ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0236.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Acute exacerbation chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD); platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR); neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR); monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR); baso-phil-to-lymphocyte ratio (BLR); eosinophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (ELR); in-hospital mortality; nom-ogram; decision curve analysis (DCA); clinical impact curve (CIC)
Online: 14 November 2022 (04:42:59 CET)
The study comprehensively evaluated the prognostic roles of PLR, NLR, MLR, BLR, and ELR in patients with acute exacerbation chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). 619 patients with AECOPD and 300 healthy volunteers were retrospectively included into the study. The clinical characteristics containing laboratory findings of the AECOPD patients and the blood cell counts (CBCs) of the healthy volunteers were collected. Compared with the healthy volunteers, PLR, NLR, and MLR were elevated in COPD patients in stable condition, and were further ele-vated during exacerbation. ELR showed the opposite trend. PLR, NLR, and MLR were all posi-tively correlated with hospital LOS as well as CRP. In contrast, ELR was negatively correlated with hospital LOS as well as CRP. Elevated PLR, NLR, and MLR were all associated with more serious airflow limitation in AECOPD. Elevated PLR, NLR, and MLR were all associated with increased in-hospital mortality while Elevated ELR was associated with decreased in-hospital mortality in AECOPD. A nomogram was construct to predict in-hospital mortality in AECOPD. The nomo-gram had a C-index of 0.850 (95% CI: 0.799 – 0.901) with good predictive value and clinical ap-plicability. In summary, PLR, NLR, MLR, and ELR served as predictors for clinical outcomes in patients with AECOPD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: luminal breast cancer; neoadjuvant therapy; neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR); platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR); predictive/prognostic biomarkers
Online: 7 May 2021 (12:26:14 CEST)
Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a promising predictive and prognostic factor in breast cancer. We investigated its ability to predict disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with luminal A or luminal B-HER2-negative breast cancer who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). Pre-treatment complete blood cell counts from 168 consecutive patients with luminal breast cancer were evaluated to assess NLR. The study population was stratified into NLRlow or NLRhigh according to a cut-off value established by receiving operator curve (ROC) analysis. Data on additional pre- and post-treatment clinical-pathological characteristics were also collected. Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests, and Cox proportional hazards models were used for statistical analyses. Patients with pre-treatment NLRlow showed a significantly shorter DFS (HR 6.97, 95% CI 1.65-10.55, p= 0.002) and OS (HR 7.79, 95% CI 1.25-15.07, p= 0.021) compared to those with NLRhigh. Non-ductal histology, luminal B subtype, and post-treatment Ki67≥ 14% were also associated with worse DFS (p= 0.016, p= 0.002, and p= 0.001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, luminal B subtype, post-treatment Ki67≥ 14%, and NLRlow remained independent prognostic factors for DFS, while only post-treatment Ki67≥ 14% and NLRlow affected OS. The present study provides evidence that pre-treatment NLRlow helps identify women at higher risk of recurrence and death among patients affected by luminal breast cancer treated with NACT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Covid-19; Neutrophil-Lymphocyte ratio (NLR); severe covid pneumonia
Online: 5 December 2022 (06:26:50 CET)
With covid infection having a periodic occurrence and each wave affecting millions of people, there is an urgent need for healthcare providers to develop readily available biological markers to predict the severity and mortality of COVID-19 infection at an early stage of the disease to predict the most optimal management. The Neutrophil – lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) and Platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), are novel inflammatory markers suggested to predict the severity of illness in COVID -19 patients. We evaluated a retrospective cohort of 224 patients with covid 19 illnesses from August 2020 to October 2020. We categorized the patients into 'mild' and 'moderate to severe as per the severity of their illnesses. The optimal cut-off values of the continuous NLR, PLR, and Age were calculated by applying the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were calculated from ROC analysis. The results showed that Age, Hb, and NLR are significant predictors of the severity of illness. So we quantified the predictive contribution of those variables by its Z- score and showed that NLR is the strongest predictor followed by Age.ROC curve analysis revealed NLR to be an excellent predictor of disease severity (sensitivity 88.30% and specificity 82.60%) at a cut-off of > 4.24. A cut-off of 165.63 was obtained for PLR, which showed good predictive value for the severity of illness. A NLR > 6 was used as a predictor for mortality due to covid illness with good sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion: NLR and PLR can be used as prognostic markers to identify the severity of covid illness and the probability of mortality in the future in low-resource settings. Given its low cost, easily available, accessible, and reproducible data, it can be used as a useful marker to assist the physician in early referral and treatment of covid 19 infected patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2260.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: neutrophil-to-lymphocyte rati; feline infectious peritonitis; white blood cells; biomarker; FIP
Online: 31 May 2023 (14:21:33 CEST)
Abstract: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a clinical diagnosis based on abnormalities in patients' vital signs and white blood cell count. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is used as an easily accessible parameter to assess the patient's inflammatory status and stress. There are some studies showing that NLR affected by the inflammatory response is a criterion to support the diagnosis of SIRS. In this study, it was aimed to compare the interrelation between SIRS (+) and SIRS (-) groups in patients with high positive feline coronavirus (FCoV) in the light of NLR. Based on the anamneses, physical examination findings, laboratory findings, enzyme immunoassay antibody test kit titer were included in the sick groups. These patients were further categorized based on the presence of SIRS symptoms, vital signs and laboratory findings. The NLR as diagnostic marker demonstrated to differ between high antibody titer FCoV positive and healthy cats. However the diagnostic significance of NLR remains questionable between the high antibody titer FCoV positive cats with SIRS (+) and SIRS (-). As a result of our study NLR can be used as a blood parameter like albumin/globulin ratio and elevated total bilirubin in cats with high FCoV antibody titer and high probability of developing FIP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0199.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: C-reactive protein; platelet to lymphocyte ratio; neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio; hematocrit; red blood cell distribution width; contrast induced nephropathy; coronary intervention
Online: 16 June 2020 (07:51:20 CEST)
Background: Strong indicators of inflammation, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), hypersensitive CRP (hs-CRP), and a series of hematological indices, including platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), hematocrit (HCT) and red blood cell distribution width (RDW), are regarded related with the incidence of contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) closely. Whereas, it remains unclear whether they can function as predictors of CIN onset. The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the relationship between above indicators and CIN incidence among patients receiving coronary intervention. Methods: Clinical studies were retrieved from the electronic databases of PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Clinical Trials, and science direct from their inception to June 3rd, 2020. Meta-analysis was performed on pool eligible studies. Two reviewers screened all titles and abstracts and independently assessed all articles. Results: A total of 26 studies involving 29,454 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled analysis results revealed that patients with higher CRP (odds ratio [OR]=1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01–1.12, P=0.02), hs-CRP (OR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.01–1.06, P=0.004), NLR (OR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.01–1.20, P=0.02), RDW (OR=1.35, 95% CI: 1.19–1.53, P<0.00001), and lower HCT (OR=0.94, 95% CI: 0.92–0.97, P=0.0003) all exhibited significantly higher CIN rates, but there was no significant association between PLR and CIN risk (OR=1.12, 95% CI: 0.99–1.26, P=0.07). Conclusion: The meta-analysis reported here demonstrates that pre-angiography CRP/hs-CRP and some hematological indices are associated with CIN.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0291.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: stroke; neutrophil lymphocyte ratio; Systemic Immune Inflmmatory Indea; sustainable stroke care
Online: 11 February 2021 (19:01:45 CET)
Stroke is one of the leading cause of adult disability and the second leading cause of death worldwide. The immune system actively participates in the pathobiological process of AIS, during the index event and during the repair process despite the limited attention drawn to this aspect in the existing stroke guidelines globally. The similar clinical course and similar circulating innate and adaptive immune cell counts in AIS and COVID-19 has created a renewed interest in these easily available biomarkers innate and adaptive immunological changes in AIS with potential diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications. The current scoping review aimed to assess the significance of circulating neutrophil and lymphocyte counts and their ratio (NLR) in AIS and explore their association with post-stroke recovery trajectory. The Arksey and O'Malley methodological framework was employed to review the published papers on the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and AIS in late November 2020. Only studies published in English from 2000-2020 were included in this scoping review. Fifty-three published papers were reviewed. This review's key finding is that a canonical inflammatory response occurs in AIS just as in the case of COVID-19 and neurological involvements well described in the recent literature. An excessive circulating innate immune cells (neutrophils) and reduced circulating adaptive immune cells (lymphocytes ) are associated with poorer outcomes during the acute interventions ( reperfusion therapies) as well as the recovery trajectory. Main representatives of innate and adaptive immunity follow a canonical course in AIS and COVID-19. Exaggerated circulating innate ( elevated neutrophils and elevated NLR) and reduced adaptive immune response (lymphopenia) correlate with the worse outcome in AIS and COVID-19. This scoping review's findings make the strongest case for a systems biology-based approach to the standard operating procedures in stroke care urgently.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0810.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: NLR; CRP; P/F; COVID-19; Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio; Neutrophils; Lymphocytes; immune system; biomarkers; SARS-CoV-2; inflammation; ICU; lung failure
Online: 11 May 2023 (07:07:51 CEST)
All severe cases of SARS-CoV-2 infections are characterized by a high risk of disease progression towards ARDS, leading to bad outcome. Respiratory symptoms in COVID-19 patients often do not correspond to disease’s worsening. A dysregulated host response to the large viral load could play a key role in the disease progression. In our sample median age was 74 years (72-75) and 54% were men. Median period of hospitalization was 9 days. Firstly, we observed an asynchronous trend of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in 764 selected among 963 patients who were consecutively recruited in two hospitals (Cannizzaro, S. Marco) in Catania, Italy. NLR values in deceased patients showed an increase from baseline over time. By contrast, CRP tended to fall from baseline to median day of hospitalization in all four subgroups, but steeply increased at the end of hospitalization only in ICU-admitted patients. Then we evaluated the relationships between NLR and CRP as continuous variables with PaO2/FiO2 ratio (P/F). Finally, we made mediation and moderation analyses to determine the link between inflammation (CRP), immune system (neutrophils and lymphocytes) and respiratory failure (P/F). CRP, neutrophils and P/F are linked in the same pathogenetic chain leading to respiratory failure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0041.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Vascular inflammation; Peripheral arterial disease (PAD); Chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI); GHAS trial; TNF-α; hs-CRP; Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR); NOX4; eNOS; VEGF-A.
Online: 3 December 2021 (09:44:42 CET)
Background: Vascular inflammation plays a crucial role in peripheral arterial disease (PAD), although the role of the mediators involved has not yet been properly defined. The aim of this work is to investigate gene expression and plasma biomarkers in chronic limb-threating ischemia (CLTI). Methods: Using patients from the GHAS trial, both blood and ischemic muscle samples were obtained to analyze plasma markers and mRNA expression, respectively. Statistical analy-sis was performed by using univariate (Spearman, t-Student, X2) and multivariate (multiple lo-gistic regression) tests. Results: 35 patients were available at baseline (29 for mRNA expression). Baseline characteristics (mean): Age:71.4±12.4 (79.4% male); TNF-α:10.7±4.9; hs-CRP:1.6±2.2; Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR):3.5±2.8. Plasma TNF-α was found elevated (≥8.1) in 68.6% of patients, while high hs-CRP (≥0.5) in 60.5%. Diabetic patients with high level of inflammation showed significantly higher levels of NOX4 expression at baseline (p=0.0346). Plasma TNF-α had a negative correlation with eNOS expression (-0.5, p=0.015) and hs-CRP with VEGF-A (-0.63, p=0.005). The expression of NOX4 was parallel to that of plasma TNF-α (0.305, p=0.037), especial-ly in DM. Cumulative mortality at 12-month was related to NLR ≥3 (p=0.019) and TNF-α ≥8.1 (p=0.048). The best cut-off point for NLR to predict mortality was 3.4. Conclusions: NOX4 and TNF-α are crucial for the development and complications of lower limb ischemia, especially in DM. hs-CRP could have a negative influence on angiogenesis too. NLR and TNF-α represent suita-ble markers of mortality in CLTI. These results are novel because they connect muscle gene expres-sion and plasma information in patients with advanced PAD, deepening the search of new and ac-curate targets for this condition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2248.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Keywords: Osteoarthritis, Neutrophil, Innate Immunity, Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NET).
Online: 31 May 2023 (12:55:03 CEST)
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative joint disease that causes chronic pain and disability. Different innate immune components, including macrophages, T cells, and neutrophils, participate in osteoarthritis pathophysiology. Neutrophils are the most abundant circulating leukocytes with multiple specialized functions contributing to innate and adaptive immune functions. Although neutrophils produce proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS), matrix-degrading enzymes, and neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) that promote joint degradation as the first recruit cells in an inflamed joint, these cells also play an important role in joint repair by regulating the immune response, releasing anti-inflammatory factors, and activating some protective genes. In this review, various aspects of neutrophil biology, their role in inflammation and its association with osteoarthritis, and possible therapeutic approaches to target neutrophils for the treatment of osteoarthritis are described. Understanding neutrophil heterogeneity and their mechanisms of action in joint inflammation, provides a potential strategy for OA management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0561.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Nivolumab; immunotherapy; head and neck cancers; HNSCC; chemotherapy; neutrophil to lymphocyt ratio; NLR; second primary malignancy; Cetuximab
Online: 9 May 2023 (04:21:38 CEST)
The prognosis of patients with recurrent or metastatic of the head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC) refractory to platinum-based chemotherapy is severe and, consequently, the identification of therapeutic options for this category of patients is a priority. Nivolumab, an anti- programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD-1) monoclonal antibody, has been approved for the treatment of recurrent or metastatic HNSCC after platinum-based therapy progressing. We present the early experience of two academic center including diagnostic, clinical, biological, therapeutic and outcomes characteristics of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with Nivolumab. The purpose of the study is to identify certain peculiarities and to report them compared to the data from the literature in order to generate some hypotheses that coud constitute criteria for the selection of cases with maximum benefit to immunotherapy. Analyzing the data obtained from 18 patients treated in Emergency County Hospital Craiova, "Saint Nectarie" Oncological Hospital Craiova and Euroclinic Oncological Center Iasi January 2020 and March 2023 it could be hypothesized that lower nadir values of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (<3.5) and the adition of intensive regimens of chemotherapy and radiotherapy could justify a favorable response in terms of progression free survival (PFS) during immunotherapy with Nivolumab. To our knowledge, the study included the first two cases of second primary malignancy (SPM) in the head neck region treated with Nivolumab. The reported data support a possible benefit of the sequential administration of radiotherapy, immunotherapy for SPM cases. Higher positive dynamic of neutrophil to lymphocyt ratio (NLR) could be associated with worst outcome during immunotherapy. All study observations including the role of infections and antibiotic treatment as well as the possible biomarker value of NLR variation during immunotherapy should be investigated in multicenter clinical trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0034.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: autistic spectrum disorder, male to female ratio, biases, young women.
Online: 5 January 2022 (10:57:39 CET)
The ratio of males to females with ASD is generally quoted as 4:1 though it is believed that there are biases preventing females being diagnosed and that the true ratio is lower. These biases have not been clearly identified or quantified. Starting with a clinical dataset of 1711 children <18 years old four different methods were employed in an inductive study to identify and quantify the biases and calculate the proportion of females missed. A mathematical model was constructed to compare the findings with current published data. The true male to female ratio appears to be 3:4. Eighty per cent of females remain undiagnosed at age 18 which has serious consequences for the mental health of young women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0485.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Creatinine; D-dimer; D-dimer to creatinine ratio; Gensini score; ST-elevation myocardial infarction
Online: 22 February 2021 (15:25:02 CET)
Backgroundː Previous studies have shown that both serum creatinine and D-dimer levels were associated with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to determine whether DCR is associated with coronary Gensini score in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methodsː 337 STEMI patients with complete D-dimer and creatinine and other necessary information were included in the analysis. According to the values of the DCR, patients were divided into the lower DCR group (DCR ≤ 1.42, n = 173) and the higher DCR group (DFR > 1.42, n = 174), and the differences between the two groups were compared. Multivariate linear and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine independent predictors of Gensini score. Resultsː High DCR group had higher Gensini score compared with low DCR group (P < 0.05). DCR was positively correlated with Gensini score (r=0.493, P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that Previous MI (r=11.312, P=0.035) and DCR (r=5.129, P<0.001) were independent risk factors associated with Gensini score. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, compared to the group 1, DCR is independent risk factor for Group 2, Group 3, Group 4 (P <0.001). DCR is positively correlated with coronary Gensini score in STEMI patients and can be used as an independent predictor of higher Gensini score. Conclusionsː As a new and useful clinical marker, DCR is positively correlated with coronary Gensini score in STEMI patients and can be used as an independent predictor of higher Gensini score.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0677.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Candida albicans; CD137; neutrophil; fungal clearance
Online: 29 March 2021 (09:47:02 CEST)
Invasive fungal infections by Candida albicans frequently cause mortality in immunocompromised patients. Neutrophils are particularly important for fungal clearance at the early phase of infections, yet little has been known regarding which surface receptor controls neutrophil phagocytic activities during systemic C. albicans infection. CD137, which is encoded by Tnfrsf9, belongs to the tumor necrosis receptor superfamily and has been shown to regulate neutrophils in Gram-positive bacterial infection. Here, we used genetic and immunological tools to probe the involvement of CD137 signaling in innate defense mechanisms against systemic C. albicans infection. We first found that Tnfrsf9-/- mice were susceptible to C. albicans infection, whereas injection of anti-CD137 agonistic antibody protected the host from infection, suggesting that CD137 signaling is indispensable for innate immunity against C. albicans infection. Priming of isolated neutrophils with anti-CD137 antibody promoted their phagocytic and fungicidal activities through phospholipase C. In addition, injection of anti-CD137 antibody significantly augmented restriction of fungal growth in Tnfrsf9-/- mice that received WT neutrophils. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that CD137 signaling contributes to defense mechanisms against systemic C. albicans infection by promoting rapid fungal clearance whereby harmful immunopathology-induced tissue injuries are minimalized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0092.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Acute coronary syndrome; inflammation; neutrophil; outcome
Online: 7 April 2020 (11:18:03 CEST)
Aims: Clinical evidence indicates that innate immune cells may contribute to the onset and outcome of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Our prospective study aimed at analysing neutrophil phenotypes in ACS and their role in predicting 1-year major cardiovascular events. Methods: Blood neutrophil phenotypes were analysed by flow cytometry. Differential blood cell count and plasma levels of soluble markers were recorded at admission and at 6-month follow-up. Results: 108 patients categorized in chronic stable coronary artery disease (n=37), unstable angina (UA) (n=19), Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) (n=25), and ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) (n=27) were included. STEMI and NSTEMI patients displayed higher neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) than stable and UA patients (P<0.0001), which normalized at 6-month after MI. STEMI patients were characterized by elevated percentages of band cells in low-density neutrophils (P=0.007) and in high-density neutrophils (P=0.019) compared to the other patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that plasma levels of total MPO was associated with STEMI when compared to stable (OR: 1.434; 95% CI: 1.119-1.837; P<0.0001), UA (1.47; 1.146-1.886; P=0.002), and NSTEMI (1.213; 1.1-1.134; P=0.0001) patients, while increased neutrophil SSC signal intensity was associated with NSTEMI compared to stable patients (3.828; 1.033-14.184; P=0.045). Based on multivariable Cox regression analysis, elevated plasma levels of PCSK9 and low-density neutrophil percentage predicted 1-year outcome independently of cardiovascular risk factors (c-index: 0.915; IQR: 0.908-0.929). Conclusions: Changes in neutrophil phenotype are concomitant to ACS. These changes may differ between STEMI and NSTEMI. They may also contribute to ACS risk and patient outcome.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0363.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Covid-19; SARS-Cov-2; inflammation; neutrophil
Online: 22 April 2020 (06:23:01 CEST)
Covid-19 is often related to hyperinflammation that drives lung or multi-organ injury. The immunopathological mechanisms that cause excessive inflammation following SARS-Cov-2 infection are under investigation while different approaches to limit hyperinflammation in affected patients are being proposed. Here, a computational protein-protein interaction network approach was used on recently available data to identify possible Covid-19 inflammatory mechanisms and bioactive genes. First, network analysis of putative SARS-Cov-2 cellular receptors and their directly associated proteins, led to the mining of a robust neutrophil response signature and multiple relevant inflammatory genes. Second, analysis of RNA-seq datasets of lung epithelial cells infected with SARS-Cov-2 revealed that infected cells specifically expressed neutrophil-attracting chemokines, further supporting the likely role of neutrophils in Covid-19 inflammation. Third, analysis of RNA-seq datasets of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from Covid-19 patients, identified neutrophil-specific genes and chemokines. Different immunoregulatory and neutrophil-relevant molecules mined here such as, TNFR, IL8, CXCR1, CXCR2, ADAM10, GPR84, MME-neprilysin, ANPEP and LAP3 are druggable and might be therapeutic targets in efforts to limit SARS-Cov-2 inflammation in severe clinical cases. The role of neutrophils in Covid-19 needs to be studied further.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0928.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Neutrophils; Tumor associated neutrophils; neutrophil derived exosomes; immune suppression; metastasis; tumor microenvironment; Neutrophil extracellular trap; Trogocytosis; ADCC and ADCP
Online: 25 April 2023 (13:36:01 CEST)
Neutrophils are the most abundant immune cells and make up about 70% of white blood cells in human blood and play a critical role as the first line of defense in the innate immune response. They also help regulate the inflammatory environment to promote tissue repair. However, in cancer, neutrophils can be manipulated by tumors to either promote or hinder tumor growth depending on the cytokine pool. Studies have shown that tumor-bearing mice have increased levels of neutrophils in peripheral circulation, and that neutrophil-derived exosomes can deliver various cargos, including lncRNA and miRNA, which contribute to tumor growth and degradation of extracellular matrix. Exosomes derived from immune cells generally possess anti-tumor activities and induce tumor-cell apoptosis by delivering cytotoxic proteins, ROS generation, H2O2 or activation of Fas-mediated apoptosis in target cells. Engineered exosome-like nanovesicles have been developed to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs precisely to tumor cells. However, tumor-derived exosomes can aggravate cancer-associated thrombosis through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. Despite the advancements in neutrophil-related research, a detailed understanding of tumor-neutrophil crosstalk is still lacking and remains a major barrier in developing neutrophil-based or targeted therapy. This review will focus on the communication pathways between tumors and neutrophils, and the role of neutrophil-derived exosomes (NDEs) in tumor growth. Additionally, potential strategies to manipulate NDEs for therapeutic purposes will be discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0339.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DNA repair; lymphocyte; immune system; DNA breaks
Online: 18 November 2020 (10:51:18 CET)
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) form the basis of tumor microenvironment and possess immunomodulatory functions by interacting with other cells surrounding tumor, including T lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and natural killer cells. Ionizing radiation is a broadly-used method in radiotherapy to target tumors. In mammalian cells, ionizing radiation induces various types of DNA damages and DNA damage response. Being unspecific, radiotherapy affects all the cells in tumor microenvironment, including the tumor itself, CAFs and immune cells. CAFs are extremely radio-resistant and do not initiate apoptosis even at high doses of radiation. However, following radiation, CAFs become senescent and produce a distinct combination of immunoregulatory molecules. Radiosensitivity of immune cells varies depending on the cell type due to inefficient DNA repair in, for example, monocytes and granulocytes. In this minireview, we are summarizing recent findings on the interaction between CAF, ionizing radiation and immune cells in the tumor microenvironment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0346.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: immunity; leukocyte; lymphocyte; flow cytometry; glucose; exercise
Online: 16 October 2018 (08:59:44 CEST)
Using a randomized, crossover approach, cyclists (N = 20, overnight fasted) engaged in three 75-km time trials while ingesting water (WAT) or carbohydrate (0.2 g/kg every 15 minutes) from bananas (BAN) or a 6% sugar beverage (SUG). Blood samples were collected pre-exercise and 0 h-, 1.5 h-, and 21 h-post-exercise, and analyzed for NK cytotoxicity activity (NKCA) using pure NK cell populations. The two carbohydrate trials (BAN, SUG) compared to WAT were associated with higher post-exercise glucose, and lower cortisol, total blood leukocyte, neutrophil, and NK cell counts (interaction effects, P < 0.001). The immediate post-exercise increase in NK cell counts was higher in WAT (78%) compared to BAN (32%) and SUG (15%) trials (P ≤ 0.017). The 1.5 h post-exercise decrease in NK cell counts did not differ after WAT (−46%), BAN (−46%), and SUG (−51%) trials. The pattern of change in post-exercise NKCA differed between trials (P < 0.001). The 1.5 h post-exercise decreases in NKCA were 23%, 29%, and 33% in the WAT, BAN, and SUG trials, respectively, but trial contrasts did not differ significantly. Carbohydrate ingestion from BAN or SUG attenuated immediate-post-exercise increases in leukocyte, neutrophil, and NK cell counts, but did not counter the 1.5-h decreases in NK cell counts and NKCA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0057.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic And Molecular Physics Keywords: precision measurements; fundamental constants; variation of constants; proton-to-electron mass ratio; molecular ions; forbidden transition; two-photon transition; vibrational overtone
Online: 2 November 2018 (12:58:06 CET)
Vibrational overtones in deeply bound molecules are sensitive probes for variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio μ. In nonpolar molecules, these overtones may be driven as two-photon transitions. Here, we present procedures for experiments with O2+, including state-preparation through photoionization, a two-photon probe, and detection. We calculate transition dipole moments between all X2Пg vibrational levels and those of the A2Пu excited electronic state. Using these dipole moments, we calculate two-photon transition rates and AC-Stark-shift systematics for the overtones. We estimate other systematic effects and statistical precision. Two-photon vibrational transitions in O2+ provide multiple routes to improved searches for μ variation.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0396.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: CRCLM; vessel co-option; angiogenesis; neutrophil; TGFβ1; apoptosis
Online: 6 May 2023 (08:51:29 CEST)
Vessel co-option correlates with resistance against anti-angiogenic agents and chemotherapy in colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRCLM). We previously identified higher intensity of neutrophils in the tumour microenvironment of vessel co-opting CRCLM lesions compared to their angiogenic counterparts. Herein, we demonstrated that over 50% of the neutrophils in vessel co-opting lesions are expressing pro-apoptotic markers including cleaved caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Our previous publications suggested upregulation of transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ1) in the microenvironment of vessel co-option CRCLM. Therefore, we examined the effect of TGFβ1 on the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and PARP-1 in neutrophils in vitro. Significantly, we noticed the upregulation of pro-apoptotic markers upon exposure to TGFβ1. This finding might pave the way to determine the role of neutrophils in developing vessel co-option in CRCLM in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0190.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: maternal infection; fetal neurodevelopmental delays; neuroimmunology; innate immunity; adap-tive immunity; interferon; natural lymphocyte; adaptive lymphocyte; neuroprotection; neurogen-esis
Online: 12 December 2022 (04:04:15 CET)
Maternal infectious disease may pose considerable challenges to the fetal health due to the distribution of important elements of the sanguine and lymphatic system from the mother via the umbilical cord. The mother and the fetus have a degree of interdependence that is similar to the one between the eukaryotic cell and the mitochondrion, particularly during the first half term of the pregnancy, which explains the increased appetite of the expecting mother during the first stages of the fetal development. There is a solid bridge between the adaptive immune system and the encephalon that was only discovered a few decades ago. As a result, scientists may still be in the introductory stages of research, and there might be a significant and profound degree of association between the immune system and a healthy neurological development. There is a significant link between the onset of significant maternal infectious disease and the onset of neurodevelopmental disease in the fetus, and virtually all immune cells play major roles in the promotion and inhibition of neurogenesis alike. Likewise, there is a probability that maternal infectious diseases during pregnancy represent a risk factor of fetal neurodevelopmental disease, as a pressurised development of the adaptive immune memory could result in a pressurised or inhibited neurological development, which both can result in a delayed development of certain sub-regions of the brain. For example, the fetus may display poorer social abilities and sharp analytical skills later in life, which is an important sign of neurodevelopmental disease. A pressurised development of the adaptive immune memory could not require the development of a significant form of disease, but rather just a sharp rate of immune preparation against several important pathogenic agents during the introductory stages of life, when the encephalon experiences the sharpest increase rate in development. The problem per se is not the process of immunisation, but a much sharper process of immunisation over the first stages of life in case of an exposure to one dangerous pathogen or more numerous kinds of pathogens and antigens that normally cause moderate disease morbidity. The more dangerous the microbe is, the sharper the development of the adaptive immune memory will be, and the same happens in the case of an increased number of infectious microbes and antigens that infected the cells of the mothers and the fetuses in cause, and this may, in the majority of the situations, still be the case even if the pathogens are already significantly weakened or lifeless, given that the gain of adaptive immune memory alone constitutes an important factor of neurogenesis and an increased rate of neurological development, and that the infant will become almost or fully protected against the pathogens in cause, despite not having had experienced the disease beforehand. In this case, neurodevelopmental delays are possibly not caused by an impaired neurogenesis, but by an excessive one, whilst maternal infection-associated neurodevelopmental delays may be caused by an impaired neurogenesis. Nevertheless, the aetiology of immunity-related neurodevelopmental delays may be more complex in nature and implicate a chronological and spatial sequence of induced excedentary and deficitary rates of neurogenesis, hence reflecting the incredibly complex nature and various forms of neurodevelopmental disease. It is important to mention that a single dose of infant immunisation brings significantly lower risks of adverse neurological events than the onset of a significant maternal infectious disease during pregnancy. The objective of paediatric neuro-immunological studies may be to improve the understanding of the association between a healthy immune developmental rate and a balanced ratio of the developmental rates of important brain regions and sub-regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0292.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: NHEJ; double-strand breaks; mouse model; lymphocyte; neurodevelopment
Online: 24 November 2019 (15:57:38 CET)
Classical non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is a molecular pathway that detects, processes and ligates DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) throughout the cell cycle. Mutations in several NHEJ genes result in neurological abnormalities and immunodeficiency both in humans and mice. The NHEJ pathway is required for the V(D)J recombination in developing B and T lymphocytes, and for class switch recombination in mature B cells. Ku heterodimer formed by Ku70 and Ku80 recognizes DSBs and facilitates the recruitment of accessory factors (e.g., DNA-PKcs, Artemis, Paxx and Mri/Cyren) and downstream core factors subunits XLF, XRCC4 and Lig4. Accessory factors might be dispensable for the process depending on the genetic background and DNA lesion type. To determine the physiological role of Mri in DNA repair and development, we introduced frame-shift mutation in the Mri gene in mice. We then analyzed the development of Mri-deficient mice as well as wild type and immunodeficient controls. Mice lacking Mri possessed reduced levels of class switch recombination in B lymphocytes and slow proliferation of neuronal progenitors when compared to wild type littermates. Human cell lines lacking Mri were as sensitive to DSBs as WT controls. Overall, we concluded that Mri/Cyren is largely dispensable for DNA repair and mouse development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0039.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Neutrophils; systemic deterioration; hyperactivation; neutrophil elastase; matrix metalloproteinases; myeloperoxidase
Online: 2 September 2021 (12:20:02 CEST)
Various studies have addressed the role of neutrophils in cancer wherein the focus has been drawn on the elevated neutrophil count in blood or at tumor loci. However, cancer has a systemic impact which targets various organs thus challenging the overall physiology of the host. So, it is worthwhile to explore whether and how neutrophils contribute to systemic deterioration in cancer. To discern the systemic role of neutrophils, we monitored their number and function at different stages of tumor growth in Dalton’s lymphoma mice model. Notably, we observed a gradual increase in neutrophil count in blood and their infiltration in vital organs of tumor bearing mice. In parallel, we observed damaged histoarchitecture with significant alterations in biochemical parameters that aggravated with tumor progression. We next examined systemic impact of neutrophil by assessing neutrophil elastase, myeloperoxidase, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-8 and MMP-9) wherein we found their upregulated expression and activity in tumor condition. Taken together, our results demonstrate high infiltration and hyperactivation of neutrophils which possibly account for gradual systemic deterioration during cancer progression. Our findings thus implicate neutrophils as a potential therapeutic target that may help to reduce the overall fatality rate of cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0054.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Apoptosis; lymphocyte; chromosomic aberrations; radiotherapy; breast fibrosis; pelvic toxicities
Online: 1 June 2023 (07:45:23 CEST)
Background: In trials using normofractionated regimen, the radiation-induced lymphocyte apoptosis (RILA) and the chromosomal damage assays (CDA) have shown prognostic roles of radiation-induced adverse events. The main objectives here were to validate RILA and CDA in extreme and moderate hypofractionation regimens for breast (FAST) and prostate (CHHiP) cancers. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 400 volunteers included in FAST and CHHiP trials. The primary endpoints (PE) were first change in photographic breast appearance and first grade ≥2 RTOG bladder or bowel toxicity (BBT) in FAST and CHHiP, respectively. The secondary endpoints was first grade ≥2 breast clinical changes (BCC) in FAST and BBT using different scales in CHHiP. Results: 103 FAST and 297 CHHiP patients with lab and clinical data were included. In FAST trial, no significant association of RILA with the primary endpoint was observed. A significant association of higher RILA levels with lower risk of any RIAE was found. The risk of developing grade ≥2 RIAE decreased significantly for patients with RILA≥24% compared to those with RILA≤16% with a HR of 0.50 (95%CI 0.25-1.00, p=0.012). Concerning chromosomic aberrations, no significant associations were found with change in photographic breast appearance nor with the secondary endpoint of any RIAE. In CHHiP trial, a decreased risk of grade≥2 RTOG bladder or bowel RIAE was observed for increasing values of RILA (HR 0.97, 95%CI 0.94-1.01, p=0.11) but did not reach statistical significance. Concerning chromosomic aberrations, we found significant association of higher levels of micronuclei per cell with lower risk of gr2+ RTOGAE (p=0.021 for trend test across tertiles; p=0.023 for upper vs lower tertile). Conclusions: This study is the first to evaluate RILA and CDA as predictors of late effects after breast and prostate RT in the “hypofractionation” era. Development of toxicity biomarkers whatever the RT fractionation are urgently needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0429.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: folate; folic acid; excess; UMFA; lymphocyte; micronuclei; fortification; methylation
Online: 25 August 2022 (08:06:05 CEST)
Mandatory fortification of food with the synthetic folic acid (FA) was instituted in 1998 to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects. Adequate folate status is correlated with numerous health benefits. However, elevated consumption of FA is controversially associated with deleterious effects on health. We previously reported that excess FA mimicked folate depletion in a lymphoblastoid cell line. To explore the impact of FA intake from fortified food, we conducted an observational human study on 33 healthy participants aged 18-40 not taking any supplements. Food intake, anthropomorphic measurements, and blood samples were collected and analyzed. Our results show that individuals belonging to the highest tertile of folic acid intake, as well as ones with the highest folic acid to total folate intake ratio (FAR), display a significantly greater incidence of lymphocyte genomic damage. A decrease in global DNA methylation is observed in the highest tertile of FAR compared to the lowest (P=0.055). A downward trend in the overall gene expression of select DNA repair and one carbon cycle genes (MGMT, MLH1, UNG, MTHFR, MTR) is noted with increased folate status and FA intake. These results provide supporting evidence that high consumption of FA from fortified foods can precipitate genomic instability in peripheral lymphocyte in-vivo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0231.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: KAT2A; KAT2B; mice; acetyltransferase; B cell; lymphocyte; class switching
Online: 29 December 2021 (12:12:03 CET)
B lymphocyte development has two DNA recombination processes: V(D)J recombination of the immunoglobulin (Igh) gene variable region and class switching of the Igh constant regions from IgM to IgG, IgA, or IgE. V(D)J recombination is required for successful maturation of B cells from pro-B to pre-B to immature-B and then to mature B cells in the bone marrow. CSR occurs outside of the bone marrow when mature B cells migrate to peripheral lymphoid organs, such as spleen and lymph nodes. Both V(D)J recombination and CSR depend on an “open chromatin” state that makes DNA accessible to specific enzymes, recombination activating gene (RAG), and activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). Acetyltransferases GCN5 and PCAF possess redundant functions acetylating histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9). Here, we generated a mouse model that lacks both GCN5 and PCAF in B cells. We found that double-deficient mice possess low levels of mature B cells in the bone marrow and peripheral organs, an accumulation of pro-B cells in bone marrow, and reduced CSR levels. We conclude that both GCN5 and PCAF are required for B cell development in vivo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0145.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: NHEJ; Cernunnos; Cyren; pro-B cells; lymphocyte; genetic interaction
Online: 6 September 2020 (15:50:10 CEST)
Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is a DNA repair pathway required to detect, process, and ligate DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) throughout the cell cycle. The NHEJ pathway is necessary for V(D)J recombination in developing B and T lymphocytes. During NHEJ, Ku70 and Ku80 form a heterodimer that recognizes DSBs and promotes recruitment and function of downstream factors PAXX, MRI, DNA-PKcs, Artemis, XLF, XRCC4, and LIG4. Mutations in several known NHEJ genes result in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Inactivation of Mri, Paxx or Xlf in mice results in normal or mild phenotype, while combined inactivation of Xlf/Mri, Xlf/Paxx, or Xlf/Dna-pkcs leads to late embryonic lethality. Here, we describe three new mouse models. We demonstrate that deletion of Trp53 rescues embryonic lethality in mice with combined deficiencies of Xlf and Mri. Furthermore, Xlf-/-Mri-/-Trp53+/- and Xlf-/-Paxx-/-Trp53+/- mice possess reduced body weight, severely reduced mature lymphocyte counts, and accumulation of progenitor B cells. We also report that combined inactivation of Mri/Paxx results in live-born mice with modest phenotype, and combined inactivation of Mri/Dna-pkcs results in embryonic lethality. Therefore, we conclude that XLF is functionally redundant with MRI and PAXX during lymphocyte development in vivo. Moreover, Mri genetically interacts with Dna-pkcs and Paxx.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1951.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: neutrophil; exhaustive exercise; inflammation; cytokines; reactive oxygen species; acute kidney injury
Online: 29 May 2023 (03:07:44 CEST)
Prolonged exercise induces acute renal injury; however, the precise mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the effects of neutrophil depletion in male C57BL/6J mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups: sedentary with control antibody, sedentary with antineutrophil antibody, exhaustive exercise with control antibody, and exhaustive exercise with antineutrophil antibody. Antineutrophil (1A8) or control antibody was administered intraperitoneally to the mice prior to their running on a treadmill. Renal histology was assessed 24 h after exhaustive exercise, and the concentration of kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1 was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity and hydrogen peroxide concentration in the kidneys were measured. The pathologic changes were manifested as congested and swollen glomeruli, tubular dilatation, and nuclear infiltration after exhaustive exercise. These changes were suppressed by the administration of the 1A8 antibodies. KIM-1 concentration increased after exhaustive exercise but were reduced by the 1A8 antibodies. Treatment with the 1A8 antibody also decreased exhaustive exercise-induced inflammation and reactive oxygen species levels in the kidney. These results suggest that neutrophils contribute to exercise-induced acute renal injury by regulating inflammation and reactive oxygen species levels.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0316.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Cancer surgery; Cancer radiotherapy; Cancer immunotherapy; Cancer stroma; Cancer-associated fibroblasts; Carcinogenesis; Cancer resistance to immunotherapy; Exosomes; Hypoxia; Neutrophil extracellular traps; Sphingomyelin; Neutral sphingomyelinase; Tumor microenvironment; Tumor-associated macrophages
Online: 22 June 2022 (10:25:07 CEST)
The central reason behind emergence of clinically-detectable tumors is evasion from immune surveillance due to lack of cancer cells surface membrane expression of tumor-specific peptides in association with MHC class I molecules, concealment of natural killer cells-activating molecules, and absence of inflammation resulting from inefficient stimulation of innate immunity receptors and co-stimulatory molecules. The tumor microenvironment (TME) also contributes to tumor initiation, progression and resistance to therapeutic interventions because of its dense, fibrogenic, barrier-like composition, aberrant vasculature, and production of cytokines and chemokines responsible for recruitment of immune suppressive cells, notably myeloid-derived suppressor cells, M2 macrophages, regulatory T cells, extracellular trap-forming neutrophils, and cancer-associated fibroblasts. We herein show that the relentless efforts and strategies to overcome the TME elusive tumor-promoting impact produced contrasting, opposed, controversial effects, characterized by limited efficacy and proven adversity, and most importantly deterred from attempts to discover and counteract the fundamental inherent mechanisms initiating, and not consequent to, carcinogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0719.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; long-term; neutralization antibody; lymphocyte functionality; viral pathogenicity.
Online: 30 July 2020 (12:16:21 CEST)
COVID-19 patients can recover with a median SARS-CoV-2 clearance of 20 days post initial symptoms (PIS). However, we observed some COVID-19 patients with existing SARS-CoV-2 for more than 50 days PIS. This study aimed to investigate the cause of viral clearance delay and the infectivity in these patients. Demographic data and clinical characteristics of 22 long-term COVID-19 patients were collected. SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid, peripheral lymphocyte count, and functionality were assessed. SARS-CoV-2-specific and neutralization antibodies were detected, followed by virus isolation and genome sequencing. The median age of the studied cohort was 59.83±12.94 years. All patients were clinically cured after long-term SARS-CoV-2 infection ranging from 53 to 112 days PIS. Peripheral lymphocytes counts were normal. Interferon gamma (IFN-ƴ)-generated CD4+ and CD8+ cells were normal as 24.68±9.60% and 66.41±14.87%. However, the number of IFN-ƴ-generated NK cells diminished (58.03±11.78%). All patients presented detectable IgG, which positively correlated with mild neutralizing activity (ID50=157.2, P=0.05). SARS-CoV-2 was not isolated, and a cytopathic effect was lacking. Only three synonymous variants were identified in spike protein coding regions. In conclusion, decreased IFN-γ production by NK cells and low neutralizing antibodies might favor SARS-CoV-2 long-term existence. Further, low viral load and weak viral pathogenicity was observed in COVID-19 patients with long-term SARS-CoV-2 infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0511.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: coeliac disease; Crohn’s disease; dysplasia; histotype; overall survival; tumor infiltrating lymphocyte.
Online: 20 November 2018 (16:43:14 CET)
Small bowel carcinomas (SBC) are uncommon neoplasms, whose predisposing conditions include hereditary syndromes and immune-mediated intestinal disorders, including coeliac disease (CD) and Crohn’s disease (CrD). Although both CD-associated SBC (CD-SBC) and CrD-associated SBC (CrD-SBC) arise from an inflammatory background, they differ substantially in tumour cell phenotype, frequency of microsatellite instability and nuclear β-catenin expression, as well as in prognosis. For these patients, high tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte density and glandular/medullary histotype represent independent positive prognostic factors. Dysplasia adjacent to SBC is rare and characterized by intestinal phenotype and nuclear β-catenin in CD, while it is frequent and typified by gastro-pancreatobiliary marker expression and preserved membranous β-catenin in CrD. Recent evidence suggests that Epstein-Barr virus-positive dysplasia and SBC, albeit exceptional, do exist and are associated with CrD. In this review we summarize the novel pathological and molecular insights of clinical and therapeutic interest to guide the care of CD-SBC and CrD-SBC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0297.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: regulatory T cell; tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; triple-negative breast cancer
Online: 22 March 2022 (07:50:45 CET)
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by an active immune response. We evalu-ated intratumoral interrelation between FOXP3+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and other cy-tokines in TNBC. Network analysis refined cytokines significantly correlate with FOPX3 in TNBC. Treatment response and prognosis imformation of patients and survival data from the TGCA and METABRIC databases were analyzed according to refined cytokines. Interleukin (IL)-33 was sig-nificantly expressed by TNBC cell lines than luminal cell lines (log2 fold change: 5.31, p <0.001) and IL-33 and TGFB2 showed a strong correlation with FOXP3 in the TNBC cell line. Immunohisto-chemistry demonstrated IL-33 high group was a significant predictor of complete response of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (odds ratio (OR) 4.12, p<0.05) and a favorable survival compared to IL-33 low group (OR 6.48, p<0.05) in TNBC. Survival data from TGCA and METABRIC revealed that FOXP3 was a significantly favorable marker in IL-33 high group com-pared to the low IL-33 low group (hazard ratio (HR) 2.1, p=0.02), and IL-33 high/TGFB2 high subgroup showed significant favorable prognosis in the FOXP3 high group compared to the FOPX3 low group in TNBC (HR 3.5, p=0.01). IL-33 and TGFB2 were key cytokines of intratumoral interrelation among FOXP3 in TNBC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0342.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: long COVID; PASC; long haulers; NETosis; T cell; NK cell; DC; neutrophil; macrophage
Online: 24 October 2022 (02:12:06 CEST)
A significant number of persons with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) experience persistent, recurrent, or new symptoms several months after the acute stage of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2) infection. This phenomenon, termed Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC) or Long COVID, is associated with high viral titers during acute infection, a persistently hyperactivated immune system, tissue injury by NETosis-induced micro-thrombofibrosis (NETinjury), microbial translocation, complement deposition, fibrotic macrophages, the presence of auto-antibodies, and lymphopenic immune environments. Here, we review the current literature on the immunological imbalances that occur during PASC. Specifically, we focus on data supporting common immunopathogenesis and tissue injury mechanisms shared across this highly heterogenous disorder including NETosis, coagulopathy, and fibrosis. Mechanisms include changes in leukocyte subsets/functions, fibroblast activation, cytokine imbalances, lower cortisol, autoantibodies, co-pathogen reactivation, and residual immune activation driven by persistent viral antigens and/or microbial translocation. Taken together, we develop the premise that SARS-CoV-2 infection results in PASC as a consequence of acute and/or persistent single or multiple organ injury mediated by PASC determinants to include degree of host response (inflammation, NETinjury), residual viral antigen (persistent antigen) and exogenous factors (microbial translocation). Determinants of PASC may be amplified by co-morbidities, age, and sex. Keywords: long COVID, PASC, long haulers, NETosis, T cell, NK cell, DC, neutrophil,
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0130.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs); intestinal barrier integrity; DNase I; DSS/TNBS-induced colitis
Online: 7 July 2020 (16:34:41 CEST)
Aberrant neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and the loss of barrier integrity in inflamed intestinal tissues have long been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, whether NETs alter intestinal epithelium permeability during colitis remains elusive. Here, we demonstrated that NETs promote the breakdown in intestinal barrier function for the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation in mouse models of colitis. NETs were abundant in the colon of mice with colitis experimentally induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Analysis of the intestinal barrier integrity revealed that NETs impaired gut permeability, enabling the initiation of luminal bacterial translocation and inflammation. Furthermore, NETs induced the apoptosis of epithelial cells and disrupted the integrity of tight junctions and adherens junctions. Intravenous administration of DNase I, an enzyme that dissolves the web-like DNA filaments of NETs, during colitis restored the mucosal barrier integrity which reduced the dissemination of luminal bacteria, and attenuated intestinal inflammation in both DSS and TNBS models. We conclude that NETs serve a detrimental factor in the gut epithelial barrier function leading to the pathogenesis of mucosal inflammation during acute colitis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0254.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: zebrafish; inflammation; tumour initiation; macrophage; neutrophil; cancer; pre-neoplastic; live imaging; tumourigenesis; tumour model
Online: 16 March 2020 (01:31:28 CET)
The zebrafish is now an important model organism for cancer biology studies and provides some unique and complementary opportunities in comparison to the mammalian equivalent. The translucency of zebrafish has allowed in vivo live imaging studies of tumour initiation and progression at the cellular level thus providing novel insights into our understanding of cancer. Here we summarise and discuss available transgenic zebrafish tumour models and what we have gleaned from them with respect to cancer inflammation. In particular, we focus on the host inflammatory response toward transformed cells during the pre-neoplastic stage of tumour development. We discuss features of tumour associated macrophages and neutrophils in mammalian models and present evidence which supports the idea that these inflammatory cells promote early stage tumour development and progression. Direct live imaging of tumour initiation in zebrafish models has shown that the intrinsic inflammation induced by pre-neoplastic cells is tumour promoting. Signals mediating leukocyte recruitment to pre-neoplastic cells in zebrafish correspond to signals mediating leukocyte recruitment in mammalian tumours. The activation state of macrophages and neutrophils recruited to pre-neoplastic cells appears to be heterogenous, as seen in mammalian models, which provides an opportunity to study the plasticity of innate immune cells during tumour initiation. Although several potential mechanisms are described that might mediate the trophic function of innate immune cells during tumour initiation in zebrafish, there are several unknowns that are yet to be resolved. Rapid advancement of genetic tools and imaging technologies for zebrafish will facilitate research into the mechanisms that modulate leukocyte function during tumour initiation and identify targets for cancer prevention.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0448.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT); neutrophil elastase (NE); NETosis, PAD4, ARDS, COPD; neutrophils; COVID-19; TMPRSS2.
Online: 24 November 2022 (02:50:25 CET)
Excessive neutrophil influx and activation in lungs during infections, such as manifest during the ongoing SARS CoV-2 pandemic, have brought neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and the con-comitant release of granule contents that damage surrounding tissues into sharp focus. Neutro-phil proteases, which are known to participate in NET release, also enable the binding of the viral spike protein to cellular receptors and assist in the spread of infection. Blood and tissue fluids normally also contain liver-derived protease inhibitors that balance the activity of proteases. In-terestingly, neutrophils themselves also express the protease inhibitor alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), the product of the SERPINA-1 gene, and store it in neutrophil cytoplasmic granules. The absence of AAT or mutations in the SERPINA-1 gene promote lung remodeling and fibrosis in diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and increase the risk of allergic responses. Recent observations point to the fact that re-duced activity of AAT presents a major susceptibility factor for severe COVID-19. Here, we focus attention on the mechanism of neutrophil elastase (NE) in NET release and its inhibition by AAT as an additional factor that may determine the severity of COVID-19
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0004.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: exosomes; extracellular vesicles; cellular communication; tumor microenvironment; tumor infiltrating lymphocyte; immunosuppression, immune evasion, therapy resistance.
Online: 1 November 2022 (01:12:47 CET)
Extracellular vesicles (EV), including exosomes and microvesicles, are released from various cells and alter recipient cell phenotypes and fates by their biomolecules. Here we review current knowledge about tumor EVs and how they prompt malignant cell communication with tumor-associated cells, such as cancer-associated fibroblasts, tumor endothelial cells, and immune cells. We delineate the major pathways and molecular players that influence each step of cancer initiation, progression, and resistance. Of note, cancer exosomes involve immunosuppression by tumor-associated macrophages, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and regulatory T cells. Moreover, tumor exosomes can induce the apoptosis of killer T cells and immune checkpoint of dendritic cells and attenuate natural killer cells. An in-depth understanding of EV biology is essential to ensure the clinical development of exosome/EV-based therapeutic products, which will be of benefit to exosome manipulation in cancer management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0275.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Heat wave; satisfaction to community; social linkage; global warming; perception to heat wave
Online: 12 May 2021 (17:17:44 CEST)
The research examines the relationship between self-rated health situation and personal percep-tion of heat waves, and how social linkage of communities would be a moderator variable in residents’ perception of heat waves in Taiwan. This study uses the questionnaire conducted by Sinica “Responsive Capacity under Heat Wave: The Perspectives of the Locals”(2019), using OLS method for estimating the unknown parameters in multiple regression model. The author finds that the correlation of self-rated health situation and perception toward heat is significantly posi-tive. Also, social linkage in communities affects strongly as a moderator variable: While the sat-isfaction to with their community could reduce negative reaction to heat, contacts with neighbors could increase possibility people feel uncomfortable in high-temperature situation. This study ex-hibits the effects of social environment on community, and expects further related researches or practices to strengthen capability to resist heat wavesƒ for Taiwanese residents.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: gut microbiota; Entamoeba histolytica; resistance to oxidative stress; resistance to nitrosative stress; virulence
Online: 24 February 2021 (16:26:55 CET)
Amebiasis is a disease caused by the unicellular parasite Entamoeba histolytica. In most cases, the infection is asymptomatic but when symptomatic, the infection can cause dysentery and invasive extraintestinal complications. In the gut, E.histolytica feeds on bacteria. Increasing evidences support the role of the gut microbiota in the development of the disease. In this review we will discuss the consequences of E.histolytica infection on the gut microbiota. We will also discuss new evidences about the role of the gut microbiota in regulating the resistance of the parasite to oxi-dative stress and its virulence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0756.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; pediatric COVID-19; MIS-C; lymphocyte subpopulations; IFNγ; IL-6; IL-10; malnutrition; steroids
Online: 23 April 2023 (04:00:53 CEST)
Several studies suggest that children infected with SARS-CoV-2 have fewer clinical manifestations than adults; when they develop symptoms, they rarely progress to severe disease. Different immunological theories have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. In September 2020, 16% of the active COVID-19 cases in Venezuela were children under 19 years. We conducted a cross-sectional study of pediatric patients' immune response and clinical conditions with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The patients were admitted to the COVID-19 area of the emergency department of Dr José Manuel de los Ríos Children's Hospital (2021-2022). The lymphocyte subpopulations were analysed by flow cytometry, and IFNγ, IL-6 and IL-10 serum concentrations were quantified using commercial ELISA assays. The analysis was conducted on 72 patients aged one month and 18 years. The majority, 52.8%, had mild disease, and 30.6 % were diagnosed with MIS-C. The main symptoms reported were fever, cough and diarrhoea. A correlation was found between IL-10 and IL-6 concentrations and age group; lymphocyte subpopulations and nutritional status and steroid use; IL-6 concentrations and clinical severity. The results suggest a different immune response depending on age and nutritional status that should be considered for treating pediatric COVID-19 patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0419.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: immune checkpoint; lymphoid neoplasms; programmed death 1; cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4; monoclonal antibodies; combination therapies
Online: 17 December 2020 (08:10:05 CET)
Immunotherapy has been considered for years as a viable and attractive treatment option for patients with cancer. Among immunotherapy arsenal, the targeting of intratumoral immune cells by immune-checkpoint inhibitory agents has recently revolutionized the treatment of several subtypes of tumours. These approaches aimed at restoring an effective anti-tumour immunity, rapidly reached the market thanks to the simultaneous identification of inhibitory signals that dampen an effective antitumor response in a large variety of neoplastic cells, and the clinical development of monoclonal antibodies targeting checkpoint receptors. Leading therapies in solid tumours are mainly focused on the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte–associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed-death 1 (PD-1) pathways. These approaches have found a promising testing ground in both Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, mainly because in these diseases the malignant cells interact with the immune system and commonly provide signals that regulate immune function. Although several trials have already demonstrated evidence of therapeutic activity with some checkpoint inhibitors in lymphoma, many of the immunologic lessons learned from solid tumours may not directly translate to lymphoid malignancies. In this sense, the mechanisms of effective antitumor responses are different between the different lymphoma subtypes, while the reasons for this substantial difference remain partially unknown. This review will discuss the current advances of immune-checkpoint blockade therapies in B-cell lymphoma and will build a projection of how the field may evolve in the near future. In particular, we will analyze the current strategies being evaluated both preclinically and clinically with the aim to foster the use of immune-checkpoint inhibitors in non-Hodgkin lymphoma, including combination approaches with chemotherapeutics, biological agents and/or different immunologic therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1266.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: responsibility; trust; willingness to work
Online: 30 April 2023 (05:27:09 CEST)
(1) Background: Little research has been done on professionals' perceptions of institutions and governments during epidemics. We aim to create a profile of physicians who feel they can raise public health issues with relevant institutions during a pandemic. (2) Methods: A total of 1285 Romanian physicians completed an online survey as part of a larger study. We used binary logistic regression to profile physicians who felt able to raise public health issues with relevant institutions; (3) Results: Five predictors could differentiate between respondents who tended to agree with the trust statement and those who tended to disagree: feeling safe at work during the pandemic, considering the financial incentive worth the risk, receiving training on the use of protective equipment, having the same values as colleagues, and enjoying work as much as before the pandemic; (4) Conclusions: Physicians who trust the system to raise public health issues with the appropriate institutions feel they share the same values as their colleagues, say they were trained in the use of protective equipment used during the pandemic, felt they were safe at work during the pandemic, enjoyed their work as much as before the pandemic, and felt the financial bonus justified the risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0008.v3
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: AO; SAO; TO; amplitude; phase
Online: 6 October 2016 (08:52:44 CEST)
The properties of the annual, semiannual and triennial oscillations (AO, SAO and TO) in the middle atmosphere have been investigated using the TIMED/SABER temperature data. The Lomb-Scargle and wavelet spectra were used to determine the dominant oscillations in the background temperature field. The AO is prominent at the mid-latitudes. The AO amplitudes present an asymmetry between the two Hemispheres, being larger in the mesosphere than in the stratosphere. The SAO dominates the tropical regions, with three amplitude maxima at altitudes of 45, 75, and 85 km. The SAOs in the upper mesosphere (75 km) are out of phase with those in the mesopause (85 km) in the tropical regions, which can generate an enhancement of 11 K at each equinox, contributing to the lower mesospheric inversion layer. The TO is significant in the tropical region, with amplitude being maximum at 35, 45 and 85 km. Result shows that there may be potential interaction by the TO with SAO at 85km at the equator. The relation between ENSO and TO has also been discussed. The ENSO signal may modulate the amplitude of the TO, mainly in the lower stratosphere. The real origin of the TO may lie in the wave-mean-flow interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0277.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: organic waste; waste to energy; waste to carbon; solid fuel; hydrochar; temperature; hydrothermal treatment
Online: 19 July 2022 (05:21:12 CEST)
Economic development and population growth lead to increased production of chicken manure (CM), which is a problematic organic waste for its amount, environmental threats, and moisture content. There are different ways of CM, namely anaerobic digestion, composting, combustion, and direct land spreading. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is another emerging way, however. In this study, the HTC of CM was performed to produce energy-rich material called hydrochar (HC). The effects of HTC temperature (180, 240, 300 C) and process time (30, 90, 180 min) were summarized. Proximate and ultimate analysis, as well as heating values (HHV, LHV), have been performed both on raw CM and derived HC. Additionally, the process performance has been examined. The obtained results show that HTC is a feasible method for CM disposal and valorization. Although process time did not influence considerably fuel properties of CM, higher temperature led to significantly higher HHV, reaching 23,880.6734.56 Jg-1 at 300 C and 180 min with an improvement of 8,329 Jg-1 compared with raw CM (15,551.67 Jg-1). The process conducted at 240 C in 30 min has been specified as the most favorable, due to the highest energy gain of HC and relatively low energy consumption.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0337.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: vehicle to grid; grid to vehicle; electric vehicles; batteries; harmonic distortion; IEEE bus standards
Online: 21 June 2018 (10:34:06 CEST)
The increase in the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) is one of the most important world problems. Decreasing of GHG emission is a big challenge in the future. Transportation sector uses a significant part of petroleum production in the world and it leads to an increase in the emission of GHG. The result of this issue is that population of the world befoul environment of transportation system automatically. Electric Vehicles (EV) have a potentiality to solve a big part of the GHG emission and energy efficiency issues such as stability and reality of energy. The energy actors and their research team determine some targets for 2050; hence, they hope to decrease the world temperature to 6 °C in the best and 2 °C in the normal condition. Fulfillment of these scenarios needs suitable grid infrastructure but in most of the countries, the grid does not have a suitable background to apply those scenarios. In this paper, some problems about energy scenarios, energy storage systems, grid infrastructure and communication systems in supply and demand side of the grid and its solutions have been investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0001.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: vehicle to vehicle communications; vehicle to infrastructure communications; network security; mobile ad-hoc networks
Online: 1 June 2017 (04:51:57 CEST)
Vehicle to vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) or briefly V2X communications are the one of hot topics in automotive industry. Therefore, this situation is providing many advantages of connected vehicles and infrastructures which bring to human life. For instance, vehicles and road infrastructures which shares information with each other, provides a neat flow regulation, more ordered traffic flow and therefore jammed traffic dependent accident’s percentage will be decreased. On the other hand, security is the most important issue for these systems because the operation of V2X networks is completely dependent on uninterrupted and accurate information sharing. In the light of these information, in this paper we review security issues and current solution architectures. We also propose some open problems in this lively field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0182.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: motivation for learning Chinese; Japanese learners of Chinese; teaching Chinese to Japanese learners, teaching Chinese to kids and adolescents; teaching Chinese to adults
Online: 9 August 2021 (08:58:48 CEST)
Sustaining learners’ motivation to keep learning has been concerned for over 60 years in education and SLA. Most research focusing on Japanese university students has contributed lots of theoretical and practical developments, but research focusing on motivations of non-traditional adult learners and those under 18-year-old to learn Chinese is still little even though previous research findings have proved age is one of the key variables influencing learning besides nationalities and Chinese language levels. In order to find an effective treatment for sustainable Chinese language learning in Japan, this study utilized a survey method to analyze the types of Japanese learners’ motivation to learn Chinese via analysis of a moment structures (AMOS), and to compare the differences of the motivation via one-way ANOVA. This study revealed that Japanese learners’ motivation to learn Chinese consists of eight common types, which are “instrumental motivation”, “personal orientation”, “identified regulation”, “Chinese cultural productions”, “integrating into Chinese community”, “external regulation”, “social responsibility”, and “Chinese for academic purposes”. Also, there are similarities and differences existing in the eight motivation types among the Japanese children, adolescents, (non-) traditional adult learners of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL). The findings contribute the understanding of motivation types and differences among the four aged Japanese learners to teachers of teaching Chinese to speakers of other languages (TCSOL), and to future research further exploring how differently aged Japanese learners can have and use a higher motivation as a main drive to learn Chinese language as a lifelong business.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0089.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: access to medicines; access to antibuotics; impact of access to medicines on public health; problems associated with access; use; abuse of antibiotics resistance; aware; Africa
Online: 5 May 2020 (17:03:07 CEST)
Access to medicines is one of the essential problems in Public Health of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The World Health Organization (WHO) defines access to medicines as the possibility of "having continuously accessible and affordable medicines in public or private health facilities that are within a kilometer of the place of residence." Access to medicines, as defined by the WHO, is not fully guaranteed in many LMICs and even in many regions of high-resource countries. The WHO identifies several factors as determinants of limitations in the access to medicines: rational selection, affordable prices, sustainable financing, and reliable health services. The action on these factors makes it possible to improve universal access to medicines with consequent improvement in Public Health. Adequate access to antibiotics and vaccination will avoid a large part of the deaths caused by infectious diseases in the LMICs. However, the emergence of resistance and the difficulties in vaccination campaigns due to socio-political or cultural problems make it challenging to fight many easily treatable infectious diseases. The use and abuse of antibiotics are inevitably associated with the appearance of resistances that make them ineffective. Thus, whereas limited access to antibiotics raises mortality rates from infectious diseases, generalized open access to them ends up eliminating their clinical value. Moreover, the contraction of research in this field for many years has reduced the success in discovering new drugs. Additionally, local market regulations, inadequate selection, inaccessible prices, especially for those of second and third-generation, inefficient health systems, and difficulties of administration and control of prescription compliance, especially in the case of combined therapies, are additional obstacles to universal access to antibiotics. In order to simultaneously improve access to antibiotics and keep resistances under control, it is necessary to develop training and education activities at different social levels (from patients to various Health Care Providers) to complement the national or supranational strategic plans.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0153.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: COVID-19; minocycline; saiko-keishi-to
Online: 8 November 2022 (10:28:06 CET)
Neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID-19 include delirium, general malaise, headache, and psychiatric symptoms. These manifestations are related to the neuroinflammatory response to viral antigens and proinflammatory mediators/immune cells. Tetracyclines, such as minocycline, have antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. Saiko-keishi-to, a traditional Japanese Kampo medicine, also has anti-inflammatory properties. Given the anti-inflammatory properties of minocycline and Saiko-keishi-to, we describe two cases of COVID-19 with prolonged headaches and general malaise successfully treated with these medications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0161.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Commitment to national; Heritage; Patriotism; Nationalism
Online: 7 December 2020 (13:56:45 CET)
This study aims to describe the commitment to national heritage, patriotism, nationalism of elementary school students in the border areas between Indonesia and Timor Leste. This research was conducted in three elementary schools, they are SD Inpres Moto Ain, SD Inpres Class Jau Halimuti, SD Kristen Nanaeklot, and SD Negeri Motabenar from June to August 2018. The subjects of this study were elementary students in the Indonesia-Timor Leste border areas precisely around Motaain City, Belu Regency, East Nusa Tenggara. The research questionnaire was adapted from Karazawa and analyzed with descripriptive statistics. The results of this study showed that the commitment to national heritage, patriotism, and nationalism of elementary students on the Indonesian border areas with Timor Leste is in the very high level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0642.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; Endothelial activation; Inflammation; Leukocytes; Lymphatic system; Lymphocytes; Neutrophil NETs; NETosis; Platelets; RBCs; SARS-CoV-2; T2DM; Thrombosis; Viremia
Online: 25 December 2020 (07:12:53 CET)
Abstract: Viremia in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is often only discussed in passing and there are very few references detailing its structural mechanisms. In addition to viremia in the classic closed cardiovascular system, the lymphatic system is discussed in relation to a possible “lympho-viremia”. The cells that comprise each of these separate but interacting systems will be examined and include endothelial cells, erythrocytes, leukocytes (monocytes/monocyte-derived macrophages and resident tissue macrophages) (lymphocytes) (neutrophils) and thrombocytes -platelets. The SARS-CoV-2 virus has been identified in multiple extrapulmonary target organs at autopsy in those with severe COVID-19 requiring intensive care. Vulnerable COVID-19 patients may suffer from multiple storms including viral/virion storm, redox storm, cytokine storm and thrombo-embolic storm. Therefore, it is important that the possible mechanisms of viremia be explored in greater detail and how these mechanisms might affect intravascular blood components, extracellular tissue interstitium and organ structural remodeling and function. While the co-morbidity of T2DM does not increase the risk of acquiring COVID-19, it is commonly accepted that T2DM increases the risk for COVID-19 admissions to hospitals, assisted ventilation, morbidity and mortality. Importantly, the co-existence of T2DM and COVID-19 may have synergistic detrimental outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0131.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: epitope; monoclonal antibodies; open reading frame 3 protein; apoptosis; p53; porcine circovirus type 2; thimerosal; interfere; antibody binding; lymphocyte
Online: 12 November 2019 (16:20:27 CET)
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a small non-enveloped DNA virus that causes swine immunosuppression by inducing apoptosis in lymphocytes. The ORF3 protein plays a major role in PCV2-induced apoptosis in porcine kidney cells, but there is little information regarding this protein in PCV2-infected lymphocytes. In this study, hybridoma screening and epitope mapping were determined by using an indirect ELISA. The mAb 7D3 against ORF3 peptide (residues 35–65) of PCV2 were generated in this study. In vivo situation, the mAb 7D3 recognized ORF3 protein existed in PCV2-infected apoptotic porcine PBMCs. It is noteworthy that thimerosal interfered with the binding of mAb 7D3 to epitope and it was diminished by adding cysteine. Additionally, thimerosal interacting with cysteine-containing peptide was demonstrated by the PTI assay. Furthermore, thimerosal specifically interacted with the antigen-binding sites of mAb 7D3. This study suggested that thimerosal blockade the occlusion of the antigen-binding sites of mAb 7D3 to bind ORF3 peptide (residues 35–65) via thimerosal interacting with cysteine residues which should be located within the antigen-binding sites of mAb 7D3. Overall, the mAb 7D3 has been characterized and it will be a valuables tool in future studies of ORF3 function and the wider mechanism of cell apoptosis caused by PCV2 infection. Similarly, these techniques will be useful for applications in detecting thimerosal too.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0386.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: CRISPR, clonal selection, totipotent, multipotent, T cell receptors, B cell receptors, precommitted, lymphocyte, T cell vaccine, T cell vaccination
Online: 31 May 2019 (11:12:33 CEST)
Transfer factor is the name given to material derived from activated lymphocytes that is probably composed of a complex of a peptide and a short segment of RNA and which has the reported ability to transfer specific T cell immunity to uncommitted lymphocytes. Many independent groups around the world reported isolating transfer factors between 1955 and 1990 and demonstrating their ability to transfer passive immunity from one animal or individual to another, often within 24 hours of inoculation. Such activity is potentially revolutionary both in making T cell vaccines readily manufacturable and also because the existence of transfer factors would undermine the basic assumptions of the clonal selection theory, which currently dominates immunological theory. Unfortunately, lack of the microanalytical and synthetic techniques required to properly identify transfer factors, combined with safety factors associated with it derivation from blood sources susceptible to HIV and prion infections, put an end to transfer factor research after 1990. This paper reviews the evidence supporting transfer factor activity and suggests that this potentially revolutionary concept be resurrected and subjected to renewed scrutiny in light of CRISPR-Cas mechanisms and because of its potential to make possible T cell vaccination and provide a novel basis for understanding immunological function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1143.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Locus Coeruleus; Personality; Openness to Experience; Intelligence
Online: 28 April 2023 (08:16:32 CEST)
It has been proposed that upregulation of the noradrenergic (NA) system through exposure to novelty might be one of the key components for building cognitive reserve and resilience to neurodegeneration. A personality trait that promotes greater interest in novel experiences is Openness to Experience (OE). Individuals who are high in OE exhibit strong curiosity towards novelty and are more likely to be exposed to novel stimuli throughout the lifespan.Performing voxel-based morphometry analyses, we examined whether OE in 135 healthy young adults was associated with Locus Coeruleus (LC) - the main core of the noradrenergic system. We also investigated whether LC mediates the relationship between OE and a key measure of reserve, I.Q. In comparison with other neuromodulators’ seeds (Dorsal and Median Raphe [DR-MR] -5-HT, Ventral Tegmental Area [VTA] -DA- and Nucleus Basalis of Meynert [NBM] -Ach-), results show that greater LC integrity was related to greater OE and IQ. Additionally, mediation analyses revealed that only LC mediated the relationship between OE and IQ. Furthermore, a Bayesian multiple regression was conducted to model the contribution of both isolated and combined neuromodulator seeds to OE trait express. This approach found that the LC + VTA could account for more variance in OE expression compared to the LC alone. Other weaker but significant associations were observed between DR and OE, between LC + NBM and Conscientiousness and between DR + NBM and Extraversion. These results are together suggestive that OE is primarily underpinned by monoaminergic functioning, and that the LC-NA system plays a central role mediating the interdependence between OE expression and cognition (IQ level). While offering further understanding of the neurobiology of human personality, these findings indicate a pivotal role of LC-NA system integrity in novelty seeking in daily life. This provides a psychobiological account for how OE expression may be beneficial for maintaining the noradrenergic system to facilitate cognitive reserve and resilience to neurodegenerative conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0017.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: text-to-speech; naturalness; intelligibility; Brazilian Portuguese
Online: 1 November 2022 (04:37:04 CET)
This paper compares the performance of three text-to-speech (TTS) models released from June 2021 to January 2022 in order to establish a baseline for Brazilian Portuguese. Those models were trained using dataset for Brazilian Portuguese. The experimental setup considers tts-portuguese dataset to fine-tune the following TTS models: VITS end-to-end model; glowtts and gradtts acoustic models both using hifi-gan vocoder. Performance metrics are arranged into objective and subjective metrics. As subjective metrics, the naturalness and intelligibility are measured based on the mean opinion score (MOS). Results shows that gradtts+hifigan model achieved naturalness of 4.07 MOS, close to performance of current commercial models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0116.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: parents’ motive to vaccinate; coronavirus disease; children
Online: 8 September 2022 (03:11:45 CEST)
Background: Vaccinating children against COVID-19 is an essential public health strategy in order to reach herd immunity and prevent illness among children and adults. Parents are facing tremendous stress in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic and the effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccination program for children. In this study, we aimed to investigate parents’ willingness to vaccinate their children against COVID-19 in North Kivu province (DRC). Methods: A cross-sectional survey between December 01, 2021 to January 20, 2022 in 6 health zones (Goma, Karisimbi, Butembo, Beni, Kamango and Katwa) was conducted in the province of North Kivu. In each health zone, we selected 5 clusters (Health area) using the method of probabilistic selection proportional to population size. In total, 522 parents participated in our study. Results: Overall, 32.8% of parents intended to vaccinate their children. In the multivariate analysis, younger age of parents (aOR : 2.40, CI : [1.50-3.83]), higher level of fear that “a member of my family” could contract COVID-19 (aOR : 2.35, CI : [1.38-4.02]), higher level of perceived vulnerability to COVID-19 within the family (aOR : 1.70, CI : [1.005-2.2881]), higher level of perceived susceptibility to COVID-19 within the family (aOR : 3.07, CI : [1.80-5.23]), and history of vaccination against COVID-19 among parents (aOR : 16.47, CI : [8.39-32.33]), were significantly associated with the intention to have their children or adolescents vaccinated. Conclusion: Willingness of parents to vaccinate their children against the COVID-19 vaccination was low in North Kivu. There is undeniably in this region a need to reinsure the populations about vaccine safety for both children and adults. Public health authorities should also address widespread misinformation about vaccines in a timely manner.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0345.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; occupational health; returning to work
Online: 13 April 2021 (11:15:02 CEST)
With the COVID-19 pandemic continuing and the resulting economic burden increasingly apparent, the Indonesian government began to prepare a "new normal" phase and make peace with COVID-19. From this new decision arises the question of the readiness of businesses and the industrial sector to resume operations amid COVID-19. This article aims to provide concise and precise information about the preparations that can be made by businesses to operate safely amid COVID-19 based on existing scientific studies and literatures. From the literature visits it can be concluded that transmission and danger of a COVID-19 pandemic can be prevented through: creation of infectious disease prevention and response plan, implementing basic infection prevention measures, policies and procedures for proper identification and isolation of sick people, applying flexibilities in policies, and protections in the workplace.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0118.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: FAANG; farmed animal; genomics; genotype-to-phenotype
Online: 6 October 2020 (10:53:17 CEST)
Here we review and describe a set of research priorities to meet present and future challenges posed to farmed animal production that build on progress, successes and resources from the Functional Annotation of ANimal Genomes (FAANG) project.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0087.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Covid-19; bioecological perspective; back to school
Online: 27 July 2020 (08:38:04 CEST)
South America has become the new epicenter of the coronavirus, especially in Brazil where the disease continues to spread exponentially across the country. This text aims to analyze the psychosocial factors of Covid-19 on back to school strategies in Brazil from a bioecological perspective. At the microsystem level, the population is experiencing different levels of stress and fear; at the mesosystem level, changes in routines, separation from family and friends, and closure of schools; and at the macrosystem level, national guidelines to control the pandemic, institutional standards on a national and international scale. Therefore, the main focus for the success of school return must be in the prevention of contagion and with physical and psychological health, and should not only consider the demands of curricula, financial or administrative management. For this reason, it is paramount that greater female representativeness is increased in decision-making levels of the meso and macrosystem, regarding the resumption of school and academic activities in the pandemic period, since the number of female leaders in decision-making, is still insufficient.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0203.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: urology; COVID-19; return to elective services
Online: 12 May 2020 (05:41:34 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has presented the world with increased challenges. The response to this pandemic has led to a sudden disruption of routine medical and elective surgical care. Most hospitals across the globe have had to change the way outpatient clinics are carried out and postpone non-urgent elective surgical procedures. NHS England ceased all elective general surgeries to train and re-deploy their staff to support the increased pressures from COVID-19 in an intensive care setting. However, with a decline of reported cases and deaths, the return to undertaking non-urgent elective services is imminent. In May 2020, Radha and Afzal published the first evidence-based guidelines for the resumption of elective orthopaedic services titled “Evidence based suggestions for the return to elective orthopaedic surgery following the COVID-19 Pandemic”. The pathway presented is adapted from the “Evidence based suggestions for the return to elective orthopaedic surgery following the COVID-19 Pandemic” and could potentially be used as a model for other surgical specialities. We present a three-phased return back to urological services. Safe resumption of elective care is possible but needs to be carefully planned.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0109.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: CNS decussation; evolution theory; function to anatomy
Online: 7 May 2020 (08:18:28 CEST)
Most large fibers in central nervous system of vertebrates are decussated. The cause or the evolutionary force of this phenomenon is not convincingly described. Here we show a pattern for this nervous system property that simultaneously is found to a more basic rule in evolution.The idea here is the "function to anatomy" theorem. We claim that functions of physical, biochemical, enzymatic, etc., in lower scale of living organisms "emerge" to anatomy in larger scales. And reversely, the anatomy we see in multicelular organisms are/were functions in microscopic scales.We propose descriptions, predictions, and a probable road map to what this can implicate in biological and medical issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0024.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: adenovirus; pneumonia; fever; response to antipyretic treatment
Online: 3 June 2019 (14:02:51 CEST)
In 2014, the outbreak of adenoviral pneumonia occurred in Korean military training center. However, there is limited data on characteristics of fever and its response to antipyretics therapy in immunocompetent adults with adenoviral positive community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Medical records of patients who were admitted to Armed Forces Chuncheon Hospital for treatment of CAP between January 2014 and December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. We evaluated demographics, clinico-laboratory findings and radiologic findings at admission were compared between adenovirus positive (Adv) group and adenovirus negative (non-Adv) group. Out of 251 military personnel with CAP during the study periods, 67 were classified into Adv group while 184 were Non-Adv group. Patients with Adv group had a longer duration of fever after admission and symptom onset. Adv group patients had a higher mean temperature at admission and more observed over 40 and 39 to 40℃. Adv group patients had more commonly observed no response to antipyretic treatment and adverse events after antipyretics use. Length of hospital stay had no significant difference between two groups and no patient died in both groups. In our study, Adv positive CAP in patients with immunocompetent military personnel had distinct characteristics of fever and response to antipyretic treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0417.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: female, generation, hospital, intention to leave, nurse
Online: 26 June 2018 (12:34:58 CEST)
An understanding of the cultural conditions that determine the factors affecting nurses’ intention to leave is important for countries suffering from nurse shortage. Aim: to examine factors influencing intention to leave among female hospital nurses in a large Japanese sample, classified into four generations by age considering economic conditions. Methods: a cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted. Anonymous self-administered questionnaires were distributed to all nurses in 30 hospitals. To assess intention to leave, basic attributes, life conditions, work characteristics, and factors of psychosocial work environment were addressed. After classifying data into four generations based on age cohorts, we conducted multivariate logistic regression analysis using the completed data (N = 5,074, mean age = 36.24). Results: regardless of generational characteristics influenced by economic conditions, effort and monetary reward were generation-common factors. Over-commitment, social support, and the presence of a role model were generation-common factors in three generations. While having children increased intention to leave in the generation born 1965–1979, having family members in need of caregiving other than children decreased the risk in the generation born in the 1980s. Conclusion: generational countermeasures considering factors of psychosocial work environment and life conditions are needed to avert female nurse turnover.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0113.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: microaggressions; responses to microaggressions; role-playing; workshop
Online: 7 May 2018 (10:19:16 CEST)
Microaggressions are subtle verbal and non-verbal slights based on group membership, and they are ubiquitous in the lives of racial minorities, women, and LGBTQ individuals (Sue, 2010). The goal of the current paper is to introduce a role-playing based exercise on effective responses to microaggressions. The workshop draws on the prejudice responding workshops of Plous (2000) and Lawson, et al. (2010) but integrates research-based strategies. The activity was tested in two groups of undergraduate students, and the findings suggested that both groups felt more prepared to deal with microaggressions after participating.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0143.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: documents; binarization; back-to-front interference; bleeding
Online: 22 November 2017 (06:38:07 CET)
Monochromatic documents claim for much less computer bandwidth for network transmission and storage space than their color or even grayscale equivalent. The binarization of historical documents is far more complex than recent ones as paper aging, color, texture, translucidity, stains, back-to-front interference, kind and color of ink used in handwritting, printing process, digitalization process, etc. are some of the factors that affect binarization. This article presents a new binarization algorithm for historical documents. The new global filter proposed is performed in four steps: filtering the image using a bilateral filter, splitting image into the RGB components, decision-making for each RGB channel based on an adaptive binarization method inspired by Otsu's method with a choice of the threshold level, and classification of the binarized images to decide which of the RGB components best preserved the document information in the foreground. The quantitative and qualitative assessment made with 21 binarization algorithms in three sets of “real world” documents showed very good results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0098.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Flavokawain A; HER2 overexpression; resistance to apoptosis
Online: 23 January 2017 (03:30:01 CET)
HER2/neu positive breast tumors predict a high mortality and comprise 25-30% of breast cancer. We have shown that Flavokawain A (FKA) preferentially reduces the viabilities of HER2 overexpressing breast cancer cell lines (i.e. SKBR3 and MCF7/HER2) versus those with less HER2 expression (i.e. MCF7 and MDA-MB-468). FKA at cytotoxic concentrations to breast cancer cell lines also has minimal effect on the growth of non-malignant breast epithelial MCF10 cells. FKA induces G2M arrest in cell cycle progression of HER2 overexpressing breast cancer cell lines through inhibition of Cdc2 and Cdc25C phosphorylation and down-regulation of Myt1 and Wee1expression leading to increased Cdc2 kinase activities. In addition, FKA induces apoptosis in SKBR3 cells by increasing the protein expression of Bim and BAX and decreasing expression of Bcl2, Bclx/L , XIAP and survivin. FKA also down-regulates the protein expression of HER-2 and inhibits AKT phosphorylation. Herceptin plus FKA treatment leads to enhanced growth inhibitory effect on HER-2 overexpressing breast cancer cell lines through down-regulation of Myt1, Wee1, Skp2, Survivin and XIAP. Our results suggest the promise of FKA as a novel apoptosis inducer and G2 checkpoint abrogating agent in combination with Herceptin for treatment of HER2 overexpressing breast cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0219.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Waterbomb structure; Origami pattern; Quasi-static load; Critical axial buckling load-to-weight ratio; Radial stiffness-to-weight ratio
Online: 12 January 2021 (12:20:55 CET)
Waterbomb structures are origami-inspired deformable structural components used in new types of robots. They have a unique radially deployable ability that enables robots to better adapt to their environment. In this paper, we propose a series of new waterbomb structures with square, rectangle, and parallelogram base units. Through quasi-static axial and radial compression experiments and numerical simulations, we prove that the parallelogram waterbomb structure has a twist displacement mode along the axial direction. Compared with the square waterbomb structure, the proposed optimal design of the parallelogram waterbomb structure reduces the critical axial buckling load-to-weight ratio by 55.4% and increases the radial stiffness-to-weight ratio by 67.6%. The significant increase in the radial stiffness-to-weight ratio of the waterbomb structure and decrease in the critical axial buckling load-to-weight ratio make the proposed origami pattern attractive for practical robotics applications.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0033.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: system archetypes; the COVID-19; the impacts of the COVID-19; the limits to growth; the success to successful
Online: 8 August 2020 (04:42:04 CEST)
The world has been highly impacted by the COVID-19 as the virus has spread to all continents – about 200 countries in total. The latest update claims about 4,000,000 confirmed cases and about 300,000 confirmed deaths owing to the COVID-19 pandemic. This probably makes the COVID-19 as the most dangerous contagious disease in the era 2000s. Apart from massive publications on this topic, there is no available qualitative analysis that describes the dynamic spreads of the COVID-19 and its impacts on healthcare and the economy. Through the system archetypes analysis, this paper explains that the dynamic spread of the COVID-19 consists of the limits to growth and the success to successful structures. The limits to growth elucidates that more symptomatic and asymptomatic patients owing to infected droplets may be bounded by self-healing and isolated treatments. The success to successful structure explains that once the COVID-19 affects the economy through the lockdown, there will be a limited fund to support the government aids and the aggregate demand. In overall, this paper gives readers simplified holistic insights into understanding the dynamic spread of the COVID-19.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Body mass index, Metabolic syndrome, Obesity, Obesity paradox, Telomere, Waist circumference, Waist-to-hip ratio, Waist-to-height ratio
Online: 4 September 2019 (14:20:32 CEST)
Background Telomere shortening is related to aging and unfavourable health outcomes. Obesity and metabolic diseases are important factors for accelerating aging. This study aimed to find out the association between obesity, metabolic disease, and telomere length in metabolically healthy adults. Methods 237 adults were enrolled with written consents at a health promotion centre of a tertiary hospital from February 2014 to March 2015. After excluding 99 subjects who met the exclusion criterion, a total of 130 metabolically healthy subjects were selected for final analysis. The subjects were divided into quartile groups according to the telomere lengths of their oral mucosal cells. Results The subjects consisted of 66 (50.8%) males with a mean age of 58.59 years. The body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) increased significantly along with the quartile groups (Q1, 23.00; Q2, 23.96; Q3, 23.70; Q4, 25.20; P-for trend=0.008). Waist circumference (WC, P-for trend=0.022), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, P-for trend=0.005), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, P=0.001) also increased along with the quartile groups. Obesity prevalence (BMI ≥25 kg/m2), abdominal obesity (WC ≥90 cm for men, ≥85 cm for women), WHR 〉1.0 for men or 〉0.85 for women, and WHtR ≥0.5 increased significantly as the telomere length increased (P-for trend <0.05). After adjusting for covariates, the ORs for each obesity markers increased as the telomere length increased (P-for trend <0.05); and the ORs of WHtR were especially meaningful (Q1, 1.00; Q2, 2.53; Q3, 2.97; Q4, 7.81; P-for trend = 0.001). There were no significant trends for metabolic syndrome and its components along with the prevalence of fatty liver disease. Conclusion Obesity markers and telomere length had significant positive correlation despite the established theory. The obesity paradox may exist in metabolically healthy adults with regard to telomere length, However, further studies with larger sample sizes for the association between obesity and telomere length are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1477.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: myelofibrosis; ruxolitinib; severity of symptoms; adherence to therapy
Online: 22 May 2023 (08:52:13 CEST)
We aimed to explore symptoms severity and adherence to therapy for patients with myelofibrosis treated with ruxolitinib in Bulgaria. It is a prospective, non-interventional study performed at the Specialized hospital for active treatment of hematological diseases in Sofia during 2022 - 2023. Date of diagnosis, demographic characteristics, clinical indicators, ruxolitinib dose, and other data points were collected. Clinical indicators were assessed at baseline, in the middle and at the end of observation. Severity of symptoms was measured with MPN-SAF TSS and adherence to therapy with the Morisky 4 questionnaire 6 times during the observation. The mean age of diagnosis was 58.5 years, with the average duration of disease of 3 years. Pa-tients’ laboratory results were within physiological ranges, with spleen size experiencing a con-stant decrease. The average value for the severity of the symptoms per MPN-SAF TSS results decreased significantly, indicating better disease control. The average adherence to therapy did not change and remained high at around 9 points, except for one patient. In conclusion the treatment of myelofibrosis patients with ruxolitinib decreased symptoms se-verity and spleen size. Patients were adherent to the therapy over the observed period but as treatment duration increases the risk of adherence decreasing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0935.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Multilingual BERT; Text-to-image; DCGAN; Webtoon; GAN
Online: 26 April 2023 (03:16:07 CEST)
Recent advances in deep learning technology have led to increased interest in text-to-image technology, which enables computers to create images from text by simulating the human process of forming mental images. The GAN-based text-to-image technology involves the extraction of features from input text, which are combined with noise and then used as input to a GAN that generates images that are similar to the original images through competition between the generator and discriminator. Although generating images from English text is a mature area of research, text-to-image technology based on multilingualism, such as Korean, is still in its early stages of development. Webtoon is a digital comic format that allows comics to be viewed online. The creation process for webtoons is divided into story planning, content/sketching, coloring, and background drawing. Since each stage of webtoon production requires human intervention, it is both time-consuming and expensive. As a result, deep learning technologies such as automatic coloring and automatic line drawing are being used to reduce human involvement. However, there is a shortage of technology that can assist authors with story creation in webtoon production. Therefore, this study proposes a multilingual text-to-image model capable of generating webtoon images when presented with multilingual input text. The proposed model employs Multilingual BERT to extract feature vectors for multiple languages, and trains a DCGAN in conjunction with the images. The experimental results demonstrate that the model can generate images that are similar to the original images when presented with multilingual input text after training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0353.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: SMEs; Access to finance; SME’s entrepreneur; Entrepreneurial characteristics
Online: 25 October 2021 (12:59:01 CEST)
Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) help and support the country in financial and business aspects and employs in the country, overcomes unemployment, and creates job opportunities in different sectors of the country. The study aims to know the entrepreneurial-specific factors like age, gender, education, experience, and skills used as predictors for access to financing of small firms in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The questionnaire is used for data collection, and about 204 questionnaires were distributed, of which 192 returned and analyzed through binary logistic regression. The study results reveal that age and level of education have been found significant while gender, experience and skills have insignificant with the access to finance in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0522.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: recycled PET products; circular economy; intention to purchase.
Online: 30 September 2021 (15:06:49 CEST)
Circular Economy involves structural changes in traditional business models and consumers’ behaviour toward recycled products. The recycling of PET products has been increasing but there is still a gap between consumption and demand for PET packaging in Brazil. In this research, the waste reduction was examined under a projective scenario to the current ecological purposes in Brazil for reducing environmental pollution. In that manner, this paper aimed to comprehend the intention to purchase recycled PET products of Brazilian consumers. With a non-probabilistic and convenience sample, the study counts 422 participants. The method employed was based on Structural Equation Modelling and Partial Least Squares, used to test the hypotheses of causality among the variables. Results showed the perception of low quality about recycled products reduced consumers’ intention to purchase. Also, the sustainability of recycled products positively influenced the intention to purchase. In addition, recycled products presented a negative impact on the perceived safety, which could influence the purchase of recycled products in Brazil. We conclude that the image that Brazilian consumers have about recycled products positively affects the intention to purchase.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0514.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Senescence; Immortalization; Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition; Carcinogenesis; Hypothesis
Online: 25 January 2021 (15:31:18 CET)
The origin of cancer remains one of the most important enigmas in modern biology. The prevailing paradigm has failed to grasp a comprehensive view of the disease. Naturally, therapies developed under the current assumptions are inadequate and cancer is practically an incurable disease. Meanwhile, descriptive studies continuously extend the molecular complexity of cancer without an equivalent advancement in its understanding. Furthermore, they tend to accumulate inconsistencies inexplicable under the classical view. This paper presents a compelling theory of the origin of carcinomas. By hypothesis, a series of generic events in epithelial tissues promoted by cellular aging and inflammation enables the reactivation of developmental programs. The origin of carcinomas in vivo is described as the time-ordered cell state transitions undergone by epithelial cells in the hyperplasia due to replicative senescence and inflammation towards a mesenchymal undifferentiated endogenous cell state with cancerous behavior. In support of the theory, the molecular, cellular, and histopathological evidence is critically reviewed. A plausible model for the origin of carcinomas is presented to explain the mechanism underlying carcinogenesis from an evolutive and developmental perspective. The implications of the hypothesis in the current strategies for cancer prevention and treatment are discussed along with rational alternatives and some predictions for possible experimental validation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0149.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: endosymbiosis, germline, vertical transmission, cell-to-cell transfer
Online: 15 January 2019 (09:55:25 CET)
Microbial symbioses exhibit astounding adaptations, yet all symbionts face the problem of how to reliably associate with host offspring every generation. A common strategy is vertical transmission, in which symbionts are directly transmitted from the female to her offspring. The diversity of symbionts and vertical transmission mechanisms is as expansive as the diversity of eukaryotic host taxa that house them. However, there are several common themes among these mechanisms based on the degree to which symbionts associate with the host germline during transmission. In this review, we detail three distinct vertical transmission strategies, starting with associations that are transmitted from host somatic cells to offspring somatic cells, either due to lacking a germline or avoiding it. A second strategy involves somatically-localized symbionts that migrate into the germline during host development. The third strategy we discuss is one in which the symbiont maintains continuous association with the germline throughout development. Unexpectedly, the vast majority of documented vertically inherited symbionts rely on the second strategy: soma-to-germline migration. Given that not all eukaryotes contain a sequestered germline and instead produce offspring from somatic stem cell lineages, this soma-to-germline migration is discussed in the context of multicellular evolution. Lastly, as recent genomics data have revealed an abundance of horizontal gene transfer events from symbiotic and non-symbiotic bacteria to host genomes, we discuss their impact on eukaryotic host evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0113.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: pan-cancer; bidirectional promoters; head-to-head genes
Online: 6 July 2018 (09:37:08 CEST)
Bidirectional gene promoters affect the transcription of two genes, leading to the hypothesis that they should exhibit protection against genetic or epigenetic changes in cancer. Therefore, they provide an excellent opportunity to learn about promoter susceptibility to somatic alteration in tumors. We tested this hypothesis using data from genome-scale DNA methylation (14 cancer types), simple somatic mutation (10 cancer types), and copy number variation profiling (14 cancer types). For DNA methylation, the difference in rank differential methylation between tumor and tumor-adjacent normal matched samples based on promoter type was tested by Wilcoxon rank sum test. Logistic regression was used to compare differences in simple somatic mutations. For copy number alteration, a mixed effects logistic regression model was used. The change in methylation between non-diseased tissues and their tumor counterparts was significantly greater in single compared to bidirectional promoters across all 14 cancer types examined. Similarly, the extent of copy number alteration was greater in single gene compared to bidirectional promoters for all 14 cancer types. Furthermore, among 10 cancer types with available simple somatic mutation data, bidirectional promoters were slightly more susceptible. These results suggest that selective pressures related with specific functional impacts during carcinogenesis drive the susceptibility of promoter regions to somatic alteration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0073.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Hochu-ekki-to; immune modulation; polycystic ovarian syndrome
Online: 9 May 2017 (04:11:56 CEST)
The traditional herbal medicine, Hochu-ekki-to, has been shown to have preventive effects on viral infection and stress. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical effects of Hochu-ekki-to on two stress-related rat models of polycystic ovarian syndrome. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control and treatment groups, the latter of which were subjected to stress induced by exposure to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or cold temperatures. After these stress inductions, rats were orally treated with dissolved Hochu-ekki-to once per day for 7 days. Rats subjected to the two different stressors exhibited upregulation of steroid hormone receptors (in ovaries) and reproductive hormones (in blood), and consequent stimulation of abnormal follicle development accompanied by elevation of Hsp 90 expression (in ovaries). Treatment with Hochu-ekki-to for 7 days after stress induction increased immune functions, reduced the stress-induced activation of Hsp 90, and normalized the levels of the tested steroid hormone receptors and reproductive hormones. Our findings suggest that stress stimulations may promote the activation of Hsp 90 via the dysregulation of steroid hormone receptors and reproductive hormones, but that post-stress treatment with Hochu-ekki-to improves reproductive and immune functions in the ovaries of stressed rats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0081.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Deep Learning; Image Synthesis; Image Generation; Machine Learning; Medical Imaging; CT to MRI; Synthetic MRI; Stroke; Image-to-image Translation
Online: 1 June 2023 (11:30:09 CEST)
CT scans are currently the most common imaging modality used for suspected stroke patients due to their short acquisition time and wide availability. However, MRI offers superior tissue contrast and image quality. In this study, eight deep learning models are developed, trained, and tested using a dataset of 181 CT/MR pairs from stroke patients. The resultant synthetic MRIs generated by these models are compared through a variety of qualitative and quantitative methods. The synthetic MRIs generated by a 3D UNet model consistently demonstrated superior performance across all methods of evaluation. Overall, the generation of synthetic MRIs from CT scans using the methods described in this paper produces realistic MRIs that can guide the registration of CT scans to MRI atlases. The synthetic MRIs enable the segmentation of white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid using algorithms designed for MRIs, exhibiting a high degree of similarity to true MRIs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0541.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Social Internet of Things; Social Internet of Vehicle; Vehicle-to-Vehicle; Vehicle-to-Infrastructure; Vehicle Ad-hoc Network; Social Networks
Online: 19 April 2023 (04:27:27 CEST)
The number of people owning vehicles has been steadily growing, resulting in increased numbers of vehicles on the roads, making roads more congested, and increasing the risk of accidents. In addition, heavy rain, snow, and fog have increased due to abnormal weather caused by global warming. These bad weather conditions can also affect the safety of vehicles and drivers. The need to disseminate safety messages on the social internet of vehicles due to these problems has been steadily increasing. In this paper, we propose an efficient safety message dissemination scheme that focuses on urban environments with high vehicle density and mobility to address these problems. The proposed scheme reduces packet loss by considering frequent cluster departures and subscriptions through an efficient cluster management technique. In a vehicle-to-vehicle environment, the dissemination of safety messages is divided into an intra-cluster and an inter-cluster emergency as well as general safety message dissemination technique. In a vehicle to infrastructure environment, the proposed scheme reduces the number of processing requests and duplicate messages made to roadside units (RSUs) through a request operation process for each vehicle and an RSU scheduling technique. We conducted several performance evaluations of message packet loss and the number of RSU processing requests to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed scheme.
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: peloids; waste to energy; waste to carbon; circular economy; torrefied biomass; kinetics lifetime prediction; mass balance; energy balance; fuel properties
Online: 30 August 2021 (10:28:20 CEST)
Peat is the main type of peloid used in Polish cosmetic/healing spa facilities. Depending on treatment and origin, peat waste can be contaminated microbiologically, and as result, it has to be incinerated in medical waste incineration plants without energy recovery (local law). Such a situation leads to peat waste management costs increase. Therefore in this work, we checked the possibility of peat waste upcycling to carbonized solid fuel (CSF) using torrefaction. Torrefaction is a thermal treatment process that removes microbiological contamination and improves the fuel properties of peat waste. In work torrefaction conditions (temperature and time) on CSF quality were tested. Parallelly, peat decomposition kinetics using TGA, and torrefaction kinetics with lifetime prediction using macro-TGA were determined. Furthermore, torrefaction theoretical mass and energy balance were determined. The results of the tested peat were compared with reference material (wood), and as result, obtained data can be used to adjust currently used wood torrefaction technologies for peat torrefaction. The results show that torrefaction can improve the high heating value of peat waste from 19.0 MJ x kg-1 to 21.3 MJ x kg-1, peat main decomposition takes place at 200-550 °C following second reaction order (n=2), with an activation energy of 33.34 kJ x mol-1 and pre-exponential factor of 4.40 x 10-1 s-1. Moreover, DSC analysis revealed that peat torrefaction required slightly more energy than wood torrefaction, and macro TGA showed that peat torrefaction has lower torrefaction constant reaction rates (k) than wood 1.05 x 10-5 - 3.15 x 10-5 vs 1.43 x 10-5 - 7.25 x 10-5 s-1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0475.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT); hybrid EMT; partial EMT; mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET); SCAND1; SCAN zinc finger; MZF1; cancer prognosis
Online: 31 October 2022 (08:57:38 CET)
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a reversible cellular program that transiently places epithelial (E) cells into pseudo-mesenchymal (M) cell states. The malignant progression and resistance of many types of carcinomas depends on EMT activation, partial EMT and hybrid E/M status in neoplastic cells. EMT is activated by tumor microenvironmental TGFβ signal and EMT-inducing transcription factors, such as ZEB1/2 in tumor cells. However, reverse EMT factors are less studied. We demonstrate that transcription factor SCAND1 can revert mesenchymal and hybrid E/M phenotype of cancer cells to a more epithelial, less invasive status and inhibit their proliferation and migration. SCAND1 is a SCAN domain-containing protein and hetero-oligomerizes with SCAN-zinc finger transcription factors, such as MZF1, for accessing DNA and transcriptional co-repression of target genes. We found that SCAND1-MZF1 co-expression and interaction correlated with maintaining epithelial features, whereas the simultaneous loss of SCAND1 and MZF1 correlated with mesenchymal features of tumor cells. Overexpression of SCAND1 over endogenous MZF1 in DU-145 prostate cancer cells reverted their hybrid E/M status into cobblestone morphology with increased epithelial adhesion by E-cadherin and β-catenin relocation. Consistently, co-expression analysis in TCGA PanCancer Atlas revealed that both SCAND1 and MZF1 co-express and are negatively correlated with EMT driver genes, including CTNNB1, ZEB1, ZEB2 and TGFBR, in prostate tumor specimens. In addition, SCAND1 overexpression suppressed tumor cell proliferation by reducing the MAP3K-MEK-ERK signaling pathway. Of note, SCAND1-overexpressing DU-145 cells migrated slower than control cells with decreased lymph node metastasis of prostate cancer in a mouse tumor xenograft model. Kaplan-Meyer analysis showed high expression of MZF1 and SCAND1 to correlate with better prognoses in pancreatic cancer and head and neck cancers, although with poorer prognosis in kidney cancer. Overall, these data suggest that the combination of SCAND1-MZF1 complexes may revert the EMT mechanism in cancer to establish an epithelial phenotype. These effects seem to include co-repression of EMT-driver genes and suppression of tumor cell proliferation via inhibition of the MAP3K-MEK-ERK signaling pathway.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0649.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: antigen processing and presentation; cancer immunotherapy; cross-priming; immunogenicity; major histocompatibility complex; T lymphocyte; tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, tumor microenvironment; tumor-specific antigen
Online: 30 August 2020 (10:30:50 CEST)
The dominant paradigm holds that spontaneous and therapeutically induced anti-tumor responses are mediated mainly by CD8 T cells and directed against tumor-specific antigens (TSAs). The presence of specific TSAs on cancer cells can only be proven by mass spectrometry analyses. Bioinformatic predictions and reverse immunology studies cannot provide this type of conclusive evidence. Most TSAs are coded by unmutated non-canonical transcripts that arise from cancer-specific epigenetic and splicing aberrations. When searching for TSAs, mass spectrometry analyses must therefore interrogate not only the canonical reading frame of annotated exome but all reading frames of the entire translatome. The majority of aberrantly expressed TSAs (aeTSAs) derive from unstable short-lived proteins that are good substrates for direct MHC I presentation but poor substrates for cross-presentation. This is an important caveat because cancer cells are poor antigen-presenting cells and the immune system therefore depends on cross-presentation by dendritic cells (DCs) to detect the presence of TSAs. We therefore postulate that, in the untreated host, most aeTSAs are undetected by the immune system. We present evidence suggesting that vaccines inducing direct aeTSA presentation by DCs represent an attractive strategy for cancer treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1959.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: change management; resistance to change; organizational change; bibliometric analysis
Online: 29 May 2023 (04:14:09 CEST)
We are living in a business context characterized by change, which today behaves with an unprecedented intensity, driven by the technological revolution and increased competition. As a result, increasingly large and complex companies are facing profound transformation processes in which the role of the human factor and of managers in particular, due to their high capacity to impact the organization, is essential. In response to this reality, the literature has developed a large number of approaches from different areas of knowledge: from business economics to psychology, including technical disciplines. This article offers a classification of these approaches that provides an overview of research on the role of managers in change management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1829.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Poka Yoke; Pick to Lights; architecture; effectiveness; industrial engineering
Online: 26 May 2023 (03:43:43 CEST)
Product assembly is usually one of the last steps in the entire production process. This activity is typically entrusted to assembly workers because it is generally not possible to automate every type of product. For complex products, assembly can take a long time until the fitter learns the procedure and is able to assemble the product on his own. This contribution presents a cus-tom-developed system that enables controlled assembly of the extruder and can be used for complex and diverse products. The system serves to guide the fitter precisely and shows him which part to use at which time. The proposed system will show and describe on the display all necessary assembly steps and parts. Two-step verification is used to ensure that the correct part is picked from the stack. The contribution is supported by the implementation of a case study in a small company with a sample of 30 employees, which demonstrates that the proposed system shortens the extruder assembly time and significantly reduces the error rate. The presented solution is scalable and flexible, as it can be easily adapted to display the assembly steps of another product.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0801.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: immunotherapy; lung cancer; PET; response to therapy; PD-L1
Online: 11 May 2023 (05:32:06 CEST)
Aim: to provide a comprehensive overview of the existing literature concerning the applications of positron emission tomography (PET)-radiomics in lung cancer patients candidates or undergoing immunotherapy. Materials and Methods: A systematic review was conducted on databases and web sources. English-language original articles were considered. The title and abstract were in-dependently reviewed to evaluate study inclusion. Papers duplicate, out-of-topic, review or edi-torials articles and letters to editors were excluded. For each study, the radiomics analysis was assessed based on the relies on radiomics quality score (RQS 2.0). The review was registered on the PROSPERO database with the number CRD42023402302. Results: 15 papers were included, 13 were qualified as conventional radiomics approaches, and two were as Deep Learning radiomics. The content of each study was different, indeed, 7 papers investigated the potential role of radiomics to predict PD-L1 expression and tumor microenvironment before starting immunotherapy. Moreo-ver, 2 were relative to the prediction of response and 4 investigated the utility of radiomics to predict the response to immunotherapy. Finally, 2 papers were relative to the prediction of adverse events due to the immunotherapy. Conclusions: radiomics is promising in the evaluation of TME and for the prediction of response to immunotherapy, but some limitations should be overpassed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0558.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: access to healthcare; Albania; barriers; children; schoolchildren; sociodemographic factors
Online: 19 April 2023 (07:23:09 CEST)
Access to healthcare services is an essential component of promoting public health and sustainable development. Our aim was to assess socio-demographic correlates of barriers to access healthcare services among children in Albania, a post-communist country in Europe. An online survey was conducted in September 2022, including a nationwide representative sample of 7831 schoolchildren (≈54% girls) pertinent to grades 6-9 from all regions of Albania. A structured and anonymous questionnaire was administered to all children inquiring about a range of potential barriers to access healthcare services. Overall, about 42% of the children reported that they had barriers to access healthcare services. There were no gender differences, but significant: ethnic differences (51% among Roma/Egyptian children vs. 42% among the general sample of the children); urban/rural differences (46% rural vs. 39% urban); and socioeconomic differences (52% among children with a lower maternal education vs. 31% among children with a higher maternal education; 66% among children from poor families vs. 35% among children with a higher family income). In transitional Albania, children residing in rural areas, children from Roma and/or Egyptian communities and especially those pertinent to low socioeconomic families report considerably more barriers to access healthcare services, which is a cause of concern.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0419.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: self-employed; cancer; work; return to work; cancer survivors
Online: 24 February 2023 (04:44:52 CET)
Self-employed individuals comprise around 15% of Canada’s workforce. For those with cancer, frequent functional loss and diminished work ability due to side effects of the disease and its treatment significantly impact their well-being and business vitality. Compared to salaried can-cer survivors, the self-employed experience greater reductions in work hours and up to 48% greater income loss, yet most research addresses the former population. To describe self-employed Canadian cancer survivors’ experiences continuing and returning to work, our quali-tative study examines their strategic efforts to continue working throughout the disease trajecto-ry or return to work post-recovery. Employing an interpretive description approach and an in-terview guide based on a vocational rehabilitation model for cancer survivors, we analyze data from 23 participants—both French- and English-speaking—from six Canadian provinces, with eight different job types and nine different cancer diagnoses. Our constant comparative analysis of the transcribed interviews reveals four major themes and twelve sub-themes: Impact of can-cer on the self-employed function (physical, cognitive, and psychological), on their ability to maintain their business, and financial well-being, and facilitating factors for working with can-cer. Cancer disclosure and non-disclosure were both deemed viable strategies, but ceasing work was not. We thus recommend professional support for self-employed cancer survivors in plan-ning any necessary business modifications to accommodate their condition and cancer treatment to lessen the negative impact of cancer on self and on their business well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0107.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Access to Dental Care; COVID-19; Dental Public Health
Online: 7 June 2022 (11:22:41 CEST)
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the way dentistry has been practiced world over , this study sought to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the patterns of attendance for dental treatment in a large hospital in Kuwait compare them to data from the year prior to the pandemic Methods: A total of 176,690 appointment records of 34,250 patients presenting to the AlJahra specialist hospital, Kuwait for dental treatment from April 2019 to March 2021 were analyzed. Types of procedures and the departments to which they presented were analyzed and the patterns of attendance before and during the pandemic were compared; Results: While there was a significant reduction in the number of orthodontic, endodontic and periodontal procedures there was no impact on oral surgery, restorative procedures or pediatric dentistry; Conclusions: There has been a return in the numbers of patients availing dental treatment, however, there has been a definite shift in the use of certain dental procedures .
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0463.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Power-to-X; Biomass; Biogas; renewable energy; energy storage
Online: 24 August 2021 (10:33:03 CEST)
This review reports the available technologies for the flexible utilization of biomass towards negative CO2 emissions and addresses the possibility to couple biogas production plants with the electrical grid converting excess electrical energy into storable chemical molecules. This changed mind-set towards biomass utilization can lead readily to the implementation of negative CO2 emission along the entire bioenergy supply chain without limiting the potential for Power-to-X applications. First, the technologies for direct conversion of waste and wood into gaseous energy carriers are screened, to highlight the potential for the production of renewable fuels. Second, the processes for the removal of CO2 from biogenic gas streams are analysed in terms of technological performance, cost and further potential for the CO2 recovered. These technologies are the key to pre-combustion CO2 capture and negative emissions. Third, the possibility of coupling biomass conversion and synthetic fuels production is explored, providing an overview on the technical maturity of the various energy storage processes. The flexible use of biomass can be an essential part of the future CO2-free energy systems, as it can directly provide energy carriers all around the year and also large quantities of climate-neutral carbon for the production of synthetic fuels with renewable energy. In turn, when no additional renewable electricity is available, the CO2 by-product from biofuel synthesis can be used for the negative emissions. This opens the way to an efficient strategy for the seasonal storage of electrical energy, realizing a carbon-neutral energy system coupled with the development of carbon-negative energy strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0230.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: plastic; bio-based plastic; willingness to pay; attitudes; recycling
Online: 24 March 2021 (16:54:11 CET)
Fossil-based plastics are significant contributors to global warming through CO2 emissions. For more sustainable alternatives to be successful, it is important to ensure that consumers become aware of the benefits of innovations such as bio-based plastics, in order to create demand and a willingness to initially pay more. Given that consumer attitudes and (inaccurate) beliefs can influence the uptake such new technologies, we investigated participants’ attitudes towards fossil-based and bio-based plastic, their perceived importance of recycling both types of plastic, their willingness to pay, and their perceptions of bio-based plastic in four studies (total N = 961). The pre-registered fourth study experimentally manipulated information about bio-based plastic and measured willingness to pay for different types of plastic. The results suggest participants hold very favourable attitudes and are willing to pay more for bio-based products. However, they also harbour misconceptions, especially overestimating bio-based plastic’s biodegradability, and they find it less important to recycle bio-based than fossil-based plastic. Study 4 provided evidence that educating consumers about the properties of bio-based plastic can dispel misconceptions, retain a favourable attitude and a high willingness to pay. We found mixed evidence for the effect of attitudes on willingness to pay, suggesting other psychological factors may also play a role. We discuss how attitudes and misconceptions affect the uptake of new sustainable technologies such as bio-based plastics and consumers’ willingness to purchase them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0160.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: influenza-like illness; 2019-nCoV; person-to-person transmission
Online: 10 March 2020 (05:18:19 CET)
The ongoing pandemic of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) raises a global health crisis, which has resulted in 75,778 confirmed cases with 2130 deaths in China and beyond. Atypical symptom renders it challenging to earlier recognize the 2019-nCoV carrier with the potential ability of equivalent transmission. Therefore, it is needed to gain full spectrum of COVID-19. Here we report clustered COVID-19 cases of person-to-person transmission. The symptoms of typical pneumonia are shared by the two familial members, namely son (Patient 1) and father (Patient 2). Unexpectedly, an influenza-like illness (ILI) is also caused in Patient 3 having close contact with Patient 1 at personal dinner party. Combined with clinical and epidemiological study, chest computed tomography (CT) and molecular diagnosis demonstrate that all the three cases tested positive for COVID-19 with distinct symptoms by human-to-human transmission. To the best of knowledge, it closes in part (if not all), a missing gap of clinical repertoires of COVID-19 outbreaks and underlines the possibility that neglection of cryptic/asymptomatic/mild cold-like syndromes gives biased screen in the earlier stage of COVID-19 cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0047.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Chia lagoon, Water resources, willingness to pay (WTP), Malawi
Online: 4 April 2019 (11:30:21 CEST)
(1) Background: Water resources at Chia lagoon experience possible threat to its sustainability. Communities are seeking alternatives to improve water quality at the lagoon. The study evaluated the extent at which local communities are WTP to improve water quality at Chia lagoon and the influencing factors. (2) Methods: A study was conducted at Chia lagoon, Western Part of Lake Malawi from November, 2015 to March, 2016. Wide range of data collection approaches such as household surveys, exploratory surveys, focus group discussions, key informant interviews and field observation were employed. A sample of 240 households were selected randomly. Qualitative data was analysed using content analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors influence WTP. (3) Results: Out of 240 respondents, 57.4% expressed WTP. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated significant (P<0.01 or P<0.05) relationship between demographic (Gender, age, literacy level), social-economic (Land ownership, main agriculture water source and income) and institution (civic education and social network, extension, water user rights) factors and WTP. (4) Conclusion: The findings from this study provide significant clues for further research and baseline information for local government and local communities in development of more effective and holistic approaches to improve water quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0061.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: sustainability; farmers’ markets; choice experiment; consumers; willingness to pay
Online: 6 August 2016 (08:12:57 CEST)
Sustainable food consumption has attracted a widespread attention during last decades by scholars, policy makers and consumers. In line with this, farmers’ markets (FMs) have the potential to encourage sustainable agricultural production and consumption. By reducing the number of actors and distances along the food chain, these alternative food systems foster the reconnection between farmers and consumers and contribute to different social, economic and environmental sustainable goals. This paper provides insights on the role of consumers' sustainability concerns related to their motivation for shopping at FMs. By means of a choice experiment, we analyze the determinants of consumers’ WTP for buying apples at FMs. We are particularly interested in understanding how attitudes towards the three sustainability dimensions are related to consumer preferences in this context. We find that consumer attitudes towards direct contact with producers, contributing to farmers’ income, and environmental benefits can be directly related to product characteristics that are specific to FMs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0564.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: alternative fuels; power-to-liquid; synthetic fuel; synthetic kerosene; aviation fuel; sustainable fuel; power-to-x; e-fuel; fischer-tropsch; renewable fuel
Online: 27 January 2021 (15:04:53 CET)
Synthetic fuels play an important role in the defossilization of future aviation transport. To reduce the ecological impact of remote airports due to long range transportation of kerosene, a decentralized on-site-production of synthetic paraffinic kerosene is applicable, preferably as near-drop-in fuel or alternatively as blend. One possible solution for such a production of synthetic kerosene is the Power-to-Liquid process. The basic development of a simplified plant layout addressing the specific challenges of a decentralized kerosene production which differ from most current approaches for infrastructural well-connected regions is described. The decisive influence of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on the PtL process is shown by means of a steady-state reactor model which was developed in Python and serves as basis for further development of a modular environment able to represent entire process chains. The reactor model is based on reaction kinetics according current literature. The effects of adjustments of the main operation parameters on the reactor behavior are evaluated and the impacts on up- and downstream processes are described. The results prove the governing influence of the Fischer-Tropsch reactor on the PtL process and show its flexibility regarding the desired product fraction output, which makes it an appropriate solution for a decentralized kerosene production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0122.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: cervical adenocarcinoma; immune-checkpoint inhibitor; programmed cell death-1(PD-1); programmed cell death-ligand 1(PD-L1); CD8 expression; lymphocyte; survival analysis
Online: 12 January 2020 (15:01:23 CET)
The effectiveness of immunotherapy for cervical adenocarcinoma (CA) has not been demonstrated yet. It may be possible for us to use programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), and CD8 as biomarkers of response to immune therapy in CA patients. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether the expression levels of PD-1, PD-L1, and CD8 can predict the prognosis of CA patients and their response to ICI therapy. The levels of the PD-1, PD-L1, and CD8 proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemical analysis from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples. The correlation between the expression levels and patient prognosis was analyzed by the Kaplan–Meier method and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression model. We observed a significant inverse-correlation between the PD-1 and CD8 expression (p=0.001, chi square test). We also found a significant inverse-correlation between the PD-L1 and CD8 expression (p=0.027). The overall survival was significantly worse in patients with positive PD-1 expression (p=0.027). Similarly, the progression-free survival was also worse (p=0.087). Our results demonstrate that a high level of PD-1 expression is associated with a poor prognosis in CA patients. Further research is necessary to identify the molecular mechanisms that mediate this association.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: fisetin; psoriasis; normal human epidermal keratinocyte; cell signaling; cell differentiation; proliferation; inflammatory cytokine; PBMC; CD4+ T lymphocyte; 3D psoriasis-like skin disease model
Online: 9 September 2019 (07:48:26 CEST)
Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated skin disease that involves interaction of both immune and skin cells, and is characterized by cytokine-driven epidermal hyperplasia, deviant differentiation, inflammation and angiogenesis. Because available treatments for psoriasis have significant limitations, dietary products are potential natural sources of therapeutic molecules, which can rescind molecular defects associated with psoriasis and could be developed for its management. Fisetin (3,7,3′,4′- tetrahydroxyflavone), a phytochemical naturally found in pigmented fruits and vegetables has demonstrated pro-apoptotic and antioxidant effects in several malignancies. This study utilized biochemical, cellular, pharmacological and tissue-engineering tools to characterize the effects of fisetin on normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs), peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and CD4+ T lymphocytes in 2D and 3D psoriasis-like disease models. Fisetin treatment of NHEKs dose and time-dependently induced differentiation and inhibited interleukin-22-induced proliferation, as well as activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Fisetin treatment of TNF-α-stimulated NHEKs significantly inhibited the activation of p38 and JNK, but had no effect on ERK1/2. In addition, fisetin treatment significantly decreased the secretion of Th1/Th-17 pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly IFNγ and IL-17A by 12-O- tetradecanolylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-stimulated NHEKs and anti-CD3/CD28-activated human PBMCs. Furthermore, we established the in-vivo relevance of fisetin functions, using a 3D full-thickness human skin model of psoriasis (FTRHSP) that closely mimics in-vivo human psoriatic skin-lesions. Herein, fisetin significantly ameliorated psoriasis-like disease features, and decreased the production of IL-17 by CD4+ T lymphocytes co-cultured with FTRHSP. Collectively, our data identify pro-differentiative, anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of fisetin, via modulation of PI3K-Akt-mTOR and p38/JNK pathways and the production of cytokines in 2D and 3D human skin model of psoriasis. These results suggest that fisetin has a great potential to be developed as an effective and inexpensive agent for the treatment of psoriasis and other related inflammatory skin disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0923.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Artificial Intelligence with respect to Cyber security; Artificial Intelligence and Cyber security; AI and Cybersecurity; Importance of AI with respect to Cyber security
Online: 25 April 2023 (10:35:26 CEST)
Artificial Intelligence has transformed the cyber security industry by enabling organizations to systematize and enlarge outdated safety procedures. AI can provide more effective threat detection and response capabilities, enhance vulnerability management, and improve compliance and governance. AI technologies such as machine learning, natural language processing, behavioral analytics, and deep learning can enhance cyber security defenses and protect against a wide range of cyber threats, including malware, phishing attacks, and insider threats.Theoretical underpinnings of AI in cyber security, such as machine learning, natural language processing, behavioral analytics, and deep learning, are discussed. The advantages of using AI in cyber security are discussed including speed and accuracy, continuous learning and adaptation, and efficiency and scalability. It's important to note that AI is not a silver bullet for cyber security and should be used in conjunction with other security measures to provide a comprehensive defense strategy.AI has transformed the way cyber security operates in today's digital age. By analyzing vast amounts of data quickly and accurately it has become a valuable tool for organizations looking to protect their assets from cyber threats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0327.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Ovarian cancer; PARP inhibitors; epithelial to mesenchymal transition; drug response
Online: 13 April 2023 (14:30:07 CEST)
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy, largely due to metastasis and drug resistant recurrences. Fifteen percent of ovarian tumors carry mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2, rendering them vulnerable to treatment with PARP inhibitors such as olaparib. Recent studies have shown that TGFβ can induce “BRCAness” in BRCA wild-type cancer cells. Given that TGFβ is a known driver of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and the con-nection between EMT and metastatic spread in EOC and other cancers, we asked if TGFβ and EMT alter susceptibility of EOC to PARP inhibition. Epithelial EOC cells were transiently treated with soluble TGFβ and their clonogenic potential, expression and function of EMT and DNA repair genes, and response to PARP inhibitors compared with untreated controls. A second epithelial cell line was compared to its mesenchymal derivative for EMT and DNA repair gene expression and drug responses. We found that TGFβ and EMT resulted in downregulation of genes responsible for homologous recombination (HR) and sensitized cells to olaparib. HR efficiency was reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, mesenchymal cells displayed sensitivity to olaparib, cis-platin, and the DNA-PK inhibitor Nu-7441. Therefore, treatment of disseminated, mesenchymal tumors may represent an opportunity to expand clinical utility of PARP inhibitors and similar agents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0507.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: rice; samples; resistance to flooding; conductive system; power of growth
Online: 27 January 2023 (13:00:06 CET)
The article presents the results of a morpho-physiological assessment of rice samples by the strength of growth, as well as an assessment of the degree of development of the conducting system of the flag leaves of rice plants. The resistance of varieties to flooding is very relevant in the fight against weeds due to the deep layer of water that weeds cannot overcome. Currently, there are no zoned varieties in Russia that would meet these requirements. Therefore, the problem of creating such rice varieties is urgent, as it will reduce production costs, reduce grain losses during harvesting, improve the quality of the products obtained, and also reduce the pesticide load on the ecosystem. As a result of research, a number of studied samples revealed the potential to quickly lengthen the first leaves, overcome a large layer of water and accumulate vegetative mass. As a result of the evaluation of the conducting system of the flag leaf of rice plants, it was found that in plants with the flood resistance gene Sub1A, which stops growth under water, the conductive beams were smaller in comparison with other fast-growing samples with the AG, Sk genes. Consequently, fast-growing samples have bigger sizes of the conducting system as a resistance mechanism.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0502.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; minocycline; Kampo; Saiko-keishi-to
Online: 27 December 2022 (02:13:05 CET)
Since the beginning of 2020, tetracycline (TC), such as minocycline (MINO), has been used to inhibit coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Traditional Japanese Kampo medicine, such as Saiko-keishi-to (SKT), has recently received a lot of attention for its anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) effects. We describe a COVID-19 patient treated with MINO and SKT in anticipation of their anti-SARS-CoV-2 properties. A 90-year-old male patient with Alzheimer’s disease was referred to a medical clinic due to fever, appetite loss, and general malaise. Based on positive SARS-CoV-2 rapid antigen tests, he was diagnosed with COVID-19. He did not have COVID-19 pneumonia, but he had difficulty in eating on his own. As a result, he was referred to a hospital for admission. After admission, he was treated with molnupiravir to avoid aggravation. Seven days after his admission, he was discharged. After his discharge, he was referred to our hospital as an outpatient due to a prolonged mild fever and general malaise. As a precaution, a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test was performed, which yielded a positive result. Therefore, the aforementioned symptoms were thought to be caused by prolonged COVID-19. He was treated with MINO and SKT due to the anti-viral properties of these two drugs. The RT-PCR test became negative 7 days after receiving this treatment, and the fever and general malaise subsided.