ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1212.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: subcartesian differential space
orbits of family of vector fields
orbits of family of vector fields
Online: 27 November 2023 (05:26:28 CET)
Every subset S of a Cartesian spaces Rd, endowed with differen- tial structure C∞(S) generated by restrictions to S of functions in C∞(Rd), has a canonical partition M(S) by manifolds, which are or- bits of the family X(S) of all derivations of C∞(S) that generate local one-parameter groups of local diffeomorphisms of S. This partition satisfies the frontier condition, Whitney’s conditions A and B. If M(S) is locally finite, then it satisfies all definitions of stratification of S. This result extends to Hausdorff locally Euclidean differential spaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1612.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Recruitment; Technology Adoption; UTAUT; Talent Acquisition; Human Resource; AI in Recruitment; Thailand 4.0
Online: 27 November 2023 (03:10:35 CET)
Recruitment is a fundamental aspect of Human Resource Management to drive organizational performance. Traditional recruitment processes, with manual stages, are time-consuming and inefficient. Artificial Intelligence (AI), which demonstrates its potential in various sectors such as healthcare, education and notable cases of ChatGPT, is currently reshaping recruitment by automating tasks to improve efficiency. However, in Thailand, where there is a growing demand for talents, the application of AI in recruitment remains relatively limited. This research focuses on human resources (HR) and recruitment professionals in Thailand, aiming to understand their perspectives on the integration of AI in recruitment. It extended the Unified Theory for Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model, customized to suit the specific requirements of Thai recruitment practices. The study explores the factors influencing users' intention to adopt AI in recruitment. Survey questionnaire items were created based on prior literatures and refined with insights from HR and recruitment experts to ensure applicability in the context of recruitment in Thailand. A survey involving 364 HR and recruiting professionals in Bangkok metropolitan area supplied comprehensive responses. The research reveals that several factors, including Perceived Value, Perceived Autonomy, Effort Expectancy, and Facilitating Conditions, significantly impact the intention to adopt AI for recruitment. While Social Influence and Trust in AI Technology do not have a direct influence on intention, Social Influence directly affects Perceived Value. Trust in AI Technology positively influences Effort Expectancy. This study provides valuable benefits for HR and recruitment professionals, organizations and AI developers by offering insights into AI adoption and sustainability, enhancing recruitment processes and promoting the effective use of AI tools in this sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1613.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Smart Data Models; Remote sensing; Satellite Imagery; Flood Monitoring and Mapping; Flood Risk Assessment; Data Sharing; Interoperability; Water Data Management
Online: 24 November 2023 (15:08:26 CET)
The increasing rate of adoption of innovative technological achievements along with the penetration of the Next Generation Internet (NGI) technologies and Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the water sector, are leading to a shift to a Water-Smart Society. New challenges have emerged in terms of data interoperability, sharing, and trustworthiness due to the rapidly increasing volume of heterogeneous data generated by multiple technologies. Hence, there is a need for efficient harmonisation and smart modeling of the data to foster advanced AI analytical processes which will lead to efficient water data management. The main objective of this work is to propose two Smart Data Models focusing on the modeling of the Satellite Imaginary data and the Flood Risk Assessment processes. The utilisation of those models reinforces the fusion and homogenisation of diverse information and data facilitating the adoption of AI technologies for flood mapping and monitoring. Furthermore, a holistic framework has been developed and evaluated via qualitative and quantitative performance indicators revealing the efficacy of the proposed models concerning the usage of the models in real cases. The framework is based on the well-known and compatible technologies on NGSI-LD standards which are customised and applicable easily to support the water data management processes effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1360.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: azimuth and Doppler; convolutional neural network; deep learning algorithm; maneuvering targets tracking
Online: 22 November 2023 (09:40:34 CET)
In the field of maneuvering target tracking, the combined observations of azimuth and Doppler may cause weak observation or non-observation in the application of traditional target tracking algorithms. Additionally, traditional target-tracking algorithms require pre-defined multiple mathematical models to accurately capture the complex motion states of targets, while model mismatch and unavoidable measurement noise lead to significant errors in target state prediction. To address those above challenges, in recent years, the target-tracking algorithms based on neural networks, such as recurrent neural networks (RNNs), long short-term memory (LSTM) networks, and Transformer architectures, have been widely used for their unique advantages to achieve accurate predictions. To better model the nonlinear relationship between the observation time series and the target state time series, as well as the contextual relationship among time series points, we present a deep learning algorithm called recursive downsample-convolve-interact neural network (RDCINN) based on convolutional neural network (CNN) that downsamples time series into sub-sequences and extracts multi-resolution features to enable the modeling of complex relationships between time series, which overcomes the shortcomings of traditional target-tracking algorithms in using observation information inefficiently due to weak observation or non-observation. The experimental results show that our algorithm outperforms other existing algorithms in the scenario of strong maneuvering target tracking with the combined observations of azimuth and Doppler.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1305.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: artificial intelligence; patient management
Online: 21 November 2023 (10:00:01 CET)
Dementia is a major issue for healthcare systems worldwide, necessitating the development of creative and effective strategies for its management. This paper examines the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies in caring for and managing people with dementia. AI-driven solutions can improve diagnosis, personalize care, optimize medication management, and reduce the burden on caregivers. This paper discusses the implementation of an AI-based framework for creating videos related to people’s memories to support train-therapy or travel- therapy, a non-pharmacological intervention for Alzheimer’s disease patients
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1231.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: design brief; ai thinking; generative ai; design management; user experience
Online: 20 November 2023 (09:26:04 CET)
This study examines the impact of GenAI tools on the daily tasks of designers within corporations. It investigates both the operational changes and employee anxieties regarding job security. The research employs a qualitative approach: one without the use of ChatGPT and one with its use. The findings indicate significant improvements in operational experience and subjective perceptions across various tasks, as demonstrated through a user experience map. Moreover, the study highlights the potential of AI for enhancing managerial efficiency, streamlining workflows, and improving collaboration. However, it also addresses challenges concerning information authenticity, copyright protection, and professional identity. The goal of this study is to comprehend AI's current role in businesses, evaluate its effects on designers, and offer balanced recommendations that emphasize the integration of AI thinking into future corporate workflows from a human-centric perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1204.v1
Online: 20 November 2023 (04:01:59 CET)
The emergence of the semiconductor industry in the early 1960s resulted in a significant stage in the evolution of computing when large computational problems, as typified by the application of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) to the task of spectrum estimation, could suddenly, with the availability of suitable algorithms, be solved in close to real time fashion. This paper provides a brief and meandering account of the history of the DFT’s various solutions, referred to generically as the fast Fourier transform (FFT), the algorithm being chosen for its mathematical elegance, practical significance and ever‑increasing range of applications. We touch upon a few of the most striking personalities, places and events that were encountered along the way and look, in particular, at the recent British contribution to the journey.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0516.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: fuzzy set; intuitionistic fuzzy number; Hukuhara differentiable; generalized Hukuhara differentiable
Online: 8 November 2023 (04:49:07 CET)
Study of differential equation theory has come a long way with applications in the various fields. In 1961, Zygmund and Calderón introduced the notion of derivatives on metric Lr which proved to be better in applications than approximate derivatives. But most of the studies involved are on fuzzy set theory, so it seems likely that intuitionistic fuzzy Lr - norm - based derivatives deserve study. In the study, the fuzzy derivative is extended to intuitionistic fuzzy derivatives with respect.to Lr - norm - based derivatives using intuitionistic fuzzy number valued functions. The efficacy of the proposed method is established by proving the associated theorems along with numerical examples. Further, the Cauchy problem is also studied with respect to intuitionistic fuzzy setting.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0690.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Keyword Detection; Audio Models; Speech Processing
Online: 7 November 2023 (02:34:57 CET)
This study introduces an original comprehensive system centered on identifying specific terms that indicate a user's position, particularly the discrete values representing latitude and longitude. This system not only detects these terms but also retrieves the corresponding numerical data for accurate and efficient determination of locations. The importance of this study can be applied various fields, notably aiding offline operations of military personnel, who often lack internet access. In such scenarios, precise awareness of location is vital for strategic manoeuvres, rescue operations, and navigating unfamiliar landscapes. The system allows these personnel by allowing them to extract exact location coordinates from spoken terms, thereby enhancing their awareness even in challenging surroundings. Apart from its military utility, the project holds broader significance. Teams responding to emergencies, personnel involved in disaster management, and exploratory missions can all gain from this technology during disruptions in communication infrastructure. Furthermore, travelers, adventurers, and outdoor enthusiasts can utilize this system to accurately determine their positions in remote areas without relying on online maps. We used offline speech recognition techniques to precisely transcribe spoken terms, achieving an accuracy of over 91.3% and a word error rate of 4.2%. For sound recognition, the OpenAI Whisper model was used, and a conversion process from SpeechRecognition to AudioSegmentation was implemented, followed by transforming the audio into .wav format, we have also developed the interface of the app to use it efficiently using Streamlit. This was done to ensure seamless compatibility with the Whisper model and uninterrupted audio input. By training the system to identify specific linguistic linked to location, it achieves robust detection and extraction of relevant terms. This approach eliminates the necessity for constant internet connectivity, rendering it exceptionally useful in remote, offline, and resource-limited situations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0201.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: tool wear measurement; CCD cameras positioning; digitized images; reconstruction problem; Monge mapping; projector lines; mathematical correspondence; directed angle triple; Monge cuboid; bijective subset
Online: 3 November 2023 (04:19:05 CET)
Descriptive geometry has indispensable applications in many engineering activities, some of which are presented in the first chapter of this paper in order to place the development presented here among them. As a result of the continuous variability of the technological environment according to various optimization aspects, the engineering activities must also be continuously adapted to the changes, which an appropriate approach and formulation are required from the practitioners of descriptive geometry, and can even lead to improvement in the field of descriptive geometry. The imaging procedures are always based on the methods and theorems of descriptive geometry. Resolving contradictions in spatial geometry reconstruction research is a constant challenge, to which a possible answer in many cases is the search for the right projection direction. A special method of enumerating the possible infinite viewpoints for the representation of the surface edge curves is presented in another part of the paper. The procedure for determining the correct directions in a mathematically exact way is also presented through examples. The analysis and some of the results of the Monge mapping, which is suitable for the solution of a mechanical engineering task to be solved in a specific technical environment, are also presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2077.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Quantum Amplitude Estimation; Quantum Volume; Noisy quantum algorithms
Online: 31 October 2023 (10:45:54 CET)
Quantum amplitude estimation is a numerical integration technique and a candidate for the first operationally used quantum algorithm providing a quantum advantage in the NISQ era. Its main metric is the generated Fisher information per second, as it describes the accuracy of the numerical integration. The development of this metric can be coupled to the quantum volume of the used quantum processor with a phenomenological noise model. Since the increase of the quantum volume seems to follow an exponential pattern, insight in the integration power of quantum amplitude estimation for the upcoming years can be obtained. This shows that quantum amplitude estimation as a numerical integration technique will not provide an advantage for functions without significant improvements to the connectivity, reliability and speed of quantum processors. Beyond that, this method may be used the estimate the development of many more NISQ era algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0959.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Impermanent Loss; Liquidity Pools; Geometric Mean Market Makers; Optimization; DeFi
Online: 16 October 2023 (10:03:46 CEST)
Liquidity providers for asset-pair pools with constant value distri- bution, such as Balancer pools, experience some impermanent loss whenever there is price divergence in the tokens’ fiat values. In this paper, we model this impermanent loss for geometric mean invariant pools by deriving a function of two parameters. We analyze our function graphically, showing that unevenly distributed pools with large weighting disparities best mitigate the risk of impermanent loss. We conclude by providing a general protocol for liquidity providers to choose a suitable pool based on their risk tolerance and profit goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0597.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: cellular particle swarm optimization (CPSO); constrained optimization; circuit sizing tool; particle swarm optimization
Online: 10 October 2023 (12:30:01 CEST)
In this work, we propose a variation of the cellular particle swarm optimization algorithm with differential evolution hybridization (CPSO-DE), to include constrained optimization in it, named Ts-CPD. It is implemented as a kernel of electronic design automation (EDA) tool capable of sizing circuit components considering a single-objective design with restrictions and constraints. The aim is to improve the optimization solutions in the sizing of analog circuits. To evaluate our proposal’s performance, we present the design of three analog circuits: a deferential amplifier, a two-stage operational amplifier, and a folded cascode operational transconductance amplifier. Numerical simulation results indicate that Ts-CPD can find better solutions, in terms of the design objective and the accomplishment of constraints, than those reported in previous works.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0553.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: e-Health domain; Differential Privacy; Blockchain; IoT; real-time data; health survey; electronic medical record
Online: 10 October 2023 (12:22:28 CEST)
A systematic and comprehensive review of critical applications of Blockchain Technol-ogy with Differential Privacy integration lies within the privacy and security enhancement. This paper aims to highlight the research issues in the e-health domain (e.g., Electronic Medical Rec-ords) and to review the current research directions in Differential Privacy integration with Blockchain Technology.(1) Background: The current state of the art in the e-health domain is identified as follows: (a) healthcare information poses a high level of security and privacy concerns due to its sensitivity; (b) due to vulnerabilities surrounding the healthcare system, a data breach is common and presents a risk for attacks by an adversary; and (c) the current privacy and security apparatus needs further fortification. (2) Methods: The methodology uses a systematic literature review (SLR) to identify and select relevant research papers and academic journals in DP and BT. (3) Results: The results are categorized into: e-Health Record Privacy, Real-Time Health Data, and Health Survey Data Protection to identify inherent issues with Differential Privacy integra-tion with Blockchain and technical challenges.(4) Conclusion: This review thoroughly surveyed and summarized Differential Privacy mechanisms in EMR privacy, real-time health data, and health survey data protection while highlighting challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0451.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: complex network; robustness; quasi-Monte Carlo; attack success rate
Online: 9 October 2023 (11:37:39 CEST)
Analyzing network robustness against random failures or malicious attacks is a critical research issue in network science as it helps to enhance the robustness of beneficial networks or efficiently disintegrate harmful networks. Most studies commonly neglect the impact of the attack success rate (ASR) and assume that attacks on the network will always be successful. However, in real-world scenarios, an attack may not always succeed. This paper proposes a novel robustness measure called Robustness-ASR (RASR), which utilizes mathematical expectations to assess network robustness when considering the ASR of each node. To efficiently compute the RASR for large-scale networks, a parallel algorithm named PRQMC is presented, which leverages randomized quasi-Monte Carlo integration to approximate the RASR with a faster convergence rate. Additionally, a new attack strategy named HBnnsAGP is introduced to better assess the lower bound of network RASR. Finally, the experimental results on 6 representative real-world complex networks demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods compared with the state-of-the-art baselines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1339.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: linguistic E-learning; phonetic transcription; mel frequency cepstrum coefficient; grapheme-to-phoneme; transformer; speech synthesis
Online: 20 September 2023 (09:59:40 CEST)
The E-learning system has achieved great development after the pandemic. In this work, we proposed three artificial intelligence-based enhancements to our linguistic interactive E-learning system from different aspects. Compared with the original phonetic transcription exam system, our enhancements include an MFCC+CNN-based disordered speech classification module, a Transformer-based Grapheme-to-Phoneme converter, and a Tacotron2-based IPA-to-Speech speech synthesis system. This work not only provides a better experience for the users of this system but also explores the utilization of artificial intelligence technologies in the E-learning field and linguistic field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0372.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Open-source; Raspberry Pi; computer simulation; frugal; nonlinear control
Online: 6 September 2023 (10:21:06 CEST)
Commonly, professors, students and researchers from universities around the world use software distributed under a license agreement for computer simulation purposes, which requires a computer with considerable hardware capabilities. Consequently, this implies a high cost to conduct simulations that require implementing numerical methods in all areas of engineering, particularly in the field of robotics and nonlinear control. This paper presents the design and results analysis of a low-cost and open-source frugal computer simulation tool with applications to robotic nonlinear control, for instance, for numerical simulations of manipulator robot control based on dynamic models. Using a single board minicomputer with with reduced computing power, Raspberry Pi, together with free software, GNU-Octave, trajectory tracking control simulations in the joint space of a Selective Conformal Assembly Robot Arm (SCARA) are achieved by solving a system of nonlinear differential equations, represented in matrix form, which includes the control law and the system model. The results of the proposed alternative are compared by running the same simulation code on a laptop computer using MATLAB and GNU Octave, which show minimal deviations and reasonable time complexity. Moreover, considering the frugality curve calculated for this approach, in addition to the low acquisition cost of the simulation software tool, it would allow the creation of a simulation laboratory in some universities with budgetary constraints for educational and research purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1375.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: complex system; key influencing factors; causal network; heuristic causal inference; causal pathway contribution degree
Online: 21 August 2023 (03:08:36 CEST)
In complex systems constrained by multiple factors, it is of great significance to accurately identify the key influencing factors for mastering the evolution and development law of the system and obtaining scientific decision-making suggestions or schemes. At present, the method based on experimental simulation is limited by the difficulty of system model construction; the method based on decision trial and Evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) involves a wide range of subjects and is greatly influenced by subjective factors. In view of this, we propose a novel model based on heuristic causal inference. The model uses the FCI algorithm with prior knowledge to learn the global causal network among multiple factors of the complex system. The causal effect among variables in the causal network is calculated by using heuristic causal inference method. Specifically, the causal path contribution degree of cause variable to target variable is calculated to replace the causal effect of each cause variable to target variable. The key influencing factors in the system are screened out according to the contribution degree of causal pathways. Based on the dataset generated in the production process of a semiconductor manufacturing system, we carried out simulation experiments, identified several factors that have a key impact on product quality, and proved the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0867.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Photoelectric Barriers; Sprint Time Measurement; Sports Performance Measurement; Mobile Device
Online: 10 August 2023 (09:15:34 CEST)
This paper introduces a novel approach to addressing the challenge of accurately timing short distance runs, a critical aspect in the assessment of athletic performance. Electronic photoelectric barriers, although recognized for their dependability and accuracy, have remained largely inaccessible to non-professional athletes and smaller sport clubs due to their high costs. A comprehensive review of existing timing systems reveals that claimed accuracies beyond 30 milliseconds lack experimental validation across most available systems.To bridge this gap, a mobile, camera-based timing system is proposed, capitalizing on consumer-grade electronics and smartphones to provide an affordable and easily accessible alternative. By leveraging readily available hardware components, the construction of the proposed system is detailed, ensuring its cost-effectiveness and simplicity. Experiments involving track and field athletes demonstrate the proficiency of the proposed system in accurately timing short distance sprints. Comparative assessments against a professional photoelectric cells timing system reveal a remarkable accuracy of 62 milliseconds, firmly establishing the reliability and effectiveness of the proposed system. This finding places the camera-based approach on par with existing commercial systems, thereby offering non-professional athletes and smaller sport clubs an affordable means to achieve accurate timing.In an effort to foster further research and development, open access to the device's schematics and software is provided. This accessibility encourages collaboration and innovation in the pursuit of enhanced performance assessment tools for athletes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0826.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Dark Web, Deep Web, Cybercrime, Dark Web Forensics, Digital Crime Investigation, Cyber Forensics, DFIR, Dark-Web Protocol, TOR, Online Black Market.
Online: 10 August 2023 (08:19:31 CEST)
The use of the un-indexed web, commonly known as the deep web and dark web, to commit or facilitate criminal activity has drastically increased over the past decade. The dark web is an infamously dangerous place where all kinds of criminal activities take place, despite advances in web forensics techniques, tools, and methodologies, few studies have formally tackled the dark and deep web forensics and the technical differences in terms of investigative techniques and artefacts identification and extraction. This research proposes a novel and comprehensive protocol to guide and assist digital forensics professionals in investigating crimes committed on or via the deep and dark web, the protocol named D2WFP establishes a new sequential approach for performing tasks and subtasks to improve the accuracy and effectiveness of current tools' output. Quantitative and qualitative research has been conducted by testing the protocol following a comprehensive and rigorous process in different scenarios and the obtained results show an apparent increase in the number of artefacts recovered when adopting D2WFP. The second contribution of D2WFP is the artefacts correlation and cross-validation which enables Digital Forensics professionals to better document and structure their analysis of host-based deep and dark web browsing artefacts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0529.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Entanglement; Quantum Information; Multipartite Quantum Systems
Online: 7 August 2023 (11:51:00 CEST)
Quantum entanglement is a fascinating topic with both theoretical and technological impacts. Yet, even in the simplest scenarios, there are still various open questions involving pure state and mixed state entanglement. Here we present the simplest entangled mixed states. We consider both qubits (quantum bits) and qudits (quantum digits). We first provide our simplest yet most important result for rank-2 bi-partite states, and we then generalize our results to go beyond rank-2 and to go beyond bi-partite states.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1985.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: COVID-19; higher education; online education; student-centered learning
Online: 28 July 2023 (10:26:05 CEST)
Educational institutions worldwide have adopted e-learning due to the COVID-19 pandemic. While this shift to online learning (OL) has presented challenges for students and teachers, it has also sparked innovative educational approaches. This study investigates college students' perceptions regarding OL, specifically focusing on gender differences in the experience with OL A quantitative survey gathered information from distinct college students in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) nations who experienced OL during the pandemic. The survey included questions related to satisfaction with OL and specific aspects such as course content delivery, interaction with instructors, behavioral changes, and challenges with OL. Male and female student OL experience was compared statistically. The results conclude that male students are more satisfied than female students. Students struggled with internet connection, OL adaptation, focus, and workload during OL. Understanding these gender differences in students' satisfaction with OL is crucial for educators and institutions as they strive to optimize the effectiveness of e-learning strategies. By recognizing and addressing male and female students' unique needs and challenges, educational institutions can enhance the overall educational experience during times of crisis and beyond.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1847.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Data Science; Literate Programming; Teaching, Emacs; Org-mode; IDE; Case Study
Online: 27 July 2023 (10:31:08 CEST)
This paper presents a case study on using Emacs and Org-mode for literate programming in undergraduate data science courses. Over three academic terms, the author mandated these tools across courses in R, Python, C++, SQL, and more. Onboarding relied on simplified Emacs tutorials and starter configurations. Students gained proficiency after initial practice. Live coding sessions demonstrated the flexible instruction enabled by literate notebooks. Assignments and projects required documentation alongside functional code. Student feedback showed enthusiasm for learning a versatile IDE, despite some frustration with the learning curve. Skilled students highlighted efficiency gains in a unified environment. However, uneven adoption of documentation practices pointed to a need for better incorporation into grading. Additionally, some students found Emacs unintuitive, desiring more accessible options. This highlights a need to match tools to skills levels, potentially starting novices with graphical IDEs before introducing Emacs. Key takeaways include literate programming aids comprehension but requires rigorous onboarding and reinforcement; Emacs excels for advanced workflows but has a steep initial curve. With proper support, these tools show promise for data science education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1869.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: biotechnological filter; moss; air pollution; smart city
Online: 27 July 2023 (10:17:49 CEST)
The research considers creating a network of moss-based biotechnological purification filters in the Smart City concept. The extent of absorption of heavy metals and gases by Sphagnopsida moss under different conditions was investigated. The efficiency of air purification with biotechnological filters was also investigated using the example of the city of Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan, where an excess of the permissible concentration of harmful substances in the air, according to the WHO air quality guidelines, is recorded throughout the year. Data on the level of pollution recorded by sensors located in the biggest Kazakhstani cities from 06/21/2020 to 06/04/2023 were selected as the basis for calculating the efficiency. In total, there are two hundred twenty sensors in 73 settlements of the Republic of Kazakhstan, with 80 such sensors located in the city of Almaty. Since creating a single biotechnological filter is expensive, the task was to calculate the air purification effect in the case of increasing the number of filters placed in polluted areas. As a result, it is shown that ten filters provide an air purification efficiency of 0.77%, 100 filters 5.72%, and 500 filters 23.11%. A biotechnological filter for air purification based on moss was designed at Astana IT University, considering the climatic features, distribution, and types of pollution in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The obtained results are essential for ensuring compliance with the ISO 37120:2018 standard for environmental comfort in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Additionally, the research findings and the experience of implementing a moss-based biotechnological filter can be applied to designing similar air purification systems in other cities. This is of great importance for the advancement of the field of urban science.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1206.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: ACUX-R; graphical user interface; mobile application; cultural tourism; recommendation systems; visiting preferences; personalization
Online: 18 July 2023 (09:51:25 CEST)
This article presents the graphical user interface of the ACUX-R mobile recommendation system, tailored for the cultural tourism domain. ACUX-R offers personalized recommendations based on visiting preferences, augmenting the overall user experience. Building upon a comprehensive methodology and recommendation algorithms from previous work, this contribution focuses on the user interface aspects of the ACUX-R by highlighting key design considerations, user interface elements and functionalities that contribute to an effective and engaging user experience. In an effort to evaluate the proposed interface, an initial case study with a dataset consisting of points of interest from the City of Athens, Greece has been performed. In the framework of the aforementioned study, the proposed user interface attained high ratings with respect to inspiring, exciting, interesting, and enthusiastic user experiences.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1114.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: automatic leukemia detection, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, lymphocyte image segmentation, machine learning
Online: 17 July 2023 (11:32:55 CEST)
Leukemia is a cancer of the bone marrow, a spongy tissue that secretes into the bones and serves as the site for the production of blood cells. One of the most prevalent kinds of leukemia in adults is acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Leukemia has non-specific signs and symptoms that are also similar to those of other interpersonal illnesses. The only way to accurately diagnose leukemia is by manually examining a stained blood smear or bone marrow aspirate under the microscope. However, this approach takes more time and is less precise. This paper describes a method for the automatic recognition and classification of AML in blood smears. Classification techniques include decision trees, logistic regression, support vector machines, and naive bayes.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1079.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: waterfall development; agile development; hybrid development; development models
Online: 17 July 2023 (08:38:44 CEST)
Diverse development models, including waterfall development, iterative development, and agile development, have been put forth and implemented across real-world contexts. When engaging in discussions on project management, the examination and exploration of development models assume paramount importance and are integral. This paper embarks upon an investigation and scrutiny of these development models, culminating in the proposition of "Quasi" Development Models: Quasi-Waterfall and Quasi-Agile.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0830.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: economic migrants; capabilities approach; simulation
Online: 12 July 2023 (11:56:31 CEST)
This paper starts with hypothesis (and presents some evidence) that anxiety in migrants is sufficiently important to be modelled. It presents a small (and very incomplete) review of emotion modelling in literature. It asks the question of how to translate these into agent-based modelling, and whether this can be orthogonal to specific modelling of goals and capabilities of agents. This short paper is offered as a motivator for discussion, rather than a discussion of results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0441.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Hybrid Learning; Collaborative Learning; Orchestration load; Smart Learning Environments; Teacher agency.
Online: 6 July 2023 (15:50:21 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the growth of hybrid and online learning environments and the trend to introduce more technology into the classroom. One such change would be the use of smart synchronous hybrid learning environments (SSHLE), which are settings with both in-person and online students concurrently, and in which technology plays a key role in sensing, analyzing, and reacting throughout the teaching and learning process. These changing environments and the incorporation of new technologies can place a greater orchestration load on participants and a reduction in teacher agency. In this context, the aim of this paper is to analyse the orchestration load and teacher agency in different SSHLEs. The NASA-TLX model was used to measure the orchestration load in several scenarios. Questionnaires and interviews were used to measure teacher agency. The results obtained indicate that the orchestration load of the teacher tends to be high (between 60 and 70 points out of 100 of the NASA-TLX workload), especially when they lack experience in synchronous hybrid learning environments, and the orchestration load of the students tends to have average values (between 50 and 60) in the SSHLEs analysed. Meanwhile, the teacher agency does not appear to be altered but shows potential for improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0413.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Voice user interface; Geographic Information System; human-computer interaction; multimodal interface; natural language; Web application; Natural language interaction; Voice virtual assistant; Speech recognition
Online: 6 July 2023 (10:08:55 CEST)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0219.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: space-air-ground integrated network; renewable energy; twin delayed deep deterministic policy gradient; latency; energy consumption
Online: 4 July 2023 (11:24:56 CEST)
The ubiquitous connectivity for the space-air-ground integrated network (SAGIN) of the beyond fifth generation of communication and sixth generation of communication (B5G/6G) is envisaged to meet the needs for the demanded quality of service (QoS), green communication, and "dual carbon" target. However, the offloading and computation of massive latency-sensitive tasks dramatically increases the energy consumption of the network. Furthermore, the traditional power supply technology of the network base stations (BSs) enhances the carbon emission. To address these issues, we first propose a SAGIN architecture with energy harvesting devices, where the BS is powered by both renewable energy (RE) and the conventional grid. The BS explores wireless power transfer (WPT) technology to power the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for stable network operation. RE sharing between neighbouring BSs is designed to fully utilize RE for reduce carbon emission. Secondly, on the basis of task offloading decision, UAV trajectory, and RE sharing ratio, we construct cost functions with joint latency-oriented, energy consumption, and carbon emission. Then, we develop a twin delayed deep deterministic policy gradient (TD3PG) algorithm based on deep reinforcement learning to minimize the cost function. Finally, simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the benchmark algorithm in terms of reducing latency, energy saving, and lower carbon emission.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1506.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Arithmetization-oriented hash functions; Legendre Symbol; Preimage attack; Algebraic cryptanalysis; Gröbner basis; Grendel
Online: 21 June 2023 (08:35:04 CEST)
Modern cryptographic protocols such as zero-knowledge proofs and secure multi-party computation have increased the demand for a novel category of symmetric primitives. These primitives are not optimized for traditional platforms such as servers, microcontrollers, and desktop computers but rather for their ability to be implemented in arithmetic circuits. To enable efficient arithmetic operations, they define operations over larger finite fields and use low-degree invertible functions to construct their non-linear layers. Grendel is an arithmetization-oriented permutation that leverages the Legendre Symbol to enhance the growth of algebraic degrees in its non-linear layer. In this paper, we present a preimage attack on the sponge hash function instantiated with the full rounds of the Grendel permutation using algebraic methods. We introduce a technique that allows us to eliminate two full rounds of substitution permutation networks (SPN) in the sponge hash function with minimal or no additional cost. This method can be combined with univariate root-finding techniques and Gröbner basis attacks to break the number of rounds claimed by the designers. By utilizing this strategy, our attack achieves an improvement of two additional rounds compared to the previous state-of-the-art attack. While not breaking its security margin, it allows us to further understand the design and analysis of such cryptographic primitives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1483.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Didactic; Transposition; Programming; Fundamentals; Computational; Linguistics
Online: 21 June 2023 (05:35:36 CEST)
Today, computer programming is an essential pillar in the education of individuals. Even though technological evolution has eased the massive need for computer programming, a systematic lit-erature review shows some problems remain with teaching computer programing. To address such issues, in this paper we propose an adapted theory, a method, and a model for teaching some knowledge objects associated with the concepts of variables, expressions, comparisons, loops, and functions in programming fundamentals in computer sciences. The main contribution of this study comprises the extension of the concept of didactic transposition to improve teaching in context; in this paper, the idea is called didactic transposition in extensa sensu. The proposal involves the development of a linguistic corpus based on syllabi, textbooks, reference manuals, and a survey applied to experts in teaching programming fundamentals based on seventy-eight universities worldwide. An adapted theory, a method, and a model for teaching programming fundamentals using computational linguistics are produced. In addition, a template is created for designing teaching practices in this regard. The proposal generates an important alternative for the devel-opment of teaching strategies where the conditions of the context are addressed as a priority; ad-ditionally, several aspects are considered for elaborating teaching strategies using computational linguistic techniques from written documents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1467.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE); Cluster-based Agricultural IoT (CA-IoT); Fault Management (FM); Multi-Objective Optimization (MOO); Wireless Sensor Network-based Agricultural IoT (WSN-based Agri-IoT)
Online: 21 June 2023 (03:23:58 CEST)
This paper presents an in-depth contextualized tutorial on Agricultural IoT (Agri-IoT), covering the fundamental concepts, assessment of routing architectures and protocols, and performance optimization techniques via systematic survey and synthesis of related literature. The negative impacts of climate change and the increasing global population on food security and unemployment threats have motivated the adoption of the wireless sensor network (WSN)-based Agri-IoT as an indispensable underlying technology in precision agriculture and greenhouses to improve food production capacities and quality. However, most related Agri-IoT testbed solutions have failed to achieve their performance expectations due to the lack of an in-depth and contextualized reference tutorial that provides a holistic overview of communication technologies, routing architectures, and performance optimization modalities based on users’ expectations. Thus, although IoT applications are founded on a common idea, each use case (e.g., Agri-IoT) varies based on specific performance and users expectations as well as its technological, architectural, and deployment requirements. Likewise, the agricultural setting is a unique and hostile area where conventional IoT technologies do not apply, hence the need for this tutorial. Consequently, this tutorial addresses these via the following contributions: (1) a systematic overview of the fundamental concepts, technologies, and architectural standards of WSN-based Agri-IoT, (2) an evaluation of the technical design requirements of a robust, location-independent, and affordable Agri-IoT, (3) a comprehensive survey of the benchmarking fault tolerance techniques, communication standards, routing and medium access control (MAC) protocols, and WSN-based Agri-IoT testbed solutions, and (4) an in-depth case study on how to design a self-healing, energy-efficient, affordable, adaptive, stable, autonomous, and cluster-based WSN-specific Agri-IoT from a proposed taxonomy of multi-objective optimization (MOO) metrics that can guarantee an optimized network performance. Furthermore, this tutorial established new taxonomies of faults, architectural layers, and MOO metrics for cluster-based Agri-IoT (CA-IoT) networks and a 3-tier objective framework with remedial measures for designing an efficient associated supervisory protocol for cluster-based Agri-IoT networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1400.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: proactive historian; IIoT; Industry 4.0; legacy systems; water industry; industrial automation; SCADA.
Online: 20 June 2023 (11:00:29 CEST)
The industry is in a continuous evolution in the context of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and Industry 4.0 requirements and expected benefits. Some sectors allow a higher reconfiguration dynamics considering the interference capabilities and process/equipment renewals, but others have considerable inertia that is many times justified. In most encountered situations, the reality confirms that the industry is struggling with new demands as interoperation and efficiency improvements. The water industry makes no difference, being a sector with critical infrastructures and highly varied subsystems, where invasive interference in legacy solutions tends to be avoided. Following previous successful footsteps in researching a proactive decentralized historian, the current work focuses on a case-study that refers to a water treatment and distribution facility that is operated for several years and the current operating regime was established by local operators following accumulated observations, restrictions and response strategies. The proactive historian was tailored for the current case-study and it was applied and tested in the suboptimal functioning scenario where the water sources configuration was manually selected and used for water availability and energy efficiency, but without assuming current/future failures or different water demands. The proposed low-cost historian targeted to improve the functioning and operation of the water facility considering energy efficiency and other impacting outcomes of the current strategy, and to establish an automatic functioning regime in a completely non-invasive manner towards the local legacy solution. The results were satisfactory, proving that the historian is able to adapt to a particular and suboptimal functioning real industrial scenario, to establish recipes in a process-aware manner, and to interoperate with the local legacy solution in order to apply improving actions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0696.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Graph databases; Data Visualization; MITRE ATT&CK Tactics; Star Motif; Clique Motif; Reconnaissance Tactic
Online: 9 June 2023 (09:34:24 CEST)
There has been a great deal of research in the area of using graph engines and graph databases to model network traffic and network attacks, but the novelty of this research lies in visually or graphically representing the Reconnaissance Tactic (TA0043) of the MITRE ATT&CK framework. Using the newly created dataset, UWF-Zeekdata22, based on the MITRE ATT&CK framework, patterns involving network connectivity, connection duration, and data volume were found and loaded into a graph environment. Patterns were also found in the graphed data that match the Reconnaissance as well as other tactics captured by UWF-Zeekdata22. The Star motif was particularly useful in mapping the Reconnaissance tactic. The results of this paper show that graph databases/graph engines can be essential tools for understanding network traffic and trying to detect network intrusions before they happen. Finally, an analysis of the run-time performance of the reduced dataset used to create the graph databases showed that the reduced datasets performed better than the full dataset.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0289.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Discrete distribution estimation; Local differential privacy; Item-oriented personalization; Randomized response
Online: 8 June 2023 (03:16:47 CEST)
Discrete distribution estimation is a fundamental statistical tool, which is widely used to perform data analysis tasks in various applications involving sensitive personal information. Due to privacy concerns, individuals may not always provide their raw information, which leads to unpredictable biases in the final results of estimated distribution. Local Differential Privacy (LDP) is an advanced technique for privacy protection of discrete distribution estimation. Currently, typical LDP mechanisms provide same protection for all items in the domain, which imposes unnecessary perturbation on less sensitive items and thus degrades the utility of final results. Although, several recent works try to alleviate this problem, the utility can be further improved. In this paper, we propose a novel notion called Item-Oriented Personalized LDP (IPLDP), which independently perturbs different items with different privacy budgets to achieve personalized privacy protection. Furthermore, to satisfy IPLDP, we propose the Item-Oriented Personalized Randomized Response (IPRR) based on the observation that the sensitivity of data shows an inverse relationship with the population size of respective individuals. Theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate that our method can provide fine-grained privacy protection and improve data utility simultaneously.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0315.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Financial Viability; Life Cycle Cost Analysis; LPWAN; Pragmatic Computational Tools; Design Science Research, Data-driven decision making
Online: 5 June 2023 (12:00:41 CEST)
This paper focuses on quantifying the economic and financial viability of NB-IoT and LoRaWAN technologies, two low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) technologies with unique characteristics that make them suitable for IoT applications. The purpose of the study is to propose an artefact for performing life cycle cost analysis and demonstrate its application to these technologies. The methodology uses pragmatic computational tools to facilitate the analysis and considers all relevant economic and financial factors, such as operating costs, equipment costs, and revenue potential. The main finding of the study is that NB-IoT and LoRaWAN technologies have different cost structures and revenue potentials, which may affect their economic and financial viability for different IoT applications. Ultimately, the study concludes that a comprehensive life cycle cost analysis is critical to making informed decisions about technology adoption, and that the proposed methodology can be applied to other IoT technologies to gain insight into their economic and financial viability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0753.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: information theory; partial information decomposition; channel partial orders; intersection information; shared information; redundancy
Online: 10 May 2023 (13:27:50 CEST)
The partial information decomposition (PID) framework is concerned with decomposing the information that a set of random variables has with respect to a target variable into three types of components: redundant, synergistic, and unique. Classical information theory alone does not provide a unique way to decompose information in this manner and additional assumptions have to be made. Inspired by Kolchinsky's recent proposal for measures of intersection information, we introduce three new measures based on well-known partial orders between communication channels and study some of their properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1146.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Human Robot Interaction; Cognition; Emotion; Animacy; Affective Engineering
Online: 28 April 2023 (08:30:10 CEST)
It is known that people perceive animacy in objects. However, many studies on animacy and emotional expressions are limited in that the investigated motions were created by experimenters themselves. This makes the objective validity unclear. Moreover, it remains unclear what types of movements can express emotions with animacy due to the limited number of investigations examining both animacy and emotional expressions. Therefore, we investigated the motion elements for both animacy perception and emotional expressions using simple objects that lack features of specific living things, such as eyes, ears, tails, and voices in this study. First, we investigated the motion elements for animacy perception and emotional expressions using a robot simulator that enabled participants to create undulatory motions by tuning parameters for speed, height, and randomness. In total, 64 participants created motions in Normal (neutral), Joy, Sad, Relaxed, and Angry conditions. The results showed that the medians of speed and height in Normal, related only to animacy, were 0.5569[Hz] and 3.050cm at the edges/4.575cm at the center. The differences in Joy were 0.4028[Hz] and 3.348cm/5.022cm, in Sad were −0.1652[Hz] and −0.9982cm/−1.497cm, in Relaxed were −0.1979[Hz] and −0.4902cm/−0.7353cm, and in Angry were 0.5212[Hz] and 4.688cm/7.032cm. Second, we investigated whether the motion elements revealed in the first experiment were sufficient to express emotions with animacy, using a robot simulator that reflected the results of the motion element investigation. In total, 44 online participants observed the simulator. The results showed that participants could understand emotional arousal levels at the same time as animacy, but they did not fully understand emotional valence. Our findings provide design guidelines for robots that exhibit emotional expressions and closely interact with humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0583.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Electric vehicles; Shortest path; Points of Interest; Path planner
Online: 19 April 2023 (10:22:41 CEST)
A number of decision support tools facilitating the use of Electric Vehicles (EVs) have been recently developed. Due to the EVs’ limited autonomy, routing and path planning are the main challenges treated in such tools. Specifically, determining at which Charging Stations (CSs) to stop, and how much the EV should charge at them is complex. This complexity is further compounded by the fact that charging times depend on the CS technology, the EV characteristics, and follow a nonlinear function. Considering these factors, we propose a path planning methodology for EVs with user preferences, where charging is performed at public CSs. To achieve this, we introduce the Electric Vehicle Shortest Path Problem with time windows and user preferences (EVSPPWP) and propose an efficient solution algorithm for it. Given an origin and a destination, the algorithm prioritizes CSs close to Points of Interest (POIs) that match user inputted preferences, and user-defined time windows are considered for activities such as lunch and spending the night at hotels. The algorithm produces flexible solutions by considering clusters of charging points (CPs) as separate CSs. Furthermore, the algorithm yields resilient paths by ensuring that recommended paths have a minimum number of CSs in their vicinity. The main contributions of our methodology are: modeling user-defined time windows, including user-defined weights for different POI categories, creating CSs based on clusters of CPs with sufficient proximity, using resilient paths, and proposing an efficient algorithm for solving the EVSPPWP. To facilitate the use of our methodology, the algorithm was integrated into a web interface. We illustrate the use of the web interface, giving usage examples and comparing different settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0130.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: data; cooperatives; open data; data stewardship; data governance; digital commons; data sovereignty; open digital federation platform
Online: 7 April 2023 (14:14:02 CEST)
Network effects, economies of scale, and lock-in-effects increasingly lead to a concentration of digital resources and capabilities, hindering the free and equitable development of digital entrepreneurship (SDG9), new skills, and jobs (SDG8), especially in small communities (SDG11) and their small and medium-sized enterprises (“SMEs”). To ensure the affordability and accessibility of technologies, promote digital entrepreneurship and community well-being (SDG3), and protect digital rights, we propose data cooperatives [1,2] as a vehicle for secure, trusted, and sovereign data exchange [3,4]. In post-pandemic times, community/SME-led cooperatives can play a vital role by ensuring that supply chains to support digital commons are uninterrupted, resilient, and decentralized . Digital commons and data sovereignty provide communities with affordable and easy access to information and the ability to collectively negotiate data-related decisions. Moreover, cooperative commons (a) provide access to the infrastructure that underpins the modern economy, (b) preserve property rights, and (c) ensure that privatization and monopolization do not further erode self-determination, especially in a world increasingly mediated by AI. Thus, governance plays a significant role in accelerating communities’/SMEs’ digital transformation and addressing their challenges. Cooperatives thrive on digital governance and standards such as open trusted Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) that increase the efficiency, technological capabilities, and capacities of participants and, most importantly, integrate, enable, and accelerate the digital transformation of SMEs in the overall process. This policy paper presents and discusses several transformative use cases for cooperative data governance. The use cases demonstrate how platform/data-cooperatives, and their novel value creation can be leveraged to take digital commons and value chains to a new level of collaboration while addressing the most pressing community issues. The proposed framework for a digital federated and sovereign reference architecture will create a blueprint for sustainable development both in the Global South and North.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0224.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Metaverse; AR; VR; Digital ownership; Blockchain; NFT.
Online: 14 February 2023 (02:59:00 CET)
The concept of a metaverse, a shared virtual space that brings together the physical and digital worlds, has been a topic of interest for decades. With recent advancements in technology, particularly in virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and blockchain, the metaverse has become a rapidly evolving and promising ecosystem. This paper provides a review of the metaverse, exploring its history, evolution, and current state of development. The paper delves into the different types of the metaverse, including fully immersive VR metaverses, hybrid metaverses that blend the physical and virtual worlds, and decentralized metaverses that are powered by blockchain. Additionally, the paper examines the impact of web 3.0 on the metaverse, as well as the various technologies used to create and sustain the metaverse, including VR, AR, and blockchain. Furthermore, the paper explores the concept of digital ownership and the potential for marketing and commerce within the metaverse. This paper serves as a review of the metaverse and its various components, providing insights into its history, development, and prospects, and is intended to provide a foundation for further research into this exciting and rapidly evolving ecosystem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0156.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Online Learning; Emotion Classification; AMIGOS dataset; Wearable-EEG (Muse and Neurosity Crown); Psychopy Experiments
Online: 9 January 2023 (09:09:08 CET)
Emotions are indicators of affective states and play a significant role in human daily life, behavior, and interactions. Giving emotional intelligence to the machines could, for instance, facilitate early detection and prediction of (mental) diseases and symptoms. Electroencephalography (EEG) -based emotion recognition is being widely applied because it measures electrical correlates directly from the brain rather than the indirect measurement of other physiological responses initiated by the brain. The recent development of non-invasive and portable EEG sensors makes it possible to use them in real-time applications. Therefore, this paper presents a real-time emotion classification pipeline, which trains different binary classifiers for the dimensions of Valence and Arousal from an incoming EEG data stream. After achieving a 23.9% (Arousal) and 25.8% (Valence) higher f1-score on the state-of-art AMIGOS dataset, this pipeline was applied to the dataset achieved by an emotion elicitation experimental framework developed within the scope of this thesis. Following two different protocols, 15 participants were recorded using two different consumer-grade EEG devices while watching 16 short emotional videos in a controlled environment. For an immediate label setting, the mean f1-score of 87% and 82% were achieved for Arousal and Valence, respectively. In a live scenario, while continuously being updated on the incoming data stream with delayed labels, the pipeline proved to be fast enough to achieve predictions in real time. However, the significant discrepancy from the readily available labels on the classification scores leads to future work to include more data with frequent delayed labels in the live settings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0443.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Expressions; Lie detection; Emotions; Micro expressions
Online: 23 December 2022 (04:20:53 CET)
In our day-to-day life, Lie detection has a significant concern. We human beings are very much inaccurate while detecting the liars and We believe in what we are told. Lie detection is important in today’s life, because Concealing the information or faking it can sometimes take you to huge problems. In any areas like airport management, criminal investigations, counterterrorism, etc this concept has great importance. It is an evergreen challenging and changing topic. This paper presents the common technique which was followed up till now and why it was not considered effective and a review of Robust solutions to detection of deception. People generally do not always believe on what someone says but also try to visualize their facial expressions. While in Robust solution these facial micro-expressions are identified, which are tiny, natural expressions seen on the individual’s face, when they try to conceal or suppress emotions. In addition, the article also provides the year-wise assessment and analysis of research articles published in the area of Lie detection from 2011 to 2022. In the end, our proposed framework for lie detection system is also presented. This paper cover up current issues as well as challenges that could be helpful to resolve in future research works. The review paper closes up by supporting future directions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0130.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: IoT; localization; LoRaWAN; Deep Learning
Online: 8 November 2022 (01:06:12 CET)
In the field of low power wireless networks, one of the techniques on which many researchers are putting their efforts is related to positioning methodologies such as fingerprinting in dense urban areas. This paper presents an experimental study aimed at quantifying the mean location estimation error in densely urbanized areas.Using a dataset made available by the University of Antwerp, a neural network was implemented with the aim of providing the position of the end-devices. In this way it was possible to measure the mean location estimation error in an area with high urban density. The results obtained show an accuracy in the localization of the end-device of less than 150 meters.This result would make it possible to use the fingerprint instead of alternative, energy consuming, methodologies such as GPS in IoT (Internet of Things) applications where battery life is the primary requirement to be met.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0161.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: hidden Markov model; vigilance; HRV; wearable device; PVT; VST
Online: 12 October 2022 (03:18:47 CEST)
Purpose: To construct a hidden Markov model (HMM) for vigilance assessment to improve the real-time performance and accuracy of current vigilance measurement. Methods: ECG signal was collected by sensors, while the noise and baseline drift was eliminated from the original ECG signal. 10 volunteers were randomly selected. Their heart rate variability (HRV) were measured and trained parameters of the modified Hidden Markov model for vigilance assessment. Then, these data were collected to optimize using the Baum-Welch algorithm and obtained the state transition probability matrix A ̂ and the observation probability matrix B ̂. Finally, the data of three volunteers with different transition patterns of mental state were selected randomly and used the Viterbi algorithm to find the optimal state, which compared with the actual state. Results: The constructed vigilance assessment model had a high accuracy rate the accuracy rate of data prediction for these three volunteers exceeded 80%. Conclusion: The Hidden Markov model for vigilance assessment can accurately predict the vigilance level and indicate broad application prospects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0311.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Wearable Sensors; Interpersonal Movement; Pervasive Technology; Social Computing; Public Space
Online: 20 June 2022 (10:23:37 CEST)
Within the field of movement sensing and sound interaction research, multi-user systems have gradually gained interest as a means to facilitate an expressive non-verbal dialogue. When tied with studies grounded in psychology and choreographic theory, we consider the qualities of interaction that foster an elevated sense of social connectedness, non-contingent to occupying one’s personal space. In reflection of the newly adopted social distancing concept, we orchestrate a technological intervention, starting with interpersonal distance and sound at the core of interaction. Materialised as a set of sensory face-masks, a novel wearable system was developed and tested in the context of a live public performance from which we obtain the user’s individual perspectives and correlate this with patterns identified in the recorded data. We identify and discuss traits of the user’s behaviour that were accredited to the system’s influence and construct 4 fundamental design considerations for physically distanced sound interaction. The study concludes with essential technical reflections, accompanied by an adaptation for a pervasive sensory intervention that’s finally deployed in an open public space.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: tele-rehabilitation; serious games; human-computer interaction
Online: 13 May 2021 (13:03:14 CEST)
Background: Tele-rehabilitation has grown significantly in the past years, especially in 2020 when it has been a crucial tool for supporting patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Within the context of tele-rehabilitation, serious games have a significant role. However, realizing software for serious games capable of responding to the variety of user needs is resource demanding. Methods: we present Proteo, a modular framework for developing serious games from scratch, but with the ability of providing a high-level interface for game customization by therapists and researchers. We also present two serious game implementation examples with analysis of end user’s and therapists/researchers’ satisfaction. Results: by involving a group of 11 specialized therapists and 9 end users we analyzed the Proteo user’s satisfaction. We found that therapists and end users scored high level of involvement, and the therapists scored also high level of suitability. More in depth, both groups showed significant differences between positive and negative feeling, with positive feeling scoring higher than negative ones. Finally, concerning Users’ level of suitability the condition of successfulness of the system, ability to control, clarity and helpfulness were reported as high while the difficulty of the system and the difficulty of the task were reported as low. Conclusions: the proposed framework is a step forward in providing a comprehensive open-source, modular framework, to develop serious games for tele-rehabilitation. Proteo is distributed with a MIT license and available to researchers on GitHub and has been well accepted by the users we involved in the evaluation tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0458.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Copula; Vine Copula; Mixture vine copula; Truncation
Online: 22 February 2021 (11:28:49 CET)
Uncovering hidden mixture correlation among variables have been investigating in the literature using mixture R-vine copula models. These models are hierarchical in nature. They provides a huge flexibility for modelling multivariate data. As the dimensions increases, the number of the model parameters that need to be estimated is increased dramatically, which becomes along with huge computational times and efforts. This situation becomes even much more harder and complicated in the mixture Regular vine models. Incorporating truncation method with mixture Regular vine models will reduce the computation difficulty for the mixture based models. In this paper, tree-by-tree estimation mixture model is joined with the truncation method, in order to reduce the computational time and the number of the parameters that need to be estimated in the mixture vine copula models. A simulation study and a real data applications illustrated the performance of the method. In addition, the real data applications show the affect of the mixture components on the truncation level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0027.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Keywords: Ship Recycling, Predictive Analytics, Big Data, Shipbreaking, Leakage Effect
Online: 1 February 2021 (12:43:52 CET)
Abstract:Global ship demolition is mostly concentrated in south Asian countries, namely Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and China, since 1990’s, having competitive advantage for their high natural tide, and low environmental and social costs. Due to high social and environmental externalities, stakeholders increase monitoring of the externalities and continue to prescribe improvement towards sustainability, which put pressures on profitability and competitiveness. As a consequence, also seen in the past, a leakage effect may emerge, leading to shift of this activity to a region, with relatively less monitored and less stricter on social and environmental impacts. Unfortunately, the leakage effect is never predicted in shipbreaking in order to understand the level of push compatible in the given socio-economic contexts. In this study, we have attempted to predict the future ship demolition landscape, applying machine learning technique to 34,531 in-service vessels worldwide, larger than 500 gross tonnage (GT), which is run against a learning model based on 3500 demolished vessels from 2014. This study shows that redistribution may occur among the top recycling nations: India may emerge out to be a dominant player in shipbreaking, surpassing Bangladesh by a margin of two-fold, while Pakistan and China are in decreasing trend. In addition, the leakage effect is observed, in that Vietnam is predicted to be the fourth largest ship demolition country, while China and Pakistan recede from the third and fourth place to 6th and 8th. Turkey is predicted to advance from fifth position to third position by vessel count but stays same in term of total GT dismantled. Although it is not clear if any leakage is to be observed in the near future, this study may be a model for future predictive analytics and help stakeholders take evidence-based business decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0097.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Decision-Making Process; Creative Re-generation; Cultural and Landscape Heritage; Low Entropy Economy; Innovative Management; Creative Practices; Complex Values; Ex-Post Evaluation; PROMETHEE-GAIA method
Online: 5 January 2021 (14:11:27 CET)
According to the current European and Italian scenario related to urban re-generation, cultural and landscape heritage, valorisation is being also enhanced by the activation of innovative processes. These involve the development of methodologies and tools that are able to address decision-making processes among low entropy economy, complex values and creative practices. In this perspective, the research aims to investigate the possibilities of developing a Cultural Heritage Low Entropy Enhancement (CHLEE) approach by considering how the complex values of cultural heritage can vary not only through a physical transformation of spaces but also through a program of uses and activities able to produce new values, where the human experience is essential. This type of model modifies the objectives that characterise the valorisation of cultural heritage and landscape, recognising that the fruition is no longer “consumerist” but “experiential”. A crucial role is represented by the heterogeneity of creative practices that contribute to the identificationidentifying and implementation ofimplementing innovative management and governance models. The present paper explores the components of creative regenerative processes, based upon the ex-post evaluation of some Italian experiments, across the PROMETHEE-GAIA multi-criteria method, to understand how creative experiences are building innovation ecosystem thanks to low entropy economy and improve the ex-ante evaluation for new strategies and policies.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0334.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: scoring opportunity identification; proprioceptive shooting volume; 0 possession shot; airborne; anthropometry
Online: 14 December 2020 (13:12:20 CET)
From a scientific standpoint, both temporal and spatial variables must be examined when developing programs for training various soccer scoring techniques (SSTs), but a review of current literature reveals that existing scientific studies have overlooked this combinatory influence. Consequently, there is no reliable theory on temporal-spatial identification when evaluating scoring opportunities. Quantified by using biomechanical modeling, anthropometry, and SSTs found in FIFA Puskás Award (121 nominated goals between 2009 and 2020), it is found that players’ proprioceptive/effective shooting volume (i.e. players’ attack space) could be sevenfold the currently-practiced shooting volume. The ignorance of some SSTs’ training leads to the underuse of the potential shooting volume. These overlooked SSTs are airborne and/or acrobatic techniques, perceived as high-risk and low-reward. Relying on the talent of an athlete to improvise on the fly can hardly be considered as a viable coaching strategy. Therefore, for developing science-based SST training regimes, groundbreaking studies are needed to: 1) expand the perception of shooting volume, and 2) entrain one-touch-shot techniques (airborne/acrobatic) within this volume, in short, Focusing-on-Time-in-Space. Whence, the new temporal-spatial theory could guide future researches and develop novel training programs. An increase of airborne/acrobatic goals would ultimately further enhance the excitement of the game.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0194.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: container terminal; simulation; simulation-based optimisation; meta-heuristic; horizontal transportation
Online: 8 December 2020 (09:59:50 CET)
At container terminals, many cargo handling processes are interconnected and take place in parallel. Within short time windows, many operational decisions need to be taken considering both time and equipment efficiency. During operation, many sources for disturbance exist. These are the reason why perfectly coordinated processes are possibly unraveled. An approach that considers disturbance factors while optimizing a given objective is simulation-based optimization. This study analyses simulation-based optimization as a procedure to simultaneously scale the number of utilized equipment and to adjust the choice and tuning of operational policies. The four meta-heuristics Tree-structured Parzen Estimator, Bayesian Optimization, Simulated Annealing, and Random Search guide the simulation-based optimization process. The results show that simulation-based optimization is suitable to identify the amount of required equipment and well-performing policies. Thereby, there is no clear ranking which of the meta-heuristics finds the best approximation of the optimum. The approximated optima suggest that pooling terminal trucks as well as a yard block assignment close to the quay crane is preferable. With an increasing number of quay cranes, the number of optimal terminal trucks for each quay crane decreases as well as the range of truck utilization within one experiment.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0508.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Docker Container; Kubernetes; Docker Swarm; Resource Management
Online: 26 October 2020 (09:55:52 CET)
In the last decades, we have witnessed a spectacular information explosion over the Internet. Millions of users are consuming the Internet through various services, such as mobile applications, and online games. The service providers, at the back-end side, are supported by state-of-art infrastructures. Targeting on providing the services at scale, virtualization is one of the emerging technologies used in data centers and cloud environments to improve the quality of services. In this project, we aim to develop a dynamic resource management scheme based on virtual containers. It collects the runtime job progress from the running tasks and allocates the resources dynamically to improve the overall system performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0119.v2
Online: 22 August 2020 (04:01:45 CEST)
The aim of this 9th expository article is to conclude a study on domination in two fuzzy models, including t−norm fuzzy graphs and fuzzy graphs. All parts are twofold even if we don’t men- tion, directly. I.e., all results depicts some properties about fuzzy graph and t−norm fuzzy graph.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0683.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: circular city; wastescapes; Regenerative Design; Landscape Services (LS); Ecosystem Services (ES); Ecosystem Disservices (EDS); fundamental human needs (FHN); multi-dimensional evaluation; decision-making process; MCDA; PROMETHEE-GAIA method.
Online: 28 July 2020 (12:39:34 CEST)
The unresolved territories are privileged places for the proliferation of degradation phenomena that affect the environment and human well-being. The impacts of their critical conditions go beyond the limits of the damaged urban fragments, involving the built environment, society, economy, culture and conditioning quality of life. This paper proposes a methodological approach to landscape design supported by an evaluation framework to orient strategic design planning with specific attention to unresolved territories consistent with circular economy perspective. The circular city principles are applied to spatial planning of landscape, by operationalising Ecosystem Services, Landscape Services, and Ecosystem Disservices, as interpretative categories for multi-dimensional regenerative strategies. Starting from the theoretical framework, the objective of the analysis is to implement an approach to the regenerative design of landscapes of waste, defined wastescapes. The industrial area of East Naples is the case study where an incremental evaluative approach has been defined to design scenarios to provide services and values, aimed to drive the conversion in a regenerativescape. A multi-criteria analysis through PROMETHEE-GAIA method has been implemented to compare the base case scenario with two incremental new scenarios and identify situated sustainable priorities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0089.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: accelerometers; lamness; grazing; behavior
Online: 7 February 2020 (03:05:28 CET)
Development of accelerometer-based lameness (mobility) detection has focused on cow behaviors such as lying and walking. Several studies, usually small, have reported levels of accuracy up to 91%. However, there has been limited independent replication of these results. In this study, behavior measures previously identified as being associated with lameness such as lying bouts and walking time are examined in relation to mobility score. On a research farm and a commercial farm, four trials were completed with 65 grazing cows. The cows had differing mobility scores ranging from perfect mobility to impaired mobility. Behavior was monitored using leg worn accelerometers. In general, behavior and mobility associations identified in previous studies were not found. Behavior monitoring with accelerometers as a basis to classify impaired mobility in pasture-based contexts thus remains challenging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0356.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Dictionary Learning; recursive least squares; sparse signal representation; EEG
Online: 29 January 2020 (14:22:32 CET)
In tele-monitoring, wireless body area networks (WBANs), sleep analysis and other applications involving electroencephalogram (EEG) signal, due to the high number of EEG recording channels, long recording time and several repetition of recordings to reach the highest signal-to-noise ratio, the amount of acquired data by the sensors is too large, demanding use of some compression procedure. Compressed sensing can be considered as one of the most effective compression methods in terms of compression ratio, which needs the underlying signal be sparse or have sparse representation in an appropriate domain. EEG signal is not sparse in time domain, therefore, in this paper correlation based weighted recursive least squares dictionary learning algorithm (CBW-RLS) is proposed that uses between-channel correlations to sparsify EEG signals. Due to the low-rank structure of EEG signals, exploiting between-channel correlations increase the sparsity level of the model while reducing the computational cost of dictionary learning procedure. This is done by merely updating the dictionary atoms which are involved in the sparse model of the previous data, reducing the total number of data used at each iteration and speeding up the dictionary learning algorithm. The simulation results show that the proposed method has better performance in terms of both quality of the EEG reconstruction and the computational cost compared to the other methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0073.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: circular city model; city-port; Sustainable Indicators; SDGs; Role Play Game (RPG); PROMETHEE method; Stakeholders analysis; multi-dimensional evaluation; adaptive decision-making process
Online: 9 January 2020 (07:03:51 CET)
The city-port involves a decisive reality for the economic development of the territories and nations, capable of significantly influencing the conditions of well-being and quality of life, and of making the Circular City Model operational, preserving and enhancing seas and marine resources in a sustainable way, through the construction of appropriate production and consumption models, with attention to relations with the urban and territorial system. The Circular Economy paradigm identifies the ideal context in the city-port to rethink traditional development models and make ports driver areas for the regeneration of the city and metropolitan territories, in compliance with the EU Directive 2014/89 which considers maritime spatial planning as a tool for public authorities and stakeholders to achieve an integrated approach, promoting the development of maritime and coastal economies and the sustainable use of resources. The paper, starting from these assumptions, presents an adaptive decision-making process for the strategies development of the Naples (Italy) commercial port, aimed at re-establishing a sustainable city-port relationship and making operative Circular Economy principles.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: steady-state visual evoked potential; brain-computer interface; direction; eccentricity; canonical correlation analysis
Online: 15 October 2019 (12:21:12 CEST)
The feasibility of a steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) brain-computer interface (BCI) with a single flicker stimulus for multiple-target decoding has been demonstrated in a number of recent studies. The single-flicker BCIs have mainly employed the direction information for encoding the targets, i.e. different targets are placed at different spatial directions relative to the flicker stimulus. The present study explored whether visual eccentricity information can also be used to encode target for the purpose of increasing the number of targets in the single-flicker BCIs. A total number of 16 targets were encoded, placed at eight spatial directions, and two eccentricities (2.5° and 5°) relative to a 12 Hz flicker stimulus. Whereas distinct SSVEP topographies were elicited when participants gazed at targets of different directions, targets of different eccentricities were mainly represented by different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Using a canonical correlation analysis-based classification algorithm, simultaneous decoding of both direction and eccentricity information was achieved, with an average offline 16-class accuracy of 66.8±16.4% averaged over 12 participants and a best individual accuracy of 90.0%. Our results demonstrate a single-flicker BCI with a substantially increased target number towards practical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0022.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Down syndrome; Kinect sensor; reading skills
Online: 2 August 2019 (09:14:16 CEST)
People with Down syndrome present cognitive difficulties that affect their reading skills. In this study we present results about the use of gestural interaction with Kinect sensor to improve the reading skills of students with Down syndrome. Following a case of study method for small samples with disabilities, measuring different variables related to reading skills in an experimental group and in a control group. We found improvements in the visual association, visual comprehension, sequential memory, and visual integration after this stimulation in the experimental group compared to the control group. Also, we found that the number of error and delay time of interaction decrease between sessions in the experimental group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0039.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: fetal heart rate, baseline, acceleration, deceleration, dataset
Online: 2 July 2019 (11:17:55 CEST)
The fetal heart rate (FHR) is a screening signal for preventing fetal hypoxia during labor. When experts analyze this signal, they have to position a baseline and identify decelerations and accelerations. These steps can potentially be automated and made more objective by data processing analysis, but training and evaluation datasets are required. Here, we describe a dataset of 155 FHR recordings in which a reference baseline, accelerations and decelerations have been annotated by expert consensus. 66 FHR recordings with a shared expert analysis have been included in a training dataset, and 90 other FHR recordings with a non-shared expert analysis have been included in an evaluation dataset. Researchers wishing to evaluate their automatic analysis method should submit their results for comparison with the expert consensus. The dataset also contains the results produced by 11 re-coded automatic analysis methods from the literature. All the data are available at http://utsb.univ-catholille.fr/fhr-review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0139.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: fetal heart rate; baseline; acceleration; deceleration; MATLAB
Online: 15 June 2019 (03:39:37 CEST)
The fetal heart rate (FHR) is a screening signal for preventing fetal hypoxia during labor. When experts analyze this signal, they have to position a baseline and then identify decelerations and accelerations. These steps can potentially be automated and made more objective by signal processing analysis. Various methods have been described in the literature but there are no open-source programs for performing these steps. The MATLAB toolbox presented here comprises a standard signal pre-processing function, 11 re-coded literature methods for fetal heart rate analysis, a signal viewer (enabling annotation by an expert) and an evaluation procedure with various criteria measuring intrarater agreement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0094.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: user intent recognition; transfemoral prosthesis; multi-objective optimization; biogeography-based optimization
Online: 16 November 2018 (11:27:10 CET)
One control challenge in prosthetic legs is seamless transition from one gait mode to another. User intent recognition (UIR) is a high-level controller that tells a low-level controller to switch to the identified activity mode, depending on the user’s intent and environment. We propose a new framework to design an optimal UIR system with simultaneous maximum performance and parsimony for gait mode recognition. We use multi-objective optimization (MOO) to find an optimal feature subset that creates a trade-off between these two conflicting objectives. The main contribution of this paper is two-fold: (1) a new gradient-based multi-objective feature selection (GMOFS) method for optimal UIR design; and (2) the application of advanced evolutionary MOO methods for UIR. GMOFS is an embedded method that simultaneously performs feature selection and classification by incorporating an elastic net in multilayer perceptron neural network training. Experimental data are collected from six subjects, including three able-bodied subjects and three transfemoral amputees. We implement GMOFS and four variants of multi-objective biogeography-based optimization (MOBBO) for optimal feature subset selection, and we compare their performances using normalized hypervolume and relative coverage. GMOFS demonstrates competitive performance compared to the four MOBBO methods. We achieve a mean classification accuracy of 97.14% ± 1.51% and 98.45% ± 1.22% with the optimal selected subset for able-bodied and amputee subjects, respectively, while using only 23% of the available features. Results thus indicate the potential of advanced optimization methods to simultaneously achieve accurate, reliable, and compact UIR for locomotion mode detection of lower-limb amputees with prostheses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0206.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Biomedical libraries; author’s confidence; writing styles; text analysis
Online: 8 November 2018 (11:01:24 CET)
In an era when medical literature is increasing daily, researchers in biomedical and clinical areas have joined efforts with language engineers to analyze large amount of biomedical and molecular biology literature (such as PubMed), patient data or health records. With such a huge amount of reports, evaluating their impact has long seized to be a trivial task. In this context, this paper intends to introduce a non-scientific factor that represents an important element in the effort of gaining acceptance of claims. Thus, we postulate that the confidence the author is expressing in his work plays an important role in shaping the first impression that influences the reader’s perception of the paper. The results discussed in this paper are based on a series of experiments ran over data from the Open Archives Initiative (OAI) corpus that provides interoperability standards in order to facilitate the effectiveness dissemination of the content. This method can be useful to the direct beneficiaries (authors, who are engaged in medical or academic research), but, also, researchers in the fields of BioNLP and NLP, etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0054.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: metadata; documentation; data life-cycle; metadata life-cycle; hierarchical data
Online: 4 April 2018 (08:16:15 CEST)
The historic view of metadata as “data about data” is expanding to include data about other items that must be created, used and understood throughout the data and project life cycles. In this context, metadata might better be defined as the structured and standard part of documentation and the metadata life cycle can be described as the metadata content that is required for documentation in each phase of the project and data life cycles. This incremental approach to metadata creation is similar to the spiral model used in software development. Each phase also has distinct users and specific questions they need answers to. In many cases, the metadata life cycle involves hierarchies where latter phases have increased numbers of items. The relationships between metadata in different phases can be captured through structure in the metadata standard or through conventions for identifiers. Metadata creation and management can be streamlined and simplified by re-using metadata across many records. Many of these ideas are being used in metadata for documenting the life cycle of research projects in the Arctic.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0243.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA); R-peak amplitude (RPA); QRS amplitude
Online: 29 March 2018 (05:17:58 CEST)
We propose an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal-based algorithm to estimate the respiratory rate is a significant informative indicator of physiological state of a patient. The consecutive ECG signals reflect the information about the respiration because inhalation and exhalation make transthoracic impedance vary. The proposed algorithm extracts the respiration-related signal by finding out the commonality between the frequency and amplitude features in the ECG pulse train. The respiration rate can be calculated from the principle components after the procedure of the singular spectrum analysis. We achieved 1.7569 breaths per min of root-mean-squared error and 1.7517 of standard deviation with a 32-seconds signal window of the Capnobase dataset, which gives notable improvement compared with the conventional Autoregressive model based estimation methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0143.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: counting process; censoring; Cox proportional-hazard regression; Kaplan-Meier; imputation; survival analysis
Online: 19 March 2018 (07:42:49 CET)
Censoring occurs when complete follow-up time information is unavailable for patients enrolled in a clinical study. The process is considered to be informative (nonignorable) if the likelihood function for the censoring model cannot be partitioned into a set of response parameters that are independent of the censoring parameters. In such cases, estimated survival time probabilities may be biased, prompting the need for special statistical methods to remedy the situation. The problem is especially salient when censoring is skewed toward the early phase of a study. In this paper, we describe a method to impute censored follow-up times using a counting process method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0096.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: triaxial accelerometer; wearable devices; fall detection; mobile health-care; SisFall
Online: 22 October 2016 (11:20:53 CEST)
Research on fall and movement detection with wearable devices has witnessed promising growth. However, there are few publicly available datasets, all recorded with smartphones, that prevent authors to evenly compare their new proposals. Here, we present a dataset of falls and activities of daily living (ADL) acquired with a self-developed device composed of two types of accelerometer and one gyroscope. It consists of 19 ADL and 15 fall types performed by 23 young adults, 15 ADL types performed by 14 healthy and independent participants over 62 years old, and data from one participant of 60 years old that performed all ADL and falls. These activities were selected based on a survey and a literature analysis. We test the dataset with widely used feature extraction and a simple to implement threshold based classification, achieving up to 96~\% of accuracy in fall detection. An individual activity analysis demonstrates that most errors coincide in a few number of activities where algorithms could be focused on. Finally, validation tests with elderly people significantly reduced the fall detection performance of the tested features. This validates findings of other authors and encourages to develop new strategies with this new dataset as benchmark.