Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Homocysteine in Neurology: A Risk Factor or Something Different in Small Vessel Disease

Version 1 : Received: 5 September 2020 / Approved: 6 September 2020 / Online: 6 September 2020 (15:53:11 CEST)

How to cite: Moretti, R.; Caruso, P.; Gazzin, S.; Tiribelli, C. Homocysteine in Neurology: A Risk Factor or Something Different in Small Vessel Disease. Preprints 2020, 2020090146 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202009.0146.v1). Moretti, R.; Caruso, P.; Gazzin, S.; Tiribelli, C. Homocysteine in Neurology: A Risk Factor or Something Different in Small Vessel Disease. Preprints 2020, 2020090146 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202009.0146.v1).

Abstract

Homocysteine (Hcy) is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is generated during methionine metabolism. Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is typically defined as levels >15 micro mols/L. Elevated plasma levels of Hcy can be caused by the deficiency of either vitamin B12 or folate. The active role of homocysteine is quite ambivalent: many studies detected its potential impact on neurological events; others try to identify it as one of the possible risk factors of cardiovascular events, but with a complementary and secondary role. HHcy has been reported in many neurologic disorders, including cognitive impairment and stroke, independent of long-recognized factors such as hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. Nowadays, homocysteine could be considered as a possible link between a common vascular risk factor and potential alterations in degenerative neuronal disorders. HHcy-induced oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, smooth muscle cell proliferation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress; all these aspects have been considered to play an essential role in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including atherosclerosis, major stroke, and vascular dementia. Specific models of astrocytes impairment in HHcy-mice, which mimic small vessel disease, have been developed with a three-step investigation (at 6, 10, 14 weeks of B6, B9, and B12 detrimental diet in wild type HHcy mouse). These studies found out that after ten weeks on a diet (at the most after 14 weeks), end-feet disruption occurs. This phenomenon is concomitant to reduced vascular labeling for aquaporin -4-water channels, lower protein/mRNA levels for Kir4.1, and BK potassium channels, associated with a higher expression of MMP-9. The most exciting finding is that microglial activation in this mice model was evident since the precocious time of observation (6-week time) and precedes astrocytic changes. Our research aims to review the possible role of HHcy in neurodegenerative disease and small-vessel disease and to understand its pathogenic impact.

Subject Areas

homocysteine; small vessel disease; neuroinflammation; neurodegneration; endothelium

Comments (0)

We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our diversity statement.

Leave a public comment
Send a private comment to the author(s)
Views 0
Downloads 0
Comments 0
Metrics 0


×
Alerts
Notify me about updates to this article or when a peer-reviewed version is published.
We use cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience.
Read more about our cookies here.