ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0431.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: cell phone indoor positioning; scene recognition; building map; map location anchor; YOLOv5; geocoding matching
Online: 28 January 2022 (08:55:08 CET)
At present, indoor localization is one of the core technologies of location-based services (LBS), and there exist numerous scenario-oriented application solutions. Visual features, as the main semantic information to help people understand the environment and thus occupy the dominant part, many techniques about indoor scene recognition are widely adopted. However, the engineering application problem of cell phone indoor scene recognition and localization has not been well solved due to insufficient semantic constraint information of building map and the immaturity of building map location anchors (MLA) matching positioning technology. To address the above problems, this paper proposes a cell phone indoor scene recognition and localization method with building map semantic constraints. Firstly, we build a library of geocoded entities for building map location anchors (MLA), which can provide users with "immersive" real-world building maps on the one hand and semantic anchor point constraints for cell phone positioning on the other. Secondly, using the improved YOLOv5s deep learning model carried on the mobile terminal, we recognize the universal map location anchors (MLA) elements in building scenes by cell phone camera video in real-time. Lastly, the spatial location of the scene elements obtained from the cell phone video recognition is matched with the building MLA to achieve real-time positioning and navigation. The experimental results show that the model recognition accuracy of this method is above 97.2%, and the maximum localization error is within the range of 0.775 m, and minimized to 0.5 m after applying the BIMPN road network walking node constraint, which can effectively achieve high positioning accuracy in the building scenes with rich MLA element information. In addition, the building map location anchors (MLA) has universal characteristics, and the positioning algorithm based on scene element recognition is compatible with the extension of indoor map data types, so this method has good prospects for engineering applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0415.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: optical sensing; particulate matter; sustainable indoor environment; contaminant control
Online: 20 October 2020 (15:05:25 CEST)
As climate changes, our daily life has been much influenced by abnormal meteorological phenomena such as heavy rainfall, heat wave, heavy snowfall, and fine dust. Atmospheric air quality is worsening day by day and indoor air quality is also affected by interconnected daily activities throughout the inside and outside of buildings and houses. Nowadays, pollutants from various sources are emitted, transformed by sunlight, vapor, and ozone and transported into the city from country to country. Due to these reasons, there have been high demands to monitor the transportation of particulate matters and improve air quality. Monitoring of pollutants and identification of type and its concentration enables us to track and control its generation and consequently find out the solution. However, monitoring of pollutants, especially, particulate matter generation and its transportation is still not fully operated in atmospheric air due to its open nature and meteorological factors. Even though indoor air is relatively easy to monitor and control than outdoor in the aspect of specific volume and contaminant source, but it still needs to consider the meteorological parameters because indoor air is not fully separated from the outdoor air flow and contaminants transportation. In this study, optical approach using spectral sensor was attempted to reveal the feasibility of wavelength and chromaticity values of reflected light from specific particles. From the analysis of reflected light of various particulate matters according to different liquid additives, parameter studies were performed to investigate which experimental conditions can contribute to the enhanced selective sensing of particulate matters. Five different particulate matters such as household dust, soil, talc powder, gypsum powder and yellow pine tree pollen were utilized and observed to elucidate the relationship between property of particulate matter and detected light spectrum. Applicable approaches to assist current particle matter sensors and improve the selective sensing were suggested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0075.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: image recognition bases location; indoor positioning; RGB-D images; LiDAR; DataBase; mobile computing; image retrieval
Online: 15 December 2016 (07:17:35 CET)
This paper describes the first results of an Image Recognition Based Location (IRBL) for mobile application focusing on the procedure to generate a Database of range images (RGB-D). In an indoor environment, to estimate the camera position and orientation, a prior spatial knowledge of the surrounding is needed. In order to achieve this objective a complete 3D survey of two different environment (Bangbae metro station of Seoul and E.T.R.I. building in Daejeon – Republic of Korea) was performed using LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) instrument and the obtained scans were processed in order to obtain a spatial model of the environments. From this, two databases of reference images were generated using a specific software realized by the Geomatics group of Politecnico di Torino (ScanToRGBDImage). This tool allow to generate synthetically different RGB-D images) centered in the each scan position in the environment. Later, the external parameters (X, Y, Z, ω, φ, κ) and the range information extracted from the DB images retrieved, are used as reference information for pose estimation of a set of acquired mobile pictures in the IRBL procedure. In this paper the survey operations, the approach for generating the RGB-D images and the IRB strategy are reported. Finally the analysis of the results and the validation test are described.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0003.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ventilation; positive pressure; indoor air quality; mycobiota; indoor air questionnaire; moisture damage
Online: 1 December 2017 (07:06:04 CET)
This case study investigates the effects of ventilation intervention on measured and perceived indoor air quality (IAQ) in a repaired school where occupants reported IAQ problems. Occupants´ symptoms were suspected to be related to the impurities leaked indoors through the building envelope. The study’s aim was to determine whether a positive pressure of 5-7 Pa prevents the infiltration of harmful chemical and microbiological agents from structures, thus decreasing symptoms and discomfort. Ventilation intervention was conducted in a building section comprising 12 classrooms and was completed with IAQ measurements and occupants´ questionnaires. After intervention, the concentration of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) decreased, and occupants´ negative perceptions became more moderate compared to those for other parts of the building. The indoor mycobiota differed in species composition from the outdoor mycobiota, and changed remarkably with the intervention, indicating that some species may have emanated from an indoor source before the intervention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0009.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Indoor Positioning Technology; Bluetooth 4.0; Manufacturing Private Cloud; Internet of Things; Indoor Positioning Technology;
Online: 1 June 2018 (08:15:12 CEST)
To enhance industrial competitiveness and increase productivity, every country has strived to create a smart factory by introducing technologies such as Internet of Things, big data and artificial intelligence into production line and build cyber-physical system for the purpose of promoting manufacturing efficiency. For mission assignment, production line management or manufacturing field analysis, the location information of employee, machine and material is very essential. To promote manufacturing efficiency, of course, the location information became more important. A Bluetooth low energy (BLE) positioning system for the manufacturing is developed in this research. A "Tag tracking" mechanism is addressed and adopted, which uses Beacon to catch the location information and a BLE receiver is also used to receive the broadcasting information from Beacon. The position information from the BLE receiver will be compared with the data in the database for calculating the location of the target. The status of the target may also be obtained by using the data from the BLE receiver. Comparing with the mobile device, this method can reduce energy consumption and make the maintenance simple and easy. In the real applications, the target may not be limited to human. The "Regional label positioning technology" is also investigated in this research. Defining a suitable zone location and arranging BLE receiver location, and positioning analysis theory are the key factors included in this developed technology. The developed system will be tested for real industry applications. The test results show that the feasibility of this technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0007.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ventilation; hybrid ventilation; indoor air quality; mycobiota; indoor air questionnaire; school building; Trichoderma citrinoviride
Online: 1 March 2018 (12:19:08 CET)
This paper describes a case study of ventilation as well as measured and perceived indoor air quality (IAQ) in a Finnish comprehensive school with a hybrid ventilation system and reported IAQ problems. An operational error was found when investigating the ventilation system that prevented air from coming into classrooms, except for short periods of high carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. However, results indicated that hybrid ventilation system was able to provide adequate ventilation and sufficient IAQ once properly designed and maintained. After ventilation operation was improved, occupants reported less unpleasant odors and stuffy air. The amount of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and some single volatile organic compounds (VOCs) decreased. Indoor mycobiota was observed in settled dust in the classrooms, from which ventilation improvement eliminated the dominant, opportunistic human pathogen species Trichoderma citrinoviride found before improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0333.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Visual SLAM; Indoor positioning; Mini-drone
Online: 17 November 2022 (09:59:43 CET)
Mini-drones can be used for a variety of tasks, such as weather monitoring, package delivery, search and rescue, and recreation. Their uses are mostly restricted to outside locations with access to the Global Positioning System (GPS) and/or similar systems since their usefulness, safety, and performance substantially rely on ubiquitously accurate positioning and navigation. Indoor localization is getting better, thanks to technologies like Visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (V-SLAM). However, more advancements are still required for mini-drone navigation applications with greater safety standards. In this research, a novel method for enhancing indoor mini-drone localization performance is proposed. By merging Oriented Rotated Brief SLAM (ORB-SLAM2), Semi-Direct Monocular Visual Odometry (SVO), and an Adaptive Complementary Filter, the suggested strategy improves V-SLAM approaches (ACF). The findings demonstrate that, when compared to other widely-used indoor localization algorithms, the suggested methodology performs better at estimating location under various situations (low light, low texture, and dynamic environments).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0221.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: odometry; camera; positioning; navigation; indoor; robot
Online: 13 May 2020 (04:45:54 CEST)
Positioning is an essential aspect of robot navigation, and visual odometry an important technique for continuous updating the internal information about robot position, especially indoors without GPS. Visual odometry is using one or more cameras to find visual clues and estimate robot movements in 3D relatively. Recent progress has been made, especially with fully integrated systems such as the RealSense T265 from Intel, which is the focus of this article. We compare between each other three visual odometry systems and one wheel odometry, on a ground robot. We do so in 8 scenarios, varying the speed, the number of visual features, and with or without humans walking in the field of view. We continuously measure the position error in translation and rotation thanks to a ground truth positioning system. Our result show that all odometry systems are challenged, but in different ways. In average, ORB-SLAM2 has the poorer results, while the RealSense T265 and the Zed Mini have comparable performance. In conclusion, a single odometry system might still not be sufficient, so using multiple instances and sensor fusion approaches are necessary while waiting for additional research and further improved products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0301.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: exposure, indoor particles, infiltration factor, PM2.5, PurpleAir, Random Component Superposition (RCS), Plantower sensors, indoor-generated particles,
Online: 16 December 2022 (08:55:00 CET)
Low-cost monitors make it possible now for the first time to collect long-term (months to years) measurements of potential indoor exposure to fine particles. Indoor exposure is due to two sources: particles infiltrating from outdoors and those generated by indoor activities. Calculating the relative contribution of each source requires identifying an infiltration factor. We develop a method of identifying periods when the infiltration factor is not constant, and searching for periods when it is relatively constant. From an initial regression of indoor on outdoor particle concentrations, a Forbidden Zone can be defined with an upper boundary below which no observations should appear. If many observations appear in the Forbidden Zone, they falsify the assumption of a single constant infiltration factor. This is a useful quality assurance feature, since investigators may then search for subsets of the data in which few observations appear in the Forbidden Zone. The usefulness of this approach is illustrated using examples drawn from the PurpleAir network of optical particle monitors. An improved algorithm is applied with reduced bias, improved precision, and a lower limit of detection than either of the two proprietary algorithms offered by the manufacturer of the sensors used in PurpleAir monitors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0066.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: indoor localization; test and evaluation; methodology; benchmarking
Online: 3 March 2022 (14:00:15 CET)
Despite their enormous potential the use of Indoor Localization Systems (ILS) remains seldom. One reason is the lack of market transparency and stakeholders’ trust in the systems’ performance as a consequence of insufficient use of Test and Evaluation (T&E) methodologies. The heterogeneous nature of ILS, their influences, and their applications pose various challenges for the design of a methodology that provides meaningful results. Methodologies for building-wide testing exist, but their use is mostly limited to associated indoor localization competitions. In this work, the T&E 4iLoc Framework is proposed - a methodology for T&E of indoor localization systems in semi-controlled environments based on a system-level and black-box approach. In contrast to building-wide testing, T&E in semi-controlled environments, such as test halls is characterized by lower costs, higher reproducibility, and better comparability of the results. The limitation of low transferability to real world applications is addressed by an application-driven design approach. The empirical validation of the T&E 4iLoc Framework, based on the examination of a contour-based Light Detection and Ranging ILS, an Ultra Wideband ILS, and a camera-based ILS for the application of Automated Guided Vehicles in warehouse operation, demonstrates the benefits of T&E with the T&E 4iLoc Framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2010007
Online: 29 February 2020 (00:00:00 CET)
Many applications in the context of Industry 4.0 require precise localization. However, indoor localization remains an open problem, especially in complex environments such as industrial environments. In recent years, we have seen the emergence of Ultra WideBand (UWB) localization systems. The aim of this article is to evaluate the performance of a UWB system to estimate the position of a person moving in an indoor environment. To do so, we implemented an experimental protocol to evaluate the accuracy of the UWB system both statically and dynamically. The UWB system is compared to a ground truth obtained by a motion capture system with a millimetric accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0343.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: infrared sensors; cameras; indoor positioning; sensor fusion
Online: 29 May 2019 (04:45:00 CEST)
A method for infrared and cameras sensor fusion, applied to indoor positioning in intelligent spaces, is proposed in this work. The fused position is obtained with a maximum likelihood estimator from infrared and camera independent observations. Specific models are proposed for variance propagation from infrared and camera observations (phase shifts and image respectively) to their respective position estimates and to the final fused estimation. Model simulations are compared with real measurements in a setup designed to validate the system. The difference between theoretical prediction and real measurements is between 0.4 cm (fusion) and 2.5 cm (camera), within a 95% confidence margin. The positioning precision is in the cm level (sub-cm level can be achieved at most tested positions) in a 4x3 m locating cell with 5 infrared detectors on the ceiling and one single camera, at distances from target up to 5 m and 7 m respectively. Due to the low cost system design and the results observed, the system is expected to be feasible and scalable to large real spaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0067.v1
Online: 6 August 2016 (11:31:10 CEST)
In this study, a basic study was performed to analyze the seasonal temperature status of a research room in the Global Environment Research Building where ceiling-embedded indoor units are installed to study the room temperature status of the building as well as to improve its thermal environment. In addition, a direction for improvement of the indoor thermal environment in the winter was proposed through a CFD (computational fluid dynamics) simulation and was proven by an additional experiment. Through the results of this study, it appeared that if the ceiling-embedded indoor unit was installed in the small indoor space without considering the thermal vulnerability of its perimeter boundary, the air temperature of the upper part was greatly different from that of the bottom part in the winter. Hence, in this study, as a means to improve it, convectors were installed to minimize the effect of the external thermal environment and angle-controllable air flowing fans were installed to mitigate the stratification distribution. With such result, it was intended to present the essential data for improvement of the thermal environment as well as conservation of heating energy in the winter for buildings by reviewing the use of the ceiling-embedded indoor unit in the future.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0079.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: thermal neutral; acclimation; acclimatization; adaptation; health; indoor environments
Online: 4 March 2022 (11:23:44 CET)
The goal of this short communication is to analyze a published discussion that states that long-term residing at a thermoneutral indoor temperature condition hinders human thermal acclimation capacities. According to current research, human thermal acclimation and acclimatization capacities can be easily gained through repeated heat and cold exposures mixed with physical activity over a period of days (often 3–21 days). Furthermore, heat and cold adaptations are not permanent, and heat acclimation would progressively fade away if frequent heat exposures (associated with physical work/exercise) were discontinued. People who have been heat acclimatized for a long period and live in tropical places may progressively lose their physiological and perceptual benefits when they shift to temperate zones. On the other hand, the decay of cold acclimation and cold acclimatization has not been well examined, demanding future research on this area. To summarize, there is no evidence to support the claim that extended exposure to thermoneutral conditions impairs human acclimatization abilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0604.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ventilation; indoor air quality; COVID-19; aerosols; Spain
Online: 24 June 2021 (12:02:57 CEST)
After the arrival of a new airborne virus to the world, science is aiming to develop solutions to withstand the spread and contagion of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. The most severe among the adopted measures is to remain in home isolation for a significant number of hours per day, in order to avoid the spreading of the infection in an uncontrolled way through public spaces. Recent literature showed that the major route of transmission is via aerosols produced especially in poorly ventilated inner spaces. With regard to contagion rates, accumulated incidence or number of hospitalizations due to COVID-19, Spain has reached very high levels, therefore this article develops a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the requirements established in Spain with respect to the European framework in reference to ventilation parameters indoors. For this, a case study has been analyzed, representing a common residence in current Spanish residential developments. Results show that the criteria established in the applicable regulations are not sufficient to ensure health as well as to avoid contagion by aerosols indoors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0317.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Cannabis sativa; potency; ultraviolet; indoor; sole source; terpene
Online: 11 June 2021 (11:31:18 CEST)
It is commonly believed that exposing Cannabis sativa (cannabis) plants to ultraviolet (UV) radiation can enhance Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) concentrations in female inflorescences and associated foliar tissues. However, a lack of published scientific studies has left knowledge-gaps in the effects of UV on cannabis that must be elucidated before UV can be utilized as a horticultural management tool in commercial cannabis production. In this study we investigated the effects of UV exposure level on photosynthesis, growth, inflorescence yield, and secondary metabolite composition of two indoor-grown cannabis cultivars: ‘Low Tide’ (LT) and ‘Breaking Wave’ (BW). After growing vegetatively for 2 weeks under a canopy-level photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of ≈225 μmol·m–2·s–1 in an 18-h light/6-h dark photoperiod, plants were grown for 9 weeks in a 12-h light/12-h dark “flowering” photoperiod under a canopy-level PPFD of ≈400 µmol·m–2·s–1 and 3.5 h·d–1 of supplemental UV radiation with UV photon flux densities (UV-PFD) ranging from 0.01 to 0.8 μmol·m–2·s–1 provided by light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with a peak wavelength of 287 nm (i.e., biologically-effective UV doses of 0.16 to 13 kJ·m–2·d–1). The severity of UV-induced morphology (e.g., whole-plant size and leaf size reductions, leaf malformations, and stigma browning) and physiology (e.g., reduced leaf photosynthetic rate and reduced Fv/Fm) symptoms worsened as UV exposure level increased. While the proportion of dry inflorescence yield that was derived from apical tissues decreased in both cultivars with increasing UV exposure level, total dry inflorescence yield only decreased in LT. The equivalent Δ9-THC and cannabidiol (CBD) concentrations also decreased in LT inflorescences with increasing UV exposure level. While the total terpene content in inflorescences decreased with increasing UV exposure level in both cultivars, the relative concentrations of individual terpenes varied by cultivar. The potential for using UV to enhance cannabis quality must still be confirmed before it can be used as a production tool for modern, indoor-grown cannabis cultivars.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0058.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: indoor navigation; wayfinding; visually impaired navigation; sensor fusion
Online: 27 December 2018 (11:37:53 CET)
Indoor navigation systems must deal with absence of GPS signals, since they are only available in outdoor environments. Therefore, indoor systems have to rely upon other techniques for positioning users. Recently various indoor navigation systems have been designed and developed to help visually impaired people. In this paper an overview of some existing indoor navigation systems for visually impaired people are presented and they are compared from different perspectives. The evaluated techniques are ultrasonic systems, RFID-based solutions, computer vision aided navigation systems, ans smartphone-based applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0008.v1
Online: 3 December 2018 (05:15:49 CET)
Ultraviolet (UV) light with a wavelength of 254 nm has proven to be effective at inactivating microorganisms, and thus has been increasingly employed as a method of disinfection for indoor environments. Solar UV wavelengths (300 to 400 nm) are known to initiate the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles from photo-oxidation of volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere, but germicidal wavelengths have not been extensively studied for indoor environments. In this work, toluene was exposed to 254 nm UV light in a laboratory photoreactor, with varying conditions of the air, the duration of UV exposure, and the duration of post-UV time. The number of particles formed in the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) size range was measured, and significant levels of particle formation were observed for UV exposure periods of as short as 5 minutes. The particle formation ranged from 2.4x106 particles/m3 for 5 minutes of UV exposure, to 1449.8x106 particles/m3 for 15 minutes of UV exposure. Particle formation was found to increase with increasing concentrations of gas phase toluene, and at relative humidity of approximately 20% and higher. Variations in the initial number of particles present did not appear to have a significant effect on the particle formation, suggesting that nucleation was not a controlling factor. However, tests in a commercial environment showed no significant detectable PM2.5 formation, indicating that SOA formation during the intermittent use of germicidal UV may not significantly affect indoor air quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0215.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Indoor Localization; Wi-Fi Fingerprint; Denoising Auto-encoder; JLGBMLoc
Online: 8 March 2021 (12:23:36 CET)
Wi-Fi based localization has become one of the most practical methods for mobile users in location-based services. However, due to the interference of multipath and high-dimensional sparseness of fingerprint data, the localization system based on received signal strength (RSS) is hard to obtain high accuracy. In this paper, we propose a novel indoor positioning method, named JLGBMLoc (Joint denoising auto-encoder with LightGBM Localization). Firstly, because the noise and outliers may influence the dimensionality reduction on high-dimensional sparseness fingerprint data, we propose a novel feature extraction algorithm, named joint denoising auto-encoder (JDAE), which reconstructs the sparseness fingerprint data for a better feature representation and restores the fingerprint data. Then, the LightGBM is introduced to the Wi-Fi localization by scattering the processed fingerprint data to histogram, and dividing the decision tree under leaf-wise algorithm with depth limitation. At last, we evaluated the proposed JLGBMLoc on UJIIndoorLoc dataset and Tampere dataset, experimental results show that the proposed model increases the positioning accuracy dramatically comparing with other existing methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0072.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: indoor positioning; access point placement; path loss model; optimization
Online: 5 October 2020 (11:34:03 CEST)
Indoor Positioning Systems (IPSs) are designed to provide solutions for location-based services. Wireless local area network (WLAN)-based positioning systems are the most widespread around the globe and are commonly found to have a ready-to-use infrastructure composed mostly of access points (APs). They provide useful information on signal strength to be processed by adequate location algorithms, which are not always capable of achieving the desired localization error only by themselves. In this sense, this paper proposes a new method to improve the accuracy of IPSs by optimizing some of their most relevant infrastructure components. Included are the arrangement of APs over the environment, the number of reference points (RPs), and the number of samples per location estimation test. A simulation environment is also proposed, in which the impact of key influencing factors on system accuracy is analyzed. Finally, a case study is simulated to validate an optimal combination of design parameters and its compliance with the requirements of localization error and the limited number of access points. Our simulation results clearly show that the desired localization accuracy, which is set as a goal, can be achieved while maintaining the factors already mentioned at minimal levels, which decreases both system deployment costs and computational effort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0586.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Indoor, classrooms, residential rooms, air detector, PM, TVOC, EPA
Online: 26 November 2018 (11:24:49 CET)
Air quality has been a major concern throughout the world, Nigeria inclusive. The monitoring of air quality involves indoor and outdoor air quality. In this study, our concern was on indoor air quality. The aim of this study was to assess the air quality of residential homes (17), classrooms (3), hospitals (2), offices (5), Shops (2), and laboratories (5) in Akure, Nigeria in terms of formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compound (TVOC), Particulate matter (PM1.0; PM2.5, and PM10). A Multifunction Air Detector was used for the assessment using the manufacturers’ procedures and the locations were identified using a Mini GPS. The results revealed as follows: HCHO (0.001-0.030 mg/m3), TVOC (0.003-362 mg/m3), PM1.0 (004-014 µg/m3), PM2.5 (006-020 µg/m3), and PM10 (006-022 µg/m3). The results obtained were below the 24 h pollution recommended standards (0.1 mg/m3- HCHO; TVOC; 10-20 μ/m3 PM) of EPA and WHO. Statistically, there were correlations within the pollutants and weather. The Indoor air quality (IAQ) depicted the areas as ‘good,’ and toxicity potential (TP) were below unity. Although the locations looked safe, it is recommended that constant monitoring of the indoors should be ensured and proper ventilation should be provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0584.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: floor plan analysis; vectorization; graph neural network; indoor spatial data
Online: 28 January 2021 (13:06:28 CET)
This paper presents a new framework to classify floor plan elements and represent them in a vector format. Unlike existing approaches using image-based learning frameworks as the first step to segment the image pixels, we first convert the input floor plan image into vector data and utilize graph neural network. Our framework consists of three steps. (1) image pre-processing and vectorization of the floor plan image. (2) region adjacency graph conversion. (3) graph neural network on converted floor plan graphs. Our approach is able to capture different types of indoor elements including basic elements such as walls, doors, and symbols as well as spatial elements such as rooms and corridors. In addition, the proposed method can also detect element shapes. Experimental results show that our framework can classify indoor elements with an F1 score of 95%, with scale and rotation invariance. Furthermore, we propose a new graph neural network model that takes the distance between nodes into account, which is a valuable feature of spatial network data.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: IoT; Smart Environments; Context aware Application; Machine Learning; Indoor Localization
Online: 14 August 2019 (09:33:44 CEST)
This paper presents a system based on pedestrian dead reckoning for localization of networked mobile users, which relies only on sensors embedded in the devices and device- to-device connectivity. The user trajectory is reconstructed by measuring step by step the user displacements. Though step length can be estimated rather accurately, heading evaluation is extremely problematic in indoor environments. Magnetometer is typically used, however measurements are strongly perturbed. To improve the location accuracy, this paper proposes a cooperative system to estimate the direction of motion based on a machine learning approach for perturbation detection and filtering, combined with a consensus algorithm for performance augmentation by cooperative data fusion at multiple device. A first algorithm filters out perturbed magnetometer measurements based on a-priori information on the Earth's magnetic field. A second algorithm aggregates groups of users walking in the same direction, while a third one combines the measurements of the aggregated users in a distributed way to extract a more accurate heading estimate. Extensive indoor experiments show that the heading error is highly reduced by the proposed approach thus leading to noticeable enhancements in localization performance.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: indoor scene recognition; unsupervised representation learning; Siamese network; graph constraints
Online: 19 March 2019 (13:11:09 CET)
Indoor scene recognition has great significance for intelligent applications such as mobile robots, location-based services (LBS) and so on. Wherever we are or whatever we do, we are under a specific scene. The human brain can easily discern a scene with a quick glance. However, for a machine to achieve this purpose, on one hand, it often requires plenty of well-annotated data which is time-consuming and labor-intensive. On the other hand, it is hard to learn effective visual representations due to large intra-category variation and inter-categories similarity of indoor scenes. To solve these problems, in this paper, we adopted an unsupervised visual representation learning method which can learn from unlabeled data with a Siamese Convolutional Neural Network (Siamese ConvNet) and graph-based constraints. Specifically, we first mined relationships between unlabeled samples with a graph structure. And then, these relationships can be used as supervision for representation learning with a Siamese network. In this method, firstly, a k-NN graph would be constructed by taking each image as a node in the graph and its k nearest neighbors are linked to form the edges. Then, with this graph, cycle consistency and geodesic distance would be considered as criteria for positive and negative pairs mining respectively. In other words, by detecting cycles in the graph, images with large differences but in the same cycle can be considered as same category (positive pairs). By computing geodesic distance instead of Euclidean distance from one node to another, two nodes with large geodesic distance can be regarded as in different categories (negative pairs). After that, visual representations of indoor scenes can be learned by a Siamese network in an unsupervised manner with the mined pairs as inputs. In order to evaluate the proposed method, we tested it on two scene-centric datasets, MIT67 and Places365. Experiments with different number of categories have been conducted to excavate the potential of proposed method. The results demonstrated that semantic visual representations for indoor scenes can be learned in this unsupervised manner. In addition, with the learned visual representations, indoor scene recognition models trained with the learned representations and a few of labeled samples can achieve competitive performance compared to the state-of-the-art approaches.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0029.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Allergy; Alternaria; Aspergillus; dermatophytes; fungal allergens; immunocompetence; indoor/outdoor allergens; Malassezia.
Online: 2 February 2022 (11:30:49 CET)
Fungi kingdom comprises ubiquitous forms of life with 1.5 billion years, mostly phytopathogenic and commensal for humans and animals. However, in the presence of impaired conditions fungi may cause disease by intoxicating, infecting or sensitizing with allergy. Different genera may be implicated as etiological agents for humans and animals, with Alternaria, Aspergillus, dermatophytes like Microsporum and Trichophyton, and Malassezia as the commonly implicated. Alternaria and Malassezia stand as the most commonly associated to either allergy or infection, immediately followed by Aspergillus, while dermatophytes are usually associated to ring worm skin infection. Research in veterinary field is not much but necessary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0096.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Presence detection; passive localization; room impulse response; acoustic localization; indoor localization
Online: 3 June 2021 (09:57:13 CEST)
We discuss two methods to detect the presence and location of a person in a small-scale room and compare the performances. The first method is Direct Intersection, which determines a coordinate point based on the intersection of spheroids defined by observed distances of high-intensity reverberations. The second method, Sonogram analysis, overlays all channel’s room impulse responses to generate an intensity map for the observed environment. We demonstrate that the former method has lower computation complexity and higher accuracy for small numbers of channels, while the latter performs more robustly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0562.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: charcoal; dry heat cooking; indoor; meat; N-nitrosodimethylamine; health risk; source
Online: 23 November 2018 (13:59:34 CET)
This study aimed to investigate the airborne release of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) as a result of the dry heat cooking of some meats using charcoal grilling and pan broiling methods. Three types of meat, beef sirloin, pork belly, and duck, were chosen and cooked in a temporary building using the above methods. Air samples were collected in Thermosorb-N cartridges, which were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed for NDMA using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography–fluorescence detection, respectively. Overall, the charcoal grilling method showed higher average NDMA concentrations than the pan broiling method for all types of meat. The highest average concentration was observed for charcoal-grilled beef sirloin (410 ng/m3) followed by pork belly, suggesting that meat protein content and cooking duration are important determinants of NDMA formation. Cancer risk assessment showed that the charcoal grilling of such meats can pose an additional cancer risk for restaurant customers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0295.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: indoor environment; 3D localization; staircase geometry; robotics; time-of-flight sensors
Online: 13 November 2018 (05:06:08 CET)
The sTetro is a stair cleaning robot which can climb the staircase with its shapeshifting capabilities. As this robot is intended to traverse multi-floor environment autonomously, hence its localization/positioning information is an essential component of the overall system. Usually, the indoor mobile robots rely on some external system for localization information, e.g., WiFi, UWB, vision, RFID signals, or indoor Global Positioning System (GPS). This requires the installation of additional hardware and/or modification of the working environment for precise positioning information of the mobile platform. As the dimensions of the staircase are known a priori, this knowledge can be used to localize the sTetro robot on the stairs. In this article, the geometry of the staircase has been exploited to localize the robot in 3D space with measurements from the onboard time-of-flight (ToF) range sensors only. The heading angle of the robot is also estimated with two ToF sensors installed in front of the sTetro robot. Results achieved by conducting experiments on real robot prove the efficacy of the proposed approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0174.v3
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sustainable architecture; industrial building; indoor environment; lighting conditions; computational simulation; luminance
Online: 13 February 2018 (08:05:05 CET)
This paper highlights the problems associated with daylight use in industrial facilities. In a case study of a multi-story textile factory, we report how to evaluate daylight (as part of integral light) in the production halls marked F and G. This study follows the article in the Buildings journal, where Hall E was evaluated (unilateral daylight). These two additional halls have large areas that are 54 × 54 meters and are more than 5 meters high. The daylight is only on the side through the attached windows in envelope structures in the vertical position. In this paper, we want to present two case studies of these two production halls in a textile factory in the eastern part of Slovakia. These are halls that are illuminated by daylight from two sides through exterior peripheral walls that are against or next to each other. The results of the case studies can be applied in similar production halls illuminated by a ‘double-sided’ (bilateral) daylight system. This means that they are illuminated by natural illumination through windows on two sides in a vertical position. Such a situation is typical for multi-storied industrial buildings. The proposed approximate calculation method for the daylight factor can be used to predict the daylight in similar spaces in other similar buildings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0145.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: ultraviolet radiation; bioaerosol; formaldehyde; total volatile organic compounds; indoor air quality
Online: 22 November 2017 (10:26:40 CET)
This study examined the use of high dosages of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) (253.7 nm) to deal with various concentrations of air pollutants, such as formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), under various conditions of humidity. We also estimated the emission of ozone as a secondary pollutant of UVGI as treatment. A number of irradiation methods were applied for various durations in field studies to examine the efficiency of removing HCHO, TVOC, bacteria, and fungi. The removal efficiency of air pollutants (HCHO and bacteria) through long-term exposure to UVGI appears to increase with time. The effects on TVOC and fungi concentration were insignificant in the first week; however, improvements were observed in the second week. No differences were observed among the various irradiation methods in this study regarding the removal of HCHO and TVOC; however significant differences were observed in the removal of bacteria and fungi.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0534.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Indoor air quality; forecasting; machine learning; IoT; Covid-19; environmental mapping; pandemic.
Online: 28 December 2022 (09:10:46 CET)
The current COVID19 pandemic has raised huge concerns for outdoor air quality due to expected lungs deterioration. These concerns include the challenges in the scalable prediction of harmful gases like carbon dioxide, iterative/repetitive inhaling due to mask and environmental temperature harshness. Even in the presence of air quality sensing devices, these challenges lead to failed planning and strategy against respiratory diseases, epidemics, and pandemics in severe cases. In this work, a dual time-series with bi-cluster sensor data-stream-based novel optimized regression algorithm was proposed with optimization predictors and optimization responses that use automated iterative optimization of the model based on the similarity coefficient index. The algorithm was implemented over SeReNoV2 sensor nodes data, i.e. multi-variate dual time-series of environmental and US Environmental Protection Agency standard sensor variables for air quality index measured from air quality sensors with geospatial profiling. The SeReNoV2 systems were placed at four locations that were 3 km apart to monitor air quality and their data was collected at Ubidots IoT platform over GSM. Results have shown that the proposed technique achieved a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.0042 with a training time of 469.28 seconds for normal and RMSE of 1.646 in the training time of 28.53 seconds for optimization. The estimated R-Squared error of 0.03 with Mean-Square Error for temperature 1.0084 ᵒC and 293.98 ppm for CO2 was observed. Furthermore, the Mean-Absolute Error (MAE) for temperature 0.66226 ᵒC and 10.252 ppm for CO2 at a prediction speed of ~5100 observations/second for temperature 45000 observations/second for CO2 due to iterative optimization of the training time 469.28 seconds for temperature and 28.53 seconds for CO2 was very promising in forecasting COVID19 countermeasures before time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0736.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Path analysis; in-store behavior; customer Clustering; indoor positioning; trajectory analysis; multilateration
Online: 30 November 2020 (15:57:36 CET)
With the rapid development of smart phones, tablets and their operative systems, many positioning enabled sensors have been built into these devices. Users can now accurately fix their location according to the function of GPS receivers. For indoor environments, as in the case we are studying, WiFi based positioning is preferred to GPS due to the attenuation or obstruction of signals. This paper deals with the automatic classification of customers in a Sports Shop Center on the basis of their movements around the shop's premises. To achieve this goal, we start by collecting (x,y) coordinates from customers while they visit the store. Consequently, any costumer's path through the shop is formed by a list of coordinates, obtained with a frequency of one measurement per minute. Then, a guess about the full trajectory is constructed and a number of parameters about these trajectories is calculated before performing an Unsupervised Learning Clustering Process. As a result, we can identify several types of customers, and the dynamics of their behavior inside the shop. This information is of great value to the company, to be used both in the long term and also in short periods of time, monitoring the current state of the shop at any moment, identifying different types of situation appearing during restricted periods, or predicting customer flow conditions
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0571.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: air-conditioned filer dust; indoor environment; heavy metal; biological contaminants; risk assessment
Online: 26 August 2020 (09:08:24 CEST)
Among others, road traffic, industrial emissions, commercial activities, smoking and cooking are considered as major contributing factors for the increasing levels of pollutants in atmosphere. High levels of potentially toxic metals and microbes in atmosphere, especially in indoor air, may pose serious threat to human health. Therefore, concentration and associated health risks of potentially toxic trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn) and their risk to human health, and microbial load in indoor air was assessed using air condition (AC) filter dust samples collected from 5 locations representing residential, agricultural and industrial settings of Eastern Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The levels of trace metals varied considerably among sampling areas, with the highest levels of Cr and Cd recorded in the Industrial-area sites followed by the Agricultural and Urban-Residential sites. The highest levels of Pb and Fe were found in the Agricultural area sites followed by the Industrial and Urban-Residential area sites. The metals in dust sample, especially Cd, Cr and Pb, showed a considerable health risk through dermal pathway. Among the sites, the highest hazard quotient for these metals was found for Al-Qatif-Industrial areas sites and among the metals it was the highest for Cd. The cancer risk from the metals contained in AC filter dust was negligible. Samples collected from Agricultural and Industrial area sites were substantially contaminated with bacteria and fungi, respectively. Bacterial contaminants were mostly Gram Negative, with considerable antibiotic resistance and haemolytic activity. Thus, indoor air quality as assessed by AC filter dust depicted that a considerable health risk could be posed by the trace heavy metals and microorganisms for a long-term exposure. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that AC filters dust could be a unique and reliable test sample for the assessment of indoor environment.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0315.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Indoor; PM10; pulmonary disease; inflammation; IFN; type I interferon; cytokine; epithelial cell
Online: 14 August 2020 (09:22:59 CEST)
Indoor dusts are collectively formed from anthropogenic and atmospheric activities. Particle matter 10 (PM10) is inhalable and causes significant inflammation by interaction with the pulmonary epithelial barrier. The mediators involved in bronchial epithelial cells response to dust are remined unknown. The air-liquid interface of our lung on chip model was exposed to indoor dust collected from highly polluted houses in Delhi, India. The media were collected after 4 days and cytokine levels were measured. We found that the concentration of IFN, IFNγ, Interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL1b, TNFa, and Granulocyte monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were significantly increased after exposure to indoor dust. IFN type I pathways were a major response from dust exposure. Further investigation is needed to determine the mechanism of action and targets of dust in bronchial epithelial cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0136.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: carbon dioxide, energy efficiency, occupancy detection, indoor air quality, measurement, data analysis.
Online: 9 July 2019 (14:37:10 CEST)
The problem of real-time estimation of occupancy of buildings (number of people in various zones at every time instant) is relevant to a number of emerging applications that achieve high energy efficiency through feedback control. The measurement of CO2 concentration can be considered an important indicator that allows to define the occupation of closed and crowded spaces. Interesting cases can be school buildings and other buildings used in civil and residential (shopping centres, hospitals, etc.). This paper, starting from an experimental analysis in different classrooms of a University campus in real operating conditions, in different period of the year, proposes a possible correlation between CO2 concentration and the occupancy profile of the spaces. The acquired data are used to present some graphical correlations and to understand the most important variables or combination of them. Starting from an accurate analysis of the data, attempts are made to define a preliminary estimation method through the development of a mathematical models of occupancy dynamics in a building, which show interesting results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0682.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Indoor Location, Mobile App, Building Information Models, BLE, Beacon, Path Finding, A*.
Online: 29 October 2018 (12:38:10 CET)
This research work uses a simplified approach to combine location information from beacons propagation signal interaction with a mobile device with local building information to give real-time location and guidance to a user inside a building. This is an interactive process with visualisation information that can help user’s orientation inside unknown buildings and the data stored from different users can provide useful information about users movements inside a public building. Beacons installed on the building at specific pre-defined position emit signals that give a geographic position with an associated imprecision, related with Bluetooth’s range. This uncertainty is handled by building layout and users’ movement in a developed system that maps users’ position, gives guidance and store user movements. This system is based on an App (Find Me!) for Android OS (Operating System) which captures the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) signal coming from the beacon(s) and shows, through a map, the location of the user ‘s smartphone and guide him to the desired destination. Also, the beacons can deliver relevant context information. The application was tested by a panel of new and habitual campus users against traditional wayfinding alternatives yielding navigation times about 30% smaller, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0064.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: Energy use; indoor environment; health; behaviour change; awareness campaign; people-centred approach
Online: 10 October 2017 (17:41:16 CEST)
This paper attempts to alter a prevailing assumption that buildings use energy to an understanding that in fact, people use energy. Therefore, to successfully accelerate the transition to a low-carbon society and economy more emphasis should be on motivating people and increasing their awareness by making them energy conscious building users and therefore active players in the energy transition process. In this context, this paper provides insights from the Horizon 2020 MOBISTYLE project. It demonstrates research and development approaches, highlights the main project objectives, and presents findings of an ethnographic (qualitative) study of users’ habits, practices, and needs. The aim of the project is to motivate behavioural change by raising consumer awareness through the provision of attractive personalized information on user’s energy use, indoor environment and health, all enabled by an integrated information and communication technology (ICT) service. In this context, the anthropological people-centred approach is integrated into the MOBISTYLE approach putting users at the centre of the ICT tools development process. The main quantitative objective of the project is a reduction of energy use for at least 16 % prompted by the provision of combined information and feedback systems on energy, indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and health. The most relevant motivational factors and key performance indicators (KPIs) for encouraging a more energy conscious and healthy lifestyle were defined by means of a people-centred approach, adopting anthropological inquiries in different settings. Information about users’ lifestyles and their needs was collected in focus groups with potential users in five case studies, located in different European Union (EU) countries. Behaviour change is achieved through awareness campaigns, which encourage users to be pro-active about their energy consumption and to simultaneously improve health and well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0434.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: WiFi sounder; CSI; MIMO; indoor location estimation; array signal processing; machine learning; SVM
Online: 17 March 2021 (10:57:38 CET)
In recent years, since the propagation channel characteristics have been effectively used for applications such as motion sensing, position detection, etc. A great deal of attention is attracted to channel sounding methods easy to utilize using low-cost devices. This paper presents a device-free indoor location estimation method using spatio-temporal features of radio propagation channels using the 2.4-GHz band 3-by-3 MIMO channel sounder developed using commodity wireless LANs. The measurement results demonstrated a reasonable performance of the proposed method with small number of antennas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0163.v1
Subject: Keywords: Cannabis sativa; PPFD; light intensity; light response curve; indoor; sole source; cannabinoid; terpene
Online: 8 January 2021 (14:04:08 CET)
Since the recent legalization of medical and recreational use of cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) in many regions worldwide, there has been high demand for research to improve yield and quality. With the paucity of scientific literature on the topic, this study investigated the relationships between light intensity (LI) and photosynthesis, inflorescence yield, and inflorescence quality of cannabis grown in an indoor environment. After growing vegetatively for 2 weeks under a canopy-level photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of ≈ 425 μmol·m-2·s-1 and an 18-h light/6-h dark photoperiod, plants were grown for 12 weeks in a 12-h light/12-h dark ‘flowering’ photoperiod under canopy-level PPFDs ranging from 120 to 1800 μmol·m-2·s-1 provided by light emitting diodes. Leaf light response curves varied both with localized (i.e., leaf-level) PPFD and temporally, throughout the flowering cycle. Therefore, it was concluded that the leaf light response is not a reliable predictor of whole- plant responses to LI, particularly crop yield. This may be especially evident given that dry inflorescence yield increased linearly with increasing canopy-level PPFD up to 1800 μmol·m-2·s-1, while leaf-level photosynthesis saturated well below 1800 μmol·m-2·s-1. The density of the apical inflorescence and harvest index also increased linearly with increasing LI, resulting in higher-quality marketable tissues and less superfluous tissue to dispose of. There were no LI treatment effects on cannabinoid potency, while there were minor LI treatment effects on terpene potency. Commercial cannabis growers can use these light response models to determine the optimum LI for their production environment to achieve the best economic return; balancing input costs with the commercial value of their cannabis products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0250.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: socioeconomic status; indoor air pollution; acute respiratory infection; cooking fuel; under-five children
Online: 23 July 2019 (07:45:08 CEST)
Background: Low-income families often depend on fuels such as wood, coal, and animal dung for cooking. Such solid fuels are highly polluting and are a primary source of indoor air pollutants (IAP). We examined the association between solid fuel use (SFU) and acute respiratory infection (ARI) among under-five children in Afghanistan and the extent to which this association varies by socioeconomic status (SES) and gender. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study based on de-identified data from Afghanistan’s first standard Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 2015. The sample consists of ever-married mothers with under-five children in the household (n=27,565). We used mixed-effect Poisson regression models with robust error variance accounting for clustering to examine the associations between SFU and ARI among under-five children after adjusting for potential confounders. We also investigated potential effect modification by SES and sex. Additional analyses were conducted using an augmented measure of the exposure to IAP accounting for both SFU and the location of cooking/kitchen (High Exposure, Moderate, and No Exposure). Results: Around 70% of households reported SFU, whereas the prevalence of ARI was 17.6%. The prevalence of ARI was higher in children living in households with SFU compared to children living in households with no SFU (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]= 1.10; 95%CI: 0.98, 1.23). We did not observe any effect modification by SES or child sex. When using the augmented measure of exposure incorporating the kitchen’s location, children highly exposed to IAP had a higher prevalence of ARI compared to unexposed children (aPR 1.17; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.32). SES modified this association with the strongest associations observed among children from the middle wealth quintile. Conclusion: The findings have significant policy implications and suggest that ARI risk in children may be reduced by ensuring clean cookstove as well as clean fuels and acting on the socio-environmental pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0255.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: indoor navigation networks, navigation routes in buildings, segmentation structure, TIN, Voronoi, MAT algorithm
Online: 25 January 2019 (06:41:03 CET)
Automatic methods for constructing navigation routes do not fully meet all requirements. The aim of this study was to modify the methodology for generating indoor navigation models based on the Medial Axis Transformation (MAT) algorithm. The simplified method for generating corridor axes relies on the Node-Relation Structure (NRS) methodology. The axis of the modeled structure (corridor) is determined based the points of the middle lines intersecting the structure (polygon). The proposed solution involves a modified approach to the segmentation of corridor space. Traditional approaches rely on algorithms to construct Triangulated Irregular Networks (TINs) by Delaunay triangulation or algorithms for generating Thiessen polygons known as Voronoi diagrams (VDs). In this study, both algorithms were used in the segmentation process. The edges of TINs intersect structures. Selected midpoints on TIN edges, which are located in the central part of the structure, are used to generate VDs. Polygon VDs segment corridor structures. The identifiers or structure nodes are the midpoints on TIN edges rather than the calculated centroids. The generated routes are not zigzag lines, and they approximate natural paths. The main advantage of the proposed solution is its simplicity which can be attributed to the use of standard tools for processing spatial data in a geographic information system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0259.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: CR-39 detector; Euratom 59/2013; Italian radiation protection legislation; radon indoor; radon survey
Online: 12 May 2021 (07:30:53 CEST)
Radon gas represents the major contributor to human health risk from environmental radiological exposure. In confined spaces radon can accumulate to relatively high levels so that mitigation actions are necessary. The Italian legislation on radiation protection has set a reference value for the activity concentration of radon at 300 Bq/m3. In this study, measurements of the annual radon concentration in 62 bank buildings, spread on Campania region (Southern Italy), were carried out. Using CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors, radon level was assessed in 136 confined spaces (127 at underground and 9 at ground floors), frequented by workers and/or the public. The survey parameters considered in the analysis of the results were: floor types, wall cladding materials, number of openings, door/window opening duration for air exchange. Radon levels were found to be between 17 and 680 Bq/m3, with an average value of 130 Bq/m3 and a standard deviation of 120 Bq/m3. About 7% of the results gave a radon activity concentration above 300 Bq/m3. The analysis showed that the floor level and air exchange have the most significant influence. This study highlighted the importance to assess the indoor radon levels, even in particular environments, to protect public and workers by radon-induced effects on health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0275.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: ultrafine particles; aerosol; urban street canyon; outdoor pollution; indoor air quality; respiratory doses; mppd
Online: 24 September 2019 (12:25:44 CEST)
The amount of outdoor particles that indoor environments receive depends on the particle infiltration factors (Fin), peculiar of each environment, and on the outdoor aerosol concentrations and size distributions. The respiratory doses received, while residing indoor, will change accordingly. This study aims to ascertain to what extent such doses are affected by the vertical distance from the traffic sources. Particle number size distributions have been simultaneously measured at street level and at about 20 m height in a street canyon in downtown Rome. The same Fin have been adopted to estimate indoor aerosol concentrations, due to the infiltration of outdoor particles and then the relevant daily respiratory doses. Aerosol concentrations at ground floor were more than double than at 20 m height and richer in ultrafine particles. Thus, although aerosol infiltration efficiency was on average higher at 20 m height than at ground floor, particles more abundantly infiltrated at ground level. On a daily basis, this involved a 2.5-fold higher dose at ground level than at 20 m height. At both levels, such doses were greater than those estimated over the period of activity of some indoor aerosol sources, therefore they represent an important contribution to the total daily dose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0004.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: weighted dissimilarity measure; feature-based indoor positioning; signals of opportunity; location-dependent standard deviation
Online: 3 June 2019 (08:37:55 CEST)
We propose an iterative scheme for feature-based positioning using a new weighted dissimilarity measure with the goal of reducing the impact of large errors among the measured or modeled features. The weights are computed from the location-dependent standard deviations of the features and stored as part of the reference fingerprint map (RFM). Spatial filtering and kernel smoothing of the kinematically collected raw data allow efficiently estimating the standard deviations during RFM generation. In the positioning stage, the weights control the contribution of each feature to the dissimilarity measure, which in turn quantifies the difference between the set of online measured features and the fingerprints stored in the RFM. Features with little variability contribute more to the estimated position than features with high variability. Iterations are necessary because the variability depends on the location, and the location is initially unknown when estimating the position. Using real WiFi signal strength data from extended test measurements with ground truth in an office building, we show that the standard deviations of these features vary considerably within the region of interest and are neither simple functions of the signal strength nor of the distances from the corresponding access points. This is the motivation to include the empirical standard deviations in the RFM. We then analyze the deviations of the estimated positions with and without the location-dependent weighting. In the present example the maximum radial positioning error from ground truth are reduced by 40% comparing to kNN without the weighted dissimilarity measure.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Indoor Localization; Sensor Fusion; Multimodal Deep Neural Network; Multimodal Sensing; WiFi Fingerprinting; Pedestrian Dead Reckoning
Online: 13 October 2021 (12:14:39 CEST)
Many engineered approaches have been proposed over the years for solving the hard problem of performing indoor localisation using smartphone sensors. However, specialising these solutions for difficult edge cases remains challenging. Here we propose an end-to-end hybrid multimodal deep neural network localisation system, MM-Loc, relying on zero hand-engineered features, learning them automatically from data instead. This is achieved by using modality-specific neural networks to extract preliminary features from each sensing modality, which are then combined by cross-modality neural structures. We show that our choice of modality-specific neural architectures is capable of estimating the location with good accuracy independently. But for better accuracy, a multimodal neural network fusing the features of early modality-specific representations is a better proposition. Our proposed MM-Loc solution is tested on cross-modality samples characterised by different sampling rates and data representation (inertial sensors, magnetic and WiFi signals), outperforming traditional approaches for location estimation. MM-Loc elegantly trains directly from data unlike conventional indoor positioning systems, which rely on human intuition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0051.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: smart building; artificial neural network (ANN); indoor; temperature; façade; outdoor; forecasting; relevance; sensors; recorded data
Online: 8 January 2018 (08:58:09 CET)
Smart buildings concept aims at the use of the smart technology to reduce energy consumption as well as improvement of the comfort conditions and users’ satisfaction. It is based on the use of smart sensors to follow both outdoor and indoor conditions as well as software for the control of comfort and security devices. The optimal control of the energy devices requires software for indoor temperature forecasting. This paper presents an ANN – based model for the indoor temperature forecasting. The model is developed using data recoded in an old building of the engineering school Polytech’Lille. Data covered both indoor and outdoor conditions. Analysis of the relevance of the input parameters allowed to develop a simplified forecasting model of the indoor temperature that uses only the outdoor temperature as well as the history of the façade temperature as input parameters. The paper presents successively, data collection, the ANN concept used in the temperature forecasting, and finally the ANN model developed for the façade and indoor forecasting. It shows that an ANN-based model using outdoor and façade temperature sensors provides a good forecasting of the indoor temperature. This model could be used for the optimal control of buildings energy devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0068.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: dual-frequency RFID; indoor localization; non line of sight; received signal strength; inertial measurement unit
Online: 15 September 2017 (14:18:59 CEST)
The mitigation of NLOS (non-line-of-sight) propagation conditions is one of main challenges in wireless signals based indoor localization. When RFID localization technology is applied in applications, RSS fluctuates frequently due to the shade and multipath effect of RF signal, which could result in localization inaccuracy. In particularly, when tags carriers are walking in LOS (line-of-sight) and NLOS hybrid environment, great attenuation of RSS will happen, which would result in great location deviation. The paper proposes an IMU-assisted (Inertial Measurement Unit) RFID based indoor localization in LOS/NLOS hybrid environment. The proposed method includes three improvements over previous RSS based positioning methods: IMU aided RSS filtering, IMU aided LOS/NLOS distinguishing and IMU aided LOS/NLOS environment switching. Also, CRLB (Cramér-Rao Low Bound) is calculated to prove theoretically that indoor positioning accuracy for proposed method in LOS/NLOS mixed environment is higher than position precision of only use RSS information. Simulation and experiments are conducted to show that proposed method can reduce the mean positioning error to around 3 meters without site survey.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0103.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: indoor localization; multilateration; sine wave detector; time different of arrival; CAN Network; least squares method
Online: 22 June 2017 (05:45:00 CEST)
This paper presents an improved indoor localization system based on RF and ultrasonic signal which we named SNSH system. This system composes of a transmitter mounted in a mobile target, and a series of receiver nodes which are managed by a coordinator. By measuring Time Delay of Arrival (TDoA) of RF and ultrasonic signal from the transmitter, distance from target to receiver node is calculated and sent to the coordinator through CAN network, and all the information are gathered in PC to estimate 3D position of the target. Sine wave detector and dynamic threshold filter are applied to provide excellent accuracy of range measurement from TDoA result, and multilateration algorithms is realized to optimize coordinate determination accuracy. Specifically, Linear Least Square and Non-linear Least Square techniques are implemented to contrast their performances in target coordinate estimation. RF signal encoding/decoding time, time delay in CAN network and math calculating are carefully considered to ensure optimal system performance and get ready for field application. Experiments show that sine wave detector algorithm has greatly improved range measurement accuracy, with mean error at 2.2mm and maximum error at 6.7 mm, for distance below 5m. In addition, 3D position accuracy is greatly enhanced by multilateration methods, with mean error in position stay under 15mm, and 90% confident error values at 23mm for LLS, 20mm for NLS. Overall system update period has been verified in real system operation, with maximum rate at 25ms, and compared with other existing researches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0114.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: indoor localization; crowdsourcing; received signal strength; graph-based semi-supervised learning; linear regression; compressed sensing.
Online: 18 April 2017 (12:33:47 CEST)
Indoor positioning based on the received signal strength (RSS) of the WiFi signal has become the most popular solution for indoor localization. In order to realize the rapid deployment of indoor localization systems, solutions based on crowdsourcing have been proposed. However, compared to conventional methods, crowdsourced RSS values are more erroneous and can result in large localization errors. To mitigate the negative effect of the erroneous measurements, a graph-based semi-supervised learning (G-SSL) method is used to exploit the correlation between the RSS values at nearby locations to estimate an optimal RSS value at each location. Before using the G-SSL method, the Linear Regression (LR) algorithm is proposed to solve the device diversity problem in crowdsourcing system. Since the spatial distribution of the APs is sparse, the Compressed Sensing (CS) method is applied to precisely estimate the location of the APs. Based on the location of the APs and a simple signal propagation model, the RSS difference between different locations is calculated and used as an additional constraint to improve the performance of G-SSL. Furthermore, to exploit the sparsity of the weights used in the G-SSL, we use the CS method to reconstruct these weights more accurately and make a further improvement on the performance of the G-SSL. Experimental results show improved results in terms of the smoothness of the radio map and the localization accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0185.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Air quality; fine particulate matter; primary schools; building ventilation; environmental inequality; research grade sensors; indoor air quality
Online: 13 January 2022 (10:28:35 CET)
Every day around 93% of children under the age of 15 (1.8 billion children) breathe outdoor air that is so polluted it puts their health and development at serious risk. Due to the pandemic, however, ventilation of buildings using outdoor air has become an important safety technique to prevent the spread of COVID-19. With the mounting ev-idence suggesting that air pollution is impactful to human health and educational out-comes, this contradictory guidance may be problematic in schools with higher air pol-lution levels, but keeping kids COVID-19 free and in school to receive their education is now more pressing than ever. To understand if all schools in an urban area are ex-posed to similar outdoor air quality and if school infrastructure protects children equally indoors, we installed research grade sensors to observe PM2.5 concentrations in indoor and outdoor settings to understand how unequal exposure to indoor and out-door air pollution impacts indoor air quality among high- and low-income schools in Salt Lake City, Utah. Based on this approach, we found that during atmospheric inver-sions and dust events, there was a lag ranging between 35 to 73 minutes for the out-door PM2.5 concentrations to follow a similar temporal pattern as the indoor PM2.5. This lag has policy and health implications and may help to explain the rising concerns re-garding reduced educational outcomes related to air pollution in urban areas. These data and resulting analysis show that poor air quality may impact school settings, and the potential implications with respect to environmental inequality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0094.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: sleep quality; road traffic noise; actimetry; indoor noise; noise measurements; noise annoyance; noise sensitivity; time of day
Online: 9 September 2019 (08:45:43 CEST)
It is unclear which noise exposure time window and noise characteristics during nighttime are most detrimental for sleep quality in real life settings. We have conducted a field study with 105 volunteers wearing a wrist actimeter to record their sleep during seven days, together with concurrent outdoor noise measurements at their bedroom window. Actimetry recorded sleep latency increased by 5.6 minutes (95% confidence interval: 1.6 to 9.6 minutes) per 10 dB(A) increase in noise exposure during the first hour after bedtime. Actimetry assessed sleep efficiency was significantly reduced by 2-3 percent per 10 dB(A) increase in measured outdoor noise (Leq, 1h) for the last three hours of sleep. For subjectively reported sleepiness, noise exposure during the last hour prior to wake up was most crucial with an increase in the sleepiness score of 0.31 units (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.54) per 10 dB(A) Leq,1h. Associations for estimated indoor noise were not more pronounced than for outdoor noise. Considering noise events in addition to equivalent sound pressure levels (Leq) only marginally improved the statistical models. Our study provides evidence that matching the nighttime noise exposure time window to the individual’s diurnal sleep-wake pattern results in a better estimate of detrimental nighttime noise effects on sleep. We found that noise exposure at the beginning and the end of the sleep is most crucial for sleep quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0206.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: Indoor residual spray (IRS); Vector control; Anopheles; Aedes aegypti; Culex quinquefasciatus; Neonicotinoids; Pyrethroid; Insecticide resistance; SumiShield; K-Othrine.
Online: 10 November 2021 (14:24:24 CET)
Insecticides with novel modes of action are required to complement the pyrethroids currently relied upon for controlling malaria vectors. One example of this is the neonicotinoid clothianidin, which is found in SumiShield™ 50WG used in indoor residual spraying (IRS). In a preliminary experiment, mortality in insecticide susceptible and resistant An. gambiae adults exposed to SumiShield™ 50WG-treated filter papers reached 80% by 3-days post-exposure and 100% by 6-days post-exposure. Next, cement, wood, and mud tiles were treated with SumiShield™ 50WG or K-Othrine® WG250 (deltamethrin IRS formulation) and insecticide resistant and susceptible Anopheles and Aedes were exposed to these surfaces periodically for up to 18-months. Pyrethroid resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus were also exposed at 9 months. Between exposures tiles were stored in heat and relative humidity conditions reflecting those found in the field. On these surfaces, SumiShield™ 50WG was effective at killing both susceptible and resistant An. gambiae for 18 months post-treatment, while mortality amongst the resistant strains when exposed to deltamethrin (K-Othrine® WG250) IRS was not above that of the negative control. Greater efficacy of SumiShield™ 50WG was also demonstrated against insecticide resistant strains of An. funestus compared to deltamethrin, though the potency was lower when compared with An. gambiae. In general, a higher efficacy of SumiShield™ 50WG was observed on cement and mud compared to wood. SumiShield™ 50WG demonstrated poor residual activity against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Overall, the results suggest SumiShield™ 50WG is well suited for malaria control.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0299.v3
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: elderly; aging population; ambient intelligence; fall detection; indoor localization; real-world implementation; sensors; activities of daily living; assisted living
Online: 21 July 2022 (10:46:08 CEST)
Falls, highly common in the constantly increasing global aging population, can have a variety of negative effects on their health, well-being, and quality of life, including restricting their capabilities to conduct Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), which are crucial for one’s sustenance. Timely assistance during falls is highly necessary, which involves tracking the indoor location of the elderly during their diverse navigational patterns associated with ADLs to detect the precise location of a fall. With the decreasing caregiver population on a global scale, it is important that the future of intelligent living environments can detect falls during ADL.s while being able to track the indoor location of the elderly in the real world. Prior works in these fields have several limitations, such as – the lack of functionalities to detect both falls and indoor locations, high cost of implementation, complicated design, the requirement of multiple hardware components for deployment, and the necessity to develop new hardware for implementation, which make the wide-scale deployment of such technologies challenging. To address these challenges, this work proposes a cost-effective and simplistic design paradigm for an Ambient Assisted Living system that can capture multimodal components of user behaviors during ADLs that are necessary for performing fall detection and indoor localization in a simultaneous manner in the real world. Proof of concept results from real-world experiments are presented to uphold the effective working of the system. The findings from two comparison studies with prior works in this field are also presented to uphold the novelty of this work. The first comparison study shows how the proposed system outperforms prior works in the areas of indoor localization and fall detection in terms of the effectiveness of its software design and hardware design. The second comparison study shows that the cost for the development of this system is the least as compared to prior works in these fields, which involved real-world development of the underlining systems, thereby upholding its cost-effective nature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0318.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: thermal bridge; data-driven system modeling; system identification; time-varying indoor temperature; dynamic analysis; building energy simulation; building envelope
Online: 21 July 2022 (08:40:55 CEST)
It is not easy to dynamically analyze thermal bridges that require multidimensional analysis in building energy simulations, which are mostly one-dimensional platforms. To solve this problem, many studies have been conducted and, recently, a study was conducted to model the thermal bridge based on the data by approaching this in a similar way to steady-state analysis, showing high accuracy. This was an early-stage study, which is only applicable when the indoor temperature is constant. By extending this study, a thermal bridge model that can be applied even when the indoor temperature changes over time is proposed and validated. Since the governing equation, the heat diffusion equation, is linear, the key idea is to create and apply two thermal bridge transfer function models by expressing the heat flow entering the room as a linear combination of the transfer function for indoor temperature and the transfer function for outdoor temperature. For the proposed thermal bridge model, the NRMSE of the model itself showed a high accuracy of 99.9%, and in the verification through annual simulation using the model, the NRMSE showed an accuracy of 88.8%.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0297.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: cat urine; odor mitigation; odor; volatile organic compounds; emission; indoor air quality, solid-phase microextraction; SPME; diffusion; Micrococcus luteus
Online: 13 August 2020 (08:51:58 CEST)
Urination on carpet and subflooring can develop into persistent and challenging to mitigate odor. Very little or no information is published on how these VOCs change over time when urine is deposited on the carpet covering a plywood-type subflooring. This research has investigated the VOCs emitted from carpet+subflooring (control), carpet+subflooring sprayed with water (control with moisture), and cat urine-contaminated carpet+subflooring (treatment) over time (day 0 and 15). In addition, the effect of popular cleaning products on VOCs emitted and evaluated their efficacy in eliminating those indoor odors over time (day 0 and 15). Carpet-subflooring with all treatments were also contaminated with Micrococcus luteus, nonmotile obligate aerobe commonly found in household dust, to observe the impact of the aerobe on carpet-subflooring VOCs emission. VOCs emitted from carpet+subflooring receiving different treatments were collected from headspace using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). The VOCs were analyzed using a multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometer attached to an olfactometry (GC-MS-O). Many common VOCs were released from the carpet on day one and day fifteen, specifically from urine contamination. Cleaning products were effective in masking several potent odors of cat urine contaminated carpet VOCs on day one but unable to remove the odor appeared on day 15 in most cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0503.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: UWB; NLOS identification; multi-path detection; NLOS and MP discrimination; machine learning; SVM; random forest; multilayer perceptron; LOS; DWM1000; indoor localization
Online: 29 April 2020 (10:29:54 CEST)
In Ultra-wideband (UWB)-based wireless ranging or distance measurement, differentiation between line-of-sight~(LOS), non-line-of-sight~(NLOS), and multi-path (MP) conditions are important for precise indoor localization. This is because the accuracy of the reported measured distance in UWB ranging systems is directly affected by the measurement conditions (LOS, NLOS or MP). However, the major contributions in literature only address the binary classification between LOS and NLOS in UWB ranging systems. The MP condition is usually ignored. In fact, the MP condition also has a significant impact on the ranging errors of the UWB compared to the direct LOS measurement results. Though, the magnitudes of the error contained in MP conditions are generally lower than completely blocked NLOS scenarios. This paper addresses machine learning techniques for identification of the mentioned three classes (LOS, NLOS, and MP) in the UWB indoor localization system using an experimental data-set. The data-set was collected in different conditions at different scenarios in indoor environments. Using the collected real measurement data, we compare three machine learning (ML) classifiers, i.e., support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF) based on an ensemble learning method, and multilayer perceptron (MLP) based on a deep artificial neural network, in terms of their performance. The results show that applying ML methods in UWB ranging systems are effective in identification of the above-mentioned three classes. In specific, the overall accuracy reaches up to 91.9% in the best-case scenario and 72.9% in the worst-case scenario. Regarding the F1-score, it is 0.92 in the best-case and 0.69 in the worst-case scenario. For reproducible results and further exploration, we (will) provide the publicly accessible experimental research data discussed in this paper at PUB - Publications at Bielefeld University. The evaluations of the three classifiers are conducted using the open-source python machine learning library scikit-learn.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0032.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: indoor positioning system; image-based positioning system; computer vision; SIFT; feature detection; feature description; cell phone camera; PnP problem; projection matrix; epipolar geometry; OpenCV
Online: 3 April 2020 (11:59:48 CEST)
As people grow a custom to effortless outdoor navigation there is a rising demand for similar possibility indoors as well. Unfortunately, indoor localization, being one of the necessary requirements for navigation, continues to be problem without a clear solution. In this article we are proposing a method for an indoor positioning system using a single image. This is made possible using small preprocessed database of images with known control points as the only preprocessing needed. Using feature detection with SIFT algorithm we can look through the database and find image which is the most similar to the image taken by user. Pair of images is then used to find coordinates of database image using PnP problem. Furthermore, projection and essential matrices are determined allowing for the user image localization ~ determining the position of the user in indoor environment. Benefits of this approach lies in the single image being the only input from user and no requirements for new onsite infrastructure and thus enables a simpler realization for the building management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0060.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: indoor location; fine time measurement; round trip time; FTM; RTT; IEEE 802.11mc; IEEE 802.11-2016; time diversity; spatial diversity; bandwidth diversity; frequency diversity; Bayesian grid; observation model; transition model
Online: 8 January 2020 (04:18:02 CET)
Determination of indoor location based on fine time measurement (FTM) of the round trip time (RTT) of a signal between an initiator (smartphone) and a responder (Wi-Fi access point) enables a number of applications. However, the accuracy currently attainable — standard deviations of 1–2 meter in distance measurement under favorable circumstances — limits the range of possible application. A first responder, for example, may not be able to unequivocally determine on which floor someone in need of help is in a multi-story building. The error in location depends on several factors, including the bandwidth of the RF signal, delay of the signal due to the high relative permittivity of construction materials, and the geometry-dependent “noise gain” of location determination. Errors in distance measurements have unusual properties that are exposed here for the first time. Improvements in accuracy depend on understanding all of these error sources. This paper introduces “frequency diversity,” a method for doubling the accuracy of indoor location determination using weighted averages of measurements with uncorrelated errors obtained in different channels. The properties of this method are verified experimentally with a range of responders. Finally, different ways of using the distance measurements to determine indoor location are discussed and the Bayesian grid update method shown to be more useful than others, given the non- Gaussian nature of the measurement errors.