400 μmol m-2 ּs-1 respectively. Intra-specific variations were observed for growth, physiological and nutritional traits, and tolerance to shade. Cacao genotypes tolerant to shade were: UNG-77 and UGU-130 from PWC; ICT-2173, ICT-2142, ICT-2172, ICT-1506, ICT-1087, and ICT-2171 from the PFC; PH-21, CA-14, PH-990 and PH-144 from BCC; and ICS-1, ICS-39, UF-613 and POUND-12 from NIC. Genotypes that tolerate excess shade might be useful plant types to maintain productivity and sustainability in agroforestry systems of cacao management.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Gut-Brain Axis; Nutrition; Microbiome; SCFA; Gut dysbiosis
Online: 13 May 2021 (13:30:00 CEST)
Diet plays a pivotal role in the overall health of an individual. Not only does it help carry out and regulate certain physiological functions, but it also can determine the composition of the gut microbiome. While the relative number of microorganisms that make up the gut microbiome vary between individuals and can be dependent on different environmental factors, there is evidence to suggest that composition of the microbiome can correlate with overall health or disease. When the GI microbiome is disturbed or suddenly changes it results in microbiome dysbiosis, a condition that correlates with the presence of certain diseases. Diseases linked to microbiome dysbiosis range from metabolic disorders, inflammatory bowel diseases to disorders of the brain. Many of these diseases are linked to the connection between the brain and the gut, known as the brain-gut axis. This bidirectional communication is important to maintain normal intestinal function, but is also responsible for the GI response to emotions as well as the emotional response to GI disturbances. By exploiting the interaction between microbiome health and nutrition, diet can be used to alleviate disease symptoms, protect against the development of certain conditions, and better maintain overall health. This review will examine the effects of nutrition on the microbiome, diseases linked to disruption of the normal microbiome, and the way that altering the diet can mitigate symptoms or prevent disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0205.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: diabetes; vegetarian; diet; nutrition; metabolic syndrome; disparity; child
Online: 17 October 2019 (15:24:37 CEST)
The national rate of obesity in US Hispanic/Latinos exceeds all other major ethnic subgroups and represents an important health disparity. Plant-based diet interventions that emphasize whole plant foods with minimal processing and less refined grains and sugar have shown have shown great promise in control of obesity, but there is a paucity of data translating this treatment effect to disparity populations. The objective of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and scalability of the Healthy Eating Lifestyle Program (HELP) – a hospital-based, family centered, culturally tailored, plant-based diet intervention for Hispanic/Latino pediatric obesity patients and their families. Our evaluation methods included: 1) a quasi-experimental, one group, longitudinal study to measures changes in BMI at 0, 6, and 18 weeks of follow-up, and 2) A stakeholder analysis consisting of six key informant interviews of HELP program staff. We found a significant decrease in body mass index across all adults (-0.2 kg/m2 p=0.0047), that was much stronger in men. For children ages 5-12 years, there was also a significant decrease in BMI Z score from pre- to post- intervention (p=0.04). Program strengths were the cultural tailoring of the plant-based diet choices, and allowing a tiered approached that did not require adherence to strict vegetarianism. Our pilot study findings from HELP raise the possibility that incorporating plant-based diet choices into the treatment of pediatric obesity patients and their families can be an effective addition to a culturally responsive care model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0178.v4
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: nutrition; children; greenhouse gas emissions; school meals; sustainability; Agenda 2030
Online: 8 July 2019 (14:52:09 CEST)
There is great potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) from public sector meals. This paper aimed to develop a strategy for reducing GHGE in the Swedish school food supply without compromising nutritional adequacy, affordability, and cultural acceptability. Amounts, prices and GHGE-values for all foods and drinks supplied to three schools over one year were gathered. The amounts were optimized by linear programming. Four nutritionally adequate models were developed: Model 1 minimized GHGE while constraining relative deviation (RD) from observed food supply; Model 2 minimized total RD while imposing stepwise GHGE reductions; Model 3 additionally constrained RD for individual foods to an upper and lower limit; and Model 4 further controlled how ratios between food groups could deviate. Models 1 and 2 reduced GHGE by up to 95% but omitted entire food categories or increased the supply of some individual foods by more than 800% and were deemed unfeasible. Model 3 reduced GHGE by up to 60%, excluded no foods, avoided high RDs of individual foods, but resulted in large changes in food group ratios. Model 4 limited changes in food group ratios but resulted in a higher number of foods deviating from the observed supply and limited the potential of reducing GHGE. Cost was reduced in almost all solutions. An omnivorous, nutritionally adequate, and affordable school food supply, with considerably lower GHGE is achievable with moderate changes to the observed food supply. Trade-offs will always have to be made between achieving GHGE reductions and preserving similarity to the current supply.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0215.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Maternal nutrition; Breast milk; Premature delivery; Milk composition
Online: 22 January 2019 (11:27:30 CET)
(1) Background: Premature infants require mothers’ milk fortification to meet nutrition needs, but breast milk composition may be variable leading to a risk of inadequate nutrition. We aimed at determining factors influencing mothers’ milk macronutrients. (2) Methods: Milk samples were analyzed for the first 5 weeks after premature delivery, by infrared spectroscopy. Mothers’ nutritional intake data were obtained during standardized interviews with dieticians then analyzed with reference software. (3) Results: Composition of 367 milk samples from 81 mothers was (Median [range]g/100mL): Carbohydrates 6.8[4.4-7.3], lipids 3.4[1.3-6.4], proteins 1.3[0.1-3.1]. There was a relationship of milk composition with mothers’ carbohydrates intake only (r=0.164; p<.01). Postnatal age was correlated with milk proteins (r=-0.505 p<.001) & carbohydrates (r=+0.202, p<.001). Multiple linear regression analyses showed (coefficient) a relationship between milk proteins r=0.547 and postnatal age (-0.028), carbohydrates intake (+0.449) and the absence of maturation (-0.066); and between milk lipids r=0.295 and carbohydrates intake (+1.279) and smoking (-0.557). Finally, between milk carbohydrates concentration r=0.266 and postnatal age (+0.012) and smoking (-0.167). (4) Conclusions: Variability of mothers’ milk composition is differentially associated for each macronutrient with maternal carbohydrates intake, antenatal steroids, smoking, and postnatal age. Improvement in milk composition could be achieved by modification of these related factors.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0527.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: citation network analysis; text mining; nutrition intervention; cognition
Online: 21 November 2018 (13:50:28 CET)
Manual review of the extensive literature covering nutrition-based lifestyle interventions to promote healthy cognitive ageing has proved educative, however, data-driven techniques can better account for the large size of the literature (tens of thousands of potentially relevant publications to date) and interdisciplinary nature of where relevant publications may be found. In this study we present a new way to map the literature landscape focusing on nutrition-based lifestyle interventions to promote healthy cognitive ageing. We applied a combination of citation network analysis and text mining to map out the existing literature on nutritional interventions and cognitive health. Results indicated five overarching clusters of publications, which could be further deconstructed into a total of 35 clusters. These could be broadly distinguished by focus on lifespan stages (e.g. infancy versus older age), and specificity regarding nutrition (e.g. narrow focus on iodine deficiency versus broad focus on weight gain). Rather than concentrating into a single cluster, interventions were present throughout the majority of the research. We conclude that a data-driven map of the nutritional intervention literature can benefit the design of future interventions, by highlighting topics and themes that could be synthesized across currently disconnected clusters of publications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0459.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Nutrition; Amino acids; Leukocytes; Skeletal muscle; Gut; Liver.
Online: 24 September 2018 (13:20:58 CEST)
Glutamine is the most abundant and versatile amino acid in the body. In health and disease, the rate of glutamine consumption by immune cells is similar or greater than glucose. For instance, in vitro and in vivo studies have determined that glutamine is an essential nutrient for lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production, macrophage phagocytic plus secretory activities and neutrophil bacterial killing. Glutamine release to the circulation and availability is mainly controlled by key metabolic organs, such as the gut, liver and skeletal muscles. During catabolic/hypercatabolic situations glutamine can become essential for metabolic function, but its availability may be compromised due to impairment of homeostasis in the inter-tissue metabolism of amino acids. For this reason, glutamine is currently part of clinical nutrition supplementation protocols and/or recommended for immune suppressed individuals. However, in a wide range of catabolic/hypercatabolic situations (e.g. ill/critically ill, post-trauma, sepsis, exhausted athletes) it is currently difficult to determine whether glutamine parenteral or enteral supplementation should be recommended based on the amino acid plasma concentration (glutaminemia). Although the beneficial immune based effects of glutamine supplementation is already established, many questions and evidence for positive in vivo outcomes still remain to be presented. Therefore, this paper provides an integrated review on how glutamine metabolism in key organs is important to cells of the immune system. We also discuss glutamine metabolism, action and important issues related to the effects of glutamine supplementation in catabolic situations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0062.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: microbiome; probiotics, dietary supplements; nutrition; HIV infection, inflammation
Online: 8 May 2017 (12:10:17 CEST)
Microbiota plays a key role in various body’s functions, physiological, metabolic and immunological processes, through different mechanisms such as the regulation of the development and/or functions of different types of immune cells in the intestines. Several evidences indicate that alteration in the gut microbiota can influence infectious and non-infectious diseases. Bacteria that resides on the mucosal surface or within the mucus layer participate in interactions with the host immune system, and a healthy gut microbiota is essential for the development of mucosal immunity. The immunomodulatory activity of probiotics has been proposed in several bowel disorders or in aging-related dysfunctions. In HIV infected patients, the intestinal immune system is affected and inflammation persists during ART therapy too. Several studies are in progress to investigate the ability of probiotics to modulate epithelial barrier functions, microbiota composition and microbial translocation in HIV infection. This mini-review aims to suggest how the use of probiotics is beneficial not only in maintaining a healthy status but also to improve conditions in HIV subjects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2089.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: maize; global nutrition; macronutrients; biofortification; genetic modification; maize processing
Online: 29 September 2023 (10:15:15 CEST)
This chapter explores the pivotal role of maize (Zea mays L.) in global nutrition, emphasizing its status as a staple food worldwide. It discusses maize's complex nutritional profile, including macronutrients, micronutrients, and dietary fiber. The chapter also covers biofortification efforts to enhance maize with essential nutrients, addresses nutritional concerns related to maize-centric diets, and explores genetic modification and agronomic strategies to boost nutrient-rich maize yields. Additionally, it delves into maize processing traditions, nutrient retention techniques, and the importance of promoting nutrient-rich maize varieties. The chapter outlines post-harvest strategies to combat nutrient loss and prevent contamination while emphasizing the significance of consumer education and diverse diets. Case studies illustrate the impact of improved maize nutrition and provide replicable strategies. The chapter concludes by considering emerging research and technology, identifying challenges, and proposing solutions to enhance maize's nutritional value in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2122.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris; Plant nutrition; Biological nitrogen fixation; Biomass accumulation.
Online: 31 August 2023 (10:38:32 CEST)
This study aimed to verify the responsiveness of common bean plants subjected to re-inoculation of Rhizobium in topdressing applied at different stages in edaphoclimatic conditions of the Cerrado. A randomized block design was used, with four replications: T1=uninoculated control; T2=inoculation via seed (VS); T3=VS + reinoculation at the V4 stage; T4=VS + reinoculation at the R5 stage; T5=VS + reinoculation at the R6 stage; T6=VS + reinoculation in at V4 and R5 stages; T7=VS + re-inoculation at V4 and R6 stage; T8=VS + reinoculation at R5 and R6 stages; T9=VS + reinoculation at V4, R5, and R6 stages, and T10=mineral nitrogen fertilization. Nodulation and morphological variables were evaluated at the R7 stage and agronomic variables at R9 at harvest. The use of reinoculation, in addition to inoculation, positively influenced the bean nodulation process. The morphological characteristics of the plants showed good development with the supply of N performed by inoculation and reinoculation, equivalent to the addition of mineral nitrogen fer-tilizer. Reinoculation from R5 to R7 stagesproved ineffective in supplying N to the common bean crop. Inoculation associated with reinoculation at the V4 stage provided higher yields and could replace mineral nitrogen fertilizer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1600.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Dietary Intake; Macronutrients; Sport Nutrition; Sport Performance; Football; VO2max
Online: 23 August 2023 (09:35:58 CEST)
This study represents the first to examine the nutritional status of Moroccan football players. The aim of this research is to assess the energy and macronutrient intake of professional players from a club competing in the Moroccan professional league "Botola-Pro." Moreover, the study tries to find the potential correlation between nutritional intake and physical performance. A total of 27 professional players participated in a seven consecutive-day study, during a microcycle of the preseason period. The dietary intake was evaluated using the self-reported, complemented by a 24-hour recall. The InBody 120 bioelectrical impedance was employed for assessing body composition measurements, while the Yo-Yo test was utilized to evaluate physical performance; which estimates the maximal oxygen consumption level (VO2max). Among these players, their protein intake levels aligned with recommendations (1.6 to 2.2 g/kg of Body Mass). On the other hand, fat intake slightly surpassed the recommended values. However, carbohydrate intake was relatively subdued compared to recommendations of the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) in the pre-season training phase. A positive correlation was observed (P-value of < 0.001 and R=0.831) between carbohydrate intake and the measure of VO2max. This suggests that an increase in carbohydrate consumption is associated with enhanced performance, especially within the range of 6 to 8 g/kg BM per day. Conversely, a negative correlation was identified (P-value of < 0.01 and R= − 0.847) between the percentage of dietary fat and the VO2max. The findings of this study highlight areas of nutrition that could be enhanced among professional football players to optimize their performance. In effect, nutritional education is necessary for this category of athletes. Thus, an individual care approach is strongly recommended.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1452.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: body composition; bioelectrical impedance analysis; chronic kidney disease; nutrition
Online: 21 August 2023 (09:57:23 CEST)
Body composition measurement plays an important auxiliary role in the nutritional assessment of diseases, nutritional diagnosis and the evaluation of the effect of nutritional therapy. There are many techniques and methods available for the measurement of body composition. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA ) of body composition has been widely used and explored in many diseases in the past 30 years. Its main advantages are its non-invasiveness, non-radiation, economy, convenience and feasibility. With the development of bioelectrical impedance technology, bioelectrical impedance analysis has gradually developed from single-frequency BIA (SF-BIA) to dual-frequency BIA (DF-BIA). now devices are available that measure at multiple ﬁxed frequencies (multi-frequency BIA, MF-BIA) and over a range of frequencies (bioimpedance spectroscopy, BIS). The clinical significance of nutrition management in chronic kidney disease has gradually become prominent. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of body composition is favored by nephrologists and nutritionists as an auxiliary method for nutrition diagnosis, treatment and monitoring. In the past 20 years, there have been many studies on body composition measurement by bioelectrical impedance analysis in the nutritional management of CKD patients. This article will summarize the recent research results of BIA of body composition method in the nutrition management of CKD patients in pre-dialysis, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation, in order to provide reference for the application and research of BIA method in the nutrition management of chronic kidney disease in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1022.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: food insecurity; transit; food stamps; education; food; policy; nutrition
Online: 14 August 2023 (10:20:42 CEST)
Food security is intrinsically related to health and well-being. This paper investigates the status-quo of food insecurity among the population residing close to transit in various parts of the United States of America (USA). The data from the 2020 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) collected by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) of the USA are analyzed in this research. Logistic regression is carried out by treating food insecurity as the dependent variable and socioeconomic variables such as age, income, education and dependency on the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) as independent variables. Food insecurity is assessed with aggregated information on four aspects of inputs from those respondents who live near a transit: 1) worry food would run out, 2) food didn't last, 3) couldn't afford to eat balanced meals, and 4) cut the size of meals or skip meals. Findings suggest that respondents who live close to transit in the USA and are from large central metro counties of the Northeast, Southern and Western states showed an increase in food insecurity if they were below 65 years of age, had income below country’s median income or their educational attainment was below bachelor’s degree. There was a significant association found between food insecurity of respondents living close to transit and subscribed to using food stamps or SNAP. Policies that could alleviate food insecurity by reducing cost of living near transit are recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1107.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Stunting; determinants; children under five; national nutrition survey; Pakistan
Online: 17 July 2023 (12:05:27 CEST)
Introduction: Child stunting remains a public health concern. It is characterized as poor cognitive and physical development in children due to inadequate nutrition during the first 1,000 days of life. Across South Asia, Pakistan has the second-highest prevalence of stunting. This study has assessed the most recent nationally representative data, the National Nutrition Survey (NNS) 2018, to identify the stunting prevalence and determinants among Pakistani children under five. Methods: The NNS 2018, a cross-sectional household-level survey, was used to conduct a secondary analysis. Data on malnutrition, dietary practices, and food insecurity was used to identify the prevalence of stunting among children under five years by demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics. The prevalence of stunting was calculated using the World Health Organization (WHO) height for age z-score references. Univariate and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted to identify factors associated with child stunting. Results: Analysis showed that out % of 52,602 children under five, 40.0% were found stunted. Male children living in rural areas were more susceptible to stunting. Furthermore, stunting was more prevalent among children whose mothers had no education, were between 20 and 34, and were employed. In the multivariable logistic regression, male children (AOR=1.08, 95% CI[1.04-1.14], P<0.001) from rural areas (AOR=1.07, 95% CI [1.01-1.14], P=0.014), with the presence of diarrhea in the last two weeks (AOR=1.15, 95% CI [1.06-1.25], P<0.001), with mothers who have no education (AOR=1.57, 95% CI [1.42-1.73], P<0.001) or lower levels of education (Primary: AOR=1.35, 95% CI [1.21-1.51], P<0.001; Middle: AOR=1.29, 95% CI [1.15-1.45], P<0.001) had higher odds of stunting. Younger children aged <6 months (AOR=0.53, 95% CI [0.48-0.58], P<0.001) and 6-23 months (AOR=0.89, 95% CI [0.84-0.94], P<0.001), with mothers aged 35-49 years (AOR=0.78, 95% CI [0.66-0.92], P=0.003) had lower odds of stunting. At the household level, the odds of child stunting were higher in the poorest households (AOR=1.64, 95% CI [1.46-1.83], P<0.001), with ≥7 members (AOR=1.09, 95% CI [1.04-1.15], P<0.001), with no access to improved sanitation facilities (AOR=1.14, 95% CI [1.06-1.22], P<0.001) and experiencing severe food insecurity (AOR=1.07, 95% CI [1.01-1.14], P=0.02). Conclusion: Child stunting in Pakistan is strongly associated with various factors, including gender, age, diarrhea, residence, maternal age and education, household size, food and wealth status, and access to sanitation. To address this, interventions must be introduced to make locally available food and nutritious supplements more affordable, improve access to safe water and sanitation, and promote female education for long-term reduction in stunting rates.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0212.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Education; effectiveness; intervention; food and nutrition education; knowledge; schoolchildren
Online: 9 September 2022 (07:43:19 CEST)
School-aged children may benefit from education interventions focused on healthy eating and physical activity to improve their quality of life. This article aims to review scientific evidence on food and nutrition education (FNE) in Spanish-speaking countries for the prevention of overweight and obesity in school-aged children (6-12 y). Articles were searched between April and August 2021. The searches were conducted using MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and SciELO. The primary search for articles focused on the experience of FNE interventions in Spanish-speaking countries. Overall, 518 articles were found and 33 studies were eligible for data extraction. Forty-two percent of the studies had a focus on FNE and 64% were focused on describing the eating habits of schoolchildren. Nutritional assessments (anthropometric) were found frequently with 91% and 30% of the studies focused on physical activity. All interventions focused on preventing or reducing overweight and obesity in school-age children. Educational, cognitive, dietary, and physical activity practices were described, whit being educational the most frequent intervention. Interventions reported positive effects of FNE interventions to improve knowledge and practices of healthy lifestyles in school-age children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0047.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: colorectal neoplasm; nutrition assessment; body composition; electric impedance; prognosis
Online: 5 September 2022 (07:33:30 CEST)
Background: Some studies have shown that an increase in visceral fat is associated with postoperative clinical and oncologic outcomes. However, no studies have used bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to determine the effects of visceral fat on the oncologic outcomes of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between visceral fat area (VFA) and clinical, and oncologic outcomes in CRC. Methods: This study included 203 patients who underwent anthropometric measurements by BIA before surgical treatment for CRC between January 2016 and June 2020. Results: According to the cutoff level of VFA by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 85 (40.5%) patients had a low VFA, and 119 (59.5%) had a high VFA. Multivariate analysis found that preoperative CRP (hazard ratio [HR], 3.882; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001–15.051; p=0.050) and nodal stage (HR, 7.996; 95% CI, 1.414–45.209; p=0.019) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival, while sex (HR, 0.110; 95% CI, 0.013–0.905; p=0.040), lymphovascular invasion (HR, 3.560; 95% CI, 1.098–11.544; p=0.034), and VFA (HR, 4.263; 95% CI, 1.280–14.196; p=0.040) were independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS). Conclusion: High VFA preoperatively measured by BIA was associated with inflammations and was an independent prognostic factor for DFS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0334.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Nutrition; Hydration; Dementia: Eating; Drinking; Food; Ethnic minorities; Culture
Online: 25 March 2022 (02:47:59 CET)
Eating and drinking difficulties are common in dementia, but little is known about the experiences of ethnic minority groups managing these difficulties at home. We undertook qualitative semi-structured interviews, exploring the meaning of food, the impact of dementia on eating and drinking and carers’ experiences of support. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. We interviewed 17 carers and people with dementia from ethnic minority backgrounds, using reflexive thematic analysis to analyse data. Food/drink had strong links to identity, culture and emotions. Providing culturally familiar foods, celebrating traditional festivals and supporting previous food-related roles promoted reminiscence, which encouraged people with dementia to eat and drink, as did social interactions. However, these strategies sometimes led to distress in those with more advanced dementia. Food choices were also influenced by carer strain, generational differences and the impact of health conditions. Despite a strong sense of duty to care for relatives at home, there was low awareness of community support services. Carers expressed a need for culturally tailored support for managing dementia-related eating and drinking difficulties at home. Healthcare professionals must provide contextually relevant advice to carers, being mindful of how cultural backgrounds can affect dietary choices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0187.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: WASH; Hygiene; Sanitation; Under-five children; Nutrition status; Bangladesh
Online: 13 January 2022 (11:04:48 CET)
This study aimed to assess knowledge and practice of caregivers and its relationship to the disease and nutritional status of children under five years of age in rural areas of Sylhet, Bangladesh. A total of 110 households having 6 to 59 months aged children was selected by simple random method from ten rural communities of three Upazila of Sylhet during September 2019 to February 2020. Descriptive statistics were used to assess the WASH knowledge & practice and multivariate chi-square analyses were performed to assess associations among diseases & nutritional status with WASH following a structured questionnaire. The study found a significant association of WASH with childhood disease and nutritional status, and 65% of children were found to be in a diseased state and 35% of children were found to be in a disease-free state within the last six months. The findings sketched that mother with poor wash knowledge and practice was at greater risk for disease outbreaks, disease frequency and duration. The highest incidence of diarrhea was 17% in children aged 12 to 23 months. Significant effect of WASH was also found in children nutrition status, that was reflected in the ratio of stunted, underweight and wasted children. Integrated convergent work focusing on the provision of clean water within the household, stop open defecation, promotion of hand washing, behavior change and poverty alleviation is needed to improve the situation. Health, nutrition and livelihood programs should be uninterrupted, and mothers or caregivers should be encouraged to participate in these programs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0233.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Diabetes; Chronic Kidney Disease; Proteinuria; Dialysis; Inflammation; Diet; Nutrition
Online: 8 June 2021 (13:33:23 CEST)
Chronic kidney disease is a critical health crisis in the US, affecting about 37 million adults. Known as "the silent killer" because it is often undiagnosed until it has reached a stage of progression. Renal dysfunction causes many adverse effects to the body's biological mechanisms, such as fluid electrolyte and pH balance, blood pressure regulation, excretion of toxins and waste, vitamin D metabolism, and hormonal regulation. Many CKD patients experience hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, chronic metabolic acidosis, bone deterioration, blood pressure abnormalities, and edema. Symptoms experienced may be minimized, and the disease's progression may be slowed through an appropriate diet, which is why medical nutrition therapy is a critical aspect of the medical intervention for CKD. The current KDOQI recommendations are proposed as well as the physiological mechanisms behind the recommendations. Current biological explanations of the effects of a whole foods plant-based diet are included for possible contrast with the current renal diet. Strong evidence continues to support the importance of proper nutrition in the prevention and progression of kidney disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0505.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: dietary intake; sport nutrition knowledge; dietary habits; energy availability
Online: 21 May 2021 (09:01:55 CEST)
Sport nutrition knowledge has been shown to influence dietary habits of athletes. The purpose of the current study was to examine relationships between sport nutrition knowledge and body composition and examine potential predictors of body weight goal in collegiate athletes. Participants included National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III women (n=42, height: 169.9 ± 6.9 cm; body mass: 67.1 ± 8.6 kg; fat-free mass: 51.3 ± 6.6 kg; body fat %: 24.2 ± 5.3%) and men (n=25, height: 180.8 ± 7.2 cm; body mass: 89.2 ± 20.5 kg; fat-free mass: 75.9 ± 12.2 kg; body fat %: 13.5 ± 8.9%) athletes. Body composition was assessed via air displacement plethysmography. Athletes completed a validated questionnaire designed to assess sport nutrition knowledge and were asked questions about their perceived dietary energy and macronutrient requirements, as well as their body weight goal (i.e. lose, maintain, gain weight). Athletes answered 47.98 ± 11.29 % of questions correctly on the nutrition questionnaire with no differences observed between sexes (men: 49.52 ± 11.76% vs. women: 47.03 ± 11.04%; p=0.40). An inverse relationship between sport nutrition knowledge scores and body fat percentage (r = -0.330; p=0.008), and fat mass (r = -.268; p=0.032) was observed for all athletes. Fat mass (β = 0.224), BF % (β = 0.217), and BMI (β = 0.421) were all significant (p<0.05) predictors of body weight goal in women. All athletes significantly (p<0.001) underestimated daily energy (-1,360 ± 610.2 kcal/d), carbohydrate (-301.6 ± 149.2 g/d), and fat (-41.4 ± 34.5 g/d) requirements. Division III collegiate athletes have a low level of sport nutrition knowledge, which was associated with a higher BF %. Women athletes with a higher body weight, BF % and BMI were more likely to select weight loss as a body weight goal. Athletes also significantly underestimated their energy and carbohydrate requirements based upon the demands of their sport, independent of sex.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0476.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Overweight; Obesity paradox; Physical activity; Nutrition; Sugar-sweetened beverages
Online: 18 March 2021 (11:03:09 CET)
Metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) was associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. However, it is not fully understood which lifestyle factors are associated with MUO in youth. We aimed to investigate the relationship between MUO and lifestyle patterns in youth. 7-17 years old youth with overweight (N=48; 60.4% girls) and obesity (N=71; 56.3% girls) were recruited in the Pediatric Clinic, Luxembourg (cross-sectional study). Eating and sedentary habits, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) were assessed. 72.3% of the participants had MUO. Multivariable logistic regressions showed that MUO is most likely to be associated with moderate to low weekly levels of MVPA [OR: 2.09 (95% CI: 1.07 – 4.09; p = 0.030)] and moderate to high weekly soda and lemonade drinks consumption [OR: 2.92 (95% CI: 1.32 – 6.48; p = 0.008)]. After adjustment for age, gender and Tanner stages, MUO was most likely to be associated with moderate to high soda and lemonade drinks consumption [OR: 2.72 (95% CI: 1.21– 6.12; p = 0.016)] and with Tanner stages [OR: 2.06 (95% CI: 1.08– 3.94; p = 0.029)]. We support the promotion of MVPA and the moderation in the sugar-sweetened beverages consumption to manage cardiometabolic health in youth with obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0087.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: alcoholic liver disease; cognitive function; calorie intake; nutrition; BMI
Online: 3 December 2020 (14:22:03 CET)
Malnutrition and cognitive dysfunction are typical features of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and are correlated with the development of complications. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of nutritional state and diet on cognitive function in ALD. A total of 43 patients with compensated alcoholic cirrhosis were enrolled, and neuropsychological test was assessed according to body mass index (BMI, <22 and ≥22). In the ALD animal study, mice were divided into 5 groups (n=9/group; normal liquid, 5% EtOH+regular liquid, 5% EtOH+high-carbohydrate liquid, 5% EtOH+high-fat liquid, and 5% EtOH+high-protein liquid diet) and fed the same calories for 8-week. To assess cognitive function, we performed T-maze studies weekly before/after alcohol binging. In cognitive function (BMI <22 /≥22), language score of Korea mini-mental state (7.4±1.4/7.9±0.4), Rey-complex figure (72.0±25.9/58.4±33.6), Boston naming (11.7±2.7/13.0±1.8), forward digit span (6.7±1.8/7.5±1.6), Korean Color Word Stroop (24.2±26.5/43.6±32.4), and interference score (33.9±31.9/52.3±33.9) revealed significant differences. In the T-maze test, alcohol significantly delayed the time to reach food, and binge drinking provided a temporary recovery in cognition. The alcohol-induced delay was significantly reduced in the high-carbohydrate and high-fat diet groups. Synaptic function exhibited no changes in all groups. Cognitive dysfunction is affected by nutritional status and diet in ALD.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: Nutrition system; Carbon footprint; Energy metabolism; Anthropometric; Biomedical treatment
Online: 31 May 2020 (21:01:47 CEST)
To reduce the risk factors for mortality, the paper has focused on the assessment of the socioeconomic, clinical, physical, biophysiological, and biochemical characteristics of Down's syndrome which can be affected by the type of nutrition system, toxicity, and ecological footprint. Patients were males with trisomy 21 diagnosed by karyotype test and assessed by clinical examinations. Samples were collected from different biofluids. The physicochemical analyses of the biomatrix samples were performed and these properties had compared to findings of healthy males and age-matched controls. Duraphat application was proved effective for their oral treatment and saliva was the optimum biomarker for detecting malnutrition. Patients were hypersensitive to Cu while the Mn content in blood and hair was considered an expression to the degree of epileptic condition and chronic seizure development. The ecological footprint was 5.6 gha and carbon footprint was recognised in food poverty habits. These can be reduced by eating more plant-based proteins and fibre-rich foods with low saturated fats and sodium. The findings provide an up-to-date reference for expected developmental outcomes in children with DS in terms of biophysicochemistry. The genetically sensitive intervention is affected by heredity factor and sensitivity to toxics. Down's syndrome is encouraged to live green-hipster life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0243.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: aged; homes for the aged; malnutrition; dehydration; nutrition policy
Online: 11 October 2018 (14:48:57 CEST)
Preventing malnutrition and dehydration in older care home residents is complex, with both conditions remaining prevalent, despite numerous guidelines spanning several decades. This policy-mapping scoping review used snowballing search methods to locate publicly-available policies, reports and best practice guidelines relating to hydration and nutrition in UK residential care homes, to describe the existing knowledge base and pinpoint gaps in practice, interpretation and further investigation. Findings were synthesised narratively to identify solutions. Strategies for improvements to nutritional and hydration care include: development of age and population-specific nutrient and fluid intake guidelines; statutory regulation, contractual obligations for commissioners, appropriate menu-planning, implementation and auditing of care, acknowledgment of residents’ eating and drinking experiences, effective screening, monitoring and treatment and staff training. The considerable body of existing knowledge is failing to influence practice, relating to translational issues of implementing knowledge into care at the point of delivery, and this is where future research and actions should focus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0512.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: parenteral nutrition, neonatal solution; calcium; phosphate; organic; inorganic; precipitation;
Online: 26 September 2018 (13:57:18 CEST)
The aim of the study was to determine the maximum safe concentration of calcium and phosphate in neonatal parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions when various combinations of inorganic and organic salts are applied. Twelve PN solutions for neonatal use were aseptically prepared. Increasing concentration of inorganic and organic calcium and phosphate were added to the standard formulas. Each admixture was separately tested according to following conditions; after mixing, 37°C for 24 h, and maximum safe combination of calcium and phosphate were stored at 4°C for 30 days and followed by 24 h at 37°C. Visual inspections against a black and white contrast background, microscopic observation of undiluted PN solutions as well as the membrane filter after filtration of the PN solution, pH evaluation, and spectrophotometry at 600 nm were examined in triplicate. Safe maximum concentration of organic and inorganic calcium and phosphate was proposed individually for each composition of parenteral nutrition solutions. Surprisingly organic calcium with organic phosphate showed precipitation but over the therapeutic range. The protective effect of amino acid was observed and higher concentrations of calcium and phosphate were free of precipitation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0403.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: olive nutraceuticals; functional foods; exercise; nutrition; type-2 diabetes
Online: 26 June 2018 (09:37:44 CEST)
Lifestyle is the primary prevention of diabetes, especially type-2 diabetes (T2D). Nutritional intake of olive oil (OO), the key Mediterranean diet component has been associated with the prevention and management of many chronic diseases including T2D. Several OO bioactive compounds such as monounsaturated fatty acids, and key polyphenols including hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, have been associated with preventing inflammation and cytokine-induced oxidative damage, glucose lowering, reducing carbohydrate absorption and increasing insulin sensitivity and related gene expression. However, research into the interaction of OO nutraceuticals with lifestyle components, especially physical activity is lacking. Promising postprandial effects have been reported when OO or other similar monounsaturated fatty acids was the main dietary fat compared with other diets. Animal studies have shown a potential anabolic effect of oleuropein. Such effects could be further potentiated via exercise, especially strength training, which is an essential exercise prescription for individuals with T2D. There is also an evidence from in vitro, animal and limited human studies for a dual preventative role of OO polyphenols in diabetes and cancer, especially that they share similar risk factors. Putative anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory mechanisms and associated gene expressions resulting from OO phenolics, have produced paradoxical results making suggested inferences from dual prevention T2D and cancer outcomes difficult. Well-designed human interventions and clinical trials are needed to decipher such a potential dual anti-cancer and anti-diabetic effects of OO nutraceuticals. Exercise combined with OO consumption, individually or as part of a healthy diet is likely to induce reciprocal action for T2D prevention outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0457.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: CKD; renal function; nutrients; nutraceuticals; xenobiotics; inflammation; functional nutrition.
Online: 30 May 2018 (17:15:58 CEST)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects worldwide 8-16% of the population. In developed countries, the most important risk factors for CKD are diabetes, hypertension and obesity, calling into question the importance of educating and acting on lifestyles and nutrition. A balanced nutrition and supplementation can indeed support the maintenance of a general health status, including preservation of renal function, and help to manage and curb the main risk factors for renal damage. While the concepts of protein and salt restriction in nephrology are historically acknowledged, the role of some nutrients on renal health and the importance of nutrition as a preventative measure for renal care are less known. In this review, we provide an overview of the demonstrated and potential actions of some selected nutrients, nutraceuticals and xenobiotics on renal health and function. The effects on kidney of fibres, proteins, fatty acids, curcumin, steviol glycosides, green tea, coffee, nitrates, nitrites, and alcohol, both direct and indirect, in CKD and non-CKD condition, are reviewed here. In a view of a functional and personalized nutrition, understanding the renal and systemic effects of dietary components is essential since many chronic conditions and CKD are related to systemic dysfunctions such as chronic low-grade inflammation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0048.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Aging, Nutrition, Diet, Muscle atrophy, Body wasting, Food choice
Online: 5 February 2018 (23:43:16 CET)
Inadequate protein intake can impair protein balance and lead to skeletal muscle atrophy, impaired body growth, and functional decline. Foods provide both non-essential (NEAAs) and essential amino acids (EAAs) that may convey different metabolic stimuli to specific organs and tissues. In this study, we sought to evaluate the impact of six diets with various EAA/NEAA blends on body composition and the risk of developing tissue wasting in late middle-aged male mice. Mice consuming NEAA-based diets, although showing increased food and calorie intake, suffered the most severe weight loss. Interestingly, even moderate NEAAs prevalence was able to induce inflammatory catabolic stimuli, generalized body wasting and systemic metabolic alterations. Complete depletion of retroperitoneal white adipose tissue and a severe loss (>75%) of brown adipose tissue were observed together with muscle wasting. Conversely, EAA-based diets induced significant decreases in weight by reducing primarily fat reserves, but improved clinical parameters. Tissue wasting was caused by altered AA quality, independent of reduced nitrogen or caloric intake. Our results indicate that an optimized balance of AA composition is necessary for preserving overall bodily energy status. These findings are particularly relevant in the context of aging and may be exploited for contrasting its negative correlates including body wasting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1272.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Diabetes; mental health; anxiety; depression; supplementation; nutrition; chronic disease; blood glucose; cardiovascular health; integrative medicine; mental disorders; nutrition education; life-style medicine
Online: 19 July 2023 (12:10:42 CEST)
Diabetes and mental disorders have been recognized as two significant public health concerns globally. Recent research indicates that there is a bidirectional relationship between these two conditions, with each influencing the other's course and outcomes. Nutrition plays an essential role in the prevention and treatment of both mental disorders and diabetes. A comprehensive review of existing literature was conducted to examine the impact of anxiety and depression on the development of diabetes and the influence of diabetes on the occurrence of mental health disorders such as anxiety and depression. Additionally, the effects of nutrition on the prevention and management of mental disorders, diabetes, and related complications in at risk individuals were assessed. Our findings show that mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and are associated with poorer glycemic control, increased diabetes-related complications, and higher mortality rates. Conversely, diabetes is also linked with an increased risk of developing mental health disorders, including depression, anxiety, and cognitive decline. The biological, psychological, and social factors that contribute to the comorbidity between these two conditions are complex and multifaceted. Therefore, an integrated approach to the management of both conditions is critical for improving patient outcomes and reducing the overall burden of disease. Nutritional interventions should be utilized to reduce the risk of diabetes in patients with anxiety and depression as well as enhance mental health in patients with diabetes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0663.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: dietary guidelines; evidence in nutrition; food behavior; sustainability; global health
Online: 10 November 2023 (08:53:07 CET)
Dietary guidance to recommend food patterns to deliver nutrients has been well accepted for the past century. Foods to deliver essential nutrients and energy are needed across the life cycle and are dependent upon local industries and accepted cultural practices to deliver essential nutrients to prevent nutrient deficiency diseases. Since the 1980s, dietary guidelines to prevent chronic diseases have relied on epidemiological research to predict what dietary patterns are linked to reduced risk of chronic disease or links to health outcomes. Dietary guidelines have been broad, typically recommending avoiding “too much sugar”, “too much saturated fat”, and “too much sodium”. Efforts to fine tune these recommendations have met with limited scientific data to support more specific recommendations across the life cycle. Consumers have become skeptical of dietary guidelines as media coverage of new studies is often in conflict with accepted nutrition dogma. We discuss whether we really have a science-based databank to support dietary guidelines, based on a scientific session at the 10th International Conference on Nutrition and Growth.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0466.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: maternal nutrition; placenta telomeres; newborn telomeres; premature birth; preterm infants
Online: 8 November 2023 (01:43:11 CET)
Preterm birth (PTB), a multi-causal syndrome, is one of the global epidemics. Maternal nutrition, but also neonatal and placental telomere length (TL), are among the factors affecting PTB risk. However, the exact relationship between these factors and the PTB outcome, remains obscure. The aim of this review, was to investigate the association between PTB, maternal nutrition and placental-infant TL. Observational studies were sought, with the keywords: maternal nutrition, placenta TL, newborn, TL, and PTB. No study was found that included all keywords simultaneously, and thus, the keywords, were searched in dyads, to reach assumptive conclusions. The findings show that maternal nutrition affects PTB risk, through its influence on maternal TL. On the other hand, maternal TL independently affects PTB risk, and at the same time PTB is a major determinant of offspring TL regulation. The strength of the associations and the extent of the influence from covariates, remains to be elucidated in future research. Furthermore, the question of whether maternal TL, is simply a biomarker of maternal nutritional status and PTB risk, or a causative factor of PTB, to date, remains to be answered.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1991.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: diabetes; herbs and spices; metabolic syndrome; nutrition; phytochemicals; preventative health
Online: 31 October 2023 (04:09:55 CET)
Metabolic syndrome is a growing global health problem. Evidence suggests that diets rich in phytochemical-containing herbs and spices can contribute to reduced risk of chronic disease. This review assesses the scope of evidence supporting the use of herbs and spices in the diet for prevention or treatment of metabolic syndrome and associated health conditions. A search of PubMed and Scopus databases was carried out to assess the available clinical or cohort evidence for culinary doses of commonly used herbs and spices. Trials that were measuring health factors related to metabolic disorders or the health of individuals with metabolic syndrome or associated diseases were included. Out of a total of 1742 papers identified, there were 146 relevant studies on black pepper, chilli, cardamom, cinnamon, coriander, cumin, fennel, fenugreek, garlic, ginger, Nigella seed, rosemary, sage and turmeric. No relevant research was found for cloves, mint, oregano, parsley or thyme. Cinnamon, fenugreek and ginger were the herbs/spices with the most published trials on them and showed promise for glycaemic control. Cardamom appears to have potential to reduce inflammatory markers, and cinnamon, ginger and turmeric for blood lipids. Patients with type 2 diabetes were the population most likely to be included in studies, but the preventative benefits of herbs/spices in healthy populations were also investigated, particularly for chilli, ginger and cinnamon. There is evidence for the beneficial effect of culinary doses of many common herbs/spices in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome and associated disorders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1504.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: PGPR; Crop production; Rhizosphere; Plant nutrition; Soil fertility; Sustainable agriculture
Online: 24 October 2023 (08:12:15 CEST)
Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) is beneficial microorganisms that inhabit the rhizosphere of plants and play a crucial role in enhancing plant growth and development. This review provides an overview of the significant role of PGPR in sustainable agriculture. The mechanisms that promote plant growth, such as nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, and growth hormones, are discussed. The potential of PGPR in improving plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, reducing the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and enhancing nutrient availability, soil fertility, and uptake is also highlighted. Moreover, the ecological and economic benefits of using PGPR for sustainable agriculture include improving crop productivity, reducing environmental pollution, and ensuring food security.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0880.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: football players; melatonin; football performance; soccer; sport nutrition; European football
Online: 13 September 2023 (16:10:22 CEST)
Background: to know the existing documentation related to exogenous melatonin in the performance of professional soccer players. Methods: critical and systematic review. Data were obtained by looking up the following bibliographic data bases: Web of Science, MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase, Cochrane Library and Scopus. The used terms were "Soccer Athlete", "Melatonin" and "Soccer Performance", using as a filter: "Humans". The search update was in May 2023. Results: having applied the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 8 articles were selected out of 59 retrieved references. The dose of melatonin administered in the studies ranged between 5 and 8 mg. The outcomes showed a decrease in oxidative stress, muscle damage and inflammatory markers in the melatonin-treated group. Conclusions: Exogenously administered melatonin seems to attenuate some of the effects derived from physical exercise such as oxidative stress, inflammation and muscle damage in professional soccer players, and since it has no potential adverse effects, it could be interesting to apply it in this population. However, the direct effects of melatonin supplementation on physical performance have not been demonstrated, so more research is needed on the intervention period, effective dose and larger participant populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0284.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: human milk; breastfeeding; activin A; preeclampsia; newborn nutrition; neuro-biomarker
Online: 6 September 2023 (03:28:36 CEST)
Background: It is known that Preeclampsia affects the lactogenesis. However, data on effects of this pathology on the human milk neurobiomarkers composition are not available. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of this gestational pathology on Activin A levels, a neurobi-omarker known to play an important role in the development and protection of the central nerv-ous system. Methods: The women recruited were divided in two different study groups: preeclamptic or normotensive women. All the human milk samples were collected using the same procedure. Activin A was quantified using an ELISA test. To investigate the effect of Preeclampsia on the Activin A concentration in the 3 lactation phases, mixed linear model with unistructural covariance structure, mother as random effect, and fixed effects were performed. Results: Activin A was detected in all samples. There were no significant differences between Preeclamptic and Normotensive women. The only significant effect is related to the lactation phase: it is significant the difference between colostrum and mature milk (p<0.01). In conclusion these results allow us to affirm that breast milk beneficial properties are maintained even if preeclampsia occurs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0631.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: diagnostic leaf; fertilization; plant nutrition; productivity; Simmondsia chinensis; vegetative growth
Online: 8 August 2023 (11:21:39 CEST)
Although jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) has been cultivated for years, information on its N re-quirements is limited. A 6-year study of mature jojoba plants grown under field conditions with an intensive management regime evaluated the effect of N-application rate on plant nutrient status, growth and productivity, and nitrate accumulation in the soil. Five levels of N application were tested: 50, 150, 250, 370 and 500 kg N ha-1. The fertilizers were provided all along the growing season via subsurface drip irrigation system. Leaf N concentration, in both spring and summer, reflected the level of N applied. Diagnostic leaf (youngest leaf that has reached full size) concentration of 1.3% N was identified as the threshold for N deficiency. Increasing rates of N application resulted in higher P levels in young leaves. Plant K status, as reflected by leaf analysis, was not affected by N treatment but was strongly affected by fruit load. Vegetative growth was inhibited when only 50 kg N ha-1 was applied. Soil analysis at the end of the fertilization season showed substantial accumulation of nitrate for the two highest application rates. Considering productivity, N costs, and environmental risk, 150 kg N ha-1 is the recommended dosage for in-tensively grown jojoba. N deficiencies can be identified using leaf analysis and excess N can be detected by soil sampling toward the end of the growing season. These results and tools will fa-cilitate precise N fertilization in intensive jojoba plantations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1137.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: nutrition; kidney; pancreas; transplantation; renal replacement therapy; hemodialysis; peritoneal dialysis
Online: 18 July 2023 (13:47:51 CEST)
Pancreas transplantation is a high-risk operation that requires significant skill and expertise from the surgeons and the postoperative care team. Prior to candidate qualification, all contraindications to this procedure must be excluded. The use of screening tools and nutritional assessment aims to emphasize the importance of accurately diagnosing nutritional status in order to implement early nutritional interventions and reduce complications associated with malnutrition. This plays a crucial role in improving postoperative outcomes for patients undergoing pancreas and/or kidney transplantation. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the parameters of nutritional status in patients eligible for kidney transplantation and kidney with pancreas transplantation. Methods: The study analyzed the database of hospitalized patients in our Center from 2020 to 2023 to identify preoperative parameters of nutritional status in patients eligible for kidney transplantation (Ktx) and kidney with pancreas transplantation (SPKTx). Participants: A total of 59 patients participated in the study, who were candidates for kidney transplantation (23, including 11 females and 12 males) or kidney with pancreas transplantation (36, including 24 females and 12 males). Parameters examined included: Onoder's Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNIO), Nutrition Risk Index (NRI), ideal body weight (IBW) calculated using the Lorenz formula, and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). All patients admitted to the clinic underwent the NRS-2002 clinical assessment scale for nutritional status. Results: Upon analyzing the obtained results, it was found that BMI was not a good differentiating parameter for the studied groups. The PNIO index also insufficiently differentiated the studied groups, and similarly, the NRI index was a weak differentiating parameter. The NRS-2002 index and albumin level were the best indicators of differences between the groups. In the group of transplantation candidates, several parameters indicated that patients in the Ktx group (kidney transplantation candidates) had better nutritional status than SPKtx candidates (kidney with pancreas transplantation candidates), despite the former group being older patients. Conclusion: It seems that more effort should be made to start a proper nutrition plan for SPKTx (and especially peritoneal dialysis) patients. Regular assessment of nutrition status should be performed. SPKtx patients in the perioperative period should receive parenteral nutrition and, as soon as their general condition allows it, enteral nutrition, taking into account the caloric and protein needs
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0388.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: time-restricted feeding; controlled feeding study; study design; nutrition interventions
Online: 22 August 2022 (19:16:58 CEST)
The efficacy of time-restricted feeding for weight loss has not been established as prior studies were limited by lack of controlled isocaloric designs. This study describes the design and implementation of a controlled feeding study evaluating time-restricted feeding. We designed a randomized, controlled, parallel-arm, feeding study comparing time restricted feeding (TRF) to a usual feeding pattern (UFP) for the primary outcome of weight change. Participants were aged 18-69 years with prediabetes and obesity. TRF consumed 80% of calories by 1300, and UFP consumed ≥50% of calories after 1700. Both arms consumed identical macro- and micro-nutrients, based on a healthy palatable diet. We calculated individual calorie requirements which were maintained throughout the intervention. We randomized 41 participants who all completed the study. The desired distribution of calories across feeding windows in both arms was achieved, as were weekly averages for macronutrients and micronutrients. All randomized participants completed the study. We actively monitored participants and adapted diets to facilitate adherence. We provide the first report, to our knowledge, on the design and implementation of a feeding study that isolated the effect of meal timing on weight, while maintaining constant caloric intake and identical diets during the study period.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0048.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: lifestyle diseases; food processing; ultra-processed food; NOVA classification; nutrition
Online: 6 April 2022 (13:44:53 CEST)
The modern diet, which consists of food produced with high level of industrial processing, is associated with an increased risk of the development of lifestyle diseases. Current nutritional science is, however, focused on chemical composition of food, and not on the type and degree of processing used during the food production. Here, we take a fresh perspective on the relationship between the extent and type of food processing, and evaluate its impact on consumer health. We argue that the preference for consumption of minimally processed foods, and restriction of ultra-processed foods should be an essential part of a healthy lifestyle, disease prevention, and even treatment. We also present a simple, user-friendly consumer guide, which is intended to be used as a practical, ready-to-go identifier of ultra-processed foods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0016.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Nutrition program; vendor system; qualitative study; obesity; non-communicable diseases
Online: 1 December 2021 (13:10:10 CET)
Globally, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) were responsible for 41 million deaths in 2016, with the majority of these occurring in low and middle-income countries. These diseases were on the rise as a result of unhealthy, low-quality, and unbalanced diets, which resulted in overweight and obesity. The National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP) was created to regulate the foods sold to schoolchildren. To ascertain school management teams' perspectives on the relationship between the NSNP and the development of lifestyle diseases. A phenomenological qualitative study using Focus Group Discussions among 16 purposively selected members of the School Management Teams were conducted in Mt Frere, Eastern Cape in 2016. The narrative data was analyzed using Tesch's eight-phase thematic analysis approach. The data analysis revealed two themes (NSNP and the vendor system) and six sub-themes. The NSNP was viewed as making a significant contribution to children's food security, thereby improving academic output. However, reengineering of the NSNP was need through improved budgeting and inclusion of breakfast in the menu to control NCDs risk factors. The current implementation of the vendor system did not support reduction of NCDs risk factors. Improved implementation of the guide to vendor system is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0094.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: nutrition; pediatrics; geographic information systems; acute respiratory infections; diarrhea; growth
Online: 6 October 2021 (09:00:12 CEST)
Infectious disease is the leading cause of mortality in children under five. This study has investigated environmental factors related to the morbidity of acute respiratory infections (ARIs), diarrhea, and growth using geographical information systems (GIS) technology. Anthropometric, address and disease prevalence data were collected through the SEEM study in Matiari, Pakistan. Publicly available map data was used to compile coordinates of healthcare facilities. A Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was used to calculate the correlation between distance from healthcare facilities and participant growth and morbidity. Other continuous variables influencing these outcomes were analyzed using a random forest regression model. In this study of 416 children, we found participants living closer to secondary hospitals had lower prevalence of ARI (r=0.154, p<0.010) and diarrhea (r=0.228, p<0.001) as well as participants living closer to Maternal Health Centers (MHCs): ARI (r=0.185, p<0.002) and diarrhea (r=0.223, p<0.001) compared to those living near primary facilities. Our random forest model showed distance to have high variable importance in the context of disease prevalence. Our results indicated that participants closer to more basic healthcare facilities reported a higher prevalence of both diarrhea and ARI than those near more urban facilities, highlighting potential public policy gaps in ameliorating rural health.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0402.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Very preterm infants; Z-score on weight; neonatal nutrition; appropriate intrauterine neonatal growth
Online: 30 July 2021 (15:00:25 CEST)
Introduction: In general, everyone believes that the smallest preterm infants should achieve normal intrauterine growth rates, but many thinks that this is not possible with current nutrition guidelines. There is resistance to giving enough nutrition for fear of "toxicity". The difference in weight Z-score between birth and a corrected gestational age (CGA) at discharge is assess in postnatal growth in our unit. Material and methods: An observational study was done between January 2018 and December 2020 where all cases that had ≤ 29 weeks of GA at birth and survived to 36 weeks corrected GA or that were discharged home. An aggressive nutrition protocol including parenteral as well as enteral nutrition was followed. Patients and their weight trajectory was plotted on the Fenton 2013 growth curve. The patients who had had a smaller WZP difference were also plotted. Results: A total of 32 cases were found. The median change in Z-score between birth and discharge of the whole group was -0.52 (IQR 0.53). Six of 32 (19%) had a more than one WZP, all of whom had severe pathologies. The median decline in Z score for this group with poor growth was 1.24 (IQR 0.22). There were 26 cases with a < 1 WZP (81%) and a median Z score fall of 0.39 (IQR 0.55). No important complications secondary to the ingested volumes or parenteral nutrition were reported. Conclusion: The group of cases with a > 1 WZP drop had severe pathologies. All the other cases had adequate growth parallel to normal weight growth charts and a few cases had some catch-up growth. The study showed that it is possible for many preterm infants to achieve normal intrauterine growth rates if they are given enough nutrition, but bigger multicenter studies are needed to confirm these findings.