HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0127.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Big Data, Systems Models, Cancer metabolism, Cancer personalized treatment, Drug Discovery.
Online: 6 August 2018 (15:09:15 CEST)
Coordinated sets of extremely numerous digital data, on a given social or economic event, are treated by Artificial Intelligence tools to obtain reasonably accurate, valuable predictions. The same approach, applied to biomedical issues, as how to choose the right drug to completely cure a given cancer patient, does not reach satisfactory results. It is the “organized biological complexity”, which requires a different systems approach, to integrate, in an Augmented Intelligence strategy, statistical computations of digital data, network construction of “omics” findings, well-designed mathematical models and new experiments in an iterative pathway to reconstruct the “logic” beneath the “organized complexity”, as shown here for Systems Metabolomics of cancer. On this basis new diagnostic approaches, able to identify precision drug treatments, as well as new discovery strategy for more effective anti-cancer drugs are described.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0149.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Bioinformatics; Cervical cancer; Deep Sequencing; Human papillomavirus; HPV genotyping; Metagenome; Next generation sequencing; Taxonomic classification; Virome
Online: 6 August 2021 (08:00:00 CEST)
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has actualized human papillomavirus (HPV) virome profiling for in-depth investigation of viral evolution and pathogenesis. However, viral computational analysis remains a bottleneck due to semantic discrepancies between computational tools and curated reference genomes. To address this, we developed and tested automated workflows for HPV taxonomic profiling and visualization using a customized Papillomavirus database in CLC Microbial Genomics Module. HPV genomes from Papilloma Virus Episteme were customized and incorporated into CLC “ready-to-use” workflows for stepwise data processing to include: 1) Taxonomic Analysis, 2) Estimate Alpha/Beta Diversities, and 3) Map Reads to Reference. Low-grade (n = 95) and high-grade (n = 60) Pap smears were tested with ensuing collective runtimes: Taxonomic Analysis (36 min); Alpha/Beta Diversities (5 sec); Map Reads (45 min). Tabular output conversion to visualizations entailed 1-2 keystrokes. Biodiversity analysis between low- (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) revealed loss of species richness and gain of dominance by HPV-16 in HSIL. Integrating clinically relevant, taxonomized HPV reference genomes within automated workflows proved to be an ultra-fast method of virome profiling. The entire process named “HPV DeepSeq” provides a simple, accurate and practical means of NGS data analysis for a broad range of applications in viral research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0467.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Tspo; prostate cancer; stomach cancer; colon cancer; liver cancer; lung cancer; kidney cancer; breast cancer; brain cancer
Online: 31 May 2018 (10:59:31 CEST)
Tspo is a receptor involved in the regulation of cellular proliferation, apoptosis and mitochondrial functions. Previous studies showed the expression of TSPO protein correlated positively with tumour malignancy and negatively with patient survival. The aim of this study was to determine the transcription of Tspo mRNA in various types of normal and cancer tissues. In situ hybridization was performed to localise the Tspo mRNA in various human normal and cancer tissues. The relative level of Tspo mRNA was quantified using fluorescent intensity and visual estimation of colorimetric staining. RT-PCR was used to confirm these mRNA levels in normal lung, lung cancer, liver cancer and cervical cancer cell lines. There was a significant increase in the level of transcription in liver, prostate, kidney and brain cancers while a significant decrease was observed in cancers of the colon and lung. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed that the mRNA levels of Tspo are higher in a normal lung cell line than in a lung cancer cell line. An increase in the expression levels of TSPO makes it a good diagnostic biomarker and TSPO could serve as a target for anticancer drug development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0430.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Breast cancer infection; breast cancer immunity; breast cancer virus; nasopharyngeal cancer; EBV cancer; hereditary breast cancer; BRCA1; BRCA2
Online: 20 July 2021 (09:29:06 CEST)
Inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase risks for breast, ovarian, and other cancers. Both genes encode proteins for accurately repairing chromosome breaks. If mutations inactivate this function, broken chromosomes may not be restored correctly, allowing breaks to persist or rearrange chromosomes. These abnormalities are potentially catastrophic events that can originate from viral infections. I used bioinformatic analyses of publicly available breast cancer patient data to show that the distribution of chromosome breaks in hereditary breast cancers differs markedly from sporadic breast cancers. Then I tested hereditary breast cancer sequence data around chromosome breaks for DNA similarity to all known viruses. Human DNA flanking breakpoints usually had decisive matches to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV / HHV4) tumor variants HKHD40 and HKNPC60. Many breakpoints were near EBV genome anchor sites, human EBV tumor-like sequences, EBV-associated epigenetic marks, and some fragile sites. On chromosomes 2 and 12, sequences near EBV genome anchor sites accounted for 90% and 88% of breakpoints (p<0.0001), respectively. On chromosome 4, 51/52 inter-chromosomal breakpoints were close to EBV-like sequences in 19 hereditary breast cancers. In contrast, 19 sporadic breast cancers only had 12 interchromosomal breakpoint regions on chromosome 4 near EBV-like sequences. On various other chromosomes, five EBV genome anchor sites were near hereditary breast cancer breakpoints at precisely defined, disparate gene or LINE locations. Independent evidence further implicating EBV in hereditary breast cancer breakpoints is that 25 breast cancer break positions are within 1.25% of breakpoints in model EBV cancers. In addition to BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, all the hereditary breast cancers had mutated genes essential for immune responses. This compromise facilitates reactivation of herpes viruses which produce nucleases capable of breaking chromosomes. EBV also causes other deleterious effects: anchored EBV episomes can interfere with normal replication and obstruct DNA break repairs; even very early infection causes massive transcription changes. The results, therefore, imply proactive treatment and prevention of herpes viral infections may prevent some chromosome breaks and benefit BRCA mutation carriers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0069.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Glyoxalases; urological malignancies; prostate cancer; kidney cancer; bladder cancer testicular cancer
Online: 15 September 2017 (14:28:24 CEST)
Urological cancers include a spectrum of malignancies affecting organs of the reproductive and/or urinary systems, such as prostate, kidney, bladder, and testis. Despite improved primary prevention, detection and treatment, urological cancers are still characterized by an increasing incidence and mortality worldwide and although advances have been made toward understanding the molecular basis of these diseases, a complete insight of the pathogenic mechanisms is still a research challenge for defining safer pharmacological therapies and prognostic factors, especially for the metastatic stage of these neoplasms for which no effective therapies exist. Glyoxalases are enzymes that catalyzes the glutathione-dependent metabolism of cytotoxic methylglyoxal (MG), thus protecting against cellular damage and apoptosis. They are generally overexpressed in numerous cancers as a survival strategy by providing a safeguard through enhancement of MG detoxification. Increasing evidence suggest that glyoxalases, especially Glo1, would act as oncogenes in urological malignancies and be central to their initiation, growth and progression. In this review, we highlight the critical role of glyoxalases as regulators of tumorigenesis in the prostate through modulation of various critical signaling pathways, and provide an overview of the current knowledge on glyoxalases in bladder, kidney and testis cancers. We also discuss the promise and challenges for Glo1 inhibitors as future anti-PCa therapeutics and the potential of glyoxalases as biomarkers for PCa diagnosis.
Online: 2 November 2020 (13:50:43 CET)
Epidemiological studies on micronutrient consumption have reported protective associations in the incidence and/or progression of various cancer types. Supplementation with some of these micronutrients has been analyzed, showing chemoprotection, low toxicity, antiproliferation, and the ability to modify epigenetic signatures in various cancer models. The following review inves-tigates the reported effects of micronutrient intake or supplementation in breast cancer progres-sion. A PubMed search was conducted with the keywords “micronutrients breast cancer progres-sion,” and the results were analyzed. The selected micronutrients were: Vitamins (A, C, D, and E), Folic Acid, metals (Cu, Fe, Se, and Zn), fatty acids, polyphenols, and iodine. The majority of in vitro models showed antiproliferative, cell cycle arrest, and antimetastatic effects for almost all the micronutrients analyzed, but these effects do not reflect animal or human studies. Only one clinical trial with Vitamin D and one pilot study with molecular iodine showed favorable overall survival and disease-free interval.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0205.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: prostate cancer, renal cancer, urothelial cancer, vaccines, immunotherapy
Online: 10 May 2021 (14:54:43 CEST)
Background: In the last years, many new treatment options have widened the therapeutic scenario of genitourinary malignancies. Immunotherapy has shown efficacy, especially in the urothelial and renal cell carcinomas, with no particular relevance in prostate cancer. However, despite the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors, there is still high morbidity and mortality among these neo-plasms. Cancer vaccines represent another way to activate the immune system. We sought to summarize the most recent advances in vaccine therapy for genitourinary malignancies with this review. Methods: We searched Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane Database for clinical trials conducted in the last ten years, focusing on cancer vaccines in the prostate, urothelial and renal cancer. Results: Various therapeutic vaccines, including DNA-based, RNA-based, peptide-based, dendritic cells, viral vectors, and modified tumor cells, have been demonstrated to induce specific immune responses in a variable percentage of patients. However, these responses rarely corresponded to significant survival improvements. Conclusions: Further pre-clinical and clinical studies will improve the knowledge about cancer vaccines in genitourinary malignancies to optimize dosage, select targets with a driver role for tumor development and growth, and finally overcome resistance mechanisms. Combination strategies represent possibly more effective and long-lasting treatments.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Cancer; Cancer Prevention; Cancer Therapy; Immune Boosting Interventions
Online: 30 April 2021 (15:52:40 CEST)
Cancer risk is known to increase tremendously when the immune system is suppressed, e.g., as observed in young organ-transplant recipients and AIDS patients. Based on such data, it may be hypothesized that the main reason for the development of clinical cancer is the weakening or suppression of the immune system, and that uncontrolled multiplication of cancer cells occurs when some aspects of the immune system fall below certain critical levels. Therefore, cancer may be prevented and treated by boosting these critical aspects of the immune system so that they are maintained above the critical levels. If multiple immune system boosting interventions are utilized, more aspects of the immune system would be boosted, increasing the likelihood of enhancing the critical aspects of the immune system and generating a cancer preventive and/or therapeutic effect. Clinical trials are needed to validate this approach for cancer prevention and treatment. If validated, the proposed approach could result in a major reduction of the death and suffering caused by cancer in the world.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0107.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Nanobiotechnology; Biomarkers; Biosensors; Lung cancer; Skin Cancer; Colorectal Cancer
Online: 7 March 2022 (15:03:00 CET)
In the era of nanotechnology, researchers are implementing point to care service to cancer patients to detect malignancy beforehand and to reduce the mortality rate of cancers. Cancer is known to be the most fatal disease among all other diseases and the survivability from cancer is quite impossible if the stage of the cancer is an advanced level. Though the early detection of cancer can increase the chances of survival with a double fold. Biosensor is a part of nanotechnology which is capable to provide point to care service in the field of medicine. With the rising number of cancer occurrences being identified around the world and the increasing number of deaths because of the identification of advanced cancer, biosensors can play a significant part in the early detection of cancer. New molecular methods, including as genomic and proteomic approaches, are increasingly being used to study patient molecular profiles. When such diagnosis method is paired with bioinformatics tools, they generate new data that can be used to discover new disease biomarkers. Finding precise and sensitive indicators that are corelated to a specific disease, as with many other diseases, can be challenging. Furthermore, the concentration of biomarkers in biological fluids varies according to illness states and phases. Peptides, proteins, up or down regulated expression of gene markers, and gene alternation are all examples of molecular markers that are commonly used to diagnose cancer. In this article, we have highlighted six different deadliest cancers such as Ovarian, Breast, Prostrate, Lung, Colorectal and Liver cancer. The article contains distinct types of biomarkers which are normally found in these kinds of cancer and generally used as a potential diagnostic target in the medicine field. The article mainly summarized the application of different types of biosensors devices in the detection of the mostly found biomarkers in the above cancer types.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0029.v1
Online: 3 July 2020 (09:05:13 CEST)
Gambogic acid, a common traditional Chinese medicine and widely distributed throughout South China, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Thailand. It is prenylated xanthone which is the significant bioactive compound of gamboge. Gambogic acid is known as a strong apoptotic inducer in cancer cells. It has been found as strong anticancer agent against various types of cancer cells lines such as breast cancer, pancreatic, and cervical cancer. It induces apoptosis, down regulates the anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin and BCL2,) and down regulates the activities of P-glycoprotein in drug sensitive human breast MCF-7 and drug-resistant MCF-7/ADR cells. Similarly, it also exerts alteration in P13K, AKT, p21, MMP-2 &-9, and phosphorylated-AKT expressions. The current review highlights the anticancer and chemo-preventive perspectives of gambogic acid and its mechanistic role against human and animal cancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0044.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cancer prevention; carcinogenesis; oral cancer; pharynx cancer; mouthrinses; ethanol.
Online: 6 March 2018 (14:28:22 CET)
Objective: To provide mechanistic evidence for the epidemiological link between long-term use of alcohol containing mouthwashes and oral cancer.Methods: Human epithelial keratinocytes were exposed for 30 seconds to concentrations of ethanol commonly present in mouthwashes. After a recovery period, cell viability was assessed with the MTT assay.Results: A marked cytotoxic effect was observed for ethanol concentrations of 20% and above. Conclusions: The cytotoxicity of ethanol can explain the epidemiological association between mouthwash use and oral cancer. Recent findings indicate that the risk of developing cancer in a tissue is strongly determined by the number of stem cell divisions accumulated by the tissue during a person's lifetime; cell division is a major source of mutations and other cancer-promoting errors. Since cell death activates the division of stem cells, the cytotoxicity of ethanol on the cells lining the oral mucosa will promote the division of the stem cells located in deeper layers to produce new cells to regenerate the damaged epithelium. If we regularly use mouthwashes containing cytotoxic concentrations of ethanol, we will force the stem cells of the oral cavity to divide more often than usual and our risk of developing oral cancer will probably increase.Clinical significance: Many mouthwashes contain percentages of ethanol above 20%. Because ethanol is not crucial to prevent and reduce gingivitis and plaque, members of the dental team should consider the potential risk of oral cancer associated with frequent use of alcohol containing mouthwashes when advising their patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0176.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: colorectal cancer screening; breast cancer screening; BC; CRC; cancer prevention; cancer screen-ing; FOBT; mammography; Flanders
Online: 20 May 2022 (12:03:16 CEST)
Despite the recognized benefits of fecal occult blood test (FOBT) and mammography screenings, participation in breast (BC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs is still suboptimal. This study investigates municipal characteristics associated with their BC/CRC screening uptake profiles among women aged 55–69 years. Using data from 308 municipalities of Flanders from 2014 to 2017, a profile for each municipality based on its BC/CRC screening uptake compared with the median screening uptake was created. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to assess the associations between municipal characteristics and BC/CRC screening uptake profiles. The overall median uptake of cancer screening was higher for CRC (57.4%) than for BC (54.6%). The following municipal characteristics were associated with worse performance in terms of only CRC, only BC, or both CRC and BC screening uptake, respectively: foreign nationality, self-employment rate, (early) retirement rate, diabetes, disabilities; (early) retirement rate; age group 65–69, foreign nationality, self-employment rate, (early) retirement rate, wage-earners, diabetes. The following municipal characteristics were associated with better performance in terms of only CRC, only BC, or both CRC and BC screening uptake respectively: residential stability, having a partner, having children, jobseeker rate, GP visits, preventive dental visits; having children, GP visits; age group 55–59, residential stability, having a partner, having children, jobseeker rate, higher education, GP visits, preventive dental visits. This study’s results regarding the interrelation between the BC and CRC screening could be used to tailor interventions to improve the participation of the target population in both programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0590.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: burden of cancer mortality; cancer epidemiology; cancer etiology; cancer prevention; carcinogenic infections; modifiable risk factors
Online: 28 October 2020 (12:13:01 CET)
Several infectious agents are ascertained causes of cancer, but the burden of cancer mortality attributable to carcinogenic infections in Italy was still unknown. To tackle this issue, we calculated the rate and regional distribution of cancer deaths due to infections sustained by seven pathogens ranked as group-1 carcinogenic agents in humans by IARC. Population attributable fractions related to these agents were applied to annual statistics of cancer deaths coded according to 10th International Classification of Diseases. The estimated burden of cancer mortality attributable to carcinogenic infections in Italy during the period 2011-2015 was on average 8.7% of all cancer deaths registered yearly. Approximately 60% of deaths occurred in men and almost the whole burden was due to four infectious agents (Helicobacter pylori, HCV, HPV, and HBV). The analysis of regional distribution showed a higher number of infection-related cancer deaths in the northern regions, where the estimates reached 30 (Liguria) and 28 (Friuli Venezia Giulia) deaths per 100,000 inhabitants in 2015. Since one-twelfth of cancer deaths were attributable to these modifiable risk factors, the implementation of appropriate prevention and treatment interventions may help to reduce the impact of these infections on cancer mortality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0490.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Breast cancer infection; breast cancer immunity; breast cancer virus; genome biochemistry; nasopharyngeal cancer; herpes viruses; hereditary breast cancer; BRCA1; BRCA2; Burkitt's lymphoma; homologous recombination; DNA repair; viral cancer; chromosome breaks; Breast cancer infection; breast cancer immunity; breast cancer virus; nasopharyngeal cancer; hereditary breast cancer; BRCA1; BRCA2; Burkitt's lymphoma
Online: 20 May 2021 (12:43:11 CEST)
Inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase risks for breast, ovarian, and other cancers. Both genes encode proteins for accurately repairing chromosome breaks. If mutations inactivate this function, chromosome fragments may not be restored correctly. Resulting chromosome rearrangements can become critical breast cancer drivers. Because I had data from thousands of cancer structural alterations that matched viral infections, I wondered whether infections contribute to chromosome breaks and rearrangements in hereditary breast cancers. There are currently no interventions to prevent chromosome breaks because they are thought to be unavoidable. However, if chromosome breaks come from infections, they can be treated or prevented. I used bioinformatic analyses to test publicly available breast cancer sequence data around chromosome breaks for DNA similarity to all known viruses. Human DNA flanking breakpoints usually had the strongest matches to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) tumor variants HKHD40 and HKNPC60. Many breakpoints were near sites that anchor EBV genomes, human EBV tumor-like sequences, EBV-associated epigenetic marks, and fragile sites. On chromosome 2, sequences near EBV genome anchor sites accounted for 90% of breakpoints (p<0.0001). On chromosome 4, 51/52 inter-chromosomal breakpoints were close to EBV-like sequences. Five EBV genome anchor sites were near breast cancer breakpoints at precisely defined, disparate gene or LINE locations. Breakpoint flanking regions resembled known EBV-cancers. Twenty-five breakpoints in breast cancers were within 1.25% of EBV cancer breakpoints. In addition to BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, all the breast cancers had mutated genes essential for immune responses. Because of this immune compromise, herpes viruses can activate and produce nucleases that break chromosomes. Alternatively, anchored viral episomes can obstruct break repairs, whatever the cause. The results, therefore, imply proactive treatment and prevention of herpes viral infections may prevent some chromosome breaks and benefit BRCA mutation carriers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0088.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Amino acids; cancer; cancer metabolism; cancer therapy; kidney cancer; renal adenocarcinoma; renal cancer; metastasis; selective amino acid restriction therapy; restriction
Online: 3 August 2022 (11:16:39 CEST)
Targeted therapies with antiangiogenic drugs (e.g., sunitinib) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (e.g., anti-PD-1 antibodies) are the standard of care for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Although these treatments improve patient survival, they are rarely curative. We previously hypothesized that advanced cancers might be treated without drugs by using artificial diets in which the levels of specific amino acids (AAs) are manipulated. In this work, after showing that AA manipulation induces selective anticancer activity in renal cell carcinoma cells in vitro, we evaluated the anticancer activity of 17 artificial diets in a challenging animal model of renal cell carcinoma. The model was stablished by injecting murine renal cell carcinoma (Renca) cells into the peritoneum of immunocompetent BALB/cAnNRj mice. Mice survival was markedly improved when their normal diet was replaced with our artificial diets. Mice fed a diet lacking six AAs (diet T2) lived longer than mice treated with sunitinib or anti-PD-1 immunotherapy; several animals lived very long or were cured. Controlling the levels of several AAs (e.g., cysteine, methionine and leucine) and lipids was important for the anticancer activity of the diets. Additional studies are needed to further evaluate the therapeutic potential of this simple and inexpensive anticancer strategy.
EDITORIAL | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: carcinogenesis; cancer; age distribution of cancer
Online: 11 August 2016 (11:40:40 CEST)
Tobacco use, most people would say. Smoking tobacco increases the risk of developing many types of cancer and is responsible for approximately one-third of all cancer deaths. The association between tobacco use and lung cancer is well known; lung cancer occurs about 20 times more often in heavy smokers than in nonsmokers . However, many lung cancers are diagnosed in never smokers , and most smokers do not develop lung cancer [3,4].
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0142.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Cancer Immunotherapy; Cancer Vaccine; Cancer Antigens; CRISPR-Cas9; Engineered T Cells.
Online: 7 May 2021 (11:10:13 CEST)
The mechanisms involved in immune responses to cancer have been extensively studied for several decades and, considerable attention has been paid to harnessing the immune system's therapeutic potential. Cancer immunotherapy has established itself as a promising new treatment option for a variety of cancer types. Various strategies including cancer vaccines, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), adoptive T-cell-cancer therapy and immune test therapy have gained prominence through immunotherapy. However, it remains to be accomplished the full potential of cancer immunotherapy. In spite of having startling aspects, the cancer immunotherapies have some difficulties including the inability to effectively targeting the cancer antigens and the abnormalities in patient response. With the advancement of technology, this system has changed the genome-based immunotherapy process in the human body including generation of engineered T cells. Due to its high specificity, CRISPR-Cas9 has become a simple and flexible genome-editing tool to target nearly any genomic locus. Recently, the CD19-mediated CAR-T cell (chimeric antigen receptor T cell) therapy has opened a new avenue for the treatment of human cancer, though low efficiency is a major drawback of this process. Thus, increasing the efficiency of the CAR-T cell (engineered T cells that induce the chimeric antigen receptor) by using CRISPR-Cas9 technology could be a better weapon to fight against the cancer. In this review, we have broadly focused on the use of CRISPR-Cas9 technology for the modification of the T-cell, which can specifically recognize cancer cells and be used as immune therapeutics against cancer. We have also demonstrated the other potential strategies for the treatment of cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0163.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: STAT3; prostate cancer; bladder cancer; upper tract urothelial carcinoma; renal cell carcinoma; penile cancer; testicular cancer
Online: 8 August 2022 (15:09:21 CEST)
Nowadays molecular research is essential for the better understanding of tumor cells pathophysiology. The increasing number of neoplasms is taken under ‘the molecular magnifying glass’ therefore it is possible to discover complex relationships between cytophysiology and tumor cells. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) belongs to the family of latent cytoplasmic transcription factors called STATs which comprises seven members: STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, STAT5A, STAT5B, STAT6. Those proteins play important role in cytokine-activated gene expression by transducing signals from the cell membrane to the nucleus. Abnormal prolonged activation results in tumorigenesis, metastasis, cell proliferation, invasion, migration and angiogenesis. Inhibition of this transcription factor inhibits previously mentioned effects in cancer cells whereas normal cells are not affected. Hence STAT3 might be a viable target for cancer therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0052.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cervical cancer; endometrial cancer; ovarian cancer; 2021 update; novel targeted therapies; immunotherapy
Online: 3 February 2022 (13:02:11 CET)
This review of the meaningful data from 2021 on cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers aims to provide an update of the most clinically relevant studies presented at important oncologic congresses during the year [the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress and the Society of Gynecologic Oncology (SGO) Annual Meeting]. Despite the underlying existence of the COVID-19 pandemic, the last year has been notable in terms of research, with significant and promising advances in gynecologic malignancies. Several major studies reporting the effects of innovative therapies for patients with cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers might change the medical practice in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0052.v1
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; Breast Cancer; Breast Cancer (Suspected); Mammogram Images and Invasive Cancer
Online: 5 July 2020 (07:40:57 CEST)
Breast cancer develops from cells lining the milk ducts and slowly grows into a lump or a tumour. Breast cancer may be invasive or non-invasive. Invasive cancer spreads from the milk duct or lobule to other tissues in the breast, whereas, non-invasive ones lack the ability to invade other breast tissues. Non-invasive breast cancer is called in situ and may remain inactive for entire lifetime. Due to heterogeneity nature of breast, density as well as masses is variable in size and shape. A dataset of 18056 patients are collected from 20 Government Hospitals and 50 Private Hospitals in West Bengal before COVID-19 and after COVID-19. The classification of patients are made on three classes- Normal, Sign of Abnormality and Abnormality. The reports of MRIs of patients in January 2020 and February 2020 are collected from different hospitals. It is treated as dataset before COVID-19 . MRIS of patients in April 2020 and May 2020 are dataset during COVID-19. The entire datasets are accumulated for testing of any change in patients MRIS after the official announcement of new virus COVID-19 in March 2020. The aim of the paper is to make a comparison of any change in size and shape of masses of MRIs of patients before and after COVId-19. All collected MRIs reports are diagnosed by radiologists of hospitals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0331.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: pH and breast cancer; breast cancer etiology; breast cancer etiopathogenesis; breast cancer treatment; pH-centric anticancer paradigm; hydrogen ion dynamics of cancer; cancer proton reversal; MDR integral approach
Online: 27 November 2019 (04:57:00 CET)
Despite all efforts, the treatment of breast cancer (BC) cannot be considered to be a success story. The advances in surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy have not been sufficient. Indeed, the accumulated experience clearly indicates that new perspectives and non-main stream approaches are needed to better characterize the etiopathogenesis and treatment of this disease. This contibution deals with how the new pH-centric anticancer paradigm plays a fundamental role in reaching a more integral understanding of the etiology, etiopathogenesis and treatment of this multifactorial disease. For the first time the armamentarium available for the treatment of the different types and phases of BC is approached here from a Unitarian perspective based upon the hydrogen ion dynamics of cancer. The wide-ranged pH-related molecular, biochemical and metabolic model is able to embrace most the fields and subfields of breast cancer pathology. This single and integrated approach allows to advance a unidirectional program to treatment. Further efforts in this line are likely to first improve the therapeutics of each subtype of this tumor, then every phase of the disease and finally every individual patient.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0074.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cancer etiology; carcinogenesis; cancer prevention; stem cells; cancer stem cells; stem cell environment; cells of origin in cancer; somatic mutation theory of cancer
Online: 26 July 2017 (08:42:41 CEST)
All cancer registries constantly show striking differences in cancer incidence by age and among tissues. For example, lung cancer is diagnosed hundreds of times more often at age 70 than at age 20, and this cancer in nonsmokers occurs thousands of times more frequently than heart cancer in smokers. An analysis of these differences using basic concepts in cell biology indicates that cancer is the end-result of the accumulation of cell divisions in stem cells. In other words, the main determinant of carcinogenesis is the number of cell divisions that the DNA of a stem cell has accumulated in any type of cell from the zygote. Cell division, process by which a cell copies and separates its cellular components to finally split into two cells, is necessary to produce the large number of cells required for living. However, cell division can lead to a variety of cancer-promoting errors, such as mutations occurring during DNA replication, chromosome aberrations arising during mitosis, errors in the distribution of cell-fate determinants between the daughter cells, and failures to restore physical interactions with other tissue components. Some of these errors are spontaneous, others are promoted by endogenous DNA damage occurring during quiescence, and others are influenced by pathological and environmental factors. The cell divisions required for carcinogenesis are primarily caused by multiple local and systemic physiological signals rather than by errors in the DNA of the cells. As carcinogenesis progresses, the accumulation of DNA errors promotes cell division and eventually triggers cell division under permissive extracellular environments. The accumulation of cell divisions in stem cells drives not only the accumulation of the DNA alterations required for carcinogenesis, but also the formation and growth of the abnormal cell populations that characterize the disease. This model of carcinogenesis provides a new framework for understanding the disease and has important implications for cancer prevention and therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0208.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: lifestyle; esophageal cancer; cancer prevention; esophageal adenocarcinoma
Online: 9 August 2021 (18:05:44 CEST)
One of the most notable changes in the Esophageal Cancer (EC) epidemiology is the rising incidence and prevalence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in developed countries, likely due to lifestyle and/or environmental factors that may play an important role in EAC onset. The aim of this systematic review was to collect and summarize all the available evidence regarding lifestyle, diet and EAC risk. We searched the PubMed and Scopus databases in January 2021 for studies providing information about lifestyle, diet, WCRF/AICR recommendations and EAC risk. A total of 106 publications met the inclusion criteria. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are associated with increased EAC risk. Physical activity does not appear to have a significant direct role in EAC risk. A diet rich in fruit, vegetables, and whole grains appeared to be more protective than a diet rich in animal fat, red meat, and processed meat. Alcohol does not seem to be related to EAC whereas smokers, particularly heavy smokers, have an increased risk of EAC. Primary prevention remains the best option to avert EAC. BMI and WC, along with low consumption of red and processed meat, high consumption of plant food, and the avoidance of smoking are pivotal for EAC prevention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0475.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: cancer pain; breakthrough cancer pain; cluster analysis
Online: 21 July 2021 (09:50:29 CEST)
Breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP) is a temporary exacerbation of pain that "breaks through" a phase of adequate pain control by an opioid-based therapy. The non-predictable BTcP (NP-BTcP) is a subtype of BTcP that occurs in the absence of any specific activity. Since NP-BTcP has an important clinical impact, this analysis is aimed at characterizing the NP-BTcP phenomenon through a multidimensional statistical technique. This is a secondary analysis based on the Italian Oncologic Pain multiSetting - Multicentric Survey (IOPS-MS) . A correlation analysis was performed to characterize NP-BTcP profile about its intensity, number of episodes per day, and type. The Multidimensional Correspondence Analysis (MCA) determined the identification of 4 groups (Phenotypes). A univariate analysis was performed to assess differences between the 4 Phenotypes and selected covariates. The four phenotypes represent the hierarchical classification according to the status of NP-BTcP: from the best (Phenotype 1) to the worst (Phenotype 4). The univariate analysis found a significant association between the onset time >10 min in the Phenotype 1 (37.3%) vs. the onset ≤ 10 min in Phenotype 4 (74.2%) (p<0.001). The Phenotype 1 was characterized by gastrointestinal type of cancer (26.4%) respect to Phenotype 4 where the most frequent cancer affected the lung (28.8%) (p<0.001). Phenotype 4 was mainly managed with rapid onset opioids, while in Phenotype 1 many patients were treated with oral, subcutaneous, or intravenous morphine (56.4% and 44.4%, respectively; p=0.008). The ability to characterize NP-BTcP can offer enormous benefits for the management of this serious aspect of cancer pain. This strategy can provide many indications for identifying the diagnostic and therapeutic gaps on NP-BTcP management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0453.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Cancer-associated thrombosis; survey; anticoagulant; cancer patients
Online: 17 June 2021 (09:17:59 CEST)
Ongoing concerns regarding the morbidity and mortality from cancer-associated thrombosis led the European Cancer Patient Coalition (ECPC), the voice of cancer patients across Europe, to create a pan-European cancer-associated awareness patient survey to assess CAT knowledge among a large population of patients with cancer. The ECPC survey represents the largest of its kind amongst patients/caregivers with CAT and identified significant gaps in patient awareness and knowledge of CAT. It also identified a need for educational CAT-related discussions and interventions between healthcare professionals and patients with cancer and their caregivers. The aim of this paper is to highlight these gaps and to provide healthcare professionals with awareness of what information should be shared with patients/caregivers as well as how and when that information should be provided. Notably, the importance of providing information on CAT risk and risk factors, how to reduce their risk of CAT, the role of anticoagulant prophylaxis and treatment (short- and long-term) including possible side-effects, and finally how to early identify CAT symptoms. Here we outline what type of information should be provided, as well as when and how to best discuss CAT with our oncology patients and their caregivers along the cancer care continuum, to reduce the risk of CAT and associated complications with a goal of improving patient outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0520.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Cancer immunotherapy; Prostate Cancer; CAR-T; PSMA
Online: 22 July 2020 (11:16:04 CEST)
Despite advances in the understanding of its molecular pathophysiology, prostate cancer remains largely incurable, highlighting the need for novel therapies. We developed a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), a glycoprotein that is overexpressed in prostate cancer, which expression involves neovasculature of several tumor entities, thus envisaging an additional antiangiogenic effect. To optimize the CAR design, we compared two CARs with signaling domains containing one or two T cell costimulatory elements, in addition to CD3ζ. Conversely, what has been described for other CARs, a third-generation CAR (containing CD28 and 41BB co-signaling domains) induced a potent antitumor effect similar to a second-generation CAR (containing CD28 co-signaling domain), though we observed a detrimental effect of the additional costimulatory domain that was attributed to increased activation-induced cell death (AICD). This “super-stimulation” resulted in exhaustion of cells, higher frequencies of cell death and, more importantly, the impossibility of sufficiently expanding the CAR cells to obtain the minimum number of cells requested for in vivo therapies. While the superiority of 2nd and 3rd generation over 1st generation CAR T cells has been clearly shown in both preclinical and clinical studies, the optimal combination of costimulatory domains for 3rd generation CAR-T cells must still be defined and should be evaluated case-by-case in order to fine-tune immunotherapy approaches.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0316.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Cancer surgery; Cancer radiotherapy; Cancer immunotherapy; Cancer stroma; Cancer-associated fibroblasts; Carcinogenesis; Cancer resistance to immunotherapy; Exosomes; Hypoxia; Neutrophil extracellular traps; Sphingomyelin; Neutral sphingomyelinase; Tumor microenvironment; Tumor-associated macrophages
Online: 22 June 2022 (10:25:07 CEST)
The central reason behind emergence of clinically-detectable tumors is evasion from immune surveillance due to lack of cancer cells surface membrane expression of tumor-specific peptides in association with MHC class I molecules, concealment of natural killer cells-activating molecules, and absence of inflammation resulting from inefficient stimulation of innate immunity receptors and co-stimulatory molecules. The tumor microenvironment (TME) also contributes to tumor initiation, progression and resistance to therapeutic interventions because of its dense, fibrogenic, barrier-like composition, aberrant vasculature, and production of cytokines and chemokines responsible for recruitment of immune suppressive cells, notably myeloid-derived suppressor cells, M2 macrophages, regulatory T cells, extracellular trap-forming neutrophils, and cancer-associated fibroblasts. We herein show that the relentless efforts and strategies to overcome the TME elusive tumor-promoting impact produced contrasting, opposed, controversial effects, characterized by limited efficacy and proven adversity, and most importantly deterred from attempts to discover and counteract the fundamental inherent mechanisms initiating, and not consequent to, carcinogenesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0271.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Cancer; cancer therapies; cancer recurrence; stem cells; porphine-related macrocycles, enhanced targeting; nanomedicine
Online: 12 October 2018 (14:31:03 CEST)
Deregulation of cell growth and development lead to cancer, a severe condition that claims millions of lives worldwide. Targeted or selective approaches used during cancer treatment determine the efficacy and outcome of the therapy. In order to enhance specificity and targeting and better treatment options for cancer, novel and alternative modalities are currently under development. Photodynamic therapy has the potential to eradicate cancer and combination therapy would yield even greater outcomes. Nanomedicine-aided cancer therapy shows enhanced specificity for cancer cells and minimal side-effects coupled with effective cancer destruction both in vitro and in vivo. Nanocarriers used in drug-delivery systems are well able to penetrate cancer stem cell niche, simultaneously killing cancer cells and eradicate drug-resistant cancer stem cells, yielding therapeutic efficiency up to 100 fold against drug-resistant cancer in comparison with free drugs. Safety precautions should be considered when using Nano-mediated therapy as the effects of extended exposure to biological environments are still to be determined.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0001.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: endocannabinoid system; gynaecological cancers; endometrial cancer; cervical cancer; ovarian cancer, CB1R; CB2R; FAAH;
Online: 1 June 2018 (05:45:19 CEST)
Background: The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a very heterogeneous array consisting of many proteins like ligands, enzymes and receptors synthetized in various tissues and immunity cells. The main endogenous ligands are unsaturated fatty acid derivatives like anandamide(AEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol(2-AG), but many others are under study. Endocannabinoids are involved in both physiological and pathological conditions. ECS plays an important role in the regulation of main processes which lead to cancer and also in sex steroid hormone-related cancers. Methods: With focus on gynaecological cancers, main papers and review articles, up to April 2018, on the role of the ECS, were acquired by PubMed searches using the search terms: ‘cancer’, ‘cannabinoid’, ‘endocannabinoid’, ‘gynaecology’ and ‘malignancy’. Results: The review of recent literature data showed the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in numerous physiological and pathological conditions of the female genital tract up to the development of gynaecological malignancy as cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancer. Conclusions: The endocannabinoid system has an important role in antitumor actions involving different signalling receptor and receptor-independent pathways. It represents an exciting challenge to researchers for its potential use in diagnosis and treatment of all gynaecological malignancies
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0171.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: ATP; Cancer cell; Cancer Treatment; Mitochondria; T cell
Online: 27 June 2022 (05:07:50 CEST)
Like living organisms, cancer cells require energy to survive and interact with their environment. Mitochondria are the main organelles for energy production and cellular metabolism. Recently, investigators demonstrated that cancer cells can hijack mitochondria from immune cells. This behavior sheds light on a pivotal piece in the cancer puzzle, the ‘dependence’ on the normal cells. This article illustrates the benefits of new, functional mitochondria for cancer cells that urge them to hijack mitochondria. It describes how functional mitochondria help cancer cells’ survival in the harsh tumor microenvironment, immune evasion, progression, and treatment resistance. Recent evidence has put forward the pivotal role of mitochondria in cancer stem cells’ metabolism. This theory highlights the mitochondria in cancer biology and explains how targeted anti-mitochondrial treatments can improve oncological outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0141.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: SAMHD1; NSCLC; breast cancer; ovarian cancer; solid tumors
Online: 11 January 2022 (13:05:00 CET)
SAMHD1 is a deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) triphosphohydrolase with important roles in the control of cell proliferation and apoptosis, either through the regulation of intracellular dNTPs levels or the modulation of the DNA damage response. However, SAMHD1 role in cancer evolution is still unknown. We performed the first in-depth study of SAMHD1 role in advanced solid tumors, by analyzing samples of 128 patients treated with chemotherapy agents based on platinum derivatives and/or antimetabolites and developing novel in vitro knock-out models to explore the mechanisms driving SAMHD1 function in cancer. Low or no expression of SAMHD1 was associated with a positive prognosis in breast, ovarian and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cancer patients. A predictive value was associated to low-SAMHD1 expression in NSCLC and ovarian patients treated with antimetabolites in combination with platinum derivatives. In vitro, SAMHD1 knock-out cells showed increased γ-H2AX and apoptosis suggesting that SAMHD1 depletion induces DNA damage leading to cell death. In vitro treatment with platinum-derived drugs significantly enhanced γ-H2AX and apoptotic markers expression in knock-out cells, indicating a synergic effect of SAMHD1 depletion and platinum-based treatment. SAMHD1 expression represents a new strong prognostic and predictive biomarker in solid tumors and thus, modulation of SAMHD1 function may constitute a promising target for the improvement of cancer therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0295.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Pancreaticoduodenectomy: pancreatic cancer; peri ampullary cancer; laparoscopic surgery
Online: 13 May 2021 (13:11:34 CEST)
Background: There is ongoing debate regarding the usefulness of laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy. This study aimed to analyze all the randomized control trials published including the most recent one. Material and methods: The study was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement and MOOSE guidelines. Heterogeneity was measured using Q tests and I2. The random-effects models were used to summarise the relative risks, odds ratios, and mean differences as appropriate.Results:4 RCTs were included consisting of 818 patients. 411 patients were in the laparoscopic group and 407 in the open pancreaticoduodenectomy group. Weighted baseline patient characteristics were similar except more patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and more males were there in the open pancreaticoduodenectomy group. There was no difference in-hospital stay,90 days complications rate, 90 days mortality, R1 resection, postoperative pancreatic fistula, delayed gastric emptying, post pancreatectomy hemorrhage, bile leak between the two groups. Operative time was more in the laparoscopic group. Blood loss [mean difference -132.12 ml (-172.60,-91.65)] and surgical site infection [Risk ratio 0.41 ( 0.17-1.0)] were significantly lesser in laparoscopic group.Conclusion:There was no benefit in-hospital stay or clinical outcomes after laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy. Blood loss and surgical site infection were lesser in laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: ER stress; GPCR; EMT; cancer progression; migration; cancer
Online: 8 October 2020 (13:06:04 CEST)
The majority of cellular responses to external stimuli are mediated by receptors such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and systems including endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress). Since GPCR signalling is pivotal in numerous malignancies, they are widely targeted by a number of clinical drugs. Cancer cells often negatively modulate GPCRs in order to survive, proliferate and to disseminate. Similarly, numerous branches of the unfolded protein response (UPR) act as pro-survival mediators and are involved in promoting cancer progression via mechanisms such as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, there are a few proteins among these groups which impede deleterious effects by orchestrating the pro-apoptotic phenomenon and paving a therapeutic pathway. The present review exposes and discusses such critical mechanisms and some of the key processes involved in carcinogenesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0262.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: ovarian cancer; cancer stem cells; signaling, chemoresistance, metastasis
Online: 15 June 2018 (15:14:22 CEST)
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Poor overall survival, particularly for patients with high grade serous (HGS) ovarian cancer, are often attributed to late stage at diagnosis and relapse following chemotherapy. HGS ovarian cancer is a heterogenous disease in that few genes are consistently mutated between patients. Additionally, HGS ovarian cancer is characterized by high genomic instability. For these reasons personalized approaches may be necessary for effective treatment and cure. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that contribute to tumor metastasis and chemoresistance are essential to improve survival rates. One favored model for tumor metastasis and chemoresistance is the cancer stem cell (CSC) model. CSCs are cells with enhanced self-renewal properties that are enriched following chemotherapy. Elimination of this cell population is thought to be a mechanism to increase therapeutic response. Therefore, accurate identification of stem cell populations that are most clinically relevant is necessary. While many CSC identifiers (ALDH, OCT4, CD133, and side population) have been established, it is still not clear which population(s) will be most beneficial to targeted in patients. Therefore, there is a critical need to characterize CSCs with reliable markers and find their weaknesses that will make the CSCs amenable to therapy. Many signaling pathways are implicated for their roles in CSC initiation and maintenance. Therapeutically targeting pathways needed for CSC initiation or maintenance may be an effective way of treating HGS ovarian cancer patients. In conclusion, the prognosis for HGS ovarian cancer may be improved by combining CSC phenotyping with targeted therapies for pathways involved in CSC maintenance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cancer; lung cancer; leukemia; Daphne; Thapsia; daphnane diterpenes
Online: 13 February 2018 (07:08:47 CET)
Although several plant-derived drug groups (vinca alkaloids, taxanes, podophyllotoxin derivatives and camptothecins) continue to be widely used in cancer therapy, the anticancer potential of the Plant Kingdom remains largely unexplored. In this work, we have carried out a random screening for selective anticancer activity of 57 extracts from 45 plants collected in Grazalema Natural Park, an area in the South of Spain of high plant diversity and endemism. Using lung cancer cells (A549) and lung non-malignant cells (MRC-5), we found that several extracts were more cytotoxic and selective against the cancer cell line than the standard anticancer agent cisplatin. Five active extracts were further tested in cancer and normal cell lines from other tissues, including three skin cell lines with increasing degree of malignancy. An extract from the leaves of Daphne laureola L. (Thymelaeaceae) showed a striking potency and selectivity on lung cancer cells and leukemia cells; the IC50 values against these cancer cells were approximately 10000-fold lower than against the normal cells. Daphnane-type diterpene orthoesters may be responsible for this highly selective anticancer activity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0321.v1
Subject: Keywords: cancer; mutations; cancer drivers; precision medicine; protein structure; personalized medicine; cancer therapies; genetic signatures
Online: 16 August 2021 (11:15:11 CEST)
Cancer is fundamentally a disease of perturbed genes. Although many mutations can be marked in the genome of a cancer or transformed cell, the initiation and progression were shown to be driven by only a few mutational events viz. driver mutations that progressively govern and execute the functional impacts. The driver mutations are thus believed to dictate and dysregulate the subsequent cellular proliferative function/decisions thereby producing a cancerous state. Therefore, identifying the driver events from the genomic alterations in a patient’s cancer cell gained large attention recently for designing better targeting therapies towards paving way for the precision cancer medicine. With rolling advancements in high-throughput omics technologies, analysis of genetic variations and gene expression profiles for cancer patients has become a routine clinical practice. However, it is anticipated that protein structural alterations resulting from such driver mutations can provide more direct and clinically relevant evidence of disease states than genetic signatures alone. This review comprehensively discusses various aspects and approaches that have been developed for the prediction of cancer drivers using genetic signatures and protein structures, and their potential application in developing precision cancer therapies.Keywords:
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0096.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: long noncoding RNA; MALAT1; UCA1; NRON; Z probe; colorectal cancer; pancreatic cancer; breast cancer
Online: 6 June 2018 (13:05:30 CEST)
Formalin-Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE) tissues are a valuable resource in studying different markers and mechanistic molecules (protein, DNA and RNA) in order to understand the etiology of different cancers as well as many other diseases. Degradation and modification of RNA is the major challenge in utilizing FFPE tissue samples in medical research. Recently, non-protein coding transcripts long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), have gained significant attention due to their important biological actions and potential involvement in cancer. There is no validated method except qRTPCR or RNAseq to evaluate and study lncRNA expression. We have standardized and are reporting a sensitive Z probe based in situ hybridization method to identify, localize and quantitate lncRNA in FFPE tissues. This assay is sensitive to single transcript and localizes lncRNA in individual cells within tumor. We have characterized a tumor suppressor lncRNA-NRON (non coding repressor of NFAT), which is scarcely expressed, a moderately expressed oncogeneic lncRNA UCA1 (urothelial cancer associated 1), and a highly studied and expressed lncRNA MALAT1 (metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript1) in different cancers. High MALAT1 staining was found in colorectal, breast and pancreatic cancer. MALAT1 expression increased with the progression of the stage in colorectal cancer and invasiveness in breast cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0534.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer etiopathogenesis; breast cancer treatment; hydrogen ion dynamics of cancer; pH-related paradigm; H+-related therapeutics of breast cancer
Online: 23 September 2020 (04:04:24 CEST)
A brand-new approach to the understanding of breast cancer (BC) is urgently needed. In this contribution, the etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of this disease is approached from the new pH-centric anticancer paradigm. Only this Unitarian perspective based upon that the hydrogen ion (H+) dynamics of cancer, allows understanding and integrating the many dualisms, confusions, and paradoxes of the disease. The new H+-related wide range model can embrace under a unique frame of mind the many aspects of the disease and at the same time therapeutically interfere with most, if not with all, the hallmarks of cancer known to date. The pH-related armamentarium available for the treatment of BC here reviewed may be beneficial for all types and stages of the disease. In this vein, we have attempted a mega synthesis of traditional and new knowledge in the different areas of breast cancer research and treatment based upon the wide range approach afforded by the hydrogen ion dynamics of cancer. The concerted utilization of a pH-related drugs nowadays available for the treatment of breast cancer is advanced.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0115.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: oncogenes; oncogene addiction; carcinogenesis; transcription factor; cancer genome; gene fusion; cancer genetics; cancer stem cell; targeted cancer therapy; personalized medicine
Online: 14 September 2016 (08:30:41 CEST)
It has been declared repeatedly that cancer is a result of molecular genetic abnormalities. However, there has been no working model describing the specific functional consequences of the deranged genomic processes that result in the initiation and propagation of the cancer process during carcinogenesis. We no longer need to question whether or not cancer arises as a result of a molecular genetic defect within the cancer cell. The legitimate questions are: how and why? This article reviews the preeminent data on cancer molecular genetics and subsequently proposes that the sentinel event in cancer initiation is the aberrant production of fused transcription activators with new molecular properties within normal tissue stem cells. This results in the production of vital oncogenes with dysfunctional gene activation transcription properties, which leads to dysfunctional gene regulation, the aberrant activation of transduction pathways, chromosomal breakage, activation of driver oncogenes, reactivation of stem cell transduction pathways and the activation of genes that result in the hallmarks of cancer. Furthermore, a novel holistic molecular genetic model of cancer initiation and progression is presented along with a new paradigm for the approach to personalized targeted cancer therapy, clinical monitoring and cancer diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0198.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: papillary thyroid cancer; BCPAP cells; 8505C cells; prostate cancer; LNCaP cells; DU145 cells; kidney cancer; HL-60 cells; cancer gene software
Online: 20 June 2019 (10:28:48 CEST)
The dynamic and never exactly repeatable tumor transcriptomic profile of people affected by the same form of cancer requires a personalized and time-sensitive approach of the gene therapy. The Gene Master Regulators (GMRs) were defined as genes whose highly controlled expression by the homeostatic mechanisms commands the cell phenotype by modulating major functional pathways through expression correlation with their genes. The Gene Commanding Height (GCH), a measure that combines the expression control and expression correlation with all other genes, is used to establish the gene hierarchy in each cell phenotype. We developed the experimental protocol, the mathematical algorithm and the computer software to identify the GMRs from transcriptomic data in surgically removed tumors, biopsies or blood from cancer patients. The GMR approach is illustrated with applications to our microarray data on human kidney, thyroid and prostate cancer samples, and on thyroid, prostate and blood cancer cell lines. We proved experimentally that each patient has his/her own GMRs, that cancer nuclei and surrounding normal tissue are governed by different GMRs, and that manipulating the expression has larger consequences for genes with higher GCH. Therefore, we launch the hypothesis that silencing the GMR may selectively kill the cancer cells from a tissue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0179.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Breast Cancer; Radiomics; Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Segmentation; In Situ Breast Cancer; Infiltrative Breast Cancer
Online: 7 August 2020 (09:29:33 CEST)
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide in women. This aggressive tumour can be categorized into two main groups: in situ and infiltrative, with the latter being the most common malignant lesions. The current use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was shown to provide highest sensitivity in the detection and discrimination between benign vs. malignant lesions, when interpreted by expert radiologists. In this article, we present the prototype of a Computer-Aided Detection/Diagnosis (CAD) system that could provide valuable assistance to the radiologist for the discrimination between in situ and infiltrating tumours. The system consists of two main processing levels: 1) Localization of possibly tumoral regions of interest (ROIs) through an iterative procedure based on intensity values (ROI Hunter) followed by a deep-feature extraction and classification method for false-positive rejection; 2) Characterization of the selected ROIs and discrimination between in situ and invasive tumour, consisting of Radiomics feature extraction and classification through a machine-learning algorithm. The CAD system was developed and evaluated using a DCE-MRI image database, containing at least one confirmed mass per image, as diagnosed by an expert radiologist. When evaluating the accuracy of the ROI Hunter procedure with respect to the radiologist-drawn boundaries, sensitivity to mass detection was found to be 75%. The AUC of the ROC curve for discrimination between in situ and infiltrative tumors was 0.70.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0187.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: noncoding RNA; miRNA; lncRNA; circRNA; ncRNA network in cancer; cancer biomarkers; RNA aided cancer therapy
Online: 21 March 2018 (07:28:25 CET)
The past decade has witnessed enormous progress, which has seen the noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) turn from the so called dark matter RNA to critical functional molecules, influencing most physiological processes in development and disease contexts. Many ncRNAs interact with each other and are part of networks that influence the cell transcriptome and proteome and consequently the outcome of biological processes. The regulatory circuits controlled by ncRNAs have become increasingly more relevant in cancer. Further understanding of these complex network interactions and how ncRNAs are regulated, is paving the way for the identification of better therapeutic strategies in cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0001.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: ovarian cancer; ALDH1A1; cancer stem cells; senescence; chemotherapy resistance
Online: 2 May 2022 (09:39:22 CEST)
Ovarian cancer is a deadly disease attributed to late-stage detection as well as recurrence and development of chemoresistance. Ovarian cancer stem cells (OCSCs) are hypothesized to be largely responsible for emergence of chemoresistant tumors. Although chemotherapy may initially succeed at decreasing the size and number of tumors, it leaves behind residual malignant OCSCs. In this study, we demonstrate that Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) is essential for the survival of OCSCs. We identified a novel ALDH1A1 inhibitor, compound 974, and used 974 as a tool to decipher the mechanism of stemness regulation by ALDH1A1. Treatment of OCSCs with 974 significantly inhibited ALDH activity, expression of stemness genes, spheroid, and colony formation. In vivo limiting dilution assay demonstrated that 974 significantly inhibited CSC frequency. Transcriptomic sequencing of cells treated with 974 revealed significant downregulation of genes related to stemness and chemoresistance as well as senescence and senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP). We confirmed that 974 inhibited senescence and stemness induced by platinum-based chemotherapy in functional assays. Overall, these data establish that ALDH1A1 is essential for OCSCs survival and ALDH1A1 inhibition sup-presses chemotherapy induced senescence and stemness. Targeting ALDH1A1 using small molecule inhibitors in combination with chemotherapy therefore presents a promising strategy to pre-vent ovarian cancer recurrence and has potential for clinical translation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0047.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Cancer Stem Cell; TGF-β
Online: 8 September 2021 (20:53:29 CEST)
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer that disproportionally accounts for the majority of breast cancer-related deaths due to the lack of specific targets for effective treatments. In this review, we highlight the complexity of the transforming growth factor-beta family (TGF-β) pathway and discuss how the dysregulation of the TGF-β pathway promotes oncogenic attributes in TNBC which negatively affects patient prognosis. Moreover, we discuss recent findings highlighting TGF-β inhibition as a potent method to target mesenchymal (CD44+/CD24-) and epithelial (ALDHhigh) cancer stem cell (CSC) populations. CSCs are associated with tumorigenesis, metastasis, relapse, resistance, and diminished patient prognosis; however, due to differential signal pathway enrichment and plasticity, these populations remain difficult to target and persist as a major barrier barring successful therapy. This review highlights the importance of TGF-β as a driver of chemoresistance, radioresistance and reduced patient prognosis in breast cancer and highlights novel treatment strategies which modulate TGF-β, impede cancer progression and reduce the rate of resistance generation via targeting the CSC populations in TNBC and thus reducing tumorigenicity. Potential TGF-β inhibitors targeting based on clinical trials are summarized for further investigation which may lead to the development of novel therapies to improve TNBC patient prognosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0334.v2
Online: 5 May 2021 (12:04:56 CEST)
In this study, we described the most critical risk factors for different malignancies including: breast, prostate, lung, and colorectal carcinoma among others, with an emphasis on modifiable risk factors. We revised the literature review about risk factors involved in the genesis of cancer in various databases, including articles indexed in PUBMED, SCOPUS, PMC, and Google Scholar. Awareness of risk factors enables conscious decisions to be made in an effort to combat malignancies. Knowing risk factors is a mode of fighting malignancy. Diet, lifestyle, practises, and laboratory/clinical interventions were among risk factors of diverse malignancy. Diet, lifestyle, laboratory/clinical interventions all contribute to the genesis and prognosis in a variety of malignancies. We concluded that abstaining from risk factors can prevent the development of many malignancies in a century where this conundrum is raising disproportionately. By informing the public about modifiable risk factors cancer mortality rates can be reduced. It is treated here is to make the public aware of the modifiable risks of cancers.
Online: 22 July 2020 (10:00:52 CEST)
BOLD-100, a ruthenium-based complex, sodium trans-[tetrachloridobis(1H-indazole)ruthenate(III)] (also known as IT-139, NKP1339 or KP1339), is a novel small molecule drug that demonstrated a manageable safety profile at the maximum tolerated dose and modest antitumor activity in a phase I clinical trial. BOLD-100 has been reported to inhibit the upregulation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress sensing protein GRP78. However, response to BOLD-100 varies in different cancer models and the precise mechanism of action in high-response versus low-response cancer cells remains unclear. In vitro studies have indicated that BOLD-100 induces cytostatic rather than cytotoxic effects as a monotherapy. To understand BOLD-100 mediated signaling mechanism in breast cancer cells, we used estrogen receptor positive (ER+) MCF7 breast cancer cells to obtain gene-metabolite integrated models. Particularly, BOLD-100 significantly reduced expression of genes involved in the DNA repair pathway. BOLD-100 also induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phosphorylation of histone H2AX, gH2AX (Ser139), suggesting disruption of proper DNA surveillance. In estrogen receptor negative (ER-) breast cancer cells, combination of BOLD-100 with a PARP inhibitor, olaparib, induced significant inhibition of cell growth and xenografts and increased gH2AX. Thus, BOLD-100 is a novel DNA repair pathway targeting agent and can be used with other chemotherapies in ER- breast cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0264.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: RBFOX3; HTERT; gastric cancer; promoter-binding protein; cancer biomarker
Online: 16 April 2020 (08:17:44 CEST)
Tumor invasion, metastasis, and recrudesce remain a considerable challenge in the treatment of gastric cancer (GC). Herein, we first identified that RBFOX3 (RNA binding protein fox-1 homolog 3) was significantly up-regulated in GC tissues and negatively linked to the survival rate of GC patients. RBFOX3 promoted cell division and cell cycle progression in vitro as well as in vivo. Furthermore, RBFOX3 increased cell invasion and migration ability. Interestingly, both the suppression of GC cell multiplication and invasion moderated by the silencing of RBFOX3 was rescued by HTERT up-regulation. Additionally, RBFOX3 augmented the resistance of GC cells to 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) by repressing RBFOX3. Mechanistically, exogenous up-regulation of RBFOX3 triggered promoter activity and HTERT expression thereby enhancing the division and development of GC cells. Importantly, our findings revealed that RBFOX3 interacted with AP-2β to modulate the HTERT expression as demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation analysis. In conclusion, our study indicates that high expression of RBFOX3 promotes GC progression and development but predicts worse prognosis by stimulating HTERT signaling. Moreover, the results suggest that the RBFOX3/AP-2β/HTERT pathway is a novel target for the development of therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of GC reappearance and metastasis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0101.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Transgenic; Cancer; Carcinogenesis; Immortality; Autonomy; cancer stem cells; senescence
Online: 9 May 2019 (11:29:34 CEST)
Modern research into carcinogenesis has undergone three phases. Surgeons and pathologists started the first phase and established autopsy and biopsy as routine pathology services, in turn establishing morphological traits for tumors and establishing immortality and autonomy as indispensable criteria for neoplasms. A century ago medical doctors and biologists initiated “experimental cancer research” as the second phase, in which they, with help from chemists, established many chemical-induced animal models of carcinogenesis. In this phase, the two-hit theory and stepwise carcinogenesis of “initiation-promotion” or “initiation-promotion-progression” were established, with an illustrious finding that outgrowths induced in animals depend on the inducers, and thus are not authentically neoplastic, until late stages. For the last 40 years, molecular biologists have gradually dominated the carcinogenesis research fraternity and have established numerous genetically-modified animal models of carcinogenesis. However, evidence has not been provided for immortality and autonomy of the lesions from most of these models. Probably, many peers had already collected the lesions from animals for analyses of “cancer” mechanisms before the lesions became autonomous. We herein review monumental work of many predecessors to reinforce that evidence for immortality and autonomy is essential for confirming a neoplastic nature. We extrapolate that immortality and autonomy are established early during sporadic human carcinogenesis, unlike the late establishment in all animal models. It is imperative to resume many forerunners’ work by determining the genetic bases for initiation, promotion and progression, the genetic bases for immortality and autonomy, and which animal models are, in fact, good for identifying such genetic bases.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Oral cancer; Oropharyngeal cancer; Tumor-suppressor genes; Promoter hypermethylation
Online: 19 March 2019 (12:56:24 CET)
Silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) by DNA promoter hypermethylation is an earlyevent in carcinogenesis; Hence TSGs may serve as early tumor biomarkers. We determinedthe promoter methylation levels of p16INK4a, RASSF1A, TIMP3 and PCQAP/MED15 TSGs in salivary DNA from oral cancer (OC), and oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) patients, using methylation specific PCR coupled with densitometry analysis. We assessed the association between DNA methylation of individual TSGs with OC and OPC risk factors. We evaluated the performance and the clinical validity of this quadruple methylation marker panel in discriminating OC and OPC patients from healthy controls using CombiROC web tool. Our study reported that RASSF1A, TIMP3 and PCQAP/MED15 TSGs were significantly hypermethylated in OC and OPC cases compared to healthy controls. We found that DNA methylation levels of TSGs were significantly augmented by smoking, alcohol use and betel quid chewing by indicating that the fact that frequent exposure to risk factors may drive oral and oropharyngeal carcinogenesis through TSG promoter hypermethylation. Also, this quadruple-methylation marker panel of p16INK4a, RASSF1A, TIMP3 and PCQAP/MED15 TSGs demonstrated excellent diagnostic accuracy in the early detection of OC at 91.7% sensitivity and 92.3% specificity, and OPC at 99.8% sensitivity and 92.1% specificity, from healthy controls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: pyruvate kinase M2; prostate cancer; cancer metabolism; mTOR; autophagy
Online: 3 January 2019 (12:32:52 CET)
Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is essential for aerobic glycolysis and is highly expressed in various cancer tissues. Although high PKM2 expression is observed in prostate cancer tissues, its functional role in cancer metabolism is unclear. Here, we investigated the role of PKM2 in regulating autophagy and its associated pathways in prostate cancer cells. PKM2 expression was silenced using various PKM2 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and then we measured PKM2-related cellular pathways associated with autophagy. PKM2 siRNA-transfected prostate cancer cells showed significantly reduced viability. Acridine orange staining and immunoblotting analysis showed that PKM2 downregulation markedly increased autophagic cell death. Results of western blotting analysis showed that PKM2 knockdown affected protein kinase B/mechanistic target of rapamycin 1 pathway, which consequently downregulated the expression of glycolytic enzymes lactate dehydrogenase A and glucose transporter 1. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that PKM2 inhibition alters cancer cell metabolism and induces autophagy. Thus, the present study provides a strategy for the development of PKM2-targeted novel anticancer drugs for the treatment of prostate cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0177.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cancer; lung cancer; selectivity; Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast., Cupressaceae
Online: 12 June 2018 (09:02:50 CEST)
In our continuous search for selective anticancer treatments, we have screened 65 extracts from 45 plants collected in several areas of Western Andalusia (Spain) for cytotoxic activity against lung cancer cells and lung normal cells. Active extracts were also tested against 11 cell lines from other tissues. An extract from the leaves of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. (Cupressaceae) showed a marked cytotoxicity (IC50 = 0.37 ± 0.03 µg/mL) and selectivity (selectivity index = 378.3) against the lung cancer cells; cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and an extract from the leaves of Taxus baccata L. (Taxaceae) were less cytotoxic and selective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0783.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: cancer, cancer survivor, exercise, athletes, competition, long-term effects, late effects, living with and beyond cancer
Online: 31 May 2021 (14:02:13 CEST)
Athletes living with and beyond cancer can continue to train and, in some cases, compete during treatment. Following cancer treatment, athletes can return to competitive sport but need to learn to adapt their physical strength and training to lingering effects of cancer. It is critical for oncology healthcare providers to use the principles of assess, refer and advise to exercise oncology programs that are appropriate for the individual. Managing side effects of treatment is key to being able to train during and immediately following cancer treatment. Keen attention to fatigue is important at any point in the cancer spectrum to avoid overtraining and optimize the effects of training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0186.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: breakthrough cancer pain; cancer-associated pain; cancer; health-related quality of life; sleep disorders; transmucosal fentanyl
Online: 14 February 2020 (03:36:53 CET)
Objectives: To explore the effect of breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP) treatment on quality of sleep and other aspects of the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with cancer pain. Methods: In an observational, multicenter, cohort study, cancer patients from palliative care units, oncology departments, and pain clinics and affected by BTcP were included. Enrolled patients were assessed at the four visits: T0 (baseline), T7, T14, and T28. Well-controlled chronic background pain during the whole study period was mandatory. BTcP was treated through transmucosal fentanyl. Three questionnaires were used to measure the HRQoL: EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS). Results: In 154 patients, the HRQoL showed a significant improvement for all physical and emotional characteristics in the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL, except for nausea and vomiting (Linear p-value = 0.1) and dyspnoea (Linear p-value =0.05). The ESAS and PSQI questionnaires confirmed these positive results (p<0.0001 and p=0.002, respectively). Conclusions: This prospective investigation by an Italian expert group, has confirmed that careful management of BTcP induces a paramount improvement on the HRQoL. Because in cancer patients there is a high prevalence of BTcP and this severe acute pain has deleterious consequences, this information can have an important clinical significance
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0183.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: resistant TNBC; intra-tumoral heterogeneity; breast cancer relapse; breast cancer epigenome; me-tastasis prevention; intrinsic resistance of cancer; tumor adaptability; targeting resistant cancer
Online: 20 April 2022 (04:16:31 CEST)
We previously described a model of deep intrinsic resistance of breast cancer wherein we used a function-based approach to selection of cancer cells that can survive a variety of challenges in prolonged but reversible quiescence. Our experimental results suggested that resistant cancer cells possess a variety of mechanisms, including modifications of the epigenome and transcriptome, for generating a high degree of cellular heterogeneity. In the present study, we evaluated JIB-04, a small-molecule epigenetic inhibitor initially discovered to inhibit cancer growth, to determine its ability to affect deep intrinsic resistance in our breast cancer model. We found that long pretreatment with JIB-04 sensitized resistant triple-negative inflammatory breast cancer cells and their parental cell line SUM149 to the chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin and paclitaxel. Resistant cancer cells derived from another inflammatory breast cancer cell line, FC-IBC02, were considerably more sensitive to JIB-04 than was the parental cell line. Investigating a mechanism of sensitization, we found that JIB-04 exposure increased the expression of PD-L1 in resistant cells, suggesting that JIB-04 may also sensitize resistant breast cancer cells to anti-PD-L1 immune therapy. Finally, these results support the usefulness of our experimental strategy for evaluating anticancer agents such as JIB-04 that may halt cancer evolution and prevent development of cancer resistance to currently used therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0453.v1
Online: 29 September 2022 (07:05:29 CEST)
Introduction: Cancer is a group of diseases caused by uncontrolled and abnormal cell growth caused by the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes. Based on data from Dr Kariadi Hospital in 2021, lung cancer, breast cancer, and cervical cancer were 1,259 cases, this incident increased significantly from 2020. Based on the data obtained, the sequence of lung cancer cases was 241, breast cancer 623 , and cervical cancer 395. Both cancer and its treatment can weaken the patient's immune system, this is what makes cancer sufferers have a risk of anxiety and depression. Objective: To find out the description of anxiety and depression in cancer patients at RSUP Dr. Kariadi Semarang. Methods: The design of this study was descriptive quantitative, with a population of 56 patients and calculated using a stratified random sampling formula so that a sample of 49 respondents was obtained. The instrument or measuring instrument in this study used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results: Most cancer patients experienced mild anxiety and did not experience depression or at normal levels, from the number of respondents as many as 49 respondents, 27 respondents experienced mild anxiety (55.1%) and did not experience depression or at normal levels as many as 22 respondents (44, 9%). Suggestion: It is hoped that it can provide input for nurses to provide counseling to patients as an effort to reduce the anxiety and depression felt by patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0659.v1
Online: 25 December 2020 (13:00:28 CET)
Pirin is an oxidative stress (OS) sensor belonging to the functionally diverse cupin superfamily of proteins. Pirin is a suggested quercetinase and transcriptional activator of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) pathway. Its biological role in cancer development remains as a novel area of study. This review shows accumulating evidence on the contribution of Pirin in epithelial cancers, signaling pathways involved, and as a suggested therapeutic target. Finally, we propose a model in which Pirin is upregulated by physical, chemical or biological factors involved in OS and cancer development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0346.v1
Online: 14 December 2020 (14:47:20 CET)
The study aimed to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of cervical and breast cancer screening among women in the general population in Jordan. Nationally representative cross-sectional data were analysed from 14,689 women (34 years median age, range 15-49) that took part in the “2017-18 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey”. Information about cancer screening uptake included Pap smear, clinical breast examination, and mammography. Results indicate that the prevalence of ever Pap smear cancer screening was 15.3%, clinical breast examination in the past 12 months 13.9% and ever mammography 8.7%. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, older age, higher wealth, greater media exposure and tobacco use were positively and being Syrian, and living in the southern region were negatively associated with ever Pap smear, clinical breast examination in the past 12 months, and ever mammography. In addition, high decision-making power was associated with the uptake of Pap smear and higher education was associated with ever mammography. The study showed a low cancer screening uptake, and several factors were identified that can assist in promoting cancer screening in Jordan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0256.v1
Online: 27 June 2019 (08:06:01 CEST)
Cancer, a disease of multicellular organisms, probably developed almost immediately following the transition from unicellular to metazoan life, about one billion years ago. Great efforts have been made to understand the carcinogenesis for many years. In this paper, We tried to explain the cancer based on “chaos”, “adaptation” and “information” with the context of new literature findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0259.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cancer immunotherapy; prostate cancer; CAR; PSMA; NK-92 cell line
Online: 15 May 2020 (17:39:20 CEST)
Prostate cancer (PCa) has become the most common tumor among males in Europe and the USA. Adoptive immunotherapy appears as a promising strategy to control the advanced stages of the disease by specific targeting the tumor, in particular through chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy. Despite the advancements of CAR-T technology in the treatment of hematological malignancies, solid tumors still represent a challenge. To overcome current limits, other cellular effectors than T lymphocytes are under study as possible candidates for CAR-engineered cancer immunotherapy. A novel approach involves the NK-92 cell line, which mediates strong cytotoxic responses against a variety of tumor cells but has no effect on non-malignant healthy counterparts. Here, we report a therapeutic approach against PCa based on engineering of NK-92 cells with a CAR recognizing the human prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), which is overexpressed in prostatic neoplastic cells. Upon CAR transduction, NK-92/CAR cells acquired high and specific lytic activity against PSMA-expressing prostate cancer cells in vitro, and also underwent degranulation and produced high levels of IFN-γ in response to antigen recognition. Lethal irradiation of the effectors, a safety measure requested for the clinical application of retargeted NK-92 cells, fully abrogated replication but did not impact on phenotype and short-term functionality. PSMA-specific recognition and antitumor activity were retained in vivo, as adoptive transfer of irradiated NK-92/CAR cells in prostate cancer-bearing mice restrained tumor growth and improved survival. Anti-PSMA CAR-modified NK-92 cells represent a universal, off-the-shelf, renewable and cost-effective product endowed with relevant potentialities as a therapeutic approach for PCa immunotherapy.
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Elaeocarpus ganitrus; Hydrothermal synthesis; Gold nanoparticles; Prostate cancer; Cancer nanomedicine
Online: 25 December 2019 (10:32:12 CET)
In the present study, we have followed the hydrothermal path for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) from the biomaterial Elaeocarpus ganitrus seeds extract, which is a rapid, eco-friendly, non-chemical way. The prepared NPs were thoroughly analyzed by PXRD & HR-TEM studies and also tested for photocatalytic dye degradation and anticancer studies. Besides, antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer properties of Au NPs were studied. In vitro studies revealed the dose-dependent cytotoxic effect of Au NPs. The prepared nanoparticles showed good cytotoxic impact against Prostate cancer (PC-3) cells line. The results of the present study could contribute to synthesize new and cost-effective drugs from Elaeocarpus ganitrus seeds extract by using bio approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0004.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Lewis lung cancer; miRNAs; transcription factors; extracellular matrix; cancer cachexia
Online: 1 September 2019 (08:37:12 CEST)
Cachexia is a complex metabolic syndrome characterized by loss of skeletal muscle, leading to a significant weight loss that impacts patient morbidity and mortality. Given the complexity of gene regulatory networks that control gene expression, our objective was to perform an integrative mRNA and miRNA profiling to identify genetic programs that capture essential mechanistic details that promote muscle atrophy in cancer cachexia. Here, we used RNA sequencing to analyze miRNAs and mRNAs expression profiles in tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of the Lewis lung carcinoma model of cancer cachexia. In addition, we compared these findings with RNA-Seq data from C2C12 myotubes treated in vitro with the cachectic factors tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Extracellular matrix (ECM) alterations were validated by picrosirius staining, western blot, and fractal dimension analyses. We found 1,008 mRNAs and 18 miRNAs differentially expressed in cachectic mice. This set of genes was associated with the ECM, proteolysis, and inflammatory response. Enrichment analysis of transcriptional factor binding sites revealed activation of the atrophy-related transcriptional factors: NF-κB, Stat3, AP-1, and FoxO. Furthermore, the integration of mRNA and miRNA expression profiles identified post-transcriptional regulation by miRNAs of genes involved in ECM organization, cell migration, transcription factors binding, ion transport, and FoxO signaling pathway. C2C12 myotubes treated with TNF-α and IFN-γ similarly down-regulate subsets of ECM genes, including collagens. Our integrative analysis of miRNA-mRNA co-profiles comprehensive characterized regulatory relationships of molecular pathways and revealed miRNAs targeting ECM-associated genes in cancer cachexia. We also confirmed in C2C12 myotubes that changes in ECM-associated genes are dependent on inflammatory signaling of the cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0461.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: bladder cancer; dynamic model; uncertainty quantification; model calibration; cancer prognosis
Online: 31 May 2018 (08:18:00 CEST)
Bladder cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases in the urinary system and a highly aggressive neoplasm. The prognosis is not favourable usually and its evolution for particular patients is very difficult to find out. In this paper we propose a dynamic mathematical model that describes the bladder tumor growth and the immune response evolution. This model is customized for a single patient, determining appropriate model parameter values via model calibration. Due to the uncertainty of the tumor evolution, using the calibrated model parameters, we predict the tumor size and the immune response evolution over the next few months assuming three different scenarios: favourable, neutral and unfavourable. In the former, the cancer disappears; in the second a 5mm tumor is expected around the middle of August 2018; in the worst scenario, a 5mm tumor is expected around the end of May 2018. The patient has been cited around June 15th, 2018, to check the tumor size, if it exists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0110.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: oral cancer; radiotherapy; intra-arterial chemotherapy; head and neck cancer
Online: 7 May 2018 (08:48:20 CEST)
Purpose: The aim of present study was to compare the treatment results of daily cisplatin (CDDP), weekly docetaxel (DOC) intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy (DIACRT) regimen and weekly CDDP intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy (WIACRT) for patients with tongue cancer. Materials and Methods: Between January 2007 and December 2016, a total of 11 patients treated with WIACRT and 45 patients treated with DIACRT were enrolled in present study. In DIACRT group, 25 patients had T2, 20 patients had T3. A total of 9 patients had T2 and 2 had T3 in WIACRT (p = NS). In DIACRT, the treatment schedule consisted of intra-arterial chemotherapy (DOC, total 60 mg/m2; CDDP, total 150 mg/m2) and daily concurrent radiotherapy (RT) (total, 60 Gy). In WIACRT, the treatment schedule consisted of intra-arterial chemotherapy (CDDP, total 360 mg/m2) and daily concurrent RT (total, 60 Gy). Results: The median follow-up periods for DIACRT and WIACRT were 61 and 66 months respectively. The 5-year local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) rate were 94.5% and 89.6% for DIACRT group, 60.6% and 63.6% for WIACRT group respectively. The LC rate and OS of DIACRT group were significantly higher than that of WIACRT group. As regards toxicities, no treatment-related deaths were observed during the follow-up periods both in two groups. Conclusions: DIACRT was found to be feasible and effective for patients with tongue cancer and could become a new treatment modality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0437.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: breast cancer; microbiota; bacteria; dysbiosis; pro-carcinogenic; anti-carcinogenic; genetics; next-generation sequencing; cancer treatments; cancer prevention
Online: 21 October 2020 (12:51:23 CEST)
One in eight women will be diagnosed with breast cancer (BC) in their lifetime, resulting in over 2 million cases annually. BC is the most common cancer among women. Unfortunately, the etiology of majority of cases remains unknown. Recently, evidence has shown that the human microbiota plays an important role in health and disease. Intriguingly, studies have revealed the presence of microorganisms in human breast tissue, which was previously presumed to be sterile. Next-generation sequencing technologies have paved way for the investigation of breast microbiota, uncovering bacterial signatures that are associated with BC. Some of the bacterial species were found to possess pro-carcinogenic and/or anti-carcinogenic properties, suggesting that the breast microbiota has potentially crucial roles in maintenance of breast health. In this review, we summarize the recent findings on breast tissue microbiota and its interplay with BC. Bacterial signatures identified via next-generation sequencing as well as their impact on breast carcinogenesis and cancer therapies are reviewed. Correlation of breast tissue microbiota and other factors, such as geographical and racial differences, in BC is discussed. Additionally, we discuss the future directions of research on breast microbiota as well as its potential role in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of BC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0155.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Tumor microenvironment; tumor stroma; cancer-associated fibroblasts; heterogeneity; biomarkers; cancer; The Cancer Genome Atlas; gene expression; computational biology
Online: 15 January 2020 (12:56:44 CET)
Current therapeutic strategies targeting cancer cells within solid tumors have displayed limited success owing to the presence of non-cancer components referred to as the tumor stroma within the tumor microenvironment (TM). These stromal cells, extracellular matrix and blood vessels influence cancer cell response to therapy and play key roles in tumor relapse and resistance. Of the stromal cells present in the TM, a lot of attention has been given to cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) as they are the most abundant and are important in cancer initiation, progression and therapy resistance. In this updated review I emphasize the role of CAFs in the regulation of tumor cell behaviour and reveal how CAF-derived factors and signaling influence tumor cell heterogeneity and development of novel strategies to combat cancer. To investigate the expression of CAF markers in tumor tissues versus normal tissues, transcriptomic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) databases was used. Bioinformatic analysis reveals differential expression of CAF markers in several cancer types, underscoring the need for further multiomics and biochemical studies on CAFs, CAF subsets and markers. Differences in CAF markers’ expression could be due to different cellular origins as well as the effect of cancer-specific tumor microenvironmental effect on CAFs. Lastly, I present recent advances in therapeutic targeting of CAFs and the success of such endeavours or its lack thereof. It is recommended that for patients’ outcomes to improve, cancer treatment be combinatorial in nature, targeting both cancer cells and stromal cells and interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0023.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Pancreatic cancer; cancer evolution; tumour microenvironment; mathematical model; open quasispecies model
Online: 1 September 2022 (10:52:10 CEST)
Pancreatic cancer represents one of the difficult problems of contemporary medicine. The development illness evolves very slowly, takes place in special sake (stroma) and manifests clinically close to a final stage. Another feature of this pathology is a coexistence (symbiotic) effect between cancer cells and normal cells inside stroma. All these aspects make it difficult to understand the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer and develop a proper therapy. The emergence of pancreatic pre-cancer and cancer cells represents a branching stochastic process engaging populations of 64 cells differing in the number of acquired mutations. In this study we formulate and calibrate the mathematical model of pancreatic cancer using the quasispecies framework. The mathematical model incorporates the mutation matrix, fineness landscape matrix and the death rates. Each element of the mutation matrix presents the probability of appearing a specific mutation in the branching sequence of cells representing the accumulation of mutations. The model incorporates the cancer cell elimination by effect CD8 T cells (CTL). The down-regulation of the effector function of CTLs and exhaustion are parameterized. The symbiotic effect of coexistence of normal and cancer cells is considered. The computational predictions obtained with the model are consistent with empirical data. The modelling approach can be used to investigate other types of cancers and examine various treatment procedures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0034.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: cell signaling; signaling pathways; single-cell sequencing; immunotherapy; hallmarks cancer; cancer
Online: 2 November 2020 (11:28:51 CET)
Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. It is theorized that underlying genetic and epigenetic changes enable cells to proliferate out of control by escaping regulatory mechanisms. Although traditional molecular profiling techniques, i.e., bulk sequencing, can identify common mutations and gene expression patterns in cancer cells, they cannot detect tumour heterogeneity. However, single-cell technology has provided an ample opportunity to overcome this difficulty. Since this technology allows us to detect the heterogeneous properties of all cancer cells, this can further our knowledge of the signaling pathways in cancer cells. Indeed, single-cell transcriptomics technology has paved the road for identifying novel biomarkers and signaling pathways, which can serve as targets. This study aims to review the current knowledge about pathways involved in developing cancer cells and shed light on single-cell studies as promising therapeutic approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0463.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Geographic Information Systems; Women’s Health; Cancer Screening; Breast Cancer; Health Programs
Online: 22 October 2020 (12:36:12 CEST)
The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) of Minnesota, “Sage”, provides breast cancer screening to uninsured women. We introduce a novel mapping technique, spatially adaptive filters (SAFs), to estimate utilization of Sage screening in Minnesota. Sage screenings (N = 74,712) were geocoded. The eligible population was modeled with the RTI synthetic population dataset. Between 2011 and 2015, 36,979 women a year were Sage eligible. Utilization was highly variable across Minnesota (M = 37.2%, range 0% - 131%, SD = 18.7%). This replicable approach modeled utilization rates to the neighborhood-level, allowing Sage to prioritize locations and engage communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0718.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: early-onset breast cancer; hereditary cancer; whole-exome sequencing; young women
Online: 31 August 2020 (09:46:26 CEST)
Young women with breast cancer represent 15% of cancer cases in Latin America. Genomic studies have found that early-onset breast-cancer cases exhibit a higher genetic susceptibility and a specific genomic signature as compared to their older counterparts. The aim of this study was to describe clinically relevant germline mutations in a cohort of young women with breast cancer. To achieve this, we analyzed hereditary-cancer genes from whole-exome sequencing data in 108 unrelated women with an extreme phenotype of breast cancer (≤40 years of age), diagnosed and treated at the National Cancer Institute of Mexico; 11% of the patients carried a pathogenic variant. BRCA2 comprised 46% of the mutations, followed by BRCA1 with 23%; PALB2 with 15%; and TP53 and RAD51C with 8 % each. This article describes a novel pathogenic mutation in RAD51C c.519dupT. The median age at diagnosis was 35 years overall; however, it was six years younger in patients with mutations. Age at diagnosis (OR=0.82, CI 95% 0.71-0.94; P= 0.008) and first-degree family history of cancer (OR=8.26, CI95% 1.35-50; P= 0.022) were the only epidemiological variables associated with mutational status. We found no differences in disease-free survival (p=0.403) or overall survival (p=0.735) among mutational status subgroups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0527.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Cancer Stem Cell; Hypoxia; EGFR; Cisplatin; PDX
Online: 22 July 2020 (11:32:30 CEST)
Development of targeted therapies for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an unmet medical need. Cisplatin has demonstrated its promising potential for the treatment of TNBC in clinical trials; however, cisplatin treatment is associated with hypoxia that in turn promotes cancer stem cell (CSC) enrichment and drug resistance. Therapeutic approaches to attenuate this may lead to increased cisplatin efficacy in the clinic for the treatment of TNBC. In this report, we analyzed clinical dataset of TNBC and found that TNBC patients possessed higher levels of EGFR and hypoxia gene expression. A similar expression pattern was also observed in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells. We thus developed a new therapeutic approach to inhibit EGFR and hypoxia by combination of metformin and gefitinib that sensitized TNBC cells to cisplatin and led to the inhibition of both CD44+/CD24- and ALDH+ CSCs. We demonstrated a similar inhibition efficacy on organotypic cultures of TNBC patient samples ex vivo. Since these drugs have already been used frequently in the clinic, this study illustrates a novel, clinically translatable therapeutic approach to treat patients with TNBC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0484.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Gastric cancer; Submucosal invasion; Intestinal stem cell; Cancer stem cell; Prognosis
Online: 21 July 2020 (12:34:02 CEST)
Submucosal invasion is a critical step in gastric cancer (GC) progression, which greatly enhances metastasis risk. Cancer stem cells are responsible for invasion, metastasis, and tumor growth. To identify stem cell-related markers associated with submucosal invasion in GCs, we investigated the expression of candidate cancer stem cell (CSC) markers (CD133, CD44, and ALDH1A) and intestinal stem cell (ISC) markers (EPHB2, OLFM4, and LGR5) in early GCs with submucosal invasion. Remarkably, expression of all ISC markers and CD133 was frequently confined to the basal area of the lamina propria (basal pattern) in mucosal cancer. The proportion of stem cell marker-positive cells substantially increased during submucosal invasion. Given that ISC markers are restricted to the crypt base of the normal intestinal mucosa, these findings suggest that many early GCs may retain hierarchical characteristics. CD44 expression showed a focal pattern, ALDH1A was predominantly expressed diffusely, and there was no expansion of CD44 or ALDH1A expression in the submucosal cancer cells. RSPO2 from muscularis mucosa seem to be partly responsible for the increased expression of ISC markers in GC cells at the basal areas. We also found that ISC markers were correlated with CDX2 expression in GCs, indicating that ISC markers are involved in the intestinal differentiation in GCs. Interestingly, ISC markers (EPHB2 and OLFM4) and CD133 showed a positive impact on clinical outcomes. In particular, the prognostic value of EPHB2 was significant for intestinal-type GCs in a multivariate analysis. In summary, ISC markers and CD133 showed a basal distribution pattern along with enhanced expression in submucosal invading cells in early GCs. EPHB2 was an independent prognostic marker in intestinal-type GCs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0218.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: head and neck cancer; radiation therapy; radiation; patient-derived models; cancer
Online: 10 February 2020 (10:45:23 CET)
Patient derived model systems are important tools for studying novel anti-cancer therapies. Patient derived xenografts (PDXs) have gained favor over the last 10 years as newer mouse strains have improved the success rate of establishing PDXs from patient biopsies. PDXs can be engrafted from head and neck cancer (HNC) samples across a wide range of cancer stages, retain the genetic features of their human source, and can be treated with both chemotherapy and radiation, allowing for clinically relevant studies. Not only do PDXs allow for study of patient tissues in an in vivo model, they can also provide a renewable source of cancer cells for organoid cultures. Herein, we review the uses of HNC patient derived models for radiation research including approaches to establishing both orthotopic and heterotopic PDXs, approaches and potential pitfalls to delivering chemotherapy and radiation to these animal models, biological advantages and limitations, and alternatives to animal studies that still use patient-derived tissues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0150.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: dual-channel sensor; efficient capture; lung cancer biomarker; lung cancer screening
Online: 10 July 2019 (11:37:13 CEST)
Lung cancer remains the leading cancer killer worldwide. Early diagnosis can effectively increase the patient cure rate but existing diagnostic methods limit early lung cancer diagnosis. Therefore, development of a simple but efficient lung cancer screening method is important to improvement of both the diagnosis rate and the survival rate of lung cancer patients. In this study, ten photosensitive materials with high sensitivity and high specificity were screened accurately to construct a microarray sensor that can rapidly identify six types of lung cancer biomarkers in exhaled breath. Results from hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and difference maps showed that the classification of the analytes agreed with structure similarity laws. The detection results from parallel experiments and structurally similar analytes, in turn, cluster into a group; the fingerprints of the different analytes have specific response regions. The well-screened sensor chip fabrication workload and cost were both reduced by approximately two thirds, while the microfluidic device sensitivity and stability increased by approximately 1.3 times their corresponding values before optimization. The dual-channel device also offers real-time contrast detection and synchronous parallel detection functions and has potential application prospects for use in extensive screening of high-risk populations for lung cancer.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0341.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: colorectal cancer; new technologies; palliative care for colorectal cancer patients; stenting
Online: 15 November 2018 (04:59:37 CET)
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic placement of Self Expandable Metal Stents to relieve malignant colorectal obstruction has become a common therapeutic advancement in clinical practice. MATERIAL: In a 16 year period 167 patients had endoscopic placement of a Self Expandable Metal Stent in a center where gastroenterologists and surgeons cooperate in a daily basis, discussing indications. RESULTS: There was no operative mortality and no major complication in placement of the stent. Technical and clinical success was respectively 95.1% and 92.9%. Consultation among specialists changed the preoperative indication in 60 patients, during the same time period. CONCLUSIONS: Self expandable metal stents placement represents an important tool to treat patients with obstructing colorectal cancer and complications after colorectal resection . A proper training is required, and this training in operative endoscopy is not always available and possible. In this scenario, a close collaboration among specialists in selecting the most appropriate operative procedure is essential and brings to better results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0088.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: p53; proteasome inhibitor; endometrial cancer; ovarian cancer; gain-of-function mutation
Online: 4 May 2018 (09:03:27 CEST)
Mutations in the “guardian of the genome” TP53 predominate in solid tumors. In addition to loss of tumor suppressor activity, a specific subset of missense mutations confers additional oncogenic properties. These “gain-of-function” (GOF) mutations portend poor prognosis across cancer types regardless of treatment. Our objective in this study was to identify novel therapeutic opportunities to overcome the deleterious effects of GOF TP53 mutants. Using gynecologic cancer cell lines with known TP53 mutational status, we established that treatment with a proteasome inhibitor induced cell death in cells with two recurrent GOF TP53 mutations (R175H and R248Q), and addition of a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) enhanced this effect. By contrast, p53-null cancer cells were relatively resistant to the combination. Towards understanding the mechanism, we found that proteasome inhibition promotes apoptosis of cells with TP53 GOF mutations, potentially through induction of the unfolded protein response. In line with the reported hyperstabilization of GOF p53 protein, cells treated with HDACi exhibited reduced levels of p53 protein. Together, these data form the basis for future clinical studies examining therapeutic efficacy in a preselected patient population with GOF TP53 mutations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0199.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: human papillomavirus; HPV; cervical cancer; cancer screening; self-sampling; vaginal microbiome
Online: 1 December 2017 (07:19:13 CET)
In most industrialized countries, screening programs for cervical cancer have shifted from cytology (Pap smear or ThinPrep) alone on clinician-obtained samples to the addition of screening for human papillomavirus (HPV), its main causative agent. For HPV testing, self-sampling instead of clinician-sampling has proven to be equally accurate, in particular for assays that use nucleic acid amplification techniques. In addition, HPV testing of self-collected samples in combination with a follow-up Pap smear in case of a positive result is more effective in detecting precancerous lesions than a Pap smear alone. Self-sampling for HPV testing has already been adopted by some countries, while others have started trials to evaluate its incorporation into national cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling may result in more individuals willing to participate in cervical cancer screening, because it removes many of the barriers that prevent women, especially those in low socioeconomic and minority populations, from participating in regular screening programs. Several studies have shown that the majority of women who have been underscreened but who tested HPV-positive in a self-obtained sample, will visit a clinic for follow-up diagnosis and management. Additionally, a self-collected sample can also be used for vaginal microbiome analysis, which can provide additional information about HPV infection persistence as well as vaginal health in general.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0079.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: heterocyclic amines (HCAs); meat intake; colorectal cancer; colorectal adenomas; cancer prevention
Online: 9 May 2017 (06:13:18 CEST)
Several evidences suggest that the positive association between meat intake and colorectal adenoma (CRA) and cancer (CRC) risk is mediated by mutagenic compounds generated during cooking at high temperature. A number of epidemiological studies have estimated the effect of meat-related mutagens intake on CRC/CRA risk with contradictory and sometime inconsistent results. A literature search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus) to identify articles reporting the relationship between the intake of meat-related mutagens (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine: PhIP, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline: MeIQx, 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline: DiMeIQx, benzo(a) pyrene: (B(a)P) and “meat derived mutagenic activity”: MDM) and CRC/CRA risk. A random-effect model was used to calculate the risk association. Thirty-nine studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Polled CRA risk (15229 cases) was significantly increased by intake of PhIP (OR=1.20; 95%CI:1.13,1.28; p<0.001), MeIQx (OR=1.14; 95%CI:1.05,1.23; p=0.001), DiMeIQx (OR=1.13; 95%CI:1.05,1.21; p=0.001), B(a)P (OR=1.10; 95%CI:1.02,1.19; p=0.017) and MDM (OR=1.17; 95%CI:1.07,1.28; p=0.001). A linear and curvilinear trend was observed in dose-response meta-analisis between CRA risk in association with PhIP and MDM, MeIQx, respectively. CRC risk (21344 cases) was increased by uptake of MeIQx (OR=1.14; 95%CI:1.04,1.25; p=0.004), DiMeIQx (OR=1.12; 95%CI:1.02,1.22; p=0.014) and MDM (OR=1.12; 95%CI:1.06,1.19; p<0.001). No publication bias could be detected whereas heterogeneity was in some cases rather high. Mutagenic compounds formed during cooking of meat at high temperature may be responsible of its carcinogenicity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0434.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: colorectal cancer, cancer stem cells, mesenchymal stromal cells, stem cell markers, chemoresistance, treatment personalization, biomarkers, cancer stem cell markers
Online: 21 September 2018 (10:07:54 CEST)
BACKGROUND: Treatment failure in primary as well as metastatic cancer patients, caused by chemo and radio resistance, has truncated the research for the applicability of personalized medicine. The use of stem cells and cancer stem cells in such a treatment approach will be reviewed in this study. RESULTS: CRC stem cells prove to be a promising asset for CRC treatment optimization both by serving as biomarkers for the current therapy modalities by means of treatment personalization and patient/tumor stratification, as well as in the development of targeted therapies, selective for the stem cell population. Similar conclusions are drawn, regarding mesenchymal stromal cells and their effect in CRC therapy; while resident stromal cells of tumor microenvironment seem to promote the tumorigenic and metastatic processes in addition to conferring to the chemo- and radio resistance, under certain conditions they are able to improve the treatment outcome of CRC chemotherapy, e.g. by targeted enzyme/prodrug treatment of CRC cells. CONCLUSION: This review, truncates the dynamic potential of cancer stem cells and other stem cell types in CRC treatment personalization as well as, in the improvement of current treatment approaches opting to a higher therapeutic rate, improved prognosis, survival and quality of life for CRC patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0285.v1
Online: 16 August 2022 (09:52:17 CEST)
Regardless of the advances in our ability to detect early and treat breast cancer, it is still one of the common types of malignancy worldwide, with the majority of patients decease upon metastatic disease. Nevertheless, due to these advances, we have extensively characterized the drivers and molecular profiling of breast cancer and further dividing it into subtypes. These subgroups are based on immunohistological markers (Estrogen Receptor-ER, Progesterone Receptor-PR and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-HER-2) and transcriptomic signatures, with distinct therapeutic approaches and regiments. These therapeutic approaches include targeted therapy (HER-2+), endocrine therapy (HR+) or chemotherapy (TNBC) with optional combination radiotherapy, depending on clinical stage. Technological and scientific advances in the identification of molecular pathways that contribute to therapy-resistance and establishment of metastatic disease, have provided the rationale for revolutionary targeted approaches against Cyclin-Dependent Kinases 4/6 (CDK4/6), PI3 Kinase (PI3K), Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase (PARP) and Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (PD-L1), among others. In this review, we focus on the comprehensive overview of epidemiology and current standard of care treatment of metastatic breast cancer, along with ongoing clinical trials. Towards this goal, we utilized available literature from PubMed and ongoing clinical trial information from clinicaltrials.gov to reflect the up to date and future treatment options for metastatic breast cancer.
Online: 14 October 2020 (10:24:48 CEST)
Background: Oncology patients experience a large number of symptoms and, those referring to cognitive performance has an ever-increasing importance in clinical practice due to the increase in survival rates and interest in the patient's quality of life. The studies reviewed show that chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment may occur in 15 and 50% of oncology patients. The main objective of this research was to study the impact of chemotherapy on the cognitive function of patients with locoregional breast cancer.Method: Analytical, prospective, longitudinal study using three measures, unifactorial intrasubject design, non-probability and random selection sampling. The sample comprised women newly diagnosed with locoregional breast cancer in stages I, II, IIIA who received chemotherapy at the University Hospital of Salamanca (Complejo Asistencial Universitario de Salamanca) randomly selected for three years. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, HAD); quality of life (QLQ-BR23 scale) and the following cognitive variables were assessed: processing speed, attention, memory and executive functions (subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale and the Trail Making Test). Results: The final sample size included 151 participants; 23 were excluded. A decline in cognitive performance was observed in patients which was not completely recovered two months after chemotherapy had been completed. Also, worse cognitive performance was observed in patients with anxious or depressive symptoms. There is a negative impact on the quality of life. Conclusion: Chemotherapy has an impact on the cognitive performance of oncology patients in most of the cognitive domains studied.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0019.v1
Online: 3 June 2020 (13:49:43 CEST)
Background: ethical issues that arise during the care of a pregnant woman with cancer are challenging to physicians, policymakers, lawyers, and the bioethics community. This article is restricted to a discussion of ethical dilemmas and controversial case reports, mainly focused before the third trimester of pregnancy, when a conflict could exist between cancer and pregnancy outcomes.Methods: published literature was retrieved through searches in PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, the Cochrane and Google Academic in April 2020, using appropriate controlled keywords (cancer, neoplasm, pregnancy, ethics). Results were restricted to review articles, ethical perspectives, clinical practice guidelines and case-based teaching guides.Discussion: when a conflict arises in the maternal-foetus dyad, like the one related with cancer treatment and the risk of foetal demise, a range of ethical frameworks might be useful to consider in the decision-making process. Pragmatic theoretical approaches include case-based analysis, ethics of care, feminist theory, and traditional ethical principlism using the framework of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Also, societal and practitioner values could add value and an ethics consultation may be helpful to mediate conflict resolution. The physician must balance autonomy and beneficence-based obligations to the pregnant woman with cancer, along with beneficence-based obligations to the foetus.Conclusions: ethical challenges have received less attention in the literature, particularly before the third trimester of pregnancy. Best, unbiased and balanced information must be granted both to the patient and to the family, regarding the benefits and harms for the woman herself as well as for the foetal outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0236.v1
Online: 20 October 2019 (16:18:48 CEST)
PDEF is expressed in luminal epithelial cells of the prostate gland and associates with luminal phenotype. Hippo pathway regulates cell growth/proliferation, cellular homeostasis, and organ development by modulating phosphorylation of its downstream effectors. In previous studies, we observed decreased levels of PDEF during prostate cancer progression. In the present studies, we evaluated the effects of PDEF on total and phospho (Ser-127)YAP1 protein(a downstream effector of the Hippo pathway) levels in PC3 cells, a line of castrate resistant prostate cancer. We observed that the expression of PDEF in PC3 cells resulted in increased increased phospho(Ser127) -YAP1 protein levels. Our immunofluorescence analysis for YAP1 revealed an increased cytoplasmic/nuclear ratio of YAP1 in PDEF-PC3 cells as compared to VC-PC3 cells, suggesting PDEF may play a critical role in modulating YAP1 phosphorylation, and by extension in the regulation of the Hippo pathway. We also observed a decrease in YAP1 protein levels in prostate cancer tissues as compared to normal prostate tissues. Our analysis of multiple publicly available clinical cohorts revealed a gradual decrease in YAP1 mRNA expression during prostate cancer progression and metastasis. This decrease was similar to the decrease in PDEF levels which we reported earlier. In addition we observed further decreased in PDEF and YAP1 expression in Neuro-Endocrine Prostate Cancer (NEPC), and a direct correlation between PDEF and YAP1 expression. To the best of our knowledge, these results provide the first demonstration of modulation of YAP1 by PDEF in any system and suggest a cross-talk between PDEF and the Hippo pathway.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0258.v1
Online: 25 August 2019 (17:01:23 CEST)
With the continuous progress in modern medicine, the early detection rate of gastric cancer has increased, and the mortality rate has decreased. However, gastric cancer remains the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, with a high recurrence rate. Metastasis is the leading cause of death and recurrence of gastric cancer, which greatly hinders treatment success. Cancer development is a complex process involving multiple sequential steps. In the metastatic cascade, local invasion may be considered an initial, crucial step in the development of a malignant tumor, which leads to distant metastasis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) is one of the most important developmental processes that occur during tumor invasion. EMT confers certain basic abilities to cancer cells, such as migration, invasion and anti-apoptotic ability, thus initiating and increasing metastasis. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that promote EMT and gastric cancer cell metastasis. A number of recent studies have found that circular RNAs（circRNAs）are associated with gastric cancer EMT, regulating the EMT process and promoting the occurrence and development of tumors. Because of their unique continuous circular structure, circRNAs have relatively high stability in plasma and cells, making them more suitable as diagnostic biomarkers in malignant tumors. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of circRNAs in EMT in gastric cancer is an important research direction to actively prevent tumor metastasis and improve the therapeutic effect on advanced malignant tumors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0193.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: peroxiredoxins; lung cancer; prognostic
Online: 19 August 2019 (04:35:15 CEST)
Background: Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) comprise antioxidant factors that are widely found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Abnormal expression of Prxs is closely related to tumorigenesis. Methods: This study examined the prognostic value and expression of Prxs in lung cancer by Human Protein Atlas (HPA), Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA), UALCAN, Kaplan-Meier Plotter, cBioPortal and Functional Enrichment Analysis Tool (FunRich) databases. Results: We found that Prx1/2/3/4/5 were overexpressed in both lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) relative to normal lung cells. However, the expression level of Prx6 was lower in LUAD and higher in LUSC than normal lung cells. The level of Prx3 and Prx6 were associated with pathological stage. Prognostic analysis showed that elevated Prx1 and Prx2 expression were correlated with low Overall Survival (OS), whereas high Prx5 and Prx6 expression level predicted high OS. Conclusions: Our results effectively revealed the level of Prxs in lung cancer and its influence on the prognosis of lung carcinoma, contributing to the study of the role of Prxs in tumorigenesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0021.v1
Online: 4 October 2017 (11:59:09 CEST)
With the advancement of next generation sequencing in past several years, a rising number of non-coding RNAs have been found as new actors to regulate gene expression. Non-coding RNAs not only play important roles in carcinogenesis, but also affect the clinical treatment strategies. They have been proved to be deeply correlated with chemoresistance in several cancers. Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death in gynecological malignancy, with low 5-year survival rate. Most patients are identified when they have late-stage disease. This review mainly makes a compilation of the most relevant research literature in this field with the purpose of shedding light on the relation between ncRNAs and chemoresistance in ovarian cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0368.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: circulating tumor DNA; colon cancer; colorectal cancer; minimal residual disease; adjuvant chemotherapy
Online: 27 May 2022 (03:52:10 CEST)
Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), the tumor-derived cell-free DNA fragments in the bloodstream carrying tumor-specific genetic and epigenetic alterations, represents an emerging novel tool for minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment in patients with resected colorectal cancer (CRC). For many decades, precise risk-stratification following curative-intent colorectal surgery has remained an enduring challenge. The current risk stratification strategy relies on clinicopathologic characteristics of the tumors that lacks precision and results in over-and undertreatment in a significant proportion of patients. Consequently, a biomarker that can reliably identify patients harboring MRD would be of critical importance in refining patient selection for adjuvant therapy. Several prospective cohort studies have provided compelling data suggesting that ctDNA could be a robust biomarker for MRD that outperforms all existing clinicopathologic criteria. Numerous clinical trials are currently underway to validate the ctDNA-guided MRD assessment and adjuvant treatment strategies. Once validated, the ctDNA technology will likely transform the adjuvant therapy paradigm of colorectal cancer, supporting ctDNA-guided treatment escalation and de-escalation. The current article presents a comprehensive overview of the published studies supporting the utility of ctDNA for MRD assessment in patients with CRC. We also discuss ongoing ctDNA-guided adjuvant clinical trials that will likely shape future adjuvant therapy strategies for patients with CRC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0096.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Aggressiveness; biomarker; cancer stem cells; diagnosis; colon cancer; glycan; immunohistochemistry; lectin; prognosis
Online: 4 November 2021 (09:23:14 CET)
Nowadays, colon cancer prognosis still difficult to predict, especially in the early stages. Recurrences remain elevated, even in the early stages after curative surgery. Carcidiag Biotechnologies has developed an immunohistochemistry (IHC) kit called ColoSTEM Dx, based on a MIX of biotinylated plant lectins that specifically detects colon cancer stem cells (CSCs) through glycan patterns that they specifically (over)express. A retrospective clinical study was carried out on tumor tissues from 208 non-treated and 21 treated patients with colon cancer, that were stained by IHC with the MIX. Clinical performances of the kit were determined, and prognostic and predictive values were evaluated. With 78.3% and 70.6% of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity respectively, our kit shows great clinical performances. Moreover, patient prognosis is significantly poorer when the MIX staining is “High” compared to “Low”, especially at 5-years of overall survival and for early stages. The ColoSTEM Dx kit allows an earlier and a more precise determination of patients’ outcome. Thus, it affords an innovating clinical tool for predicting tumor aggressiveness earlier and determining prognosis value regarding therapeutic response in colon cancer patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0302.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: immune checkpoint; HVEM; BTLA; monoclonal antibody; cancer immunotherapy; humanized mice; prostate cancer
Online: 9 June 2021 (11:26:57 CEST)
The Herpes Virus Entry Mediator (HVEM) delivers a negative signal to T cells mainly through the B and T Lymphocyte Attenuator (BTLA) molecule and thus, could represent a novel immune checkpoint during an anti-tumor immune response. A formal demonstration that HVEM can be targeted for cancer immunotherapy is however still lacking. Here, we first show that HVEM and BTLA were associated to a worse prognosis in patients with prostate adenocarcinomas, indicating a detrimental role for this pair of molecule during prostate cancer progression. We then show that a monoclonal antibody to human HVEM significantly impacted the growth of a prostate cancer cell line in immuno-compromised NOD.SCID.gc-null mice reconstituted with human T cells. Using CRISPR/Cas9, we showed that HVEM expression by the tumor was mandatory to observe the therapeutic effect. Mechanistically, tumor control was dependent on CD8+ T cells and was associated to an increase in the proliferation and number of tumor-infiltrating leukocytes. Accordingly, the expression of genes belonging to various T cell activation pathways were enriched in tumor infiltrating leukocytes, whereas genes associated with immuno-suppressive pathways were decreased, possibly resulting in modifications of leukocyte adhesion and motility. Finally, we developed a simple in vivo assay in humanized mice to directly demonstrate that HVEM was an immune checkpoint for T-cell mediated tumor control. Our results show that targeting HVEM is a promising strategy for prostate cancer immunotherapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0445.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: oral cancer; cancer-associated fibroblasts; metastasis; cell migration; cell invasion; Akt; EGFR
Online: 27 May 2020 (08:25:20 CEST)
Oral cancer cells (TYS) and the signalling pathways involved in metastasis, in response to cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs, COM) and normal oral mucosal fibroblasts (MM1) was studied. Metastatic cell behaviour was observed by cell-scatter, 3D-collagen gel migration and 3D-spheroid invasion assays. Akt, MAPK, EGFR, TGFβRii and CXCR4 inhibitors were used to identify the signalling pathways involved. Signalling pathway protein expression and activation were assessed by SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting. COM-CM (conditioned medium) and MM1-CM stimulated cancer cell scattering, which was blocked only by the Akt inhibitor. COM-CM induced scattered cancer cells showed higher levels of Akt phosphorylation than the negative control and MM1-CM. Migration and invasion of TYS cells into the collagen gels from the spheroids was stimulated by CM from both sources, compared to the negative control. COM cells stimulated TYS, cancer cell invasion into the collagen more than MM1 and the control. Akt and EGFR inhibitors effectively blocked CM and COM cell-induced invasion. Akt-silenced cancer cells were not stimulated to migrate and invade by fibroblast-CM and did not survive addition of the EGFR inhibitor. This suggests that CAFs stimulate oral cancer cell migration and invasion in an Akt- dependent manner. EGFR and Akt are potential therapy targets in metastatic oral cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0253.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: vimentin; EMT; invasion; mechanotransduction; cell adhesion; cancer treatment; cancer drugs; amoeboid; mesenchymal
Online: 19 December 2019 (07:58:15 CET)
Intermediate filaments constitute the third component of the cellular skeleton. Unlike actin and microtubule cytoskeletons, the intermediate filaments are composed of wide variety of structurally related proteins showing distinct expression patterns in tissues and cell types. Changes in expression patterns of intermediate filaments are often associated with cancer progression, in particular with phenotypes leading to increased cellular migration and invasion. In this review we will describe the role of vimentin intermediate filaments in cancer cell migration, cell adhesion structures, and metastasis formation. The potential for targeting vimentin in cancer treatment and the development of drugs targeting vimentin will be reviewed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0258.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: GPR15, pan-cancer, TCGA, cancer immunity, differential gene expression, prognosis, virtual screening
Online: 23 July 2019 (11:15:19 CEST)
G protein-coupled receptor 15 (GPR15, also known as BOB) is an extensively studied orphan GPCR involving HIV infection, colonic inflammation and smoking-related diseases. Recently, GPR15 was deorphanized and its corresponding natural ligand demonstrated an ability of inhibiting cancer cell growth. However, no study reported the potential role of GPR15 in a pan-cancer manner. Using large-scale publicly available data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) databases, we found that GPR15 expression is significantly lower in colon adenocarcinoma (COAD) than in normal tissues. And among 33 cancer types, GPR15 expression is significantly correlated with the prognoses of COAD, neck squamous carcinoma (HNSC), lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) positively and stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) negatively. This study also revealed that commonly upregulated gene set in the high GPR15 expression group (stratified via median) of COAD, HNSC, LUAD and STAD are enriched in immune systems, indicating that GPR15 might be considered as a potential target for cancer immunotherapy. Furthermore, we modelled the 3D structure of GPR15 and conducted the structure-based virtual screening. The top 8 hits compounds were screened and then subjected to molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for stability analysis. Our study provided novel insights into the role of GPR15 in a pan-cancer manner and discovered a potential hit compound for GPR15 antagonists.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0127.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: PTEN; PI3K; cancer predisposition syndromes; targeted therapies; mouse models of human cancer
Online: 10 April 2019 (10:37:43 CEST)
The PI3K-AKT-mTOR signal transduction pathway regulates a variety of biological processes including cell growth, cell cycle progression and proliferation, cellular metabolism and cytoskeleton reorganization. Fine-tuning of the PI3K pathway signaling output is essential for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and uncontrolled activation of this cascade leads to a number of human pathologies including cancer. Inactivation of the tumour suppressor phosphatase PTEN and/or activating mutations in the proto-typical lipid kinase PI3K have emerged as some of the most frequent events associated with human cancer and as a result the PI3K pathway has become a highly sought-after target for cancer therapies. In this review we summarize the essential role of the PTEN-PI3K axis in controlling cellular behaviors by modulating activation of key proto-oncogenic molecular nodes and functional targets. Further, we highlight important functional redundancies and peculiarities of these two critical enzymes that over the last few decades have become a central part of the cancer research field and have instructed hundreds of pre-clinical and clinical trials to better cancer treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0121.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: tissue microarray; immunohistochemistry; cancer imaging; tyrosine kinase receptor; normal tissue; colon cancer
Online: 24 November 2016 (11:07:23 CET)
Targeted image-guided oncologic surgery (IGOS) relies on the recognition of cell surface-associated proteins, which should be abundantly present on the tumor cells but preferably absent on cells in surrounding healthy tissue. The transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2, a member of the A class of the Eph receptor family, has been reported to be highly overexpressed in several tumor types including breast, lung, brain, prostate, and colon cancer, and is considered amongst the most promising cell membrane-associated tumor antigens by the NIH. Another member of the Eph receptor family belonging to the B class, EphB4, has also been found to be up-regulated in multiple cancer types. In this study, EphaA2 and EphB4 are evaluated as target for IGOS of colorectal cancer by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using a tissue microarray (TMA) consisting of 168 pairs of tumor and normal tissue. The IHC sections were scored for staining intensity and percentage of cells stained. The results show a significantly enhanced staining intensity and more widespread distribution in tumor tissue compared with adjacent normal tissue for EphA2 as well as EphB4. Based on its more consistently higher score in colorectal tumor tissue compared to normal tissue, EphB4 appears to be an especially promising candidate for IGOS of colorectal cancer.
COMMENTARY | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0187.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: magnetic fields; power lines; cancer; carcinogenesis; stem cell division theory of cancer
Online: 22 August 2016 (05:15:53 CEST)
Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) are non-ionizing radiations typically emitted by power lines, electrical wiring and electrical appliances. Epidemiological studies have repeatedly shown a positive association between ELF-EMFs and childhood leukemia. Exposures greater than 0.3-0.4 µT increase the risk by approximately 1.5-2 fold, and estimates indicate that up to 2% of childhood leukemia cases in Europe may be attributable to ELF-EMFs. However, it is considered unlikely that ELF-EMFs can cause cancer, because carcinogenesis requires the accumulation of DNA alterations and ELF-EMFs do not have enough energy to damage the DNA. Lack of biological plausibility is a barrier to accept the evidence of carcinogenicity in human studies and to take measures to protect pregnant women and children from ELF-EMFs. Recent evidence indicates that non-mutagenic agents can cause DNA alterations and increase the risk of cancer by promoting the accumulation of cell divisions in stem cells. Cell division generates DNA alterations (e.g., mutations arising during DNA replication), which occur even in the absence of DNA-damaging agents. Importantly, ELF-EMFs can trigger the division of stem cells; this effect is under development in the field of regenerative medicine. A possible mechanism by which ELF-EMFs induce the malignant transformation of hematopoietic stem cells is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0394.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: deep learning; DNN; machine learning; breast cancer; metastasis, metastatic breast cancer, distant recurrence of breast cancer metastasis; prediction; clinical; EHR
Online: 29 June 2022 (04:06:16 CEST)
ABSTRACT Background It is important to be able to predict, for each individual patient, the likelihood of later metastatic occurrence, because the prediction can guide treatment plans tailored to a specific patient to prevent metastasis and to help avoid under- or over-treatment. Deep Neural Network (DNN) learning, commonly referred to as deep learning, has become popular due to its success in image detection and prediction, but questions such as whether deep learning outperforms other machine learning methods when using non-image clinical data remain unanswered. Grid search has been introduced to deep learning hyperparameter tunning for the purpose of improving its prediction performance, but the effect of grid search on other machine learning methods are under-studied. In this research, we take the empirical approach to study the performance of deep learning and other machine learning methods when using non-image clinical data to predict the occurrence of breast cancer metastasis (BCM) 5, 10, or 15-years after the initial treatment. We developed DNN models as well as models using 9 other machine learning methods including Naive Bayes (NB), Logistic Regression (LR), Support Vector Machine (SVM), LASSO, Decision Tree (DT), k-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Random Forrest (RF), AdaBoost (ADB), and XGBoost (XGB). We used grid search to tune hyperparameters for all methods. We then compared the deep learning models to the models trained using the 9 other machine learning methods. Results Based on the mean test AUC results, DNN ranks 6th, 4th, and 3rd when predicting 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year BCM respectively, out of 10 machine learning methods. The top performing methods in predicting 5-year BCM are XGB(1st), RF(2nd), and KNN(3rd). For predicting 10-year BCM the top performers are XGB (1st), RF(2nd), and NB(3rd) . Finally, for 15-year BCM the top performers are SVM (1st), LR and LASSO (tied for 2nd), and DNN (3rd). The ensemble methods RF and XGB outperform other methods when data are less balanced, while SVM, LR, LASSO, and DNN outperform other methods when data are more balanced. Our statistical testing results show that at a significance level of 0.05 DNN overall performs no worse than other machine learning methods when predicting 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year BCM. Conclusions Our results show that deep learning with grid search overall performs at least as well as other machine learning methods when using non-image clinical data. It is interesting to note that some of the other machine learning methods such as XGB, RF, and SVM are very strong competitors of DNN when incorporating grid search. It is also worth noting that the computation time required to do grid search with DNN is way more than that required to do grid search with the other 9 machine learning methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0103.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: stem cells; somatic mutations; cancer prevention; carcinogenesis; whole genome sequencing; stem cell division theory of cancer; bad luck of cancer
Online: 30 August 2017 (12:14:52 CEST)
Recent evidence indicates that the risk of being diagnosed with cancer in a tissue is strongly correlated (0.80) with the number of stem cell divisions accumulated by the tissue. Since cell division can generate random mutations during DNA replication, this correlation has been used to propose that cancer is largely caused by the accumulation of unavoidable mutations in driver genes. However, no correlation between the number of gene mutations and cancer risk across tissues has been reported. Because many somatic mutations in cancers originate prior to tumor initiation and the number of cell divisions occurring during tumor growth is similar among tissues, here I use whole genome sequencing information from 22,086 cancer samples and incidence data from the largest cancer registry in each continent to study the relationship between the number of gene mutations and the risk of cancer across 33 tissue types. Results show a weak positive correlation (mean = 0.14) between these two parameters in each of the five cancer registries. The correlation became stronger (mean = 0.50) when gender-related cancers were excluded. Results also show that 1,003 samples from 29 cancer types have zero mutations in genes. These data suggest that cancer etiology can be better explained by the accumulation of stem cell divisions than by the accumulation of gene mutations. Possible mechanisms by which the accumulation of cell divisions in stem cells increases the risk of cancer are discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0432.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: mutation; gastric cancer; p53; K-Ras; c-Myc; cancer genomics; targeted therapy; immunotherapy
Online: 16 August 2022 (10:35:16 CEST)
The genetic changes appearing in the information system of the cell that program its unregulated growth and proliferation gradually lead to cancer manifestation, and the treatment options need to be guided accordingly. The critical roles played by some of the molecules associated with the signaling pathways and cell microenvironment that often induce tumorigenesis and metastasis have been described precisely in recent years based on findings of the human genome project and other related initiatives undertaken afterward to thoroughly understand the molecular basis of cancer cell behaviors. It is to rely upon the genomic study of cancer cells to fully understand the prognosis and pathways involved in disease progression to selectively target them for a cure. Furthermore, patients with the same cancer types often respond differently to cancer therapies, indicating the need for a patient-specific treatment regimen for cancer. In this direction, precision oncology, defined as the molecular profiling of tumors to identify targetable alterations for custom-tailored personalized treatment, is gaining ground as a potential means of cancer treatment and has started influencing the ways cancer has been treated in clinics. This article intends to comprehensively elucidate the foundations and frontiers of precision oncology in the context of recent advances in cancer genomics and single-cell technologies for assessing its scope and importance in the realization of a proper cure for cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0321.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Somatic evolution; driver gene; clone selection; healthy tissues; cancer initiation; cancer early detection
Online: 21 July 2022 (10:43:07 CEST)
Seemingly normal tissues progressively become populated by mutant clones over time. Most of these clones bear mutations in well-known cancer genes but only rarely do they transform into cancer. This poses questions on what triggers cancer initiation and what implications somatic variation has for cancer early detection. We analysed recent mutational screens of healthy and cancer-free diseased tissues to compare somatic drivers and the causes of somatic variation across tissues. We then reviewed the mechanisms of clonal expansion and their relationships with age and diseases other than cancer. We finally discussed the relevance of somatic variation for cancer initiation and how it can help or hinder cancer detection and prevention. The extent of somatic variation is highly variable across tissues and depends on intrinsic features, such as tissue architecture and turnover, as well as the exposure to endogenous and exogenous insults. Most somatic mutations driving clone expansion are tissue-specific and inactivate tumour suppressor genes involved in chromatin modification and cell growth signalling. Some of these genes are more frequently mutated in normal tissues than cancer, indicating a context-dependent cancer promoting or protective role. Mutant clones can persist over a long time or disappear rapidly, suggesting that their fitness depends on the dynamic equilibrium with the environment. The disruption of this equilibrium is likely responsible for their transformation into malignant clones and knowing what triggers this process is key for cancer prevention and early detection. Somatic variation should be considered in liquid biopsy, where it may contribute cancer-independent mutations, and in the identification of cancer drivers, since not all mutated genes favouring clonal expansion also drive tumourigenesis. Somatic variation and the factors governing homeostasis of normal tissues should be taken into account when devising strategies for cancer prevention and early detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0201.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cancer stem cells; colorectal cancer; label-free cell sorting; chemoresistance; intratumoral cellular heterogeneity
Online: 16 May 2022 (09:11:01 CEST)
Cancer stem cells play a crucial role in tumor initiation, metastasis and therapy resistance. Cellular heterogeneity and plasticity challenge the isolation of cancer stem cells. The impact of intratumoral cellular heterogeneity in the context of treatment resistance using a label-free approach remains understudied. Here, we use the sedimentation field-flow fractionation technique to separate, without labeling, cell subpopulations of colorectal cancer cell lines and primary cultures according to their biophysical properties. One of the three cell subpopulations sorted by SdFFF exhibits cancer stem cell traits, including high tumorigenicity in vivo, and a higher frequency of tumor-initiating cells compared to the other subpopulations. In vitro two- and three-dimensional chemosensitivity assays emphasize the therapeutic relevance of this cancer stem cell-like subpopulation due to its chemoresistance. Therefore, our findings highlight a label-free cell sorting approach to reveal intratumoral cellular heterogeneity and its implication in therapy resistance. This approach enables the study of the individualized response of each sorted cell subpopulation by breaking down the tumor, thus offering new perspectives for personalized therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0154.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Colorectal cancer; Cancer stem cell; Neural progenitor cell; Wnt/β-catenin; K-Ras
Online: 10 March 2022 (14:26:20 CET)
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a tumor cell subpopulation that drives tumor progression and metastasis, leading to poor overall survival of patients. In colorectal cancer (CRC), hyper-activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by mutation of both Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and K-Ras increases the size of the CSC population. We previously showed that the CPD0857 inactivates Wnt/β-catenin signaling by promoting ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of β-catenin and Ras proteins, thereby decreasing proliferation and increasing apoptosis of CRC lines. CPD0857 also decreased growth and invasiveness of CRC cells harboring mutant K-Ras resistant to EGFR mAb therapy. Here, we show that CPD0857 treatment decreases proliferation and increases neuronal differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs). CDP0857 effectively reduced expression of CSC markers and suppressed self-renewal capacity. CPD0857 treatment also inhibited proliferation and expression of CSC markers in D-K-Ras MT cells carrying K-Ras, APC and PI3K mutations, indicating inhibition of PI3K/AKT signaling. Moreover, CPD0857-treated xenograft mice showed regression of tumor growth and decreased numbers of CSCs in tumors. We conclude that CPD0857 could serve as the basis of a drug development strategy targeting CSCs activated through Wnt/β-catenin-Ras MAPK-PI3K/AKT signaling in CRCs.