REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0289.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: schizophrenia, immune system, inflammation, cytokines, immune regulatory, CIRS, psychiatry, immunology, psychosis
Online: 17 September 2018 (08:57:53 CEST)
In this paper we propose a novel theoretical framework, which was previously developed for major depression and bipolar disorder, namely the compensatory immune-regulatory reflex system (CIRS), as applied to the neuro-immune pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its phenotypes, including first episode psychosis (FEP), acute relapses, chronic and treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS), comorbid depression, and deficit schizophrenia. These schizophrenia phenotypes and manifestations are accompanied by increased production of positive acute phase proteins, including haptoglobin and α2-macroglobulin, complement factors, and macrophagic M1 (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α), T helper (Th)-1 (interferon-γ and IL-2R), Th-2 (IL-4, IL-5), Th-17 (IL-17) and T regulatory (Treg; IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1) cytokines, cytokine-induced activation of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway as well as chemokines, including CCL-11 (eotaxin), CCL-2, CCL-3 and CXCL-8. While the immune profiles in the different schizophrenia phenotypes indicate activation of the immune-inflammatory response system (IRS), there are simultaneous signs of CIRS activation, including increased levels of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1RA), sIL-2R and tumor necrosis factor-a receptors, Th-2 and Treg phenotypes with increased IL-4 and IL-10 production, and increased levels of TRYCATs and haptoglobin, α2-macroglobulin and other acute phase reactants, which have immune-regulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Signs of activated IRS and CIRS pathways are also detected in TRS, chronic and deficit schizophrenia indicating that these conditions are accompanied by a new homeostatic setpoint between upregulated IRS and CIRS components. In FEP, increased baseline CIRS activity is a protective factor which may predict favorable clinical outcomes. Moreover, impairments in the CIRS are associated with deficit schizophrenia and greater impairments in semantic and episodic memory. It is concluded that CIRS plays a key role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia by negatively regulating the primary IRS and contributing to recovery from the acute phase of illness. Components of the CIRS may offer promising therapeutic targets for schizophrenia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1553.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Extracellular Vesicles, immune response, mycosis
Online: 24 July 2023 (10:28:58 CEST)
Like other organisms, fungi produce extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are involved in various biological processes, including intercellular communication and the transport of molecules between cells. These EVs can be applied in fungal pathogenesis, virulence, and interactions with other organisms, including host cells, in the case of fungal infections. While some types of mycoses are relatively common and easily treatable, certain neglected mycoses pose significant public health challenges, such as sporotrichosis, chromoblastomycosis, and paracoccidioidomycosis. These infectious diseases can cause significant morbidity and disability, leading to a reduced quality of life for the patients. So, research about the virulence factor is essential to understand how fungi escape the immune system. In this context, this manuscript reviews the study of fungi EVs, their cargo, their obtaining, and their role during the infectious process, which is extremely important for understanding this neglected mycosis.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0101.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: COVID-19; ATP; Immune dysfunction
Online: 7 April 2020 (12:07:22 CEST)
On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the coronavirus outbreak a pandemic. Since December 2019, the world has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but the factors affecting the immune system against COVID-19 have not been well described. In this article, we provide a novel hypothesis to describe how an increase in cellular adenosine triphosphate (c-ATP) can potentially improve the efficiency of innate and adaptive immune systems to either prevent and fight off COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: schizophrenia; first episode psychosis; antipsychotic; immune; inflammation; cytokines
Online: 17 September 2018 (14:13:38 CEST)
Background: First episode psychosis (FEP), schizophrenia and affective disorders are accompanied by activation of the immune inflammatory response system (IRS). The compensatory immune-regulatory reflex system (CIRS) is a regulatory immune response that is induced by the IRS but exerts negative feedback through, for example, increased levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-13 and IL-10. Different phenotypes of schizophrenia may exhibit distinct IRS and CIRS immune profiles.Aims: This study aims to examine the IRS and CIRS components, including macrophagic M1, T-helper (Th)-1, Th-2, Th-17 and T-regulatory (Treg) phenotypes, in antipsychotic-naïve FEP patients before and after risperidone treatment.Methods: We included 31 antipsychotic-naïve FEP patients who had measurements of IRS and CIRS biomarkers before and after treatment with risperidone for 10 weeks, and 22 healthy controls.Results: Antipsychotic-naive FEP patients showed interrelated increments in M1, Th-1, Th-2, Th-17 and Treg phenotypes and a relatively greater IRS response (especially granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-12) as compared with the CIRS response (IL-4, IL-13, IL-5 and IL-10). Inflammatory markers, especially IL-6 and IL-8, were significantly correlated with negative, psychotic, affective and excitation symptom dimensions. Treatment with risperidone significantly suppressed the IRS and CIRS. Baseline levels of CIRS biomarkers, especially higher soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 and IL-10 predicted clinical improvement during treatment.Discussion: Our findings indicate that FEP is characterized by robust IRS (M1 + Th-1 + Th-17) and CIRS responses, suggesting that monocytes, macrophages, Th-1, Th-2, Th-17 and Treg cells are activated. The findings indicate that a) FEP patients are prone to the detrimental effects of M1, Th-1, Th-17 and Th-2 cells, which may contribute to long-lasting abnormalities in brain circuitry; and b) in FEP, the CIRS may contribute to recovery from the acute phase of illness. Enhancing the CIRS is a new drug target to treat FEP.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0250.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: β-glucan; intestinal absorption; immune system
Online: 10 December 2020 (11:30:57 CET)
β-glucan is a generic term for insoluble dietary fibers exerting various effects on the immune system. As a group, β-glucans are non-cellulose polysaccharides composed of a glucopyranose as the main constituent sugar with β configuration, having a β- (1,3)-linked glucopyranose main chain as a common feature. β-glucans are absorbed through the intestine. Since the 1980s, there have been many studies reporting various effects of β-glucans on the immune system, including reports on receptors, that have slowly clarified their recognition system and action mechanisms. However, these studies focused mostly on treatments of infectious diseases and tumors; thus, the effects of β-glucans ingested in food as dietary fiber and their mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. The uptake of β-glucan into the body may be resemble that of proteins, which are soluble polymers, and insoluble material such as dietary fiber. Dietary fibers have varied structures, with wide-ranging solubility and physiological effects. Understanding whether these substances are actually taken up, how they exert their effects, and their metabolism after being taken up are important issues when considering the functionality and safety of dietary fibers.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Cancer; Cancer Prevention; Cancer Therapy; Immune Boosting Interventions
Online: 30 April 2021 (15:52:40 CEST)
Cancer risk is known to increase tremendously when the immune system is suppressed, e.g., as observed in young organ-transplant recipients and AIDS patients. Based on such data, it may be hypothesized that the main reason for the development of clinical cancer is the weakening or suppression of the immune system, and that uncontrolled multiplication of cancer cells occurs when some aspects of the immune system fall below certain critical levels. Therefore, cancer may be prevented and treated by boosting these critical aspects of the immune system so that they are maintained above the critical levels. If multiple immune system boosting interventions are utilized, more aspects of the immune system would be boosted, increasing the likelihood of enhancing the critical aspects of the immune system and generating a cancer preventive and/or therapeutic effect. Clinical trials are needed to validate this approach for cancer prevention and treatment. If validated, the proposed approach could result in a major reduction of the death and suffering caused by cancer in the world.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0121.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: autophagy； immune system； cancer；cell death；metabolic homeostasis
Online: 27 June 2017 (06:30:17 CEST)
Autophagy is a highly conserved catabolic mechanism that mediates the degradation of damaged cellular components by inducing their fusion with lysosomes. This process provides cells with an alternative source of energy for the synthesis of new proteins and the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in stressful environments. Numerous studies have demonstrated beneficial roles for the induction as well as the suppression of autophagy in cancer cells. Autophagy may induce either survival or death depending on the cell/tissue type. Radiation therapy is widely used therapeutic option to treat cancer, and it induces autophagy in human cancer cell line. Also, melatonin seems to affect cancer cell death via regulation of programmed cell death. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of autophagy and its regulation in cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0252.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: chemokine; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; inflammation; immune cells
Online: 19 May 2022 (07:51:15 CEST)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the world. Sustained hepatic inflammation is a key driver of the transition from simple fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the more aggressive form of NAFLD. Hepatic inflammation is orchestrated by chemokines, a family of chemoattractant cytokines, which are produced by hepatocytes, Kupffer cells (liver resident macrophages), hepatic stellate cells, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells. Over the last three decades, accumulating evidence from both clinical and experimental investigations demonstrated that chemokines and their receptors are increased in the livers of NAFLD patients and that CC chemokine ligand (CCL) 2 and CCL5, in particular, play a pivotal role in inducing insulin resistance, steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in the liver disease. Cenicriviroc (CVC), a dual antagonist of these chemokine’s receptor, CCR2 and CCR5, has been tested in clinical trials in patients with NASH-associated liver fibrosis. Additionally, recent studies revealed that other chemokines, such as CCL3, CCL25, CX3C chemokine ligand 1 (CX3CL1), CXC chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1), and CXCL16 can also contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Here, we review recent updates on the roles of chemokines in the development of NAFLD and their blockade as potential therapeutic approaches.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0026.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: antiandrogen; bisphosphonates; bone niche; immune system; osteoimmunology; RankL; targeted therapy
Online: 2 September 2019 (16:34:22 CEST)
Osteoimmunology was coined about twenty years ago to identify a strict cross talk between bone niche and immune system both in physiological and pathological activities, including cancer. Several molecules are involved in the complex interaction between bone niche, immune and cancer cells. The Receptor Activator ok NF-kB (RANK)/RANK Ligand (RANKL/Osteoprotegerin (OPG) pathway plays a crucial role in bone cells/cancer interactions with subsequently immune system control failure, bone destruction, inhibition of effect and metastasis outcome. The bidirectional cross talk between bone and immune system could became a potential target for anticancer drugs. Several studies evidenced a direct anticancer role with improved survival of bone-targeted therapies such as bisphosphonates and RANKL antagonist Denosumab. Conversely, initial data evidenced a possible anti-bone resorption effect of systemic anticancer drugs through and immunomodulation activity, i.e. new generation antiandrogens (Abiraterone) in prostate cancer. All data could open a future rationale of combined bone, immunologic and targeted therapies in cancer treatment.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0776.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; IgG4; Tregs; long COVID; immune tolerance
Online: 9 August 2023 (11:18:47 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes theCOVID-19 disease, has been demonstrated to cause immune suppression in certain individuals. This can manifest as a reduced ability for the host's immune system to effectively control the infection. Studies have reported that patients with COVID-19 can exhibit a decline in white blood cell counts, including natural killer cells and T cells, which are integral components of the immune system's response to viral pathogens. These cells play critical roles in the immune response to viral infections, and their depletion can make it harder for the body to mount an effective defense against the virus. Additionally, the virus can also directly infect immune cells, further compromising their ability to function. Some individuals with severe COVID-19 pneumonia may develop a "cytokine storm," an overactive immune response that may result in tissue damage and organ malfunction. The underlying mechanisms of immune suppression in SARS-CoV-2 are not entirely comprehended at this time, and ongoing research is being conducted to gain a more comprehensive understanding. Research has shown that severe SARS-CoV-2 infection promotes the synthesis of IgG4 antibodies. In this work, we propose the hypothesis that the IgG4 antibody produced by B cells in response to infection by SARS-CoV2 generates immunological tolerance that prevents its elimination, and leads to persistence and chronic infection. In sum, we believe that this constitutes another immune evasion mechanism that bears striking similarities to that developed by cancer cells to evade immune surveillance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0039.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss; age-related sensorineural hearing loss; inflammation, immune senescence; interleukin 1 receptor type II -positive T cells; naturally occurring regulatory T cells; immune rejuvenation; thymus
Online: 4 January 2019 (11:37:31 CET)
Although congenital sensorineural hearing loss (SHL) in the bilateral cochleae mainly results from genetic abnormalities, chronic SHL progressing in later life is often influenced by systemic immune disturbances, including autoimmunity, chronic inflammation, and immunosenescence. We have investigated the relationship between the inner ear and systemic immunity and reviewed the possibilities to prevent SHL, including autoimmune SHL and age-related SHL. We also demonstrated two lymphocyte populations, interleukin 1 receptor type II (IL-1R2)-positive T cells (T1R2) and naturally occurring regulatory T cells (nTregs) in CD4+ T cells, which increase with aging, suppress host immune function and promote organ degeneration. Alterations in systemic immunity by fewer microbial antigen challenges in the living environment, elimination of immune suppressive lymphocytes, or immune rejuvenation with a reconstituted thymus may contribute not only to renew the cochlear function in SHL, but also to extend the healthy life of functional organs in a vigorous and youthful body, one of humanity’s greatest dreams.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0346.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: artificial immune system; cellular networks; personal communication system; location management; mobility management
Online: 24 May 2018 (10:02:14 CEST)
In this paper, we are proposing a bio-inspired location management (LM) technique for personal communication system (PSC). It is based on artificial immune system (AIS), with self-adaptation and self-updates attributes in order to perform the location management, and work helps to achieve the better quality of service (QoS) and quality of experience (QoE) for the mobile users. Here, we are suggesting a modified mobile switching center (MSC) architecture, and an adaptive self-modified location management procedure. The proposed mobile switching centre architecture has an advantage of rule-based and fact-based system to store the rules and fact related to location management procedure, and it shows the intelligent behavior of system. The mobile switching centre calculates the best method for location management and rule-base system trigged the rules to perform the techniques. The system stores the result (techniques for location management) in fact-base system for future use. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed techniques been analyzed, and it observed that the proposed system has 45-50% improvement in performance over the current location management techniques. Here, we are taking the performance parameters such as signaling cost, database update cost, overhead measurement, mobility management cost.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1335.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Brain; Immune System; Orch OR; Consciousness; Microtubules; Tubulin; Religious Chanting.
Online: 18 August 2023 (09:15:07 CEST)
In this article, I consider the relationship between the brain and the immune system in the context of the Orch OR (Orchestrated Objective Reduction) theory of consciousness. Orch OR is a theory that postulates that consciousness arises from quantum computations occurring inside microtubules. The immune system is capable of acquiring, learning, and remembering information, thus showing all the attributes of natural intelligence. I argue that the immune system also has the attribute of consciousness and that it can gain access to an amount of information greater than what is accessible to the brain since it is not constrained by brain's reducing valve that is responsible for cognitive bottlenecks. I also describe the role of meditation and religious chanting in affecting the brain and the immune system. I speculate that some effects of religious chanting on the immune system may not be mediated by the brain. Finally, I examine the role of the immune system in connecting with the consciousness embedded in the universe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0292.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Porphyra tenera; immune; clinical trial; natural killer cells; cytokines
Online: 17 April 2020 (02:15:58 CEST)
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if Porphyra tenera extract (PTE) has immune-enhancing effects and is safe in healthy adults. Methods: Subjects (3x103 ≤ peripheral blood leukocyte levels < 8x103 cells/μl) who met the inclusion criteria were recruited for this study. Enrolled subjects (n=120) were randomly assigned to either the PTE group (n=60) who were given 2.5 g/day of PTE (as Porphyra tenera extract) in capsule form or the placebo group (n=60) who were given crystal cellulose capsules with the identical appearance, weight, and flavor as the PTE capsules for 8 weeks. Outcomes were assessed by measuring natural killer cell (NK-cell) activity, cytokines, and upper respiratory infection (URI), and safety parameters were assessed at baseline and 8 weeks. Results: Compared to baseline, NK cell activity (%) increased for all effector cell to target cell ratios in the PTE group after 8 weeks, but there were no changes in the placebo group (p<0.1). Subgroup analysis of 101 subjects without an URI revealed that NK-cell activity in the PTE group tended to be increased for all E:T ratios (E:T=12.5:1 p=0.068; E:T=25:1 p=0.036; E:T=50:1 p=0.081) compared to the placebo group. There was a significant difference between these two groups for the E:T=25:1 ratio, which increased from 20.3±12.0% at baseline to 23.2±12.4% after 8 weeks in the PTE group (p=0.036). There was no significant difference in levels of cytokines between these two groups. Conclusions: PTE supplementation appears to enhance immune function by improving NK-cell activity without adverse effects in healthy adults.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0175.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD); atherosclerosis; gut dysbiosis; immune system; gut microbial metabolites; SCFAs; TMAO
Online: 9 November 2021 (13:45:20 CET)
Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease and mortality worldwide. Alterations in the gut microbiota composition, known as gut dysbiosis, have been shown to contribute to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) development through several pathways. Disruptions in gut homeostasis are associated with activation of immune processes and systemic inflammation. The gut microbiota produces several metabolic products, namely trimethylamine (TMA), which is used to produce the proatherogenic metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including acetate, butyrate, and propionate, and certain bile acids (BAs) produced by the gut microbiota lead to inflammation resolution and decrease atherogenesis. Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated to common risk factors for atherosclerosis, including metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and obesity. Novel strategies for reducing ACVD include the use of nutraceuticals such as resveratrol, modification of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels, supplementation with probiotics, and administration of prebiotic SCFAs and BAs. Investigation into the relationship between the gut microbiota and its metabolites, and the host immune system could reveal promising insight into ACVD development, prognostic factors, and treatments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0231.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: cyanotoxin; cyanobacterial bloom; cylindrospermopsin; microcystin; inflammation; diarrhea; gastrointestinal illness; lipopolysaccharide; innate immune system
Online: 26 March 2019 (09:31:44 CET)
Cyanobacterial blooms occur with increasing frequency in freshwater ecosystems, posing a hazard to human and environmental health. Exposure of human to cyanobacterial metabolites occurs mostly via accidental ingestion through contaminated drinking water or during recreational activities and, most frequently, results in gastrointestinal symptoms. Despite the clinical manifestation, cyanobacterial metabolites are rather investigated for their toxicity towards specific organs or tissues, especially hepato-, nephro- and neurotoxicity, then for effects on the gastrointestinal tract and the associated lymphoid tissue. The aim of this review was to systematically summarize available literature on the effects on the gastrointestinal tract and the mucosal innate immune system and compile the data from both, in vitro and in vivo studies, focusing on human-health relevant models. Our systematic literature review revealed significant data gaps in the understanding on metabolites breaching the gastrointestinal barrier and the role of the immune system in the establishment of clinical symptoms. Microcystins and cylindrospermopsin were linked to gastrointestinal symptoms, immune system effects or both. Furthermore, implications for cyanobacterial bloom lipopolysaccharides in gastrointestinal inflammation were reported in several cases, while other metabolites received only minor attention. The collected data indicate the need for a reassessment of potential enterotoxicity of microcystins and cylindrospermopsin. Additionally, the carcinogenic potential of cyanotoxins, especially microcystins, has to be clarified, as an increasing amount of epidemiological studies show correlations between cyanobacterial blooms and gastrointestinal cancer incidence. Furthermore, other, often highly abundant bioactive metabolites like aeruginosins, have to be toxicologically evaluated at levels also accounting for (sub-)chronic exposure to low concentrations and in combination with naturally co-occurring metabolites, as can be expected in drinking water supplies. studies, focusing on human-health relevant models. Our systematic literature review revealed significant data gaps in the understanding on metabolites breaching the gastrointestinal barrier and the role of the immune system in the establishment of clinical symptoms. Microcystins and cylindrospermopsin were linked to gastrointestinal symptoms, immune system effects or both. Furthermore, implications for cyanobacterial bloom lipopolysaccharides in gastrointestinal inflammation were reported in several cases, while other metabolites received only minor attention. The collected data indicate the need for a reassessment of potential enterotoxicity of microcystins and cylindrospermopsin. Additionally, the carcinogenic potential of cyanotoxins, especially microcystins, has to be clarified, as an increasing amount of epidemiological studies show correlations between cyanobacterial blooms and gastrointestinal cancer incidence. Furthermore, other, often highly abundant bioactive metabolites like aeruginosins, have to be toxicologically evaluated at levels also accounting for (sub-)chronic exposure to low concentrations and in combination with naturally co-occurring metabolites, as can be expected in drinking water supplies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0089.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: immune response; lectin; Mirabilis jalapa; phagocytic activity; phenoloxidase; Spodoptera litura
Online: 8 April 2018 (09:39:35 CEST)
Biological control provides a safer alternative to reduce the population of agricultural pest. Mirabilis jalapa is one of biopesticides containing chemical substances that have a feeding deterrent property against Spodoptera litura as folifagus insect pest. This study aimed to analyze the humoral and cellular immunes responses of S. litura after exposure to biopesticide extracted from M. jalapa. The measured indicator immune responses were activity of hemocyte, lectin, phenoloxidase (PO), and phagocytic activity. The results showed that the average total hemocyte was different significantly depending on the treatment. Exposure to 0.1% and 0.2% (w/v) of M. jalapa extract increased the total number of hemocytes as much as 38.08% and 64.15%, respectively. Lectin was quickly formed at 0.1% and 0.2% (w/v) concentrations. The amount of PO enzymes was significantly different at sublethal concentrations compared with control samples (P < 0.05). The highest increase in PO activity occurred at 2 h post-treatment and at M. jalapa extract concentrations of 0.2% (592.33 IU/mg) and 0.1% (521.33 IU/mg), whereas the highest concentration of the extract (0.8% w/v) caused a decrease in lectin and PO activities. In terms of phagocytic activity, the proportion of phagocytosis cells were 47.62% in control group, and decreased significanlty in both concentrations exposure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0749.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: brain tumor; glioma; neuronal system tumor; deubiquitinase (DUB); Endoplasmic Reticulum Associated Degradation (ERAD); immune response; therapeutic target; DNA repair
Online: 12 September 2023 (11:04:42 CEST)
The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) utilizes an orchestrated enzymatic cascade of E1, E2, and E3 ligases to add single or multiple ubiquitin-like molecules as post-translational modification (PTM) to proteins. Ubiquitination can alter protein functions and/ or marks ubiquitinated proteins for proteasomal degradation but deubiquitinases (DUBs) can reverse protein ubiquitination. While the importance of DUBs as regulatory factors in the UPS is undisputed, many questions remain on DUB selectivity for protein targeting, their mechanism of action, and the impact of DUBs on the regulation of diverse biological processes. Furthermore, little is known about the expression and role of DUBs in tumors of the human central nervous system (CNS). In this comprehensive review, we have used publicly available transcriptional datasets to determine the gene expression profiles of 99 deubiquitinases (DUBs) from five major DUB families in seven primary pediatric and adult CNS tumor entities. Our analysis identified selected DUBs as potential new functional players and biomarkers with prognostic value in specific subtypes of primary CNS tumors. Collectively, our analysis highlights an emerging role for DUBs in regulating CNS tumor cell biology and offers a rationale for future therapeutic targeting of DUBs in CNS tumors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0052.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Molecular mimicry; immune tolerance; autoimmune disorders; central nervous system.
Online: 2 October 2023 (11:10:40 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2 can trigger autoimmune central nervous system (CNS) diseases in genetically susceptible individuals, a mechanism poorly understood. Molecular mimicry (MM) has been identified in other viral diseases as potential triggers of autoimmune CNS events. This study investigated if MM is the process through which SARS-CoV-2 induce the breakdown of immune tolerance. The frequency of autoimmune CNS disorders was evaluated in a prospective cohort with patients admitted in the COVID-19 Intense Care Unity (ICU) in Rio de Janeiro. Then, an in silico analysis was performed to identify the conserved regions which share high identity between SARS-Cov-2 anti-gens and human proteins. The sequences with significant identity and antigenic properties were then assessed for their binding capacity to HLA subtypes. Of the 112 patients included, 3 were classified as having an autoimmune disorder. A total of eleven combinations had significant linear and three-dimensional overlap. NMDAR1, MOG and MPO were the self-antigens with more significant combinations, followed by GAD65. All sequences presented at least one epitope with strong or intermediate binding capacity to the HLA subtypes selected. This study underscores the possibility that CNS autoimmune attacks observed in COVID-19 patients, including those in our population, could be driven by MM in genetically predisposed individuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0455.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: inflammation; neuro-immune; cytokines; major depression; chronic fatigue syndrome; affective disorders
Online: 27 September 2021 (16:30:00 CEST)
Background. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorder which affects the joints in the wrists, fingers, and knees. RA is often associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms as well as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)-like symptoms.Aim. To examine the association between depressive symptoms (measured with the Beck Depression Inventory, BDI), anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, HAMA), and CFS-like (Fibro-fatigue Scale) symptoms and immune-inflammatory, autoimmune, and endogenous opioid system (EOS) markers, and lactosylceramide in RA. Methods. The serum biomarkers were assayed in fifty-nine RA and fifty-nine patients without increased psychopathology (PP) and fifty healthy controls.Results. There were highly significant correlations between the BDI, FF, and HAMA scores and severity of RA, as assessed with the DAS28-4, clinical and disease activity indices, the number of tenders and swollen joints, and patient and evaluator global assessment scores. A common latent vector (reflective model) could be extracted from the PP and RA-severity scales, which showed excellent psychometric properties. Partial least squares analysis showed that 69.7% of the variance in this common core underpinning PP and RA symptoms could be explained by the regression on immune-inflammatory pathways, rheumatoid factor, anti-citrullinated protein antibodies, CD17, and mu-opioid receptor levels. Conclusions. Depression, anxiety, and CFS-like symptoms due to RA are reflective manifestations of the phenome of RA and are mediated via the effects of the same immune-inflammatory, autoimmune, and EOS pathways and lactosylceramide that underpin the pathophysiology of RA. These PP symptoms are clinical manifestations of the pathophysiology of RA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0076.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Smart Energy Grids; Critical Infrastructure Protection; Artificial Immune System; Izhikevich Spiking Neural Networks; Clonal Selection Algorithm; Transfer Learning; Ensemble Learning
Online: 6 June 2022 (09:14:03 CEST)
The rate of technical innovation, system interconnection, and advanced communications undoubtedly boost distributed energy networks' efficiency. However, when an additional attack surface is made available, the possibility of an increase in attacks is an unavoidable result. The energy ecosystem's significant variety draws attackers with various goals, making any critical infrastructure a threat, regardless of scale. Outdated technology and other antiquated countermeasures that worked years ago cannot address the complexity of current threats. As a result, robust artificial intelligence cyber-defense solutions are more important than ever. Based on the above challenge, this paper proposes an ensemble transfer learning spiking immune system for adaptive smart grid protection. It is an innovative Artificial Immune System (AIS) that uses a swarm of Evolving Izhikevich Neural Networks (EINN) in an Ensemble architecture, which optimally integrates Transfer Learning methodologies. The effectiveness of the proposed innovative system is demonstrated experimentally in multiple complex scenarios that optimally simulate the modern energy environment. In this way, the proposed system fully automates the strategic security planning of energy networks with computational intelligence methods. It allows the complete control of the digital strategies of the potential infrastructure that frames it, thus contributing to the timely and valid decision-making during cyber-attacks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0053.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: unstable angina, inflammation, neuro-immune, major depression, oxidative stress, antioxidants, atherogenicity
Online: 3 September 2020 (04:40:27 CEST)
Background. There is strong comorbidity between atherosclerosis (ATS) and depression which is attributed to increased atherogenicity, insulin resistance (IR), and immune and oxidative stress.Aim of the study. To examine the role of the above pathways and mu opioid receptor (MOR), β-endorphin, zinc, copper, vitamin D3, calcium, and magnesium in depression due to ATS / unstable angina (UA).Methods. Biomarkers were assayed in 58 controls and 120 ATS patients divided into those with moderate and severe depression according to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II score > 19 and > 29, respectively. Results. Neural network and logistic regression models showed that severe depression due to ATS/UA was best predicted by IL-6, UA, MOR, zinc, β-endorphin, calcium and magnesium and that moderate depression was associated with IL-6, zinc, MOR, β-endorphin, UA, atherogenicity, IR, and calcium. These neural networks yielded a significant discrimination of severe and moderate depression with an area under the ROC curve of 0.831 and 0.931, respectively. Using Partial Least Squares analysis, 66.2% of the variance in a latent vector extracted from the ATS/UA clinical features, BDI-II scores, atherogenicity, and IR could be explained by the regression on IL-6, IL-10, zinc, copper, calcium, MOR, and age. The BDI-II scores increased from controls to ATS to UA class III to UA class IV.Conclusions. Depression due to ATS/UA is a reflective manifestation of increased atherogenicity and IR, which are modulated by immune activation, aberrations in the endogenous opioid system, antioxidants, trace elements, and macrominerals.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Immune cell; DNA CpGs; Bladder cancer; Subtype; mutation; CNV; Immune score; Immune Checkpoints
Online: 5 September 2020 (06:00:06 CEST)
Background: Bladder cancer (BC) development is highly related to immune cell infiltration and inflammation. This study aimed to construct a new classification of bladder cancer (BC) molecular subtypes based on immune cells-associated CpG sites. Methods: The genes of 28 types of immune cells were obtained from previous studies. Then methylation sites corresponding to immune cells-associated genes were acquired. Differentially methylation sites (DMSs) were identified between normal samples and bladder cancer samples. Unsupervised clustering analysis of differentially methylation sites was performed to divide into several subtypes. Then the potential mechanism of different subtypes was exploded. Result: Bladder cancer patients were divided into three groups. Cluster 3 (methylation-L) subtype had the best prognosis. Cluster 1 (methylation-M) had the worst prognosis. The distribution of immune cells, level expression of checkpoints, stromal score, immune score, ESTIMATEScore, tumor purity, APC_co_inhibition, APC_co_stimulation, HLA, MHC_class_I, Type_I_IFN_Reponse, and Type_II_IFN_Reponse were significant difference among three subgroups. The distribution of genomic alterations was different among them. Conclusion: The classification was accurate and stable. BC patients could be divided into three subtypes based on the immune cells-associated CpG sites. Specific biological signaling pathways, immune mechanisms, and genomic alterations were various among three subgroups. High level immune infiltration was a correlation with high level methylation. The lower RNAss score was associated with higher immune infiltration and higher level expression of CD274.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0016.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Immune checkpoint inhibitors; pediatric solid tumor; immune suppression
Online: 1 April 2021 (12:22:35 CEST)
Tumor microenvironment (TME) represents a complex network between tumor cells and a variety of components including immune, stromal and vascular endothelial cells as well as extracellular matrix. A wide panel of signals and interactions here take place, resulting in a bi-directional modulation of cellular functions. Many stimuli, on one hand, induce tumor growth and spread of metastatic cells and, on the other hand, contribute to the establishment of an immunosuppressive environment. The latter feature is achieved by soothing immune effector cells, mainly cytotoxic T lymphocytes, B and NK cells, and/or through expansion of regulatory cell populations, including regulatory T and B cells, tumor-associated macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. In this context, immune checkpoints (IC) are key players in the control of T cell activation and anti-cancer activities, leading to the inhibition of tumor cell lysis and of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Thus, these pathways represent promising targets for the development of effective and innovative therapies both in adults and childhood. Here we address the role of different cell populations homing the TME and of well-known and recently characterized IC in the context of pediatric solid tumors. We also discuss preclinical and clinical data available using IC inhibitors alone, in combination each other or administered with standard therapies.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: immune system; viral infection; influenza; COVID-19; micronutrients; vitamins; omega-3 fatty acids; minerals; vitamin C; vitamin D
Online: 12 March 2020 (04:30:45 CET)
Public health practices including handwashing and vaccinations help reduce the spread and impact of infections. Nevertheless, the global burden of infection is high, and additional measures are necessary. Acute respiratory tract infections, for example, are responsible for approximately 2.65 million deaths per year. The role nutrition plays in supporting the immune system is well-established. A wealth of mechanistic and clinical data show that vitamins, including vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and folate; trace elements, including zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, and copper; and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid play important and complementary roles in supporting the immune system. Inadequate intake and status of these nutrients are widespread, leading to a decrease in resistance to infections and as a consequence an increase in disease burden. Against this background the following conclusions are made: 1) Supplementation with the above micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids is a safe, effective, and low-cost strategy to help support optimal immune function; 2) Supplementation above the RDA, but within recommended upper safety limits, for specific nutrients such as vitamins C and D is warranted; and 3) Public health officials are encouraged to include nutritional strategies in their recommendations to improve public health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: pancreatic cancer; immune surveillance; galectins; immunotherapy; immune checkpoints; stroma
Online: 4 December 2017 (05:17:15 CET)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), the most frequent type of pancreatic cancer, is one of the main unfinished businesses in the biomedical and clinical fields, with still discouraging 5 year survival rates and poor therapy efficiency. PDA abundant desmoplasia has for long played the lead in the mechanisms involved in poor drug performance, being the main source of cytokines and chemokines orchestrating rapid and silent tumor progression and guilty of isolating tumor cells into a extense fibrotic reaction resulting in inefficient drug delivery. However, since immunotherapy was proclaimed the breakthrough of the year back to 2013, the focus in the stroma of pancreatic cancer has interestingly moved from activated fibroblasts to the immune compartment, trying to understand the immunosuppressive factors that play part in the strong immune evasion that characterizes PDA. PDA microenvironment is highly immune-suppressive, being basically composed of T regulatory cells (Tregs), tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and myeloid-derived suppressive cells (MDSCs), which boycott CD8+ T-cell duties in tumor recognition and clearance. Interestingly, preclinical data have highlighted the importance of this immune evasion as the source of resistance to single checkpoint immunotherapies and cancer vaccines and point at pathways inhibiting the immune attack as the key to solve the therapy puzzle. Here, we will discuss the molecular mechanisms involved in PDA immune escape as well as the state of the art of the PDA immunotherapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0502.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: mushroom; immune checkpoints; Axl receptor; lung cancer; dendritic cells; immune response.
Online: 21 July 2021 (15:43:11 CEST)
Agaricus blazei Murrill or Himematsutake is an edible and medicinal mushroom. Agaricus blazei Murrill's fruiting body extracts have anticancer properties, although the mechanism is unknown. Basic or organic solvents, which are hazardous for human health, are generally used to prepare Agaricus blazei Murrill's extracts. Inhibition of immune checkpoint molecules and Axl receptor is an effective therapy in cancer. This study assessed whether subcritical water extracts of the Agaricus blazei Murrill's fruiting body or mycelium affect the expression of Axl and immune checkpoint molecules in lung cancer cells. We used A549 cells and mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in the experiments. We prepared subcritical water extracts from the Agaricus blazei Murrill's fruiting body or mycelium. The subcritical water extracts from the Agaricus blazei Murrill's fruiting body or mycelium significantly inhibited the expression of immune checkpoint molecules and Axl compared to saline-treated cells. Also, the hot water extract, subcritical water extract, and the hot water extraction residue subcritical water extract from the Agaricus blazei Murrill's mycelium significantly enhanced the expression of maturation markers in dendritic cells. These observations suggest that the subcritical water extract from Agaricus blazei Murrill's mycelium is a promising therapeutic tool for stimulating the immune response in cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0772.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Immune checkpoint inhibitors; immune-related endocrine dysfunction; hypothyroidism; targeted therapy; malignancy
Online: 31 May 2021 (12:49:40 CEST)
Abstract Background The number of immune-related endocrine dysfunctions (irEDs) has concurrently increased with the widespread use of immunotherapy in clinical practice and further expansion of the approved indications for immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) combinations using different modalities of anti-cancer treatment. Method A retrospective analysis was conducted on consecutive patients >18 years of age with advanced solid malignancies who had received at least one dose of anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD-1) and/or anti-CTLA4 antibodies between January 2014 and December 2019 at a Hong Kong university hospital. Patients were reviewed for up to two months after the last administration of an ICI. The types, onset times and grades of irEDs, including hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, adrenal insufficiency and immune-related diabetes mellitus, were recorded. Factors associated with irEDs were identified using multivariate analysis. Result A total of 953 patients (male: 603, 64.0%; median age: 62.0 years) received ICIs during the study period. Of these, 580 patients (60.9%) used ICI-alone, 132 (13.9%) used dual-ICI, 187 (19.6%) used an ICI combined with chemotherapy (chemo+ICI), and 54 (5.70%) used immunotherapy with a targeted agent (targeted+ICI). A significantly higher proportion of patients using targeted+ICI had irEDs and hypothyroidism; in contrast, a higher proportion of patients using dual-ICI had adrenal insufficiency. There was no significant difference in the incidence of irED between the younger (<65 years) and older (>65 years) patients. Using logistic regression, only treatment type was significantly associated with irEDs. Notably, older patients had a higher risk of having immune-related diabetes mellitus. Conclusions This large, real-world cohort demonstrates that combining ICI with targeted therapy has a higher risk of overall irED and hypothyroidism. Immunotherapy is safe and well-tolerated regardless of age, but close monitoring of fasting glucose is needed in older populations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0140.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; immune checkpoint inhibitors; HCC; pembrolizumab; nivolumab; immune microenvironment; targeted therapies
Online: 14 September 2019 (18:37:29 CEST)
Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. A total of 70-80% of patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage with a dismal prognosis. Sorafenib has been the standard of care for almost a decade until 2018 when FDA approved an alternative first-line agent namely lenvatinib. Whereas FOLFOX4 results an alternative first-line treatment for the chinese clinical oncology guidelines. In addition to cabozantinib, regorafenib, and ramucirumab, two therapeutics against the PD-L1/PD1 axis have been recently approved for subsequent-line therapy, as nivolumab and pembrolizumab. However, similar to other solid tumors, the response rate of single-agent targeting PD-L1/PD1 axis is low. Therefore a lot of combinatory approaches are under investigation, including the combination of different immune checkpoint inhibitors, the addition of immune checkpoint inhibitors after resection or during locoregional therapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors in addition to kinase inhibitors, anti-angiogenic therapeutics, and others. This review focuses on the use of ICIs for the hepatocellular carcinoma with an attent evaluation of new ICIs based combinatory approaches.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0359.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: oncolytic virus; in situ autovaccination; cytokine; immune checkpoint inhibitor; immune co-stimulator
Online: 27 April 2018 (09:18:37 CEST)
With the progress of immunotherapy in cancer, oncolytic viruses (OVs) are getting more and more attention during the past decade. Due to their cancer-selective and immunogenic property, OVs are considered ideal candidates to be combined with immunotherapy to increase both specificity and efficacy in cancer treatment. OVs preferentially replicate in and lyse cancer cells, generating pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and danger (damage)-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). These signals trigger innate immune response to modulate the solid tumor microenvironment, resulting in in situ autovaccination leading to adaptive anti-virus and anti-tumor immunity. Here, we summarize the conceptual updates of oncolytic virotherapy, immunotherapy, and the strategies to enhance the virus-mediated anti-tumor immune response, including: 1. Arm OVs with cytokines to modulated innate and adaptive immunity; 2. Combine OVs with immune checkpoint inhibitors to release T cell inhibition; 3. Combine OVs with immune co-stimulators to enhance T cell activation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0120.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; pathogenesis; children; neonates; immune response; secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis; renin-angiotensin system; genetic polymorphisms; ACE2; AGTR2; AGTR1; NOS; lung injury
Online: 9 June 2020 (08:07:40 CEST)
The spread of the infection caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) became pandemic on March 11, 2020. From the time of the first cases (in November 2019, Wuhan, China), to date, a large number of COVID-19 observations have been accumulated in different age groups of patients both in China and abroad. Published scientific data allows us to conclude that children suffer from COVID-19 much less often than adults and tolerate the disease in a milder form, often appear to be asymptomatic. There is currently no final answer why children are less susceptible to this virus; however, scientists are increasingly inclined to consider a complex effect of the immune response and components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which according to recent studies affects not only the cardiovascular system, but is also responsible for the activation of inflammatory reactions. A hypothesis of genetic predisposition to the development of severe forms of COVID-19 has recently been made. We conducted a search for publications in the databases and showed current scientific ideas about COVID-19 pathogenesis and factors influencing the disease development in childhood. Childhood immunity may have several protective features against SARS-CoV-2: immaturity of particular elements of the innate immune response, constitutional lymphocytosis with a shift towards anti-inflammatory Th2-response, as well as "trained" immunity. The influence of renin-angiotensin system reactions in this review is shown from two perspectives: expression of ACE2 receptors and polymorphisms of certain genes of this system. It was established that ACE2 transmembrane protein is not only the entry point for the virus but also plays a regulatory role, turning the pro-inflammatory vasoconstrictor angiotensin II into anti-inflammatory angiotensin (1-7), which has vasodilating properties. Higher ACE2 content in children compared with adults helps maintain balance in the renin-angiotensin system and prevents the development of complications. It was also shown that the presence of certain genetic polymorphisms (AGTR1, AGTR2, ACE2, ACE) could determine the imbalance inside the RAS, leading to more pronounced reactions of alveolocytes, vascular endothelium and smooth muscle fibers in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection due to a shift towards vasoconstrictor, proliferative and profibrotic mechanisms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0262.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: immune checkpoint inhibitors; immune checkpoint radiolabeled antibodies; PD-1; PD-L1; immune PET; immunotherapy; AI; Radiomics; Deep learning; CAR-T cells
Online: 9 March 2021 (11:12:55 CET)
Immunotherapy is an effective therapeutic option for several cancers. In the last years, the introduction of checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has shifted the therapeutic landscape in oncology and improved patient prognosis in a variety of neoplastic diseases. However, to date, the selection of the best patients eligible for these therapies, as well as the response assessment is still challenging. Patients are mainly stratified using immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of anti-gens on biopsy specimens, such as PD-L1 and PD-1, on tumor cells, on peritumoral immune cells, and/or in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Recently, the use and development of imaging biomarkers able to assess in-vivo cancer-related processes are becoming more important. Today, positron emission tomography (PET) with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) is used routinely to evaluate tumor metabolism, and also to predict and monitor response to immunotherapy. Although highly sensitive, FDG-PET, in general, is rather unspecific. Novel radiopharmaceuticals (immuno-PET radiotracers) able to identify specific immune system targets are under investigation in pre-clinical and clinical settings. In this review, we will provide an overview of the main new immuno-PET radiotracers in development. We will also review the main players (immune cells, tumor cells, and molecular targets) involved in immunotherapy. Furthermore, we report current applications and the evidence of using [18F]FDG PET in immunotherapy, including the use of artificial intelligence (AI).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0208.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Plasma PD-L1; liquid biopsy; cfRNA; immune checkpoint inhibitor; predictive immune biomarker; NSCLC
Online: 11 August 2022 (06:10:34 CEST)
Tissue programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) protein expression is predictive of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) benefit. However, tissue PD-L1 can be fraught with tissue acquisition and heterogeneity limitations. Plasma testing can overcome these limitations. However, the overall survival (OS) predictive benefit of plasma PD-L1 assays have not been well characterized. Patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and plasma cfRNA PD-L1 by PCR expression were identified and assessed for OS. 16 patients treated with front-line ICI-based regimens were assessed and represented a real-world patient population with over half with a performance status of 2 or greater. 10 contemporaneous patients at the same institution treated with chemotherapy alone were also identified and assessed. With a median follow-up of 33 months, median OS was 13 months with a 30% 3-year OS for the ICI treated patients compared to a median OS of 3 months and a 10% 3-year OS for those treated with chemotherapy alone. Comparative log-rank test p-value = 0.014 and a hazard ratio 0.376 (95%-CI 0.134-1.057). Plasma cfRNA PD-L1 was associated with a statistically significant survival benefit from ICI-based treatment compared to chemotherapy in the first line treatment of a real-world patient population of advanced NSCLC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0171.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: microgravity; spaceflight; immunology; pathogens; macrophages; bacteria; viruses; innate immune response; adaptive immune response
Online: 11 January 2021 (09:44:52 CET)
Immune dysfunction has long been reported by medical professionals regarding astronauts suffering from opportunistic infections both during their time in space and a short time period afterwards once back on Earth. Various species of prokaryotes on board these space missions or cultured in a microgravity analogue exhibit increased virulence, enhanced formation of biofilms, and in some cases develop specific resistance for specific antibiotics. This poses a substantial health hazard to the astronauts confined in constant proximity to any present bacterial pathogens on long space missions with a finite number of resources including antibiotics. Furthermore, some bacteria cultured in microgravity develop phenotypes not seen in Earth gravity conditions, providing novel insights into bacterial evolution and research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0490.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; immune escape; tumor microenvironment; immune responses; immunotherapy
Online: 31 August 2020 (04:32:48 CEST)
β2-m, β2-microglobulin; CAF, cancer associated fibroblast; CSC, cancer stem cell; CTL, cytotoxic T lymphocyte; DC, dendritic cell; ECM, extracellular matrix; EGF-R, epidermal growth factor receptor; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; FDA, Food and Drug Administration; HLA, human leukocyte antigen; HNSCC, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; HPV, human papilloma virus; ICP immune checkpoint; ICPi, immune checkpoint inhibitor; IFN, interferon; LMP, low molecular weight protein; mAb, monoclonal antibody; MDSC, myeloid-derived suppressor cell; mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin; MSI, multispectral imaging; NK, natural killer; OS, overall survival; PBL, peripheral blood lymphocytes; PBMNC, peripheral blood mononuclear cells; PD1, programmed death receptor 1; PD-L1, programmed death ligand 1; PFS, progression-free survival; PI3K, phosphatidyl-linositol-3-kinase; R/M, recurrence and or metastatic; STAT, signal transducer and activator of transcription; TAA, tumor-associated antigen; TAM, tumor associated macrophages; TAP, transporter associated with antigen processing; TCR, T cell receptor; TIL, tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte; TLS, tertiary lymphoid structure; TME, tumor microenvironment; Treg, regulatory T cell; TSA, tumor-specific antigen; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; VEGF-R, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1785.v1
Online: 25 August 2023 (11:50:54 CEST)
Fractures are the most common large organ trauma in humans. The initial inflammatory re-sponse promotes bone healing during the initial post-fracture phase, but chronic and persistent inflammation due to infection or other factors does not contribute to the healing process. The precise mechanisms by which immune cells and their cytokines are regulated in bone healing remain unclear. The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for cellular therapy of bones injury is a novel clinical treatment approach. Bone progenitor MSCs not only differentiate into bone, but also interact with the immune system to promote the healing process. We review in vitro and in vivo studies on the role of the immune system and bone marrow MSCs in bone healing and their interactions. A deeper understanding of this paradigm may provide clues to potential therapeu-tic targets in the healing process, thereby improving the reliability and safety of clinical applica-tions of MSCs to promote bone healing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1028.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Microbiota; probiotics; formulations; immune system
Online: 14 July 2023 (16:49:09 CEST)
Probiotics have become a potential way to change the microbiota, which allows for more personalized ways to improve health results. This abstract gives an outline of the most important parts of personalized microbiota regulation through probiotics. It focuses on effectiveness and mechanisms, clinical applications, safety and tolerability, formulations and delivery methods, and customized approaches. Many studies have looked into how and why probiotics change the microbiome. These studies show that probiotics can change the makeup and function of microbial communities. Probiotics have been shown to help treat a number of health problems, such as digestive problems, immune system problems, metabolic problems, and mental health problems. It is important for the success of probiotics to find out if they are safe and can be tolerated. Studies have shown that probiotics are usually safe for most people, but there are some things that need to be taken into account to make sure they are safe, especially for people who are weak. Formulations and transport methods are very important for making sure that probiotics are alive, stable, and delivered to the right places in the GI tract. Probiotic strains work better in the gut because of improvements in how probiotic preparation technologies protect and control the release of probiotic strains. Personalized methods take into account how each person's microbiome and health are different. By using individual microbiota profiling, custom probiotic approaches can be made to address specific microbial imbalances and promote a healthier microbial environment, which could improve treatment results. Even though individual methods show promise, there are still problems, such as the need to standardize microbiota profiling techniques, figure out how to understand data, and keep track of people over time. For personalized probiotics to reach their full potential and change the way patients are cared for based on the microbiota-host relationship, more study, technological advances, and teamwork are needed. In conclusion, probiotics can be used to change your microbiome in a way that is specific to you and your health goals. By using the power of individualized microbiota profiling, personalized probiotic treatments might be able to help with certain health problems and make the microbial environment better. Putting personalized probiotics into clinical practice and changing the way patients are cared for will require more study and partnerships between different fields.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0261.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Immune; Metabolic; Inflammation; Kidney Disease
Online: 4 May 2023 (10:47:27 CEST)
Kidney disease is a significant health problem worldwide, affecting an estimated 10% of the global population. Kidney disease encompasses a diverse group of disorders that vary in their underlying pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and outcomes. These disorders include acute kidney injury (AKI), chronic kidney disease (CKD), glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome, polycystic kidney disease, diabetic kidney disease, and many others. Despite their distinct etiologies, these disorders share a common feature of immune system dysregulation and metabolic disturbances. The immune system and metabolic pathways are intimately connected and interact to modulate the pathogenesis of kidney diseases. The dysregulation of immune responses in kidney diseases includes a complex interplay between various immune cell types, including resident and infiltrating immune cells, cytokines, chemokines, and complement factors. These immune factors can trigger and perpetuate kidney inflammation, causing renal tissue injury and progressive fibrosis. In addition, metabolic pathways play critical roles in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases, including glucose and lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and altered nutrient sensing. Dysregulation of these metabolic pathways contributes to the progression of kidney disease by inducing renal tubular injury, apoptosis, and fibrosis. Recent studies have provided insights into the intricate interplay between immune and metabolic pathways in kidney diseases, revealing novel therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of kidney diseases. Potential therapeutic strategies include modulating immune responses through targeting key immune factors or inhibiting pro-inflammatory signaling pathways, improving mitochondrial function, and targeting nutrient-sensing pathways such as mTOR, AMPK, and SIRT1. This review highlights the importance of the interplay between immune and metabolic pathways in kidney diseases and the potential therapeutic implications of targeting these pathways.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0903.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: leishmaniasis; immune response; macrophage phenotype
Online: 25 April 2023 (08:36:54 CEST)
Leishmaniasis is a complex infectious parasitic disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, belonging to a group of neglected tropical diseases. It poses significant global health challenges, particularly in socio-economically disadvantaged regions. Macrophages, as innate immune cells, play a crucial role in initiating the inflammatory response against the pathogens responsible for this disease. Macrophage polarization, the process of differentiating macrophages into pro-inflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotypes, is essential for the immune response in leishmaniasis. The M1 phenotype is associated with resistance to Leishmania infection, while the M2 phenotype is predominant in susceptible environments. Notably, various immune cells, including T cells, play a significant role in modulating macrophage polarization by releasing cytokines that influence macrophage maturation and function. Furthermore, other immune cells can also impact macrophage polarization in a T-cell-dependent manner. Therefore, this review comprehensively examines macrophage polarization's role in leishmaniasis and other immune cells' potential involvement in this intricate process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0148.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: chronic hepatitis C; chronic hepatitis B; innate immune response; adaptive immune response; cytokine; chemokine
Online: 12 April 2019 (10:59:21 CEST)
Background: Cytokines and chemokines are critical regulators of innate and adaptive immunities during viral infection. We examined innate and adaptive immune responses to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) at baseline and against controls. Methods: Twenty-seven cytokines were evaluated before treatment in 27 patients with chronic hepatitis C(CHC) [genotype1 (n=20), genotype2 (n=7), HCVRNA 5.72IU/ml] and 12 chronic hepatitis B(CHB) [e-antigen (Ag) (+) (n=5), e-Ag (-) (n=7), HBVDNA 6.191.31Logcopies/ml] and against controls(n=5). Results: Th1 and Th2 cytokines were significantly higher (p<0.05) in CHB than in CHC. The levels of IL-IL10 in CHC and CHB, and IL15 in CHC(genotype2) and CHB were significantly lower (p<0.05) than in controls. The levels of CXCL8 in CHC and CHB, IL12 in CHC and CHB [e-Ag (-)] and CXCL10 in CHC and CHB were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in controls. IFN-γwas higher in CHB than in controls. Conclusion: Cytokines levels differed between CHB and CHC before treatment. Innate immune responses were impaired in CHB with HBeAg(-) and CHC, but not in CHB with HBeAg(+) with high viral loads. Adaptive immune responses were impaired in CHB and CHC and appear to reflect the distinct state of virus-host immune interactions between CHB and CHC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0005.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Mitochondria; immune response; activation; secretion; phagocytic
Online: 1 October 2023 (07:55:51 CEST)
Salmonella is the intracellular pathogen and etiological known for the cause of asymptomatic carriage, gastroenteritis, systemic disease (typhoid fever), in severe cases death may also occur. Altered function of mitochondria due to Salmonella infection impacts the immune response. Mitochondria which are recognized as the “powerhouse” of the cells are also know to play central role in the immune metabolism. Mitochondrial dynamics such as fusion, fission, signaling, transport and mitophagy influences the immune system and also maintains the cellular integrity. Mitochondrial DNA and Reactive oxygen species formation also elicits the inflammatory responses. This review discusses the immune metabolism and effect of altered mitochondrial dynamics in case of Salmonella infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1748.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Glioma; peroxisome; PEX5; prognosis; immune microenvironment
Online: 26 September 2023 (07:16:44 CEST)
Gliomas, the most prevalent and lethal form of brain cancer, are known to exhibit metabolic alterations that facilitate tumor growth, invasion, and resistance to therapies. Peroxisomes, essential organelles responsible for fatty acid oxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis, rely on the receptor PEX5 for the import of metabolic enzymes into their matrix. However, the prognostic significance of PEX5 for glioma patients remains unclear. We developed a robust prognosis model based on PEX5-dependent signature. This signature not only serves as a robust prognosis model capable of accurately predicting outcomes for glioma patients but also effectively distinguishes several clinicopathological features, including the grade, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation, and 1p19q codeletion status. Furthermore, we developed a nomogram that integrates the prognostic model with other clinicopathological factors, demonstrating highly accurate performance in estimating patient survival. Patients classified into the high-risk group based on our prognostic model exhibit an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Finally, we validated that the peroxisomal localization of the signature genes depends on PEX5 and demonstrated that PEX5 is required for cell growth, migration and invasion of glioma cells. These findings identify the PEX5-dependent signature as a promising prognostic tool for gliomas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1831.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Nutrition; epidemiology; sheep; eosinophils; immune response
Online: 28 August 2023 (07:17:00 CEST)
The influence of four levels of dietary supplementation on the development of the immune response and on the biology of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis was evaluated in Dorper lambs under serial artificial mixed-infections with 1000 infective larvae (L3) of each species, given every three days for 12 weeks. For each of the four diets formulated, one infected group (n=7) and one control group (n=4) were set up. Diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 contained 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% of concentrate, respectively. There was an evident immune response to infection in all groups, manifested through eosinophilia and production of anti-L3 immunoglobulins. There was a significant inverse relationship between the levels of nutrients in the diets and the numbers of late fourth-stage larvae, early fifth-stage larvae and adults of H. contortus. Most of the H. contortus parasite population was in hypobiosis at the early-fourth stage, representing 59.5%, 75.8%, 83.3% and 86.3% of the total Haemonchus worm burden, respectively, in the Diets 1, 2, 3 and 4. In the case of T. colubriformis, hypobiosis was not observed and the diet had no influence on establishment of the parasite.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1892.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Oncolytic virus; immune checkpoint inhibitors; immunotherapy
Online: 28 July 2023 (10:58:30 CEST)
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized cancer care and shown remarkable efficacy clinically. This efficacy is, however, limited to subsets of patients with significant infiltration of lymphocytes into the tumor microenvironment. To extend their efficacy to patients who fail to respond or achieve durable responses, it is now becoming evident that complex combinations of immunomodulatory agents may be required to extend efficacy to patients with immunologically “cold” tumours. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) have the capacity to selectively replicate within and kill tumour cells resulting in the induction of immunogenic cell death and the augmentation of anti-tumour immunity and have emerged as a promising modality for combination therapy to overcome the limitations seen with ICIs. Pre-clinical and clinical data has demonstrated that OVs can increase immune cell infiltration into the tumour and induce anti-tumour immunity, thus changing a “cold” tumour microenvironment that is commonly associated with poor response to ICIs, to a “hot” microenvironment which can render patients more susceptible to ICIs. Here, we review the major viral vector platforms used in OV clinical trials, their success when used as a monotherapy and when combined with adjuvant ICIs, as well as pre-clinical studies looking at the effectiveness of encoding OVs to deliver ICIs locally to the tumour microenvironment through transgene expression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0389.v1
Online: 17 April 2023 (03:54:31 CEST)
Members of the Ebolavirus genus demonstrate a marked differences in pathogenicity in humans with Ebola (EBOV) being the most pathogenic, Bundibugyo (BDBV) less pathogenic and Reston (RESTV) causing no severe disease in humans. The VP24 protein encoded by members of the Ebolavirus genus blocks type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling through interaction with host karyopherin alpha nuclear transporters, potentially contributing to virulence. Previously we demonstrated that BDBV VP24 (bVP24) binds with lower affinities to karyopherin alpha proteins relative to EBOV VP24 (eVP24), and this correlated with reduced inhibition of IFN-I signaling. We hypothesized that modification of eVP24-karyopherin alpha interface to make it similar to bVP24 would attenuate the ability to antagonize IFN-I response. We generated a panel of recombinant EBOVs containing single or combinations of point mutations in the eVP24-karyopherin alpha interface. Most of the viruses appeared to be attenuated in both IFN-I-competent 769-P and IFN-I-deficient Vero-E6 cells in the presence of IFNs. However, the R140A mutant grew at reduced levels even in the absence of IFNs in both cell lines, as well as in U3A STAT1 knockout cells. Both the R140A mutation and its combination with the N135A mutation caused almost complete inhibition of genome replication and transcription suggesting the role of these mutations in an IFN-I-independent attenuation. Additionally, we found that unlike eVP24, bVP24 does not inhibit interferon lambda 1 (IFN-λ1), which potentially explains the lower pathogenicity of BDBV relative to EBOV. Thus, the VP24 residues binding karyopherin alpha affect ebolavirus pathogenicity by IFN-I-dependent and independent mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0117.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: footrot; sheep; cell culture; immune respsonse
Online: 10 October 2022 (09:56:09 CEST)
Ovine footrot is a complex multifactorial infectious disease, causing lameness in sheep with major welfare and economic consequences. Dichelobacter nodosus is the main causative bacterium, however, footrot is a polymicrobial disease with Fusobacterium necrophorum, Mycoplasma fermentans and Porphyromonas asaccharolytica also associated. There is limited understanding of the host response involved. Proinflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)-1β and C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 8 (CXCL8) have been shown to play a role in the early response to D. nodosus in dermal fibroblasts and interdigital skin explant models. To further understand the response of ovine skin to bacterial stimulation, and to build the understanding of the role of the cytokines and chemokines identified in transcriptomic data, primary ovine interdigital fibroblasts and keratinocytes were isolated, cultured and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), D. nodosus or F. necrophorum in the presence and absence of M. fermentans, whilst measuring mRNA expression and protein release of CXCL8 and, IL-1β. Stimulation with LPS, D. nodosus or F. necrophorum resulted in increased transcript levels of IL-1β and CXCL8 in M. fermentans free cells, however, only an increase in CXCL8 protein release was observed. No IL-1β protein release was detected despite increases in IL-1β mRNA, suggesting the signal for intracellular pre-IL-1β processing may be lacking when culturing primary cells in isolation. Keratinocytes and fibroblasts naturally infected with M. fermentans showed little response to LPS, a range of D. nodosus preparations or heat-inactivated F. necrophorum. Primary single cell culture models complement ex vivo organ culture models to study different aspects of the host response to D. nodosus. Ovine keratinocytes and fibroblasts infected with M. fermentans had a reduced response to experimental bacterial stimulation. However, in the case of footrot where Mycoplasma spp. are associated with diseased feet, this natural infection gives important insights into the impact of multiple pathogens on the host response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0222.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: PEDOT:PSS; Neural recording; Immune response; BMI
Online: 15 September 2022 (08:04:38 CEST)
One of the significant challenges today in the brain-machine interface using invasive methods is the stability of the chronic record. In recent years, polymer-based electrodes have gained notoriety for achieving mechanical strength values close to that of brain tissue, promoting a lower immune response to the implant. In this work, we fabricated fully polymeric electrodes based on PEDOT:PSS for neural recording in Wistar rats. We characterized the electrical properties and both in-vitro and in-vivo functionality of the electrodes. Also, we employed histological processing and microscopical visualization to evaluate tecidual immune response in 7, 14, and 21 days post-implant days. Electrodes with 400-micrometer channels showed a 12dB signal-to-noise ratio. Local field potentials were characterized under two conditions: anesthetized and free-moving. There was a proliferation of microglia to the tissue-electrode interface in the first days, with a decrease after 14 days. Astrocytes also migrated to the interface, but there was no continuous recruitment of these cells in the tissue, showing inflammatory stability at 21 days. The signal was not affected by this inflammatory action, demonstrating that fully polymeric electrodes can be an alternative to prolong the valuable time of neural recordings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0050.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: bunyavirus; structure; genomics; immune response; review
Online: 5 September 2022 (07:49:30 CEST)
Bunyaviruses represent the largest group of RNA viruses, and are the causative agent of a variety of febrile and hemorrhagic illnesses. Originally characterized as a single serotype in Africa, the number of described bunyaviruses now exceeds over 500, with its presence detected around the world. These predominantly tri-segmented, single-stranded RNA viruses are transmitted primarily through arthropod and rodent vectors, and can infect a wide variety of animal and plants. Although encoding for a small number of proteins, these viruses can inflict potentially fatal disease outcomes, and have even developed strategies to suppress the innate antiviral immune mechanisms of the infected host. This short review will attempt to provide an overall description of the order Bunyavirales, describing the mechanisms behind their infection, replication and their evasion of the host immune response. Furthermore, the historical context of these virus will be presented, starting from their original discovery almost 80 years ago, to the most recent research pertaining to viral replication and host immune response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: neutrophils; priming; innate immunity; immune-memory
Online: 1 December 2021 (11:00:01 CET)
Neutrophils as innate immune cells primarily act as first responders in acute infection and directly maintain inflammatory responses. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that neutrophils also bear the potential to mediate chronic inflammation by exhibiting memory-like features. We recently showed that priming by serial doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gram-negative bacteria can trigger opposing memory-like responses (exaggerated inflammation, i.e. trained sensitivity or suppression of inflammation, i.e. tolerance) depending on the LPS-dose. We now asked whether this observation could also hold true for lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from gram-positive S. aureus. We found comparable effects of LTA on neutrophil priming as seen for LPS. Low-dose (1 ng/mL) LTA-priming promoted increased production of pro-inflammatory mediators (i.e., TNF-α, IL-6, ROS), whereas high-dose (10 µg/mL) results in contrary reactions supporting anti-inflammatory responses by increased IL-10 and declined pro-inflammatory capacity. In vitro neutrophil recruitment was similarly regulated by LTA -priming. Investigation of signalling patterns revealed TLR2/MyD88-mediated regulation of NFκB-p65 through intermediate PI3Ks/MAPK. Collectively, our data suggest a previously unknown capacity of neutrophils to be differentially primed by varying doses of LTA, endorsing memory-like features in neutrophils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0170.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: molecular iodine; immune response; breast cancer
Online: 9 September 2021 (10:45:34 CEST)
Molecular iodine (I2) induces apoptotic, antiangiogenic, and antiproliferative effects in breast cancer cells. Little is known about its effects on the tumor immune microenvironment. We studied the effect of oral (5 mg/day) I2 supplementation alone (I2) or together with conventional chemotherapy (Cht+I2) on the im-mune component of breast cancer tumors from a previously published pilot study conducted in Mexico. RNA-seq, I2 and Cht+I2 samples showed significant increases in expression of Th1 and Th17 pathways. Tumor immune composition determined by deconvolution analysis revealed significant increases in M0 macrophages and B lymphocytes in both I2 groups. Real-time RT-PCR showed that I2 tumors overexpress T-BET (p = 0.019) and interferon-gamma (IFNγ; p = 0.020) and silence tumor growth factor-beta (TGFβ; p = 0.049); whereas in Cht+I2 tumors, GATA3 is silenced (p = 0.014). Preliminary methylation analysis shows that I2 activates IFNγ gene promoter (by increasing its unmethylated form) and silences TGFβ in Cht+I2. In conclusion, our data showed that I2 supplements induce the activation of the immune response and that when combined with Cht, the Th1 pathways are stimulated. The molecular mechanisms involved in these responses are being analyzed, but preliminary data suggest that methylation/demethylation mechanisms could also participate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0301.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: immune response; nutritional supplement; cancer; oncoxin
Online: 15 January 2021 (15:45:55 CET)
Purpose: This study aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of Oncoxin as an antitumoral supplement, and to describe its mechanism of action. Methods: We performed this scoping review according to the recommendations of the Joanna Briggs Institute and included patients older than 18 years-old who have any kind of tumor and receive Oncoxin as a supplement. We focused on the efficacy in terms of antitumoral properties, quality of life and survival, safety in terms of adverse events, and the mechanism of action. We did not limit for language or setting. We searched MEDLINE (Pubmed), EMBASE (Scopus), LILACS, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) from inception to nowadays. Results: We found a promising increment of survival when taking Oncoxin as a supplementary treatment. Additionally, the quality of life increased in terms of Karnofsky and EORTC scales. Regarding the mechanism of action, studies suggest it modifies inflammatory mediators’ expression, as evidenced by the reduction of COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-12, and IFN-γ. Besides, it promotes an arrest in the progression of cells from G1 into S, along with an increase in p27 and a decrease in cyclin D1 and pRb. Conclusions: We found promising complementary effects of Oncoxin to the standard treatment of cancer patients in diverse scenarios, with putative robust mechanisms of action. In addition to clinically relevant impacts verified in clinical trials, as well as it decreases the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, it can also decrease cytokines with antitumor activity such as IFN-γ, which should be further explored in larger trials and the long term.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0037.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: FFAR2; FFAR3; microbiota; gut; immune; SCFA
Online: 3 May 2020 (08:32:51 CEST)
Abstract: Role of gut microbiome in human health is becoming apparent. The major functional impact of gut microbiome is transmitted through the microbial metabolites that are produced in the gut and interact with host cells either in the local gut environment or get absorbed in the circulation to impact distant cells/organs. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the major microbial metabolites that are produced in the gut through fermentation of non-digestible fibers. SCFAs are known to function through various mechanism, however, their signaling through free-fatty acid receptor 2 and 3 (FFAR2/3; type of G-coupled protein receptors) is new therapeutic approach. FFAR2/3 are widely expression in diverse cell types in human and mice, and functions as sensors of SCFAs to change several physiological and cellular functions. FFAR2/3 modulates neurological signaling, energy metabolism, intestinal cellular homeostasis, immune response and hormone synthesis. FFAR2/3 functions through Gi and/or Gq signaling, that is mediated through specific structural features of SCFAs-FFAR2/3 bindings and modulating specific signaling pathway. In this review, we discussed the wide-spread expression and structural homologies between human and mice FFAR2/3, and their role in different human health conditions. This information can unlock opportunities to weigh the potential of FFAR2/3 as drug target to prevent human diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0282.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: liver fibrosis; NASH; innate immune cells.
Online: 24 October 2019 (15:48:02 CEST)
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is characterized by liver steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis, is the most severe variation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This disease is a consequence of several metabolic alterations such as type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia that trigger different pathways of cell dysfunction and systemic inflammation which ultimately affect the liver. Furthermore, those mechanisms activate a complex cascade of immune response after repeated cell aggression. In the liver cytokines and interleukins interact with network of innate immune cells, including Kupffer cells (KCs), dendritic cells (DCs), lymphocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSC). These cells translate those signals into immune responses and pathologic hepatic changes during the development of NASH. In this scenario the development of fibrosis is the most important change since it is an adaptive mechanism that in the short time has the objective of repair the damaged tissue but after prolonged injury it progresses to parenchymal scarring, cellular dysfunction and finally to organ failure. Finally, since NASH is an important cause of liver cirrhosis; this review addresses the cellular pathways of fibrosis in the setting of NASH explained by the interaction between immune and hepatic cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0057.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: DENV; tropism; receptors; entry; immune cells
Online: 5 August 2019 (08:14:40 CEST)
Dengue virus (DENV), being one of the lethal pathogens in the hot climatic regions of the world, have been extensively studied to decipher its mechanism of pathogenesis and missing links of its life cycle. With respect to the entry of DENV, multiple receptors have been recognised in different cells of the human body. However, scientists still argue whether these identified receptors are the exclusive entry mediators for the virus. Adding to the complexity, DENV has been reported to be infecting multiple organ types in its human host. Also, more than one receptor in a particular cell has been discerned to take part in mediating the ingress of DENV. In this review, we aim to discuss about the different cells of the human immune system that support DENV infection and their corresponding receptors that DENV deploy to gain access to the cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0346.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Exosomes, extracellular vesicles, immune regulation, autoimmunity
Online: 28 December 2018 (12:28:28 CET)
T-cell mediated immune responses should be regulated to avoid the development of autoimmune or chronic inflammation diseases. Several mechanisms have been described to regulate this process, namely death of overactivated T cells by cytokine deprivation, suppression by T regulatory cells (Treg), induction of expression of immune checkpoint molecules such as CTLA-4 and PD-1, or activation-induced cell death (AICD). In addition, activated T cells release membrane microvesicles called exosomes during these regulatory processes. In this review, we revise the role of exosome secretion in the different pathways of immune regulation described to date and its importance in the prevention of autoinmune disease. Expression of membrane-bound death ligands on the surface of exosomes during AICD, or the more recently described transfer of miRNA or even DNA inside T-cell exosomes are molecular mechanisms that will be analyzed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0014.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: HBV/HDV coinfection; Evolving antiviral drugs; innovative immune therapeutic agents; combination of antiviral and immune therapy
Online: 1 May 2023 (04:18:06 CEST)
Coinfection of B virus (HBV) and hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) lead to severe forms of progressive liver diseases. However, commercially available antiviral drugs have shown considerable adverse effects and low efficacy in managing these patients. Thus, there is a pressing need to develop new, innovative, and evidence-based therapies for these pathological entities. In line with this, some investigators have attempted to develop anti-viral drugs targeting HBV/HDV coinfection. In another development, investigators have also attempted to establish immune therapy targeting for HBV infection as recovery or effective control of HBV infection also lead to efficient control of HDV infection. This review has discussed an account of the evolving antiviral and immune therapeutic drugs for HBV/HDV infection. Also, based on current scientific knowledge how we have described the pros and cons of these drugs as no suitable drug has been developed during the last forty years for treating HBV infection except the availability of two” repurposed drugs”; interferons and its derivatives and nucleoside analogs, for managing HBV or HBV/HDV coinfection. It seems that an evolving and innovative therapeutic regimen that combines both antiviral drugs and immune modulators may be the best and realistic option for management of HBV/HDV coinfection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0179.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: oral squamous cell carcinoma; HLA class I; antigen processing machinery; immune cell infiltration; immune escape; prognosis
Online: 11 January 2021 (10:47:25 CET)
Progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been associated with an escape of tumor cells from the host immune surveillance due to an increased knowledge of its underlying molecular mechanisms and its modulation by the tumor microenvironment and immune cell repertoire. In this study the expression of HLA class I (HLA-I) antigens and of components of the antigen processing machinery (APM) was analyzed in 160 pathologically classified human papilloma virus (HPV)-negative OSCC lesions and correlated to the intra-tumoral immune cell response, IFN- signaling and to the patients outcome. A heterogeneous, but predominantly lower constitutive protein expression of HLA-I APM components was found in OSCC sections when compared to non-neoplastic cells. Tumoral HLA-I APM component expression was further categorized into the three major phenotypes HLA-Ihigh/APMhigh, HLA-Ilow/APMlow and HLA-Idiscordant high/low/APMhigh. In the HLA-Ihigh/APMhigh group, the highest frequency of intra-tumoral CD8+ T cells and lowest number of CD8+ T cells close to FoxP3+ cells was found. Patients within this group presented the most unfavorable survival, which was significantly evident in stage T2 tumors. Despite a correlation with the number of intra-tumoral CD8+ T cells, tumoral JAK1 expression as a surrogate marker for IFN- signaling was not associated with HLA-I/APM expression. Thus, the presented findings strongly indicate the presence of additional factors involved in the immunomodulatory process of HPV-negative OSCC with a possible tumor-burden-dependent complex network of immune escape mechanisms beyond HLA-I/APM components and T cell infiltration in this tumor entity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0238.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: oral squamous cell carcinoma; HLA class I; antigen processing machinery; immune cell infiltration; immune escape; prognosis
Online: 10 September 2020 (11:37:28 CEST)
Progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been associated with an escape of tumor cells from the host immune surveillance with growing evidence of its underlying molecular mechanisms and its interaction with the immune cell control. In this study the expression of HLA class I (HLA-I) antigens and of components of the antigen processing machinery (APM) was analyzed in 160 consecutive human papilloma virus (HPV)-negative OSCC lesions and correlated to tumor specific parameters, the intratumoral immune cell response and to the patients outcome. A heterogeneous, but predominantly lower constitutive protein expression of HLA-I APM components was seen in OSCC sections when compared to non-neoplastic cells. Based on the expression levels of HLA-I APM components three main OSCC subgroups were detected and categorized into HLA-Ihigh/APMhigh, HLA-Ilow/APMlow and HLA-Idiscordant high/low/APMhigh phenotypes. In the HLA-Ihigh/APMhigh group, the highest frequency of intratumoral CD8+ T cells and lowest number of CD8+ T cells close to FoxP3 cells was found. Despite being associated with the highest T cell infiltration, patients within this group presented the most unfavorable survival, which was most evident in stage T2 tumors. Thus, the presented findings strongly indicate the presence of additional factors involved in the immunomodulatory process of HPV-negative OSCC with a possible tumor-burden-dependent complex network of immune escape mechanisms beyond HLA-I/APM components and T cell infiltration in this tumor entity.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0319.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; respiratory illness; pneumonia; I4R approach; immune system; inflammation; immune boosting interventions
Online: 23 March 2020 (00:33:02 CET)
The current global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has already had a major adverse impact on the world due to the exponentially increasing deaths due to the disease and the extreme actions taken by the world community to prevent its spread. It is important to explore novel methods of reducing the illnesses and fatality rates of the coronavirus-infected patients. Since the weakness of the immune system is one of the major contributing factors for the illnesses caused by such viruses, and since inflammation is a major contributing factor for the mortality of COVID-19 patients, interventions that boost the immune system and/or are anti-inflammatory may reduce the COVID-19 incidence and the mortality due to the disease. A large variety of interventions are known to improve the immune response and/or reduce inflammation. However, all the interventions would not be applicable or acceptable to everyone and so the interventions would need to be individualized based on individual circumstances and preferences. This approach, known as “Individualized Interventions to Improve the Immune Response”, or the I4R approach, should be studied in pilot clinical trials urgently, in order to potentially reduce the harm caused by the current coronavirus pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Pancreatic cancer; PDAC (Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma); immune microenvironment; immune biomarkers; personalized cancer care; inflammation; PD1; CTLA-4
Online: 12 March 2019 (03:15:16 CET)
It is estimated that pancreatic cancer will be the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally by 2030, highlighting the ongoing lack of effective treatment options in this devastating condition. There is a lack of reliable prognostic or predictive markers in pancreatic cancer to guide management decisions, whether for systemic chemotherapy, molecularly targeted therapies, or immunotherapies. To date, the results for targeted agents and immunotherapies in unselected populations of chemo-refractory pancreatic cancer have not met expectations. The reasons for this lack of efficacy of immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer are incompletely understood. The challenges in pancreatic cancer include the physical barrier created by the dense desmoplastic stroma surrounding the tumor, chemokine-mediated exclusion of T cells, poor antigenicity, paucity of infiltrating T cells within the tumor, ultimately leading to an immunosuppressive microenvironment. A better understanding of the role of inflammation in pancreatic cancer, its tumor microenvironment and individualized patient-related features, be they molecular, clinical or histopathological would enable a more effective tailored approach to the management of pancreatic cancer. In this review, the role of inflammation, the immune tumor microenvironment and potential immune biomarkers in pancreatic cancer are explored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Epstein Barr Virus, HL microenvironment, Immune suppression
Online: 2 August 2023 (05:14:23 CEST)
Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) has been recognized for its ability to transform B lymphocytes and for its association with different types of cancers including Hodgkin lymphoma. In addition, EBV may also modulate the microenvironment of HL. In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of EBV among HL cases in Ethiopia and to assess the tissue cellular composition of EBV-related and EBV-unrelated cases. We constructed a tissue microarray (TMA) of 126 consecutive cases of classical HL (cHL) and nodular lymphocyte predominant HL (NLPHL) from a tertiary cancer centre, Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and evaluated a panel of immunohistochemical markers. The quantification of immune cells was performed using HALO 2.3, a platform for image analysis from Indica Lab Inc. A total of 77/126 (61.1%) of HL cases expressed LMP1/EBER. Infiltration of CD8+, T-bet+ and FOXP3+ cells was higher in the microenvironment of EBV-related HL, with P values of <0.001, 0.006 and <0.001, respectively. In contrast, the expression of PD1 was higher in the microenvironment of EBV-unrelated HL cases (P = 0.001). Unlike in Western countries, the majority of HL cases in Ethiopia were associated with EBV. As FoxP3+ and PD1-expressing cells are thought to participate in down regulation of the immune response by different mechanisms, this finding highlights the previously unrecognized possibility that distinct immunosuppressive mechanisms may be ongoing within EBV positive and negative HL types. This may have important prognostic and therapeutic implications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0447.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Cancer; ncRNA; LncRNA; immune response; biomarkers; immunotherapy
Online: 7 July 2023 (08:39:42 CEST)
The noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are small transcript sequences that do not encode proteins but participate in the regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level playing important biological roles such as proliferation and differentiation. In the tumor microenvironment, the dysregulated immunological response can participate in the progression and negative phenotype of cancer, the variability of switch cell differentiation and activation of the different immune cell lineages showed differential regulation by the type of cancer. Recent evidence showed that the upregulation of lncRNA can be used as a biomarker and predictive indicator for cancer progression. The use of lncRNA to turn off the tumor immune response and activate the anti-tumoral immune response is day by day a promising reality for the control of cancer. However, is imperatively elucidated the role of each ncRNA identified as well as its respective molecular pathways regulated, including the immune checkpoints, before its application at the clinical level. The correct delivery of lncRNA or mimics to inhibit its expression using the most efficient carriers to the cell or cellular organelle is a science that should continue to be developed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2179.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Colorectal neoplasm; Biomarkers; Bioplex; Immune checkpoint proteins
Online: 30 June 2023 (07:18:45 CEST)
The tumor microenvironment of colorectal cancer (CRC) is heterogenous; thus, it is likely that multiple immune-related and inflammatory markers are simultaneously expressed in the tumor. The aim of this study was to identify immune-related and inflammatory markers expressed in freshly frozen CRC tissues and to investigate whether they are related to the clinicopathological features and prognosis of CRC. Seventy patients with CRC who underwent curative surgical resection between December 2014 and January 2017 were included in this study. Tissue samples were obtained from tumor and non-tumor areas in the patients’ colons. The concentrations of immune-related markers (APRIL/TNFSF13, BAFF, LAG-3, PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4) and inflammatory markers (CHIT, MMP-3, osteocalcin, pentraxin-3, sTNF-R1, and sTNF-R2) in the samples were measured using the Bio-plex Multiplex Immunoassay system. The concentrations of APRIL/TNFSF13, BAFF, and MMP-3 in the samples were significantly high; thus, we conducted analyses based on the cutoff values for these three markers. The high APRIL/TNFSH13 expression group showed a significantly higher rate of metastatic lesions than the low expression group, whereas the high MMP-3 expression group had higher CEA levels, more lymph node metastases, and more advanced disease stages than the low expression group. The five-year disease-free survival of the high MMP-3 expression group was significantly shorter than that of the low expression group (65.1% vs. 90.2%, p=0.033). This study provides evidence that the APRIL/TNFSF13, BAFF, and MMP-3 pathway is overexpressed CRC tissues and is associated with unfavorable clinicopathological features and poor prognosis in CRC patients. These markers could serve as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers for CRC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0956.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: NSCLC,; Immunotherapy; Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors; Special populations
Online: 13 June 2023 (16:01:04 CEST)
Over the last decade, the therapeutic scenario for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has undergone a major paradigm shift. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have shown a meaningful clinical and survival improvement in different settings of the disease. However, the real benefit of this therapeutic approach remains controversial in selected NSCLC subsets, such as those of the elderly with active brain metastases or oncogene-addicted mutations. This is mainly due to the exclusion or underrepresentation of these patient subpopulations in most of the pivotal phase III studies; this precludes the generalization of the ICI efficacy in this context. Moreover, no predictive biomarkers of ICI response exist that can help with patient selection for this therapeutic approach. Here, we critically summarize the current state of ICI efficacy in the most common “special” NSCLC subpopulations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0128.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: PD-L1; CTCs; immunotherapy; immune checkpoint inhibitors
Online: 2 June 2023 (04:28:01 CEST)
The approval of monoclonal antibodies against programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and programmed cell death protein (PD1), has changed the landscape of cancer treatment. To date, many Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors (ICIs) have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of metastatic cancer as well as locally recurrent advanced cancer. However, immune-related adverse events (irAEs) of ICIs highlight the need for biomarker analysis with strong predictive value. Liquid biopsy is an important tool for clinical oncologists to monitor cancer patients and administer or change appropriate therapy. CTCs frequently express PD-L1 and this constitutes a clinically useful and non-invasive method to assess PD-L1 status in real time. This review summarizes all the latest findings about the clinical significance of CTC for the management of cancer patients during administration of immunotherapy and mainly focuses on the assessment of PD-L1 expression in CTCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1823.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: Plasmodium falciparum; polyclonal infection; adaptive immune responses
Online: 26 May 2023 (03:12:17 CEST)
Malaria remains a major public health problem worldwide, with eradication efforts thwarted by drug and insecticide resistance and the lack of a broadly effective malaria vaccine. In continuously exposed communities, polyclonal infections are thought to reduce the risk of severe disease and promote the establishment of asymptomatic infections. We sought to investigate the relationship between the complexity of P. falciparum infection and underlying host adaptive immune responses in an area with high prevalence of asymptomatic parasitaemia in Cameroon. A cross-sectional study of 353 individuals aged 2 to 86 years (median age = 16 years) was conducted in five villages in the Centre Region of Cameroon. Plasmodium falciparum infection was detected by multiplex nested PCR in 316 samples, of which 278 were successfully genotyped. Of these, 60.1% (167/278) were polyclonal infections, the majority (80.2%) of which were from asymptomatic carriers. Host-parasite factors associated with polyclonal infection in the study population included peripheral blood parasite density, participant age and village of residence. The number of parasite clones per infected sample increased significantly with parasite density (r = 0.3912, p<0.0001) but decreased with participant age (r = -0.4860, p<0.0001). Parasitaemia and number of clones per sample correlated negatively with total plasma levels of IgG antibodies to three highly reactive P. falciparum antigens (MSP-1p19, MSP-3 and EBA175) and two soluble antigen extracts (merozoite and mixed stage antigens). Surprisingly, we observed no association between the frequency of polyclonal infection and susceptibility to clinical disease as assessed by the recent occurrence of malarial symptoms or duration since the previous fever episode. Overall, the data indicate that in areas with high perennial transmission of P. falciparum, parasite polyclonality is dependent on underlying host adaptive immune responses, with the majority of polyclonal infections occurring in persons with low levels of protective anti-plasmodial antibodies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1476.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: psoriasis; systemic treatment; biologic treatment; immune checkpoint
Online: 22 May 2023 (08:42:21 CEST)
Programmed-death-1 (PD-1) receptor plays a major physiological role in maintainance of im-mune tolerance, and, by interaction with its ligands (PD-L1 and PD-L2), prevents the develop-ment of multiple immune-mediated diseases. There is growing evidence of an important role of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in pathogenesis of psoriasis. 84 subjects with psoriasis were included into the study, together with 29 healthy subjects as a control group. 28 of psoriatic patients were treated with biologice therapy (TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL)-12/23 or IL-17 inhibitors). Amounts of PD1 and PD-L1 positive T-cells in peripheral blood were evaluated using flow cytometry. Significantly lower levels of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 were found in psoriatic patients when compared to healthy individuals, i.e. CD3/PD1, CD3/PDL1, CD4/PD1, CD4/PDL1, CD8/PDL1, CD19/PD1, CD19/PDL1 positive cells. Biologic treatment resulted in elevation of CD3/PDL1, CD8/PDL1 and decrease of CD8/PD1 posi-tive PBMCs. Our results confirm previous observations of disrupted PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in psoriasis, and that this disturbances may play an important role in development of the disease. Biologic drugs may reverse several abnormalities observed within this pathway, which may ex-plain their excellent efficacy in the treatment of psoriasis. Further research should be conducted to fully explain the results obtained.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Osteosarcoma; Tumorigenesis; Metastasis; Immune Evasion; Chemoresistance; Mutation
Online: 7 February 2023 (06:12:43 CET)
There has been no significant efficacy in treatment for osteosarcoma (OS) metastasis after nearly four decades of trials. This motivates us to elucidate OS therapies according to their four bidirectional mutation stages. To refresh the OS therapy status quo, the historical developments and clinical advancements are briefly described. However, the main issue of metastasis remains unresolved, accounting for 90% of pulmonary metastasis deaths. Thus, this metastasis problem is related to immune evasion and chemoresistance that are being induced after long-term treatment by the use of immunotherapy for tumorigenesis. Therefore, it is rationale to discuss the relationship cycles of mutation stages including tumorigenesis, metastasis, immune evasion, and chemoresistance. Even though many combinational and targeted therapies have been developed to intensify these mutation treatments, successful clinical translations with higher cure rates are still rare. Through this review, an in-depth understanding of the bidirectional relationship between the four OS mutation stages and their respective therapies is provided. Herein, we summarise the medicines used to treat tumorigenesis, including COLGALT2 inhibitors, Tra2B, and AGAP1, miR-148a and miR-21-5p EVs, and the lncRNA LIFR-AS1. Following the medicines used to treat metastasis are AXL, miR-135a-5p, mRNA BCL6, TGFβ1, Tim-3, SOCS5, CASC15, KLF3-AS1, PDCD4, ATG5, and Rab22a-NeoF1. Then the medicines used to treat immune evasion are N-cadherin, anti-IL-9, USP12 inhibitor, IgG-4+ B-cells, LAP inhibitor, anti-Wnt2 mAb, anti-αvβ8 integrin, HK2-mediated IκBα, IDO inhibitor with NO, and TGF-βRII with anti-IgG1. Finally, the medicines used to treat chemoresistance are DHFR, FPGS, HSP-90AA1, XCT-790, ATKI, and IGF1. As a result, this contribution is expected to serve as a reference and guide for scientists and clinicians.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0171.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: TIGIT; Immune checkpoint; FoxP3; Human Glioma; Immunotherapy
Online: 10 January 2023 (03:21:32 CET)
Background: Diffuse glioma is a malignant human brain cancer that is hard to overcome. This represents a high risk of mortality. The current challenge is limited to the control of tumor progression and survival improvement. Immunotherapy consists of stimulating the immune system in order to eliminate the non-self-elements that damage the human body, including cancer cells. However, in human glioma, the current immunotherapeutic targets did not show significant benefit. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the expression and potential role of a new immunosuppressive molecule, TIGIT in glioma patients. Methods: A cohort of 667 patients from the TCGA database along with a cohort of 53 Moroccan patients, were analyzed in order to assess the role of TIGIT in human glioma progression and to estimate whether blocking this immune checkpoint molecule would be of a potential therapeutic benefit. Real time RT-PCR from fresh human biopsies and RNAseq data analysis were performed in this study. Results: Our results showed that high expression of TIGIT had prognostic value with some known clinical glioma risk factors such as sex, age and IDH mutation status. High expression of TIGIT was positively associated with advanced grades of glioma. Interestingly, elevated rates of TIGIT were significantly associated to elevated levels of other inhibitory immune checkpoint molecules (PD-1, VISTA and Tim-3) in human glioma patients, also TIGIT showed strong association with Treg cell-secreted cytokines (TGF-beta and IL-10), indicating the high potential involvement of TIGIT in immunosuppression in human glioma. Moreover, we reported that high TIGIT expressing CD8 T-cells displayed more surface inhibitory molecules and, elevated levels of Treg cells and FoxP3 were linked to higher rates of TIGIT, supporting the likely involvement of TIGIT in the suppression of the intra-tumoral immune cells. Finally, high expression of TIGIT was significantly linked to advanced histological subtypes of glioma and was associated with poor overall survival in human glioma. Conclusion: TIGIT blockade might be of valuable therapeutic benefit in patients with advanced glioma.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0154.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Epstein–Barr virus; gastric cancer; immune microenvironment
Online: 11 October 2022 (10:43:36 CEST)
We have previously discussed the pathological characteristics, clinical characteristics, detection methods, pathogenesis, and treatment of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-positive gastric cancer, but we have not discussed the unique immune microenvironment in EBV-positive gastric cancer. Here, we reviewed studies on the immune microenvironment in EBV-positive gastric cancer and found that CD8+ T lymphocytes and a small number of CD204+ macrophages infiltrate the immune microenvironment in EBV-positive gastric cancer. Moreover, immune checkpoints, such as IDO1 and PD-L1, are expressed at high levels in EBV-positive gastric cancer. Lastly, we also analyzed the mechanisms underlying the formation of the immune microenvironment in EBV-positive gastric cancer. Our findings and conclusions have significance in clinical guidance and provide research direction for basic experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: microbiome; melanoma; immune checkpoint inhibitor; diet; immunotherapy
Online: 3 October 2022 (12:19:54 CEST)
Gut microbiota is considered a key player modulating the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. The study investigated the association between response to the anti-PD-1 therapy and the baseline gut microbiome in the Polish cohort of melanoma patients, alongside selected agents modifying the microbiome. Sixty-four melanoma patients enrolled for the anti-PD-1 therapy and 10 healthy subjects were recruited. Response to the treatment was assessed according to the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors, and patients were classified as responders or non-responders. The association between selected extrinsic factors and response was investigated using questionnaire-based analysis, and metataxonomics of the microbiota. The Bacteroidota to Firmicutes ratio was higher, and the richness was decreased in the responders. The abundance of Prevotella copri and Bacteroides uniformis was related to the response, whereas non-responder gut microbiota was enriched with Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Desulfovibrio intestinalis, and some unclassified Firmicutes. Dietary patterns, including plant, dairy, and fat consumption, but also gastrointestinal tract functioning were significantly associated with the therapeutic effects of the therapy. The specific gut microbiota alongside diet were found associated with response to the therapy in the Polish population of melanoma patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0542.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Noni juice; Morinda citrifolia; immune system; immunomodulation
Online: 31 August 2022 (09:02:28 CEST)
Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit juice has the potential to influence immune system function. This review discusses results from several human and animal studies that provide insight into the potential mechanisms of action by which noni juice exerts its immunomodulatory effects. Increased natural killer cell activity is a likely a major contributor to the improved health outcomes and increased survival times described in case reports and as observed in LLC and S180 tumor bearing mice. Increased interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production is also an important mechanism of action through which noni improves immune function. IFN-γ promotes natural killer cell activity and phagocytosis, activities both seen in human and bovine studies as well as in rodents. Noni promotes regulatory cytokine expression, such as IL-2 which stimulates CD4+ T cell differentiation. Noni juice appears to influence this process via kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) protein kinase B (Akt) and nuclear factor-kappa-beta signaling. As oxidative status is known to influence immune function, this review also discusses the notable antioxidant properties of noni juice that have been demonstrated in human trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0346.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: pyroptosis; ovarian cancer; prognosic; immune microenvironment; signature
Online: 24 January 2022 (11:19:53 CET)
Background: LncRNA and pyroptosis play important roles in cancer development and tumor immune microenviroment. However, pyroptosis-related lncRNAs (PRLs) in ovarian cancer have not been identified and its impact on prognosis and immune response are not fully understood. Methods: Using pearson correlation analysis, PRLs were screened. Subsequently, we constructed a prognosis signature by using LASSO cox regression. In addition, the association between risk score and cancer immune environment was analyzed. Results: In TCGA-RNA-seq cohort (n=377), 32 prognostic PRLs were selected and a 7-gene signature were developed and had high accuracy in predicting the OS of ovarian cancer patients. Stratification analysis suggested that it might serve as an independent prognostic indicator. Except to clinical outcome, the signature was significantly associated with tumor immune microenvironment. Patients with high risk score exhibited lower infiltration abundance of MHC class Ⅰ cells, Type Ⅰ IFN response and immunotherapy response. In ovarian cancer, TYMSOS was highly expressed and its high expression was associated with worse OS. TYMSOS deletion in ovarian cancer cell lines inhibited the cell proliferation, invasion and migration, indicating that it might serve as a novel biomarker in ovarian cancer. Conclusions: The prognostic PRLs signature constructed in this work is available for prognostic prediction and immune microenvironment infiltration in ovarian cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0256.v1
Online: 9 June 2021 (10:58:20 CEST)
Abstract: Oxidative metabolism is crucial for leukemic stem cell (LSC) function and drug resistance in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Mitochondrial metabolism also affects the immune system and therefore the antitumor response. Modulation of oxidative phosphorylation (OxPHOS) has emerged as a promising approach to improve therapy outcome for AML patients. However, the effect of mitochondrial inhibitors on the immune compartment in the context of AML is yet to be explored. Immune checkpoints such as the ecto-nucleotidase CD39 and programmed dead ligand 1 (PD-L1) have been reported to be expressed in AML and linked to chemoresistance and poor prognosis. In the present study, we first demonstrated that a novel selective electron transfer chain complex (ETC) I inhibitor, EVT-701, decreased OxPHOS metabolism of murine and human cytarabine (AraC)-resistant leukemic cell lines. Furthermore, we showed that, while AraC induced immune response regulation by increasing CD39 expression and by reinforcing interferon-γ/PD-L1 axis, EVT-701 reduced CD39 and PD-L1 expression in vitro in a panel of both murine and human AML cell lines, especially upon AraC treatment. Altogether, this work uncovers a non-canonical function of ETCI in controlling CD39 and PD-L1 immune checkpoints, thereby improving the anti-tumor response in AML.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: delirium; inflammation; neuro-immune; biomarkers; oxidative stress
Online: 4 January 2021 (11:26:34 CET)
Background: Post-operative delirium in elderly with hip fracture is associated with various adverse clinical outcomes. Nevertheless, the pathophysiological processes underpinning delirium have remained elusive. The aim of this study is to explore the associations between delirium and its features and immune-inflammatory and blood gas biomarkers.Methods: In this prospective study we examined 65 patients who underwent a hip fracture surgery and assessed the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU), Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS), and Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98 (DRS-R-98) before and during 4 days after the surgery. Complete Blood Count (CBC) and venous blood gas markers were obtained at the same time points.Results: Delirium was observed in 19 patients and was accompanied by significantly increased pO2, number of white blood cells, neutrophil percentage, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, and lower mean platelet volume (MPV) (after adjusting for age, central nervous system (CNS) disease, blood loss during surgery, sleep disorders, and body mass index. The severity of delirium was associated with lowered number of platelets and MPV. Psychomotor disorders were associated with lower bicarbonate levels. The requirement of physical restraint of the patients was predicted by increased percentages of neutrophils and lymphocytes. Prior CNS disease was together with these biomarkers a significant predictor of delirium and severity of delirium. Conclusion: Delirium and psychomotor disorders following hip fracture and surgery may be caused by immune-inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways probably attributable to an aseptic inflammatory process. Oxygen administration may aggravate these pathways.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0339.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DNA repair; lymphocyte; immune system; DNA breaks
Online: 18 November 2020 (10:51:18 CET)
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) form the basis of tumor microenvironment and possess immunomodulatory functions by interacting with other cells surrounding tumor, including T lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and natural killer cells. Ionizing radiation is a broadly-used method in radiotherapy to target tumors. In mammalian cells, ionizing radiation induces various types of DNA damages and DNA damage response. Being unspecific, radiotherapy affects all the cells in tumor microenvironment, including the tumor itself, CAFs and immune cells. CAFs are extremely radio-resistant and do not initiate apoptosis even at high doses of radiation. However, following radiation, CAFs become senescent and produce a distinct combination of immunoregulatory molecules. Radiosensitivity of immune cells varies depending on the cell type due to inefficient DNA repair in, for example, monocytes and granulocytes. In this minireview, we are summarizing recent findings on the interaction between CAF, ionizing radiation and immune cells in the tumor microenvironment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0580.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Immune system; Oxidative stress; Nanoparticles; Intracellular Pathogens
Online: 28 October 2020 (10:05:05 CET)
The immune system is a dynamic network of cells and cytokines are the major mediators of immune responses which combat pathogens. Based on the cytokine production, effector T cells differentiate into subsets known as Th1, Th2, Th17 or Treg (T regulatory). This system serves as a barrier to intracellular pathogens, bacterial infections and stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) and nitric oxide (NO), which diffuses across membranes and engulfs intracellular pathogens. Oxidative stress occurs when ROS, reactive nitrogen species (RNS) production and antioxidant defences become imbalanced. Oxidative stress generated by infected cells produces a substantial amount of free radicals which enables killing of intracellular pathogens. Intracellular pathogens are exposed to endogenous ROS as part of normal aerobic respiration, also aexogenous ROS and RNS are generated by the host immune system in response to infection. Nanoparticles which are designed for drug delivery are capable of trapping the desired drug in the particles which protects the drug from enzymatic degradation in a biological system. The small (subcellular) size of nanoparticles enables higher intracellular uptake of the drug which results in the reduction of the concentration of free drugs reducing their toxic effect. Research on the modulation of immune response and oxidative stress using nanoparticles used to encapsulate drugs has yet to be explored fully. In this review we illustrate the immune activation and generation of oxidative stress properties which are mediated by nanoparticle encapsulated drug delivery systems which can make the therapy more effective in case of diseases caused by intracellular pathogens.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0009.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: COVID-19; immune cycles; weekend-weekday; stress
Online: 2 July 2020 (13:36:14 CEST)
Coronavirus and COVID-19 infections continue to wreak havoc across the world. Interestingly, the COVID-19 infections and deaths display a clear seven-day cycles. Mathematical analysis using linear mixed-effects models show that this periodicity is not due to reporting errors. We hypothesize that these COVID-19 cycles are related to natural immune cycles which also oscillate every seven days. These immune cycles are regulated by stress and mediated through the endocrine and the central nervous systems. Our routine activities and lifestyle of more stressful weekdays flanked by less stressful, relaxing weekends define the seven-day immune cycles. The synchronized low immunity levels in the population is responsible for repeated seven-day waves of pathogenic infections such as COVID-19. The new understanding of the role of immune oscillations will help in developing strategies to enhance our immunity through modified lifestyle and better, innovative prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against infectious diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0329.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: premenstrual syndrome; chemokines; inflammation; neuro-immune; depression
Online: 29 September 2019 (06:29:54 CEST)
Objective: To examine associations between chemokines and menstrual cycle associated symptoms (MCAS). Methods: Forty-one women completed the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) rating scale during 28 consecutive days of the menstrual cycle. MCAS is diagnosed when the total daily DRSP score during the menstrual cycle is > 0.666 percentile. We assayed plasma CCL2, CCL5, CCL11, CXCL8, CXCL10, EGF, IGF-1, and PAI-1 at days 7, 14, 21 and 28 of the menstrual cycle. Results: CCL2, CCL5, CCL11 and EGF are significantly higher in women with MCAS than in those without. Increased CCL2, CXCL10, CXCL8, CCL11 and CCL5 levels are significantly associated with DRSP scores while CCL2 is the most significant predictor explaining 39.6% of the variance. The sum of the neurotoxic chemokines CCL2, CCL11 and CCL5 is significantly associated with the DRSP score and depression, physiosomatic, breast-craving and anxiety symptoms. The impact of chemokines on MCAS symptoms may differ between consecutive weeks of the menstrual cycle with CCL2 being the most important predictor of increased DRSP levels during the first two weeks, and CXCL10 or a combination of CCL2, CCL11 and CCL5 being the best predictors during week 3 and 4, respectively. Discussion: The novel case definition “MCAS” is externally validated by increased levels of uterus-associated chemokines and EGF. Those chemokines are involved in MCAS and are regulated by sex hormones and modulate endometrium functions and brain neuro-immune responses, which may underpin MCAS symptoms. As such, uterine-related chemokines may link the uterus with brain functions via a putative uterine-chemokine-brain axis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0076.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Lassa fever; immunoinformatics; peptide vaccine; immune simulation
Online: 9 September 2019 (08:46:04 CEST)
Lassa virus (LASV) is responsible for a type of acute viral haemorrhagic fever referred to as Lassa fever. Lack of adequate treatment and preventive measures against LASV resulted in a high mortality rate in its endemic regions. In this study, a multi-epitope vaccine was designed using immunoinformatics as a prophylactic agent against the virus. Following a rigorous assessment, the vaccine was built using T-cell (NCTL=8 and NHTL=6) and B-cell (NLBL=4) epitopes from each LASV-derived protein with suitable linkers and adjuvant. The physicochemistry, immunogenic potency and safeness of the designed vaccine (~68 kDa) were assessed. In addition, chosen CTL and HTL epitopes of our vaccine showed 97.37% worldwide population coverage. Besides, disulphide engineering also improved the stability of the chimeric vaccine. Molecular docking of our vaccine protein with toll-like receptor (TLR2) showed binding efficiency followed by dynamic simulation for stable interaction. Furthermore, higher levels of cell-mediated immunity and rapid antigen clearance were suggested by immune simulation and repeated-exposure simulation, respectively. Finally, the optimized codons were used in in silico cloning to ensure higher expression within E. coli K12 bacterium. With further assessment both in vitro and in vivo, we believe that our proposed peptide-vaccine would be potential immunogen against Lassa fever.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Depression, inflammation, neuro-immune, interleukins, ketoprofen, zinc
Online: 14 January 2019 (11:47:42 CET)
There is now evidence that major depression is accompanied by lowered serum zinc, an immune-inflammatory biomarker. However, the effect of anti-inflammatory drugs as adjuvant to antidepressants on serum zinc and copper in relation to pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines are not studied. The aim of the present work is to examine the effects of treatment with sertraline with and without ketoprofen on serum levels of zinc and copper in association with immune-inflammatory biomarkers in drug-naïve major depressed patients. We measured serum zinc and copper, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-18, interferon (IFN)-γ, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in 40 controls and 133 depressed patients. The clinical efficacy of the treatment was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) at baseline and 8 weeks later. In drug-naïve major depressed patients we found significantly reduced baseline levels of serum zinc and copper in association with upregulation of all cytokines, indicating activation of the immune-inflammatory responses system (IRS) as well as the compensatory immune regulatory system (CIRS). Treatment with sertraline significantly increased zinc and decreased copper levels, while ketoprofen did not have a significant add-on effect on zinc but attenuated the suppressant effects of sertraline on copper levels. During treatment, there was a significant inverse association between serum zinc and activation of the IRS/CIRS. The improvement in the BDI-II during treatment was significantly associated with increments in serum zinc coupled with attenuation of the IRS/CIRS. In conclusion, lower serum zinc is a hallmark of depression, while increments in serum zinc and attenuation of the immune-inflammatory response during treatment appear to play a role in the clinical efficacy of sertraline. Intertwined changes in zinc levels and the immune response play a role in the pathophysiology of major depression and participate in the mechanisms underpinning the clinical efficacy of antidepressants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: astragalus membranaceus; panax ginseng; metabonomics; biomarkers; immune
Online: 2 April 2018 (10:20:59 CEST)
Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Panax ginseng (PG) are two herbal products with a long history of clinical usage in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), used in treating a variety of diseases especially in stimulating or inhibiting the immune system. To elucidate the immunity effect of these two traditional Chinese medicine on animal model, four pharmacodynamic indexes (spleen index, thymus index, splenic lymphocyte proliferation and cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells) were observed on mice. Furthermore, metabolic profiles of plasma were also analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS, LC-MS) method. All mice were intragastric administrated at three doses (low dose, moderate dose and high dose) once daily for 30 days. Principal components analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structure discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were performed on LC-MS spectra of plasma, showing that all administration groups developed the disturbance of internal milieu, compared to the blank control (BC) group. Besides, correlation analysis was conducted between pharmacodynamic index and metabolic index. It indicated that uracil, lysoPC(18:3(6Z,9Z,12Z)), sphinganine, LPA(0:0/16:0), UDP-glucuronate, PC(14:0/18:0) were five main endogenous substances, much closely related to four immunological indexes. Glycerophospholipid metabolism was found in both AM and PG groups. Pyrimidine metabolism and sphingolipid metabolism were closely regulated in AM groups. Energy metabolism (starch and sucrose metabolism, Pentose and glucuronate interconversions, together with glycerolipid metabolism) and glycerolipid metabolism were found in PG groups. These findings could contribute to the understanding of mice plasmatic metabolic profiling after long-term administration. Comparative immune-related metabolomic analysis of AM and PG was obtained on the base of pathway analysis of immune-related biomarkers. PG groups trended to have effect on cytotoxic activity of NK cells. AM groups trended to effect thymus index. Our work provides a detailed interpretation of immunological characteristics in different traditional Chinese medicine on metabonomic level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0372.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: immune checkpoint inhibitors; non-small cell lung carcinoma; PD-1; PD-L1; immune PET; immunotherapy; Radiomics; PET/CT
Online: 18 August 2021 (08:20:43 CEST)
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death and it is usually diagnosed in advanced stages (stage III or IV). Recently, the availability of targeted strategies and of immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) has favorably changed patient prognosis. Treatment outcome is closely related to tumor biology and interaction with the host immune microenvironment (TME). Whether for targeted therapies the response relies on the presence of specific genetic alterations in tumor cells, for ICI accurate biomarkers of response are lacking and clinical outcome likely depends on multiple factors, host and tumor-related. This paper is an overview of the ongoing research on predictive factors both from in-vitro/ex-vivo analysis (ranging from conventional pathology to molecular biology) and in-vivo analysis, where molecular imaging is showing an exponential growth and use due to the technological advancement and to the new bioinformatics approaches applied to image analyses that allow specific features recovery in specific tumor subclones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0609.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: immune checkpoint inhibitors; immune-related adverse events (irAEs); tolerance; ipilimumab; nivolumab; interleukin-2; hyperthermia; low-dose-combination therapy
Online: 28 November 2018 (10:23:31 CET)
As a result of the cancer immunotherapy revolution hundreds of clinical trials of the newly approved immunotherapies are now under way to improve responses. Not unexpectedly, the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo for their development of cancer therapy by blockade of co-inhibitory signals. While success stories of terminal cancer patients achieving complete remissions are accumulating, not enough research has been done into the risks of the new therapies. Since the use of immunotherapy is becoming more common, and is expected to develop into first- and second-line treatments, immunotoxicity and autoimmunity are emerging as the nemesis of immunotherapy. Immune-related adverse events (IrAEs) could affect any tissue, their incidence may reach up to 90% of patients and toxicity is dose-dependent. While the combination of two immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) increased efficacy, the incidence of severe adverse events was also increased. Apparently, ICIs cannot be restricted to the targeted anti-tumor T cell population. The long lasting objective of cancer regression can only be achieved by paying a price: tolerance to healthy self tissues is compromised. In the face of an ipilimumab induced pan-lymphocytic activation, a therapeutic paradigm shift is required. The task is not desperately trying to put the genie back in the bottle by immune suppressive treatments, but instead harnessing the autoimmune forces by an off label low-dose combined anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD1 antibody blockade, which is supplemented with conventional interleukin-2 stimulation and hyperthermia. The proof-of-principle of the low-dose-combination therapy was demonstrated in a heavily pre-treated triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patient with far advanced pulmonary metastases and severe shortness of breath, who had exhausted all conventional treatment. Her pulmonary metastases went into complete remission with transient WHO I-II diarrhea and skin rash. She lived for 27 months after starting the low-dose-combination therapy. She had recurrence as a sternal mass and pleural metastases up to 3 cm. Since the low-dose-combination protocol consists only of approved drugs and treatments, this exceptional response should instigate further research efforts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0421.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Oncology; Immune Checkpoint Inhibition; PD-1; PD-L1; CTLA-4; Immune Related Adverse Events; Immunotherapy; Tumor Plasticity; Tumor Microenvironment; Optimum Therapy Duration
Online: 6 March 2023 (01:53:16 CET)
Immune checkpoint inhibition therapy (ICIT) is an emerging field in oncology especially opening new horizons to chemotherapy refractory patients. This paper provides deep insight into immune related adverse events (irAEs) posing a major challenge and drawback to ICIT, and presents right management strategies for very complex complications. Moreover, for the first time in literature, a non-linear mathematical model is introduced to measure the ICIT success rate and to decide about the optimum ICIT duration. Furthermore, a strategy is presented to overcome or to delay the progression after initial good response in a subset of patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0426.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 infection; innate immune response; antigen-specific immune response; kinetic coordination; mathematical model; pathogenesis, long COVID-19
Online: 27 July 2022 (15:11:44 CEST)
A calibrated mathematical model of antiviral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is developed. The model considers the innate and antigen-specific responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Recently published data sets from human challenge studies with SARS-CoV-2 were used for parameter estimation. Understanding the regulation of multiple intertwined reaction components of the immune system is necessary for linking the clinical phenotypes of COVID-19 with the kinetics of immune responses. Consideration of multiple immune reaction components in a single calibrated mathematical model allowed us to address some fundamental issues related to pathogenesis of COVID-19, i.e. sensitivity of the peak viral load to parameters characterizing the specific response components, the kinetic coordination of the individual responses, and the factors favoring a prolonged viral persistence. The model provides a tool for predicting the infectivity of patients, i.e. the amount of virus which is transmitted via droplets from the person infected with SARS-CoV-2, depending on the time of infection. The thresholds in the relative unbalance between innate and adaptive response parameters which lead to a prolonged persistence of SARS-CoV-2 due to the loss of a kinetic response synchrony/coordination were identified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1930.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Biochemical compounds; Blue light; Growth; Immune system; Nutrition
Online: 29 August 2023 (08:51:26 CEST)
The development and use of selenium and iodine elements in agriculture aim to enrich agricultural food products for humans. This study was carried out as a three-factor factorial experiment in a completely randomized design (CRD). Three concentrations of sodium selenate fertilizer (0, 2, 4 mg/l), three potassium iodate (0, 2, 4 mg/l), and two supplementary radiation levels (blue light and sunlight) were used. The results showed that the highest and the lowest (3.44 & 3.12 mg/g f.w) leaf protein value was related to blue light and sunlight treatments, respectively. In the blue light treatment, the maximum and the minimum (4.77 & 3.39 mg/g f.w) leaf sugar amount was observed at 4 and 0 mg/l of the iodine, respectively. At 0 mg/l of selenium, the highest and the lowest (8.63 & 5.34 mg/g f.w) leaf vitamin C amount was recorded at the 4 and 0 mg/l of iodine, respectively. In blue light + 0 mg/l of the selenium, the highest and the lowest (2.94 & 2.10 mg/g f.w) leaf flavonoid quantity was seen at 2 and 0 mg/l of the iodine, respectively. In the blue light conditions, (5.20%) leaf nitrogen content was achieved in the selenium 4 mg/l group. In the same conditions, the maximum and the minimum (3.09 & 2.18%) leaf potassium amount was attained at selenium 2 and 4 mg/l, respectively. Under blue light conditions, the highest and the lowest (0.58 & 0.24 mg/kg dry matter) leaf selenium level was observed at 4 and 0 mg/l, respectively. In sunlightradiation levels, the maximum and the minimum (0.36 & 0.25 mg/kg dry matter) leaf selenium level were found at 4 and 0 mg/l of selenium, respectively. In the blue light conditions, the most and the lowest (1.65 & 0.72 mg/kg dry matter) seed selenium content was related to 4 and 0 mg/l of the selenium, respectively. In the blue light conditions, the highest and the lowest (8.49 & 4.25 mg/kg dry matter) leaf iodine level was recorded at 4 and 0 mg/l of iodine, respectively. In the blue light conditions, the maximum and the minimum (30.56 & 20.62 mg/kg dry matter) seed iodine value was related to 4 and 0 mg/l of the iodine, respectively. In the sunlight, the most and the lowest (24.96 & 20.29 mg/kg dry matter) seed iodine amount was achieved at 4 and 0 mg/l of the selenium, respectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1647.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Lung cancer; Cytokines; Therapy; Immune system; Anti-tumor
Online: 23 August 2023 (09:55:37 CEST)
Lung cancer accounts for the majority of cancer cases. In recent years, checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy (ICI) has emerged as a new treatment. A better understanding of the tumor microenvironment, or TMJ, or the immune system surrounding the tumor is needed. Cytokines are small proteins that carry messages between cells and are known to play an important role in the body's response to inflammation and infection. Cytokines are important for immunity in lung cancer. It promotes tumor growth (oncogenic cytokines) or inhibits tumor growth (anti-tumor cytokines) by controlling signaling pathways for growth, proliferation, metastasis, and apoptosis. The immune system relies heavily on cytokines. They can also be produced in the laboratory for therapeutic use. Cytokine therapy helps the immune system stop the growth or kill cancer cells. Interleukins and interferons are two types of cytokines used to treat cancer. This article begins by addressing the role of the tumor microenvironment (TMJ) and its components in lung cancer. This review also highlights the functions of various cytokines such as IL, TGF and TNF.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1217.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: ADEM; COVID-19 VACCINES; MYOPERICARDITIS; IMMUNE CHECK POINTS
Online: 19 July 2023 (02:58:47 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 vaccines have been a game changer in the pandemic, their extensive use was favorable compared to the burden of COVID-19 complications. Despite the low incidence of complications, it was important to analyze them carefully to understand the underlying mechanisms and predisposing factors. For instance, myopericarditis especially from mRNA vaccines, and its relatively higher prevalence in young adults and adolescents has raised a public concern about the use of this vaccine in this group. We aimed through this review to compare the age likelihood of ADEM from COVID-19 vaccines, with that reported in myopericarditis cases; secondary outcome parameters included the gender and number of doses needed to induce COVID-19 vaccines related ADEM. Methodology: A literature search has been conducted on relevant databases to retrieve all case reports/series and systematic reviews describing ADEM with possible linkage to COVID-19. Exclusion criteria included any report not including the desired outcome parameters. Our results were then qualitatively compared with a similar systematic review reporting myopericarditis from COVID-19 vaccines. Results: In 38 cases with ADEM, mean age was 49±16 compared to 25±14 in myopericarditis, females were more likely to be affected, and while most of myopericarditis cases develop after the second dose, most of ADEM cases develop after the first dose (76%). Moreover, age>56 years was more predictive of negative outcome after ADEM in the form of death or permanent vegetative state. Conclusion: The discrepancy in age, gender and number of doses needed to induce complications between ADEM and myopericarditis, signify that the tissue affected is the major orchestrator of the age, gender, and dose characteristics, and not the type of vaccines. A leakier blood brain barrier with aging, might allow easier passage of autoantibodies and cytokines into the brain while lack of inhibitory immune checkpoints in the myocardium in young age might explain the higher prevalence of those cases in young adults and adolescents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0043.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Gliomas; Tumour Microenvironment; Immunotherapy; Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors; Vaccines
Online: 4 July 2023 (02:39:07 CEST)
Gliomas are aggressive, primary central nervous system tumours arising from glial cells. Glioblastomas are the most malignant. They are known for their poor prognosis or median overall survival. Current standard of care is overwhelmed by the heterogeneous, immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment promoting immune evasion and tumour proliferation. The advent of immunotherapy with its various modalities – immune checkpoint inhibitors, cancer vaccines, oncolytic viruses, chimeric antigen receptor T cells and NK cells have shown promise. Clinical trials incorporating combination therapies of the above have overcome the microenvironment resistance and yielded survival and prognostic benefit. Rolling these new therapies out in the real-world scenario in a low cost, high throughput manner is the unmet need of the hour. These will bring practice changing implications to the glioma treatment landscape. In this review article, we focus on describing the hallmarks of the glioma microenvironment and its interplay with the different emerging modalities of immunotherapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1438.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: brain metastasis; tumor microenvironment; targeted therapy; immune therapy
Online: 20 June 2023 (11:56:39 CEST)
Brain metastasis (BrM), involving the spread of cells from a primary tumor through the blood circulation system to the brain microvasculature, eventually progresses despite multiple treatments and remains a substantial contributor to major mortality in patients with advanced- stage cancer. Molecular signatures and immune cellular components of the tumor microenvironment (TME) are emerging as essential regulators involved in establishing an organ-specific metastasis (colonization) and therapeutic response. A comprehensive understanding of detailed characterization and the immune landscape in context of process of BrM formation will greatly expand the horizon of treatments available to target these deadly diseases. In this review, we provide a comprehensive picture of the complex interactions between tumor cells and immune cellular components participated in the BrM process. Based on this knowledge, we will discuss opportunities and challenges for therapeutic strategies against BrM.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0444.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; bacteriome; immune system
Online: 27 February 2023 (06:15:38 CET)
The Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) first emerged in 2019 in China and has resulted in millions of human morbidities and mortalities across the globe. It has been shown that this novel virus originated in animals, mutated, and made the cross-species jump to humans. At the time of this communication, the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) may be on way to an endemic form, however the threat of the virus is more for susceptible (older people and immunocompromised) people. The human body has more bacterial cells than its own, thus making us more bacterial than humans. As a consequence, the bacteriomes in the human body heavily influence human health and disease. The bacteriomes in the body and the immune system seem to be in constant association during bacterial and viral infections. In this review, we identify various bacterial spp. in major bacteriomes (oral, nasal, lung, and gut) of the body in healthy humans and compare them with dysbiotic bacteriomes of COVID-19 patients. We try to identify key bacterial spp. that have a positive effect on the functionality of the immune system and human health. These select bacterial spp. could be used as potential probiotics to counter or prevent COVID-19 infections. In addition, we try to identify key metabolites produced by probiotic bacterial spp. that could have potential anti-viral effects against SARS-CoV-2. These metabolites could be subject to future therapeutic trials to determine their anti-viral efficacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: anoikis; Low-grade glioma; signature; prognosis; immune microenvironment
Online: 22 September 2022 (10:38:43 CEST)
Low-grade glioma (LGG) is a highly aggressive disease in the skull. On the other hand, anoikis, a specific form of cell death induced by the loss of cell contact with the extracellular matrix, plays a key role in cancer metastasis. In this study，anoikis-related genes (ANRGs) were used to identify LGG subtypes and to construct a prognostic model for LGG patients. In addition, we explored the immune microenvironment and enrichment pathways between different subtypes. We constructed an anoikis-related gene signature using the TCGA cohort and investigated the differences in clinical features, mutational landscape, immune cell infiltration, etc. between different risk groups. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the characteristics of ANRGs in the high-risk group were associated with poor prognosis in LGG patients. The risk score was identified as an independent prognostic factor. The high-risk group had higher immune cell infiltration, tumor mutation load, immune checkpoint gene expression, and ICB treatment response. Functional analysis showed that these high- and low-risk groups had different immune statuses and drug sensitivity. Risk scores were used together with LGG clinicopathological features to construct a nomogram, and DCA analysis showed that the model could enable patients to benefit from clinical treatment strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0113.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Cancer; Immunotherapy; Microbiome; Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor; Immunology; Therapy
Online: 7 September 2022 (12:42:28 CEST)
Abstract: The gut microbiome refers to microorganisms and their genetic material influencing local and systemic inflammation. Inflammation is known to contribute to cancer development, progression, and treatment. Evidence suggests that modulating the gut microbiome may affect responses to various cancer therapies. The gut microbiota has been suggested to have an impact on immunotherapy efficacy, especially the currently widely used immune checkpoint inhibitors in various malignancies. Microbial Interventions like fecal microbiota transplantation, various probiotics, or even antibiotics can increase or de-crease the tumor's sensitivity to immunotherapy. However, not all tumors react in the same manner, highlighting the tumor microenvironment heterogeneity across tumor types and the influence this has on the crosstalk between the microbiome and therapy outcomes. In this study, we intend to review the association between the gut microbiota and immunotherapy response in cancer patients and the factors regulating this interaction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0126.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Infective Endocarditis; Staphylococcus Aureus; Biofilm; Immune response; Fibronectin
Online: 7 July 2022 (10:00:18 CEST)
Infective endocarditis remains an illness that carries a significant burden to healthcare resources. In recent times, there has been a shift from Streptococcus sp to Staphylococcus sp as the primary organism of interest. This has significant consequences given the virulence of Staphylococcus and its propensity to form a biofilm, rendering non-surgical therapy ineffective. In addition, antibiotic resistance has affected treatment of this organism. The cohorts at most risk for Staphylococcal endocarditis are the elderly patients with multiple comorbidities. The innovation of transcatheter technologies alongside other cardiac interventions such as implantable devices have contributed to the increased risk attributable to this cohort. We examine the role of the heart team for diagnosis and treatment of this condition. In addition, we examine the determinants of virulence of Staphylococcus aureus, the interaction with hosts immunity and the discovery and emergence of a potential vaccine. We also examine the potential role of prophylactic antibiotics during dental procedures. With increasing rates of transcatheter device implantations, there is a projected increment of endocarditis especially in this high-risk group. A high index of suspicion is needed alongside early initiation of therapy and referral to the heart time to improve outcomes.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0266.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: PARP inhibitor; angiogenesis; immune suppression; recurrent ovarian cancer
Online: 20 June 2022 (10:02:09 CEST)
In the post-PARP inhibitor era, potential changes in tumor biology after maintenance therapy have not been well investigated in recurrent ovarian cancer. We reported a case with alterations in the clinical and histological features of multiple relapsed disease associated with PARP inhibitor maintenance therapy. The patient with high-grade serous carcinoma exhibited BRCA wildtype and homologous recombination proficiency status, and suffered from three recurrences and surgeries accordingly. Olaparib maintenance had been used during the second-line therapy. We compared the differences in clinics and pathology among three recurrences and relapsed lesions. Disease-free survivals were dramatically decreased after the exposure to olaparib. At exploration of quaternary cytoreduction, the relapsed tumor was characterized by a carcinomatosis-like metastasis pattern and an easy tendency of bleeding. Tumor cytopathological changes and alterations were observed in both the tumoral and non-tumoral stroma, among relapsed tumor tissues derived from secondary, tertiary and quaternary cytoreduction. Histopathology indicated hemorrhage, necrosis, atypical tumor cells, massive angiogenesis, and decreased CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, particularly in the third relapsed disease. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show a unique metastatic pattern of angiogenic burst after PARP inhibitor maintenance therapy in ovarian cancer, which seemed to trigger invasive tumor growth and immune suppression. Further prospective studies and translational research focusing cytoreductive surgery after PARP inhibitor could progressively lead to an understanding of the biological behavior and metastatic patterns.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Organoids; IBD; Inflammation; Target therapy; microbiota; immune system
Online: 4 April 2022 (10:35:01 CEST)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and relapsing disease caused by a dysregulated immune response to host intestinal microbiota that occurs in genetically predisposed individuals. IBD encompasses two major clinical entities: ulcerative colitis (UC), which is limited to the colonic mucosa, and Crohn disease (CD), which might affect any segment of the gastrointestinal tract. Despite the prevalence of IBD is increasing worldwide, therapy remains suboptimal, largely because the variability of causative mechanisms, raising the need to develop individualized therapeutic approaches targeted to each individual patient. In this context, patients-derived intestinal organoids represent an effective tool for advancing our understanding on IBD’ s pathogenesis. Organoid 3D culture systems offer a unique model for dissecting epithelial mechanisms involved IBDs and test individualized therapy, although the lack of a functional immune system and a microbiota, two driving components of the IBD pathogenesis, represent a major barrier for their exploitation in clinical medicine. In this review we have examined how to improve the translational utility of intestinal organoids in IBD and how co-coltures of 3D or 2D organoids and immune cells and/or intestinal microbiota might help to overcome these limitations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0136.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: structural MRI; MRS; maternal immune activation; altered trajectories
Online: 10 March 2022 (03:06:59 CET)
Serological human birth cohort studies have identified maternal infection during pregnancy as a risk factor for development of disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorder and schizophrenia in offspring. Similarly, in experiments using animal models, maternal immune activation (MIA) has been shown to alter neuroanatomical and behavioral development in offspring. This study employs magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in conjunction with behavioral assays to refine our understanding of the impact of MIA on neurobiological development in exposed animals. On gestational day nine, pregnant dams were injected with either polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (POL) to induce MIA or saline (SAL) as a control. Whole-brain MRI, localized proton MRS, and behavioral tests (open field, three chambered social approach, and prepulse inhibition) were acquired at two timepoints, during adolescence (postnatal day [PND] 35) and adulthood (PND 60). Whole-brain voxel-wise volumetric analyses revealed that MIA offspring exhibited altered volume in the hippocampus and caudate putamen (CPu) between adolescence and early adulthood. MRS data were assessed at each timepoint separately; MIA offspring during early adulthood but not adolescence exhibited trending reductions in γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) (p = 0.06) and myo-inositol (Ins) (p = 0.08) compared to saline controls. However, these metabolite differences did not reach levels of significance, even before multiple comparison corrections. Open field testing revealed that during adolescence, MIA offspring displayed a more anxious phenotype than controls wherein they spent less time in the anxiogenic center zone of the open field arena (p < 0.007), but this difference normalized by adulthood. There were no significant differences in sociability preference, novelty preference, or prepulse inhibition comparing the groups. Results suggest that early gestational exposure to MIA results in subtle neuroanatomical changes in the trajectories of development, trending behavioral changes in adolescent offspring, and slight neurochemical changes in young adult offspring. Maternal infection alone may not be enough; additional genetic or environmental risk factors may be required to elicit the more typical symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0148.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Cancer related Inflammation; miRNA; LncRNA; Epigenetics, immune polarization
Online: 8 September 2021 (12:07:58 CEST)
Accumulating evidences demonstrate that the host genome's epigenetic modificationsare essential for living organisms to adapt extreme conditions.DNA methylation, covalent modifications of histone, andinter-association of non-coding RNAs facilitate the cellular manifestation ofepigenetic changes in the genome. Out of various factors involved in the epigenetic programming of the host, miRNA (microRNA) and LncRNA (Long non-coding RNA) are new generationnon-coding molecules that influence a variety of cellular processes like immunity, cellular differentiation, and tumor development. During tumor development, temporal changes in miRNA/LncRNA rheostat influence sterile inflammatory responses accompanied by the changes in the carcinogenic signalling in the host. At the cellular level, this is manifested by the up-regulation of Inflammasome and inflammatory pathways, which promotes cancer-related inflammation. In view of this, we discuss the potential of lncRNA and miRNA directed interventions in regulating inflammation and tumor development in the host.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: lncRNA; melanoma; prognosis; immune checkpoint inhibit; WGCNA; NMF
Online: 11 July 2020 (04:35:06 CEST)
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have been widely used in melanoma, but to identify melanoma patients with survival benefit from ICI is still a big challenge. There is an urgent need for prognostic signatures improving the prediction of immunotherapy responses of cancer patients. We used data from EMBL-EBI database and analyzed RNA-seq information and clinical profiles in melanoma. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was used to identify the key module, then nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) was conducted to cluster patients into two different cluster and compared them regarding overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Subsequently, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between different clusters were identified, and their function and pathway annotation were performed. 91 melanoma biopsies with complete survival information were included in our analyses and we first identified the key module (magenta) by WGCNA, then identified nine prognostic lncRNAs (ENSG00000258869, ENSG00000179840, ENSG00000206344, ENSG00000226777, ENSG00000205018, ENSG00000204261, ENSG00000163597, ENSG00000197536, and ENSG00000263069) signature that predicted for OS and PFS in patients treated with ICI by NMF. Finally, enrichment analysis showed that the functions of DEGs between two consensus clusters were mainly related to the immune process and treatment. In summary, the nine lncRNAs signature is a novel effective predictor for OS and PFS in melanoma patients treated with ICI.