Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Impact of maternal nutrition and perinatal factors on breast milk composition after premature delivery

Version 1 : Received: 20 January 2019 / Approved: 22 January 2019 / Online: 22 January 2019 (11:27:30 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Hascoët, J.-M.; Chauvin, M.; Pierret, C.; Skweres, S.; Egroo, L.-D.; Rougé, C.; Franck, P. Impact of Maternal Nutrition and Perinatal Factors on Breast Milk Composition after Premature Delivery. Nutrients 2019, 11, 366. Hascoët, J.-M.; Chauvin, M.; Pierret, C.; Skweres, S.; Egroo, L.-D.; Rougé, C.; Franck, P. Impact of Maternal Nutrition and Perinatal Factors on Breast Milk Composition after Premature Delivery. Nutrients 2019, 11, 366.

Journal reference: Nutrients 2019, 11, 366
DOI: 10.3390/nu11020366

Abstract

(1) Background: Premature infants require mothers’ milk fortification to meet nutrition needs, but breast milk composition may be variable leading to a risk of inadequate nutrition. We aimed at determining factors influencing mothers’ milk macronutrients. (2) Methods: Milk samples were analyzed for the first 5 weeks after premature delivery, by infrared spectroscopy. Mothers’ nutritional intake data were obtained during standardized interviews with dieticians then analyzed with reference software. (3) Results: Composition of 367 milk samples from 81 mothers was (Median [range]g/100mL): Carbohydrates 6.8[4.4-7.3], lipids 3.4[1.3-6.4], proteins 1.3[0.1-3.1]. There was a relationship of milk composition with mothers’ carbohydrates intake only (r=0.164; p<.01). Postnatal age was correlated with milk proteins (r=-0.505 p<.001) & carbohydrates (r=+0.202, p<.001). Multiple linear regression analyses showed (coefficient) a relationship between milk proteins r=0.547 and postnatal age (-0.028), carbohydrates intake (+0.449) and the absence of maturation (-0.066); and between milk lipids r=0.295 and carbohydrates intake (+1.279) and smoking (-0.557). Finally, between milk carbohydrates concentration r=0.266 and postnatal age (+0.012) and smoking (-0.167). (4) Conclusions: Variability of mothers’ milk composition is differentially associated for each macronutrient with maternal carbohydrates intake, antenatal steroids, smoking, and postnatal age. Improvement in milk composition could be achieved by modification of these related factors.

Subject Areas

Maternal nutrition; Breast milk; Premature delivery; Milk composition

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