Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Differences between Cerebral Organoids Derived from a non-PD and a Parkinson’s Patient: A Potential Vulnerability for Neuroinvasive Viruses

Version 1 : Received: 22 January 2021 / Approved: 25 January 2021 / Online: 25 January 2021 (10:55:03 CET)

How to cite: Schultz, E.; Jones, T.; Xu, S.; Dean, D.; Zechmann, B.; Ronca, S.; Barr, K.L. Differences between Cerebral Organoids Derived from a non-PD and a Parkinson’s Patient: A Potential Vulnerability for Neuroinvasive Viruses. Preprints 2021, 2021010480 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202101.0480.v1). Schultz, E.; Jones, T.; Xu, S.; Dean, D.; Zechmann, B.; Ronca, S.; Barr, K.L. Differences between Cerebral Organoids Derived from a non-PD and a Parkinson’s Patient: A Potential Vulnerability for Neuroinvasive Viruses. Preprints 2021, 2021010480 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202101.0480.v1).

Abstract

The development of 3D cerebral brain organoids which accurately resemble aspects of the human brain permits a more accurate characterization of physiological processes and neurological diseases. Cerebral organoids can be grown from stem cell lines with various genetic backgrounds allowing multiple neurodegenerative diseases to be modeled. While dysfunction in neurotransmission of patients with neurodegenerative diseases is expected, the impact of chronic neurodegeneration on the response to viral infection of the CNS is poorly understood. For instance, several mosquito-borne viruses like Dengue virus and West Nile Virus cause post-viral parkinsonism. How CNS infection might impact a host with inherent CNS dysfunction such as Parkinson’s Disease in poorly understood. This preliminary, observational study aimed to understand dysfunction in intrinsic and innate expression of a patient with a neurodegenerative disease and a non-affected individual in relation to potential viral infection in the CNS. Cerebral organoids were generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells with a normal genetic background or with idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease. After differentiation and maturation, organoid size, gene expression and immunofluorescence were evaluated to assess neurotransmission and innate immunity. While there was no significant difference in size of the organoids with a normal or Parkinson’s genetic background, gene expression studies identified multiple differences in innate immunity and neurotransmission. Immunofluorescence also identified differences in protein expression related to neurotransmission and innate immunity. Of note, organoids derived from a Parkinson’s patient exhibited endogenous up-regulation of dopamine and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, GABA, glycine, and glutamate targets, and the majority of cytokines. This expression pattern suggests a chronic state of neuroexcitation and neuroinflammation in this population of organoids.

Keywords

organoid; induced pluripotent stem cell; Parkinson’s disease; neurotransmission; neuroimmunity; neuroinflammation; viral infection

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