Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Gut Dysbiosis and Immune System in Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ACVD)

Version 1 : Received: 8 November 2021 / Approved: 9 November 2021 / Online: 9 November 2021 (13:45:20 CET)

How to cite: Yoo, J.Y.; Sniffen, S.; Percy, K.M.; Chidipi, B.B.; Pallaval, V.B. The Gut Dysbiosis and Immune System in Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ACVD). Preprints 2021, 2021110175 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202111.0175.v1). Yoo, J.Y.; Sniffen, S.; Percy, K.M.; Chidipi, B.B.; Pallaval, V.B. The Gut Dysbiosis and Immune System in Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ACVD). Preprints 2021, 2021110175 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202111.0175.v1).

Abstract

Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease and mortality worldwide. Alterations in the gut microbiota composition, known as gut dysbiosis, have been shown to contribute to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) development through several pathways. Disruptions in gut homeostasis are associated with activation of immune processes and systemic inflammation. The gut microbiota produces several metabolic products, namely trimethylamine (TMA), which is used to produce the proatherogenic metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including acetate, butyrate, and propionate, and certain bile acids (BAs) produced by the gut microbiota lead to inflammation resolution and decrease atherogenesis. Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated to common risk factors for atherosclerosis, including metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and obesity. Novel strategies for reducing ACVD include the use of nutraceuticals such as resveratrol, modification of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels, supplementation with probiotics, and administration of prebiotic SCFAs and BAs. Investigation into the relationship between the gut microbiota and its metabolites, and the host immune system could reveal promising insight into ACVD development, prognostic factors, and treatments.

Keywords

atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD); atherosclerosis; gut dysbiosis; immune system; gut microbial metabolites; SCFAs; TMAO

Subject

BIOLOGY, Other

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