Preprint Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Prevention of Hearing Loss by Alteration of the Systemic Immune System

Version 1 : Received: 29 December 2018 / Approved: 4 January 2019 / Online: 4 January 2019 (11:37:31 CET)

How to cite: Iwai, H.; Inaba, M. Prevention of Hearing Loss by Alteration of the Systemic Immune System. Preprints 2019, 2019010039 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201901.0039.v1). Iwai, H.; Inaba, M. Prevention of Hearing Loss by Alteration of the Systemic Immune System. Preprints 2019, 2019010039 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201901.0039.v1).

Abstract

Although congenital sensorineural hearing loss (SHL) in the bilateral cochleae mainly results from genetic abnormalities, chronic SHL progressing in later life is often influenced by systemic immune disturbances, including autoimmunity, chronic inflammation, and immunosenescence. We have investigated the relationship between the inner ear and systemic immunity and reviewed the possibilities to prevent SHL, including autoimmune SHL and age-related SHL. We also demonstrated two lymphocyte populations, interleukin 1 receptor type II (IL-1R2)-positive T cells (T1R2) and naturally occurring regulatory T cells (nTregs) in CD4+ T cells, which increase with aging, suppress host immune function and promote organ degeneration. Alterations in systemic immunity by fewer microbial antigen challenges in the living environment, elimination of immune suppressive lymphocytes, or immune rejuvenation with a reconstituted thymus may contribute not only to renew the cochlear function in SHL, but also to extend the healthy life of functional organs in a vigorous and youthful body, one of humanity’s greatest dreams.

Subject Areas

autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss; age-related sensorineural hearing loss; inflammation, immune senescence; interleukin 1 receptor type II -positive T cells; naturally occurring regulatory T cells; immune rejuvenation; thymus

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 12 February 2019
Commenter: Hiroshi Iwai
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: We believe that our paper would be of interest to your readers because it is the first to consider that hearing loss progressing in later life is often influenced by systemic immune disturbance, and that alterations in systemic immunity may contribute to prevent hearing loss, especially presbycusis, for which a strategy has not been developed despite the current increase in the elderly population.
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