Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Cerebral Organoids Derived from a Parkinson’s Patient Exhibit Unique Pathogenesis from Chikungunya Virus Infection when Compared to a Non-Parkinson’s Patient

Version 1 : Received: 26 January 2021 / Approved: 27 January 2021 / Online: 27 January 2021 (10:31:06 CET)

How to cite: Schultz, E.; Jones, T.; Xu, S.; Dean, D.; Zechmann, B.; Barr, K.L. Cerebral Organoids Derived from a Parkinson’s Patient Exhibit Unique Pathogenesis from Chikungunya Virus Infection when Compared to a Non-Parkinson’s Patient. Preprints 2021, 2021010552 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202101.0552.v1). Schultz, E.; Jones, T.; Xu, S.; Dean, D.; Zechmann, B.; Barr, K.L. Cerebral Organoids Derived from a Parkinson’s Patient Exhibit Unique Pathogenesis from Chikungunya Virus Infection when Compared to a Non-Parkinson’s Patient. Preprints 2021, 2021010552 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202101.0552.v1).

Abstract

Arboviruses of medical and veterinary significance have been identified on all 7 continents with every human and animal population at risk for exposure. Like arboviruses, chronic neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease are found wherever there are humans. Viral parkinsonism has been documented for a variety of human pathogens though there are few studies that evaluate the effects of viral infection on degenerative neurological diseases. Significant differences in baseline gene and protein expression have been determined between Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell lines derived from a non-Parkinson’s disease individual and from an individual with reported Parkinson’s disease. While the organoids generated from each cell line were physically indistinguishable, significant differences were observed in gene and protein expression for neurotransmission and immunity. It was hypothesized that these inherent differences would impact cerebral organoid responses to viral infection. In this preliminary observational study, cerebral organoids from a non-Parkinson’s and Parkinson’s patient were infected with Chikungunya virus and observed for 2 weeks. Parkinson’s organoids lost mass and exhibited a dysfunctional antiviral response. Neurotransmission data from both non-Parkinson’s and Parkinson’s organoids had dysregulation of IL-1, IL-10, IL-6. These cytokines are associated with mood and could be contributing to persistent depression seen in patients following CHIKV infection. Both organoid types had increased expression of CCR5 and CXCL10 which are linked to demyelination, highlighting a potential mechanism for virus-associated parkinsonism. The dysfunctional antiviral response of Parkinson’s organoids highlights the need for more research in neurotropic infections in a neurologically compromised host.

Subject Areas

organoid; induced pluripotent stem cell; Parkinson’s disease; neurotransmission; neuroimmunity; neuroinflammation; chikungunya; neuroinvasive

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