COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0435.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: Ribes nigrum; Gemmotherapy; Neuroinflammation
Online: 27 October 2022 (11:17:04 CEST)
The fruits and leaves of the black currant (BC, Ribes nigrum) contain phytochemicals with thera-peutic benefits. The current paper reports on a standardized BC gemmotherapy extract (BC-GTE) prepared from fresh buds, and details the extract specific flavonoid content, antioxidant, and an-ti-inflammatory properties, respectively. The main HPLC identified aglyka flavonoids were lute-olin, quercetin, apigenin and kaempferol, while all together, at about 133 phytonutrients could be detected in the reported BC-GTE, so that the BC specific presence of many compounds was re-ported for the first time. We also demonstrated that in adult male Wistar rats pretreated with BC-GTE, and assessed after the LPS injection, the body size modifications of the activated microglial cells in the hippocampal CA1 region were not apparent, and no elevated serum specific TNF-α levels were seen under such LPS induced inflammatory conditions. The specific flavonoid content, and the LPS induced in-flammatory model based experimental data are all suggesting that the assessed BC-GTE seems to feature anti-neuroinflammatory property, holding the promise of a novel GTE based comple-mentary therapeutic approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0153.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Apoptosis; Cerebellum; Methadone; Neuroinflammation
Online: 10 March 2022 (14:22:33 CET)
Background: Methadone is a centrally-acting synthetic opioid analgesic widely used in the methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) programs throughout the world. Considering its neurotoxic effects particularly on the cerebellum, this study aims to address the behavioral and histological alterations in the cerebellar cortex associated with methadone administration. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four adult male albino rats were randomized into two groups of control and methadone treatment. Methadone was subcutaneously administered (2.5–10 mg/kg) once a day for two consecutive weeks. The functional and structural changes in the cerebellum were compared to the control group. Results: Our data revealed that treating rats with methadone not only induced cerebellar atrophy, but also prompted the actuation of microgliosis, astrogliosis, and apoptotic biomarkers. We further demonstrated that treating rats with methadone increased complexity of astrocyte processes and decreased complexity of microglia processes. Our result showed that methadone impaired motor coordination and locomotor performance and neuromuscular activity. Additionally, relative gene expression of TNF-α, caspase-3 and RIPK3 increased significantly due to methadone. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that methadone administration has a neurodegenerative effect on the cerebellar cortex via dysregulation of microgliosis, astrogliosis, apoptosis, and neuro-inflammation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0259.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Epilepsy; Neuroimmunology; Neuroinflammation; Epileptogenesis; Personalized medicine
Online: 21 February 2022 (14:59:18 CET)
Background: Immunologic and neuro-inflammatory pathways have been found to play a major role in the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders such as epilepsy, proposing the use of novel therapeutic strategies. In the era of personalized medicine and in the face of the exhaustion of anti-seizure therapeutic resources it is worth looking at the current or future possibilities that neuroimmunomodulator or anti-inflammatory therapy can offer us in the management of patients with epilepsy. Methods: We performed a narrative review on the recent advances on the basic epileptogenic mechanisms related to the activation of immunity or neuroinflammation with special attention to current and future opportunities for novel treatments in epilepsy. Results: Neuroinflammation can be considered a universal phenomenon and occurs in structural, infectious, post-traumatic, autoimmune, or even genetically based epilepsies. The emerging research developed in recent years has allowed us to identify the main molecular pathways in-volved in these processes. These molecular pathways could constitute future therapeutic targets for epilepsy. Conclusions: Different drugs current or in development have demonstrated their capacity to inhibit or modulate molecular pathways involved in the immunologic or neuroinflammatory mechanisms described in epilepsy. Some of them should be tested in the future as possible antiepileptic drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0448.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Stress; Hypertension; Microglia; Neuroinflammation; Sympathetic overactivation
Online: 28 February 2020 (16:30:19 CET)
Background: Hypertension is a cardiovascular syndrome with the highest morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hypertension caused by various stress factors is called stress-induced hypertension (SIH). The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) "neuroinflammatory-sympathetic overactivation" is involved in SIH formation. Melatonin has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and blood pressure lowering effects. The present study is to explore the antihypertensive effects and mechanism of central melatonin which based on microglia derived neuroinflammation. Methods: Stress-induced hypertension (SIH) was induced by electric foot-shock stressors with noise interventions in rats. Melatonin (0.01，0.1，1 mmol/L) was administered to RVLM and then blood pressure (BP) and serum norepinephrine (NE) were monitored to reflect sympathetic vasomotor activity in SIH rats. Excitatory neurotransmitter (Glutamate) and inhibitory neurotransmitter [γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)] were measured using ELISA kits. Markers of microglia M1 polarization (CD86) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs (IL-1β, TNF-α)) expression in the RVLM were measured by RT-qPCR. Results: (1) Stress-induced increase in blood pressure and serum NE concentration; RVLM microinjection melatonin attenuated the elevation of blood pressure and increase of plasma NE in SIH rats in a dose-dependent manner. (2) The expression of CD86, PICs (IL-1β, TNF-α) and c-fos were increased in SIH rats; RVLM injection melatonin attenuated RVLM neuroinflammation and its effect is concentration-dependent. (3). Stress-induced increase in glutamate concentration in RVLM; RVLM injection melatonin reduced glutamate level and increased GABA level in SIH rats in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion: RVLM injection of melatonin inhibits M1 polarization and has anti-hypertensive effects. Melatonin reduces M1 polarization in microglia might be a novel target and a new strategy for anti-stress induced-hypertension.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0080.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: multiple sclerosis; neuroinflammation; astrocytes; myelin; bioinformatics
Online: 23 August 2017 (17:46:28 CEST)
We previously reported that in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with a progressive form of the disease, spinal cord periplaques extend distance away from plaque borders and are characterized by the co-occurrence of partial demyelination, astrocytosis and low-grade inflammation. However, transcriptomic analyses comparing periplaques to adjacent normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) areas did not allow providing a comprehensive view of molecular events in astrocytes vs oligodendrocytes. Here, we re-assessed our transcriptomic data with the aim of identifying functionally-relevant co-expression networks that would reflect astrocyte vs oligodendrocyte molecular signatures in periplaques. We identified an astrocytosis-related gene module comprising GFAP, the hub gene CX43/GJA1 and a set of transcripts forming a TGFB/SMAD1/SMAD2 genomic signature. Partial demyelination was characterized by a co-expression network which, besides myelin genes, comprised a highly significant number of translation/elongation-related genes. Interestingly, the main oligodendrocyte-related hub we identified was NDRG1, a gene previously shown to be specifically silenced in the NAWM of MS patients. This result indicated that NDRG1 down-regulation could be an important event in the process of periplaque partial demyelination. To establish a putative link between NDRG1 down-regulation and a cytokine/chemokine signature, we then sought to identify cytokine/chemokine genes whose mRNA levels inversely correlated with those of NDRG1. Following this approach we found 5 candidate immune-related genes whose up-regulation associated with NDRG1 down-regulation: TGFB1, PDGFC, IL-17D, IL-33, and IL-12A. From these results we propose that in the spinal cord of MS patients with progressive forms of the disease, TGFB1 may limit acute inflammation but concurrently induce astrocytosis and an alteration of oligodendrocytes terminal differentiation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0146.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: homocysteine; small vessel disease; neuroinflammation; neurodegneration; endothelium
Online: 6 September 2020 (15:53:11 CEST)
Homocysteine (Hcy) is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is generated during methionine metabolism. Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is typically defined as levels >15 micro mols/L. Elevated plasma levels of Hcy can be caused by the deficiency of either vitamin B12 or folate. The active role of homocysteine is quite ambivalent: many studies detected its potential impact on neurological events; others try to identify it as one of the possible risk factors of cardiovascular events, but with a complementary and secondary role. HHcy has been reported in many neurologic disorders, including cognitive impairment and stroke, independent of long-recognized factors such as hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. Nowadays, homocysteine could be considered as a possible link between a common vascular risk factor and potential alterations in degenerative neuronal disorders. HHcy-induced oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, smooth muscle cell proliferation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress; all these aspects have been considered to play an essential role in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including atherosclerosis, major stroke, and vascular dementia. Specific models of astrocytes impairment in HHcy-mice, which mimic small vessel disease, have been developed with a three-step investigation (at 6, 10, 14 weeks of B6, B9, and B12 detrimental diet in wild type HHcy mouse). These studies found out that after ten weeks on a diet (at the most after 14 weeks), end-feet disruption occurs. This phenomenon is concomitant to reduced vascular labeling for aquaporin -4-water channels, lower protein/mRNA levels for Kir4.1, and BK potassium channels, associated with a higher expression of MMP-9. The most exciting finding is that microglial activation in this mice model was evident since the precocious time of observation (6-week time) and precedes astrocytic changes. Our research aims to review the possible role of HHcy in neurodegenerative disease and small-vessel disease and to understand its pathogenic impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0393.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: RTP801/REDD1; Huntington’s disease; neuroinflammation; hippocampus; cognitive dysfunction.
Online: 22 November 2021 (13:11:49 CET)
RTP801/REDD1 is a stress-regulated protein whose levels are increased in several neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and Huntington’s diseases (HD). RTP801 downregulation ameliorates behavioral abnormalities in several mouse models of these disorders. In HD, RTP801 mediates mutant huntingtin (mhtt) toxicity in in vitro models and its levels are increased in human iPSCs, human postmortem putamen samples and in striatal synaptosomes from mouse models of the disease. Here, we investigated the role of RTP801 in the hippocampal pathophysiology of HD. We found that RTP801 levels are increased in the hippocampus of HD patients in correlation with gliosis markers. Although RTP801 expression is not altered in the hippocampus of the R6/1 mouse model of HD, neuronal RTP801 silencing in the dorsal hippocampus with shRNA-containing AAV particles ameliorates cognitive alterations. This recovery is associated with a partial rescue of synaptic markers and with a reduction of inflammatory events, especially microgliosis. Altogether, our results indicate that RTP801 could be a marker of hippocampal neuroinflammation in HD patients and a promising therapeutic target of the disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0370.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: eotaxin; immune marker; neuroinflammation; ageing; neuro-psychiatric disorder
Online: 30 January 2020 (14:42:45 CET)
Background: CCL11 (eotaxin) is a chemokine with an important role in allergic conditions. Recent evidence indicates that CCL11 plays a role in brain disorders as well. Aims: This paper reviews the associations between CCL11 and aging, neurodegenerative, neuroinflammatory and neuropsychiatric disorders.Methods: Electronic databases were searched for original articles examining CCL11 in neuropsychiatric disorders.Results: CCL11 is rapidly transported from the blood to the brain through the brain-blood barrier. Age-related increases in CCL11 are associated with cognitive impairments in executive functions, episodic and semantic memory and, therefore, this chemokine was described as an “endogenous cognition deteriorating chemokine” (ECDC) or “accelerated brain-aging chemokine” (ABAC). In schizophrenia, increased CCL11 is not only associated with impairments in cognitive functions, but also with key symptoms including formal thought disorders. Some patients with mood disorders and premenstrual syndrome show increased plasma CCL11 levels. In diseases of old age, CCL11 is associated with lowered neurogenesis and neurodegenerative processes and, as a consequence, increased CCL11 increases risk towards Alzheimer's Disease. Polymorphisms in the CCL11 gene are associated with stroke. Increased CCL11 also plays a role in neuroinflammatory disease including multiple sclerosis. In animal models, neutralization of CCL11 may protect against nigrostriatal neurodegeneration. Increased production of CCL11 may be attenuated by glucocorticoids, minocycline, resveratrol and anti-CCL11 antibodies.Conclusion: Increased CCL11 production during inflammatory conditions may play a role in human disease including age-related cognitive decline, schizophrenia, mood disorders and neurodegenerative disorders. Increased CCL11 production is a new drug target in the treatment and prevention of those disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0008.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: neuroinflammation; microglia; carbon-11; radiochemistry; positron emission tomography
Online: 2 November 2018 (02:55:47 CET)
Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of Colony Stimulating Factor 1 Receptor (CSF1R) is a new strategy for quantifying both neuroinflammation and inflammation in the periphery since CSF1R is expressed on microglia. AZ683 has high affinity for CSF1R (Ki = 8 nM; IC50 = 6 nM) and >250-fold selectivity over 95 other kinases and, in this paper, we report the radiosynthesis of [11C]AZ683 and initial evaluation of its use in CSF1R PET. [11C]AZ683 was synthesized by 11C-methylation of the desmethyl precursor with [11C]MeOTf in 3.0% non-corrected activity yield (based upon [11C]MeOTf), >99% radiochemical purity and high specific activity. Preliminary PET imaging with [11C]AZ683 revealed no brain uptake in rodents and nonhuman primates suggesting that [11C]AZ683 is a poor candidate for imaging neuroinflammation, but that it could still be useful for peripheral imaging of inflammation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0065.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Aquaporin-4; AQP4ex; Stroke; Ischemia; Astrocyte; Astrogliosis; Glial scar; Neuroinflammation
Online: 6 January 2022 (10:16:02 CET)
There is an urgent need to better understand the mechanisms involved in scar formation in brain. It is well known that astrocytes are critically engaged in this process. Here we analyze in-cipient scar formation one week after a discrete ischemic insult to the cerebral cortex. We show that the infarct border zone is characterized by pronounced changes in the organization and subcellular localization of the major astrocytic protein AQP4. Specifically there is a loss of AQP4 from astrocytic endfoot membranes that anchor astrocytes to pericapillary basal laminae and a disassembly of the supramolecular AQP4 complexes that normally abound in these membranes. This disassembly may be mechanistically coupled to a downregulation of the newly discovered AQP4 isoform AQP4ex. AQP4 has adhesive properties and is assumed to facilitate astrocyte mo-bility by permitting rapid volume changes at the leading edges of migrating astrocytes. Thus, the present findings provide new insight in the molecular basis of incipient scar formation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0288.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: BXD mice; recombinant inbred strains; candidate gene; DFP; neuroinflammation; corticosterone
Online: 20 February 2020 (07:01:44 CET)
Between 25 and 30% of the nearly one million military personnel who participated in the 1991 Persian Gulf War became ill with chronic symptoms ranging from gastrointestinal to nervous system dysfunction. This disorder is now referred to as Gulf War Illness (GWI) and the underlying pathophysiology has been linked to exposure-based neuroinflammation caused by organophosphorous (OP) compounds coupled with high circulating glucocorticoids. In a mouse model of GWI we developed, corticosterone was shown to act synergistically with an OP (diisopropylflurophosphate) to dramatically increase proinflammatory cytokine gene expression in the brain. Because not all Gulf War participants became sick, the question arises as to whether differential genetic constitution might underlie individual differences in susceptibility. To address this question of genetic liability, we tested the impact of OP and glucocorticoid exposure in a genetic reference population of 30 inbred mouse strains. We also studied both sexes. The results showed wide differences among strains and overall that females were less sensitive to the combined treatment than males. Furthermore, we identified one OP-glucocorticoid locus and nominated a candidate gene—Spon1—that may underlie the marked differences in response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0136.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Hyperbaric oxygen; Neuroinflammation; burn; Galectin-3; Toll-like receptor-4
Online: 9 July 2018 (12:03:39 CEST)
Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment has been proven to attenuate neuroinflammation in rats. This study aimed to determine the potential mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of HBO treatment on burn-induced neuroinflammation in rats. Thirty-six adult male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to the following six groups (n = 6 per group): (1) sham burn with sham HBO treatment, (2) sham burn with HBO treatment, (3) burn with 1-week sham HBO treatment, (4) burn with 2-week sham HBO treatment, (5) burn with 1-week HBO treatment, and (6) burn with 2-week HBO treatment. SD rats that received third-degree burn injury were used as a full-thickness burn injury model. Subsequently, we analyzed the expression of proteins involved in the galectin-3 (Gal-3)-dependent Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) pathway through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis, and Western blotting, and a behavior test was also conducted. The behavior test revealed that HBO treatment significantly suppressed mechanical hypersensitivity in the burn with HBO treatment group compared with the burn with sham HBO treatment group (p < 0.05). ELISA results showed that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) levels in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and the skin were significantly decreased in the burn with HBO treatment group compared with the burn with sham HBO treatment group (p < 0.05). Western blotting results demonstrated that HBO treatment significantly reduced the expression of Gal-3 and TLR-4 in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in the burn with HBO treatment group compared with the burn with sham HBO treatment group (p < 0.05). IHC analysis results showed that the expression of Gal-3, TLR-4, CD68, and CD45 in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord was significantly lower in the burn with HBO treatment group than in the burn with sham HBO treatment group (p < 0.05), and the expression of CD68 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in the right hind paw skin was significantly lower. The expression of vimentin and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) in the right hind paw skin was significantly higher after HBO treatment (p < 0.05). This study proved that early HBO treatment relieves neuropathic pain, inhibits the Gal-3-dependent TLR-4 pathway, and suppresses microglia/macrophage activation in a rat model.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0066.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: gdnf; microglia; astrocyte; neuroinflammation; ret; gfr α1; gene therapy; Parkinson’s disease
Online: 5 December 2019 (11:10:05 CET)
In healthy adult brain, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is exclusively expressed by neurons and in some instances, it has furthermore been shown to derive from a single neuronal subpopulation. Secreted GDNF acts in a paracrine fashion by forming a complex with GDNF family receptor α1 (GFRα1) which is mainly expressed by neurons and can act in cis as a membrane-bound or in trans as a soluble factor. The GDNF/GFRα1 complex signals through interaction with RET (“rearranged during transfection”) or with a lower affinity with neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). GDNF can also signal independently from GFRα1 via interaction with syndecan-3. RET being expressed by neurons involved in several pathways: nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons, motor neurons, enteric neurons, sensory neurons, etc. could be the main determinant of the specificity of GDNF pro-survival effect. In injured brain, de novo expression of GDNF occurs in glial cells. Neuroinflammation has been reported to induce GDNF expression in activated astrocytes and microglia, infiltrating macrophages, nestin-positive neural stem cells and neuron/glia (NG2) progenitors. This disease-related GDNF overexpression can be either beneficial or detrimental depending on the localization in the brain and the level and duration of glial cells activation. Some reports also describe upregulation of RET and GFRα1 in glial cells, suggesting that GDNF could modulate neuroinflammation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0094.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: Th17 cells; blood - brain barrier; chemokines; VCAM-1; neuroinflammation; multiple sclerosis
Online: 15 March 2017 (07:34:02 CET)
The nature of the interaction between Th17 cells and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is critical for the development of autoimmune inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). TNF-a or IL-17 stimulation is known to enhance the adherence of Th17 cells to the brain endothelium. The brain endothelial cells (bEnd.3) express VCAM-1, the receptor responsible for inflammatory cell adhesion, which binds VLA-4 on migrating effector lymphocytes at the early stage of brain inflammation. The present study examines the effect of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-a and IL-17 on the adherence of Th17 cells to bEnd.3 The bEnd.3 cells were found to increase production of CCL2 and CXCL1 after stimulation by pro-inflammatory cytokines, while CCL2, CCL5, CCL20 and IL17 induced Th17 cell migration through a bEnd.3 monolayer. This interaction between Th17 cells and the brain endothelium appears to be mediated by VCAM-1 and some chemotactic cytokines. This observation may suggest potential therapeutic targets for the prevention of autoimmune neuroinflammation development in the CNS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0316.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: acute injury; antioxidant; behavior; mitochondria; mitoquinone; neuroinflammation; oxidative stress; repeated mild TBI
Online: 21 July 2022 (08:17:28 CEST)
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion accounts for the bulk of all head injuries and represents a major health concern. Although an mTBI event may not manifest in neurobehavioral impairment, repeated injuries, known as repeated mTBI (rmTBI), can result in a cumulative effect that may progress to long-term cognitive and functional deficits. To date, there is no FDA-approved drug for TBI in general and rmTBI in particular. In previous studies, we have demonstrated the neuroprotective role of mitoquinone (MitoQ), a mitochondrial antioxidant, in an open head injury model and a model of repeated mild TBI (rmTBI) at a chronic time point (30 days). In this work, we set out to assess the neuroprotective potential of MitoQ at acute (3 days) and subacute time points (7 days) post-injury in a controlled cortical impact model of rmTBI. C57BL/6 male mice were injected intraperitoneally with MitoQ (5 mg/kg) one hour after the first mTBI, and three days after the first injury in both the 3-day and 7-day MitoQ + rmTBI subgroups, with an additional injection four days after the second injection in the 7-day group. Cognitive function was evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM) while gross and fine motor functions were evaluated by the pole climbing, grip strength, and ladder rung tests. Dihydroethidium (DHE) staining was performed to evaluate oxidative stress while qRT-PCR was used to measure the gene expression of different antioxidant enzymes. Also, immunofluorescence staining was performed on brain tissue to assess the degree of microgliosis and astrocytosis. Our results showed that MitoQ conferred significant protection on days 3 and 7 post-injury against fine motor function impairment induced by rmTBI. Moreover, MitoQ enhanced cognitive function and reduced astrogliosis, microgliosis, and levels of oxidative stress on day 7 post-injury. However, antioxidant gene expression generally remained unaffected. In light of our results, MitoQ administration may be considered a preventive approach that helps to alleviate the neurological manifestations associated with rmTBI early before symptoms progress to long-term deficits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0128.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: chronic pain; nociceptive pain; neuropathic pain; nociplastic pain; psychogenic pain; neuroinflammation; kynurenine
Online: 4 June 2021 (09:09:26 CEST)
Chronic pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience that persists or recurs more than three months and may extend beyond the expected time of healing. Recently nociplastic pain has been introduced as a descriptor of mechanism of pain, which is due to disturbance of neural processing without actual or potential tissue damage, appearing to replace a concept of psychogenic pain. An interdisciplinary task force of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) compiled a systematic classification of clinical conditions associated with chronic pain, which was published in 2018 and will officially come into effect in 2022 in the 11th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11) by the World Health Organization. ICD-11 offers the option for recording the presence of psychological or social factors in chronic pain; however, cognitive, emotional, and social dimensions in the pathogenesis of chronic pain are missing. Earlier pain disorder was defined as a condition with chronic pain associated with psychological factors, but it was replaced with somatic symptom disorder with predominant pain in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) in 2013. Recently clinical nosology is trending toward highlighting neurological pathology of chronic pain, discounting psychological or social factors in the pathogenesis of pain. This review article discusses components of the pain pathway, the component-based mechanisms of pain, central and peripheral sensitization, roles of chronic inflammation, and the involvement of tryptophan-kynurenine pathway metabolites, exploring participations of psychosocial and behavioral factors in central sensitization of diseases progressing into development of chronic pain, comorbid diseases that commonly present a symptom of chronic pain, and psychiatric disorders that manifest chronic pain without obvious actual or potential tissue damage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0552.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: organoid; induced pluripotent stem cell; Parkinson’s disease; neurotransmission; neuroimmunity; neuroinflammation; chikungunya; neuroinvasive
Online: 27 January 2021 (10:31:06 CET)
Arboviruses of medical and veterinary significance have been identified on all 7 continents with every human and animal population at risk for exposure. Like arboviruses, chronic neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease are found wherever there are humans. Viral parkinsonism has been documented for a variety of human pathogens though there are few studies that evaluate the effects of viral infection on degenerative neurological diseases. Significant differences in baseline gene and protein expression have been determined between Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell lines derived from a non-Parkinson’s disease individual and from an individual with reported Parkinson’s disease. While the organoids generated from each cell line were physically indistinguishable, significant differences were observed in gene and protein expression for neurotransmission and immunity. It was hypothesized that these inherent differences would impact cerebral organoid responses to viral infection. In this preliminary observational study, cerebral organoids from a non-Parkinson’s and Parkinson’s patient were infected with Chikungunya virus and observed for 2 weeks. Parkinson’s organoids lost mass and exhibited a dysfunctional antiviral response. Neurotransmission data from both non-Parkinson’s and Parkinson’s organoids had dysregulation of IL-1, IL-10, IL-6. These cytokines are associated with mood and could be contributing to persistent depression seen in patients following CHIKV infection. Both organoid types had increased expression of CCR5 and CXCL10 which are linked to demyelination, highlighting a potential mechanism for virus-associated parkinsonism. The dysfunctional antiviral response of Parkinson’s organoids highlights the need for more research in neurotropic infections in a neurologically compromised host.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0480.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: organoid; induced pluripotent stem cell; Parkinson’s disease; neurotransmission; neuroimmunity; neuroinflammation; viral infection
Online: 25 January 2021 (10:55:03 CET)
The development of 3D cerebral brain organoids which accurately resemble aspects of the human brain permits a more accurate characterization of physiological processes and neurological diseases. Cerebral organoids can be grown from stem cell lines with various genetic backgrounds allowing multiple neurodegenerative diseases to be modeled. While dysfunction in neurotransmission of patients with neurodegenerative diseases is expected, the impact of chronic neurodegeneration on the response to viral infection of the CNS is poorly understood. For instance, several mosquito-borne viruses like Dengue virus and West Nile Virus cause post-viral parkinsonism. How CNS infection might impact a host with inherent CNS dysfunction such as Parkinson’s Disease in poorly understood. This preliminary, observational study aimed to understand dysfunction in intrinsic and innate expression of a patient with a neurodegenerative disease and a non-affected individual in relation to potential viral infection in the CNS. Cerebral organoids were generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells with a normal genetic background or with idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease. After differentiation and maturation, organoid size, gene expression and immunofluorescence were evaluated to assess neurotransmission and innate immunity. While there was no significant difference in size of the organoids with a normal or Parkinson’s genetic background, gene expression studies identified multiple differences in innate immunity and neurotransmission. Immunofluorescence also identified differences in protein expression related to neurotransmission and innate immunity. Of note, organoids derived from a Parkinson’s patient exhibited endogenous up-regulation of dopamine and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, GABA, glycine, and glutamate targets, and the majority of cytokines. This expression pattern suggests a chronic state of neuroexcitation and neuroinflammation in this population of organoids.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0384.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: flavonoids; cellular stress response; neurodegenerative disorders; ER stress proteotoxicity; oxidative stress; neuroinflammation
Online: 19 January 2021 (14:02:03 CET)
Neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Amyloidal lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington disease (HD) are the most concerned disorders due to the lack of effective therapeutics and dramatic rise in affected cases. Although these disorders have diverse clinical manifestations, yet they all share a common cellular stress response. These cellular stress responses including neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, proteotoxicity, and ER-stress, which combats with stress conditions, but the overwhelming cellular stress response induces cell damage. Small molecules such as flavonoids could reduce cellular stress and have gained much attention in recent years. Evidence has shown the potential use of flavonoids in several ways such as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic, yet their mechanism is still elusive. This review provides an insight into the mechanistic ways of flavonoids against cellular stress response that prevent the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0227.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); neurodegeneration; neuroinflammation; neuromuscular disease; autoimmunity; the clonotypic immune system
Online: 15 September 2022 (08:51:54 CEST)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neuromuscular disease, characterized by progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons in the cortex and spinal cord. Although the pathogenesis of ALS remains unclear, evidence on the role of the clonotypic immune system is growing. Adaptive immunity cells often appear changed in number or activation profile peripherally and centrally. However, their role in ALS appears conflicting. Data, from human and animal model studies, currently reported in literature show that each subset of lymphocytes and their mediators may mediate a protective or toxic mechanism in ALS, affecting both its progression and risk of death. In the present review article and attempt is made to shed light on the actual role of the cellular clonotypic immunity in ALS by integrating recent clinical studies and experimental observations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0069.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: acetylated E2F4; synapsis; tissue homeostasis; Alzheimer’s disease; 5xFAD mice; neuroinflammation; microgliosis; reactive astrocytes.
Online: 5 September 2022 (13:52:27 CEST)
E2F4 was initially described as a transcription factor with a key function in the regulation of cell quiescence. Nevertheless, a number of recent studies have established that E2F4 can also play a relevant role in cell and tissue homeostasis as well as tissue regeneration. For these non-canonical functions, E2F4 can also act in the cytoplasm, where it is able to interact with many homeostatic and synaptic regulators. Since E2F4 is expressed in the nervous system, it may fulfill a crucial role in brain function and homeostasis, being a promising multifactorial target for neurodegenerative diseases and brain aging. The regulation of E2F4 is complex as it can be chemically modified through acetylation, from which we present evidence in the brain, as well as methylation, and phosphorylation. The phosphorylation of E2F4 within a conserved threonine motif induces cell cycle re-entry in neurons, while a dominant negative form of E2F4 (E2F4DN), in which the conserved threonines have been substituted by alanines, has been shown to act as a multifactorial therapeutic agent for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We have generated transgenic mice neuronally expressing E2F4DN. We have recently shown using this mouse strain that expression of E2F4DN in 5xFAD mice, a known murine model of AD, improved cognitive function, reduced neuronal tetraploidization, and induced a transcriptional program consistent with modulation of amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide proteostasis and brain homeostasis recovery. 5xFAD/E2F4DN mice also showed reduced microgliosis and astrogliosis in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus at 3-6 months of age. Here we have analyzed the immune response in 1 year-old 5xFAD/E2F4DN mice, concluding that reduced microgliosis and astrogliosis is maintained at this late stage. In addition, the expression of E2F4DN also reduced age-associated microgliosis in wild-type mice, thus stressing its role as a brain homeostatic agent. We conclude that E2F4DN transgenic mice represent a promising tool for the evaluation of E2F4 as a therapeutic target in neuropathology and brain aging.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0050.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Alzheimer's-disease; dementia; drug targeting; nanoemulsion; neuroinflammation; oxidative stress; scavenger receptors; sonoporation; transcranial ultrasound
Online: 13 September 2017 (05:44:29 CEST)
Due to the complexity of Alzheimer's disease, multiple cellular types need to be targeted simultaneously in order for a given therapy to demonstrate any major effectiveness. Ultrasound-sensitive coated microbubbles (in a targeted lipid nanoemulsion) are available. Versatile small molecule drug(s) targeting multiple pathways of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis are known. By incorporating such drug(s) into the targeted LCM/ND lipid nanoemulsion type, one obtains a multitasking combination therapeutic for translational medicine. This multitasking therapeutic targets cell-surface scavenger receptors (mainly SR-BI), making possible for various Alzheimer's-related cell types to be simultaneously searched out for localized drug treatment in vivo. Besides targeting cell-surface SR-BI, the proposed LCM/ND-nanoemulsion combination therapeutic(s) include a characteristic lipid-coated microbubble [LCM] subpopulation (i.e., a stable LCM suspension); such film-stabilized microbubbles are well known to substantially reduce the acoustic power levels needed for accomplishing temporary noninvasive (transcranial) ultrasound treatment, or sonoporation, if additionally desired for the Alzheimer's patient.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0166.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; drug targeting; nanoemulsion; neuroinflammation; neurotrauma; oxidative stress; scavenger receptors; SR-BI; transcranial sonoporation
Online: 30 September 2017 (05:21:37 CEST)
Owing to the complexity of neurodegenerative diseases, multiple cellular types need to be targeted simultaneously in order for a given therapy to demonstrate any major effectiveness. Ultrasound-sensitive coated microbubbles (in a targeted nanoemulsion) are available. Versatile small-molecule drug(s) targeting multiple pathways of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis are known. By incorporating such drug(s) into the targeted LCM/ND lipid nanoemulsion type, one obtains a multitasking combination therapeutic for translational medicine. This multitasking therapeutic targets cell-surface scavenger receptors (mainly SR-BI), making possible for various Alzheimer's-related cell types to be simultaneously searched out for localized drug treatment in vivo. Besides targeting cell-surface SR-BI, the proposed LCM/ND-nanoemulsion combination therapeutic(s) include a characteristic lipid-coated microbubble [LCM] subpopulation (i.e., a stable LCM suspension); such LCM substantially reduce the acoustic power levels needed for accomplishing temporary noninvasive (transcranial) ultrasound treatment, or sonoporation, if additionally desired for the Alzheimer's patient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0107.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Ang II; COVID19; erythropoietin; EPO-R; neuroinflammation: AT1R; SARS-CoV2; angiotensin(1-7); COVID-19 encephalopathy
Online: 20 August 2020 (09:06:38 CEST)
Neuroinflammation, defined as inflammatory reactions mediated by cytokines, chemokines, reactive oxygen species, and secondary messengers in the central nervous system (CNS) including the brain and spinal cord is the basis of many neurological disorders. Recently, erythropoietin (EPO) has been considered and studied as a modulator of neuroinflammation. On this article minireview of pathophysiology of neuroinflammation and the neuroprotective effects of EPO is discussed and a case of subacute huge subdural hematoma with double mydriasis operated urgently, treated with low daily dose (vs high dose once or twice a month in the literature) of EPO and recovered fully and discharged home with good consciousness is reported. In addition, the probable unfavorable outcome of erythropoietin administration in patients with neuroinflammation in COVID-19 is considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0197.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Cudratricusxanthone L; Cudrania tricuspidata; Neuroinflammation; Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB); Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)
Online: 9 August 2018 (20:43:24 CEST)
Neuroinflammatory responses are implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In neurodegenerative diseases, neuroinflammatory reactions to neuronal injury are modulated by microglial cells, which are vital innate immune cells in the central nervous system. Activated microglial cells release proinflammatory cytokines, mediators, and neurotoxic factors that induce fatal neuronal injury. The present study investigated the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of cudratricusxanthone L (1), which was isolated from Cudrania tricuspidata. This compound reduced the levels of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory mediators and cytokines, including nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, and IL-12. These effects suggested that cudratricusxanthone L (1) suppressed the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Specifically, cudratricusxanthone L (1) also attenuated the phosphorylation of Jun kinase and inhibited p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in BV2 and rat primary microglial cells. These results indicated that cudratricusxanthone L (1) effectively repressed neuroinflammatory processes in BV2 and rat primary microglial cells by inhibiting NF-κB and the MAPK signaling pathway.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0237.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; cytokines; chemokines; neuroinflammation; neurotrophic factors; pathophysiology; Blood brain barrier; mild cognitive impairment; brain health; therapeutics
Online: 10 August 2021 (15:49:12 CEST)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized mainly by the gradual decay in neuronal function as a consequence of diverse degenerating events primarily including mitochondria dysfunction and cascades of neuro-immune reactions. Besides the acquired harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS), neurotoxins, and amyloid-beta (Aβ) and TAU pathologies in neurons, accumulating evidence with time underlined the roles of cytokines and growth factors in the AD pathogenesis. It may help us in evaluating the propensities and specific mechanism(s) of cytokines and factors impacting neuron upon apoptotic decline. Proinflammatory cytokines often induce inflammation in AD and AD-like pathogenesis in response to the apoptotic scenarios where some growth factors are involved in cytokinetic reactions to activate microglia and causing inflammation in AD. In this report, we comprehensively reviewed role of cytokines and chemokines in immune response to AD and neuropsychiatry. We provided insights into the neuroinflammation and the role of diverse factors including the pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines, APP, TAU phosphorylation, glycation end products, complement system, and the role of glial cells. Also, we discussed the pathogenic and protective role of macrophage migration inhibitory factors, choroid plexus-, neurotrophic- and hematopoietic -related growth factors in AD. We further shed light on the availability and accessibility of the cytokines across the blood-brain barrier in AD pathophysiology. Taken together, the emerging role of these factors in AD pathology emphasized the importance of building novel strategies for an effective therapeutic/neuropsychiatric management of AD in clinics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0034.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: migraine; neuropathic pain; calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP); kynurenine; glia; cytokines; neuroinflammation; transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels; endocannabinoids
Online: 4 January 2023 (01:53:45 CET)
Migraine and neuropathic pain (NP) are evocative of painful, disabling, chronic conditions which exhibit resembling symptoms and thus considered to share a common etiology. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has gained credit as a target for migraine management; nevertheless, the efficacy and the applicability of CGRP modifiers warrant search for more effective therapeutic targets for pain management. This scoping review overviews human studies of common pathogenic factors in migraine and NP to explore potential novel therapeutic targets. CGRP causes inflammation in the meninges; monoclonal antibodies and inhibitors target CGRP. Gluta-mate-induced hyperexcitability and subsequent sensitization are closely linked to an alteration of the tryptophan (Trp)-kynurenine (KYN) metabolic system; the Trp-KYN system may serve as a potential target. Microglial overaction is observed in migraine and NP; modifying the microglial activity may be a possible approach. Cytokine-induced inflammation is a leading hypothesis of the pathogenesis of the conditions; alleviating neuroinflammation may complement a pain-relieving armamentarium. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels evoke the release of several substances; TRP ion channels may potentially emerge as new targets. The endocannabinoid system plays a major role in the pain trafficking pathway; modification of the system may open a new path toward discovery of new analgesics. Here we highlight the mechanism of those common pathogenic factors to explore therapeutic targets for innovative pain management in migraine and NP.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0288.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: surveying microglia; amoeboid microglia; P2X receptors; P2Y receptors; P1 receptors; CD39; CD73; microglia-neuron cross talk; phagocytosis; microglial products; neuroinflammation
Online: 18 March 2020 (16:52:28 CET)
Microglial cells, the resident macrophages of the CNS, exist in a process-bearing, ramified/surveying phenotype under resting conditions. Upon activation by cell damaging factors they get transformed to an amoeboid phenotype releasing various cell products including pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, proteases, reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and the excytotoxic ATP and glutamate. In addition, they engulf pathogenic bacteria or cell debris and phagocytose them. However, already resting/surveying microglia has a number of important physiological functions in the CNS; they e.g. shield small disruptions of the blood-brain barrier by their processes, dynamically interact with synaptic structures and clear surplus synapses during development. In neurodegenerative illnesses they aggravate the original disease by a microglia-based compulsory neuroinflammatory reaction. Therefore, the blockade of this reaction improves the outcome of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, etc. The function of microglia is regulated by a whole array of purinergic receptors classified as P2Y12, P2Y6, P2Y4, P2X4, P2X7, A2A, A3, and being targets for endogenous ATP, ADP, or adenosine. ATP is sequentially degraded by the ecto-nucleotidases and 5’-nucleotidase enzymes to the weak adenosine agonist inosine as an end-product. The appropriate selective agonists/antagonists for purinergic receptors as well as the respective enzyme inhibitors may profoundly interfere with microglial functions and reconstitute the homeostasis of the CNS disturbed by neuroinflammation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0222.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; amyloid-beta; animal model; astrocyte; blood-brain barrier; imaging; metabolism; microglia; neuroinflammation, neurotransmitter receptors; positron emission tomography; synaptic density
Online: 15 October 2021 (11:02:57 CEST)
Animal models of Alzheimer’s disease amyloidosis that recapitulate cerebral amyloid-beta pathology have been widely used in preclinical research, and have greatly enabled the mechanistic understanding of Alzheimer’s disease and the development of therapeutics. Comprehensive deep phenotyping of the pathophysiological and biochemical features in these animal models are essential. Recent advances in positron emission tomography have allowed the non-invasive visualization of the alterations in the brain of animal models as well as in patients with Alzheimer’s disease, These tools have facilitated our understanding of disease mechanisms, and provided longitudinal monitoring of treatment effect in animal models of Alzheimer’s disease amyloidosis. In this review, we focus on recent positron emission tomography studies of cerebral amyloid-beta accumulation, hypoglucose metabolism, synaptic and neurotransmitter receptor deficits (cholinergic and glutamatergic system), blood-brain barrier impairment and neuroinflammation (microgliosis and astrocytosis) in animal models of Alzheimer’s disease amyloidosis. We further propose the emerging targets and tracers for reflecting the pathophysiological changes, and discuss outstanding challenges in disease animal models and future outlook in on-chip characterization of imaging biomarkers towards clinical translation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0425.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: autism spectrum disorder; neuroinflammation; kynurenine pathway; microglia; oxidative stress; mitochondrial disorder; immune deregulation; QUIN (quinolinic acid); KYNA (kynurenic acid); tryptophan catabolites
Online: 19 July 2020 (19:19:31 CEST)
Autism Spectrum Disorder etiopathogenesis is still unclear and no effective preventive and treatment measures have been identified. Research has focused on the potential role of neuroinflammation and kynurenine pathway. Here we review the nature of these interactions. Pre-natal or neonatal infections would induce microglial activation, with secondary consequences on behavior, cognition and neurotransmitter networks. Peripherally, higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-brain antibodies have been identified. Increased frequency of autoimmune diseases, allergies, and recurring infections have been demonstrated both in autistic patients and in their relatives. Genetic studies, also, have identified some important polymorphisms in chromosome loci related to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system. The persistence of immune-inflammatory deregulation would lead to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, creating a self-sustaining cytotoxic loop. Chronic inflammation activates kynurenine pathway with increase in neurotoxic metabolites and excitotoxicity, causing long-term changes in glutamatergic system, trophic support and synaptic function. Furthermore, overactivation of kynurenine’s branch induces depletion of melatonin and serotonin worsening ASD symptoms. In this scenario, kynurenine pathway appears as a pharmacological target to treat and prevent ASD. Thus, in genetically predisposed subjects aberrant neurodevelopment may derives from a complex interplay between inflammatory process, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and kynurenine pathway overexpression. To validate previous hypothesis a new translational research approach is necessary.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0061.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Coronavirus; Substance Use Disorder (SUD); Immunology; Neuroinflammation; Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB); hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis
Online: 5 July 2020 (10:21:47 CEST)
As the world endures the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, conditions of 35 million vulnerable individuals struggling with substance use disorders (SUDs) worldwide have not received sufficient attention for their special health and medical needs. Many of these individuals are complicated by underlying health conditions, such as cardiovascular and lung diseases and undermined immune systems. During the pandemic, access to the healthcare systems and support groups is greatly diminished. Current research on COVID-19 has not addressed the unique challenges facing individuals with SUDs, including the heightened vulnerability and susceptibility to the disease. In this systematic review, we will discuss the pathogenesis and pathology of COVID-19, and highlight potential risk factors and complications to these individuals. We will also provide insights and considerations for COVID-19 treatment and prevention in patients with SUDs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0194.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; urease; neuroinflammation; tau hyperphosphorylation; pro-inflammatory cytokines; object recognition test; elevated plus maze; SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells; BV-2 microglia
Online: 13 January 2022 (15:37:01 CET)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) causes dementia and memory loss in the elderly. Deposits of beta-amyloid peptide and hyperphosphorylated tau protein are present in AD’s brain. A filtrate of Helicobacter pylori’s culture was previously found to induce hyperphosphorylation of tau in vivo, suggesting that bacterial exotoxins could permeate the blood brain barrier and directly induce tau’s phosphorylation. H. pylori, which infects ~60% of the world population and causes gastritis and gastric cancer, produces a pro-inflammatory urease (HPU). Here the neurotoxic potential of HPU was investigated in cultured cells and in rats. SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed HPU (50-300 nM) produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and had an increased [Ca2+]i. HPU-treated BV-2 microglial cells produced ROS, cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α, expressed Iba1 and showed reduced viability, consistent with a neurotoxic effect of HPU. Rats received daily i.p. HPU (5 µg) for 7 days. Hyperphosphorylation of tau at Thr205, Ser199 and Ser396 sites was seen in hippocampal homogenates of treated rats, with no alterations in total tau or GSK-3b levels. HPU was not detected in the brain homogenates. Behavioral tests were performed to assess cognitive impairments. Our findings support previous data suggesting an association between infection by H. pylori and tauopathies such as AD, possibly mediated by its urease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0116.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: microglia and astrocytes phenotypes; intercellular crosstalk; lesion microenvironment; neuroinflammation; in vivo glia-to neuron reprogramming; subpial delivery; gut dysbiosis; electrostimulation; rehabilitation; neuroprotective strategies
Online: 5 November 2021 (11:14:51 CET)
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) elicits an acute inflammatory response which comprises numerous cell populations. It is driven by the immediate response of macro-phages and reactive M1 microglia, which triggers activation of genes responsible for the dysregulated microenvironment within the lesion site and in the spinal cord parenchyma immediately adjacent to the lesion. Recently published data indicate that microglia induces astrocyte activation and determines the fate of astrocytes. Conversely, astrocytes have the potency to trigger microglial activation and control their cellular functions. Here we review current information about the release of diverse signaling molecules (pro-inflammatory vs anti-inflammatory) in individual cell phenotypes (microglia, astrocytes, blood inflammatory cells) in acute and subacute SCI stages, and how they contribute to delayed neuronal death in a the surrounding spinal cord tissue which is spared and functional but reactive. In addition, temporal correlation in progressive degeneration of neurons and astrocytes and their functional interactions after SCI are discussed. Finally, the review highlight the time-dependent transformation of reactive mi-croglia (M1) and astrocytes (A1) into their neuroprotective phenotypes (M2a, M2c and A2) which are crucial for spontaneous post-SCI locomotor recovery. We also provide sug-gestions on how to increase functional outcome after SCI and discuss key therapeutic approaches.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0593.v1
Subject: Keywords: gut inflammation; neuroinflammation; inflammatory bowel disease; Crohn’s disease; ulcerative colitis; irritable bowel syndrome; Celiac disease; functional dyspepsia; anterior cingulate cortex; microglia; sympathetic nervous system; mood disorders; depression; anxiety; cognition
Online: 25 September 2020 (03:45:08 CEST)
The brain reciprocally communicates with the rest of the body via neural, endocrine, immune, and other systems. This is crucial for coordinating the complex behavioral and physiological responses needed to cope with the many challenges of life. The Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) is a key brain structure involved in assessing rewards and threats, as well as activating appropriate responses. This is a dynamic process that depends on evolving needs and challenges. Important challenges include illness or injury. These typically involve inflammation and pain, which evoke neuroinflammatory processes in the brain to drive sickness behaviours. In the short term, sickness behaviours are considered adaptive, as they promote convalescence (e.g. low mood; lethargy, fatigue, social withdrawal), and enhanced threat appraisal (e.g. anxiety) to combat increased risk/vulnerability associated with sickness. Chronic inflammation, however, appears to remodel the system to inappropriately activate threat-coping responses, resulting in depressive and/or anxious phenotypes. These mood disorders are particularly pronounced in diseases and disorders associated with gut dysfunction, which feature chronic inflammation and altered ACC function. We propose that chronic inflammation remodels ACC physiology such that it errantly predicts heightened danger based on a mental model (a.k.a ‘schema’) of the world. This evokes chronic activation of threat-coping systems, including endocrine signaling (e.g. adrenaline), and anxiety. Inflammation can be driven by brain systems involving ACC, leading to a feedback-cycle that self-reinforces pathological states. This theory accounts for a wealth of clinical and preclinical data that implicate the ACC in disorders of mood and gastrointestinal function, and reveals a key player in the gut-brain axis that may represent a novel therapeutic target.