ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0463.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Active Teaching; Team-Based Learning; Physiotherapy Education; Collaborative Learning; Cognitivism; Social Constructivism
Online: 20 August 2020 (13:16:54 CEST)
In recent years, team-based learning (TBL) is gaining popularity as a student-centered active collaborative learning strategy in healthcare education. This paper reports the design, implementation, and impact of a "hybrid team-based learning" (H-TBL) for one respiratory lecture in year two undergraduate physiotherapy program in 2019. A retrospective study was conducted, including 136 second-year undergraduate physiotherapy students using H-TBL design for one respiratory lecture topic. Student engagement was evaluated based on the percentage of completion for pre-class work, attendance to classroom session, and submission of formative creative assignment. Student' performance on formative creative tasks was evaluated based on thinking and learning rubric. Student perceptions were assessed based on the student's feedback using "Mentimeter." 109/ 136 (80%) students attended the COPD 2 session. 90/109 (82%) students engaged in COPD 1 (web-based) and tRAT in COPD 2 session. 54/109 (50%) students provided feedback and 67/90 (74%) students submitted formal formative creative assignment on completion of COPD 2 session. This study confirms that H-TBL enhances student's active engagement, creativity, and equilibration of their subject knowledge. Future randomized studies are mandated to explore the validity and specificity of H-TBL in diverse physiotherapy curriculum to evaluate the long-term student engagement and academic performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0164.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: team-based learning; flipped classroom; team re-allocation
Online: 15 April 2019 (11:36:43 CEST)
Previously, we described the initial use of Flipped Team‐Based learning (FTBL) defined as TBL approach combined with flipped classroom learning methodology, in which students previewed online lectures and applied their knowledge in different in-class activities. The purpose of the present study is to review the progress within this approach and to investigate how constant changes in team allocation can affect student’s perception regarding this modified FTBL approach. Although students showed reluctance initially to get out of their ‘comfort zone’, our findings show that learners perceived the adoption of the continued random allocation, and became accustomed to this learning approach, which finally assisted them to enhance their team-work skills and classroom performance, to develop their reflective capabilities as well as improving their rapport building skills, learning and academic performance. Learners also believed that this learning strategy that creates critical incidents can simulate their future work environment as they might be expected to work in unfamiliar situations. Therefore, the present study indicated strong support for the modified FTBL method and was seen to work exceptionally well, despite some minor problems that students can experience working in a team and/or with different teammates in every session.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0454.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Machine Learning; Hyper-spectral Imaging; Robot Team; Autonomous; UAV; Robotic Boat
Online: 22 February 2021 (11:06:36 CET)
This paper describes and demonstrates an autonomous robotic team that can rapidly learn the characteristics of environments that it has never seen before. The flexible paradigm is easily scalable to multi-robot, multi-sensor autonomous teams, and is relevant to satellite calibration/validation and the creation of new remote sensing data products. A case study is described for the rapid characterisation of the aquatic environment, over a period of just a few minutes we acquired thousands of training data points. This training data allowed our machine learning algorithms to rapidly learn by example and provide wide area maps of the composition of the environment. Along side these larger autonomous robots two smaller robots that can be deployed by a single individual were also deployed (a walking robot and a robotic hover-board), observing significant small scale spatial variability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1652.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: collaborative innovation team; team boundary-spanning activities; team job crafting; individual job crafting; team innovation performance; DID model
Online: 23 June 2023 (09:59:10 CEST)
In order to reveal the impact of boundary-spanning activities of cooperative innovation teams on team innovation performance, this paper takes the panel data of 71 cooperative innovation teams from January to November 2022 as the research sample. It introduces intermediary variables (teamwork crafting and individual work crafting) to analyze the impact mechanism of boundary-spanning activities of teams on innovation performance, 71 teams were divided into 41 experimental groups and 30 control groups, and a quasi-natural experiment was conducted on the innovation performance of team boundary-spanning activities using the Double Difference Model (DID).Research has shown that boundary-spanning activities of collaborative innovation teams can promote team innovation performance. Team job crafting has a mediating effect on team innovation performance in boundary-spanning activities of collaborative innovation teams. Team job crafting and individual job crafting mediate between the boundary-spanning activities of collaborative innovation teams and team innovation performance. Further analysis using the double difference model found that compared to teams without boundary-spanning activities, teams with boundary-spanning activities can directly improve team innovation performance. When team reflection is vital, and task interdependence is high, it will promote team innovation performance. This research enriches the research on the effects of boundary-spanning activities of collaborative innovation teams, explores solutions based on quasi-nature, and provides a reference for improving the team innovation performance of collaborative innovation teams.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0139.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Cognitive load theory; dynamic visualizations; design techniques; learning; team sports
Online: 5 September 2020 (10:41:11 CEST)
Dynamic visualizations have been developed to exchange information that transforms over time across a broad range of professional and academic contexts. However, these visual tools may impose substantial demands on the learner’s cognitive resources that are very limited in current knowledge. Cognitive load theory has been used to improve learning from dynamic visualizations by providing certain design techniques to manage learner cognitive load without adding any oral/written explanations. This systematic review examined a series of experimental studies assessing the roles of these design techniques in learning tactical scenes of play through dynamic visualizations. Electronic databases PubMed and Google Scholar were used to search relevant articles. Eleven studies were eventually included for the systematic review based on the eligibility criteria. The present review revealed that adapting design techniques to the level of learners’ expertise, type of depicted knowledge, and level of content complexity is a crucial part of effective learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0894.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Educational policies; Learning and development; Machine Learning Techniques; Skillset; IT Governance; Team Members
Online: 13 June 2023 (08:19:19 CEST)
Software governance is a management structure that guides projects in terms of their accountability and responsibility. Prime motivation of this approach is to improve the skillset of the team members through software governance policies and increase the overall success rate of the software projects. The scope of skill development is across the pillars of governance, such as structure, people, and information. Primary focus of this paper is on the skillset development of the project team members through educational policies in software governance. As part of the governance process, educational policies are defined for the skillset development of project team members. The JIRA dataset was used to determine the skillset development of the team members. Machine learning techniques, such as J48, Random Forest, Decision Table, Logistics, and Naïve Bayes, were used in the JIRA dataset. These machine learning techniques were processed using WEKA open-source software. Based on these results, it was concluded that the J48 algorithm can be applied to multiple projects/programs to monitor and track the skill development process. Machine learning model such as J48 is required to use this model at an organizational level. The skillset development of project team members should be aligned with IT governance and educational policies. Overall upskilling and reskilling strategies are provided to demonstrate the impact of skillset development through software governance.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0105.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: team sports; performance; players
Online: 3 February 2021 (10:08:07 CET)
Top performance in team sports attracts the attention from the general public. In particular, the best players became incredibly skilled and physically powerful, a fact that potentiates to deliver a product considered attractive, exciting and competitive. Not surprisingly, this is a very valuable product from an economic and social standpoint, thus, all sports professionals are extremely interested in developing new procedures to improve sports performance. Besides, the great interests of the various stakeholders (owners, CEO-s, agents, fans, media, coaches, players, families and friends) are one of the main reasons for this development of sports science umbrella and the accompanying sports industry. all their personal performances should be coordinated and put into function by the sports team. In this scientific and applied manuscript, we will deal primarily with the individual treatment of players in order to improve their personal performance and, consequently, team sport performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1911.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: multi-objective intelligent framework; reconfiguration; voltage sag; reliability; unscented transformation; improved mountaineering team based optimization algorithm
Online: 28 July 2023 (10:19:21 CEST)
In this paper, stochastic multi-objective intelligent framework (MOIF) is performed for distribution network reconfiguration to minimize power losses, the number of voltage sags, the system's average RMS fluctuation, the average system interruption frequency (ASIFI), the momentary average interruption frequency (MAIFI), and the system average interruption frequency (SAIFI) considering the network uncertainty. The unscented transformation (UT) approach is applied to model the demand uncertainty due to simplicity to implement and no presumptions to simplify. A human-inspired intelligent method named improved mountaineering team-based optimization (IMTBO) is applied to determine the decision variables defined as the network's optimal configuration. The conventional MTBO is improved using a quasi-opposition-based learning strategy to overcome premature convergence and achieve the optimal solution. The simulation results showed that in single- and double-objective optimization, some objectives are weakened compared to their base value, while the results of the MOIF indicated a fair compromise between different objectives, and all objectives are improved. The results of MOIF based on the IMTBO cleared that the losses are reduced by 30.94%, the voltage sag numbers and average RMS fluctuation are reduced by 33.68% and 33.65%, and also ASIFI, MAIFI, and SAIFI are improved by 6.80%, 44.61%, and 0.73%, respectively. Also, the superior capability of the MOIF based on the IMTBO is proved compared to the conventional MTBO, particle swarm optimization, and artificial electric field algorithm. Moreover, the results of the stochastic MOIF based on the UT showed the power loss increased by 7.62%, voltage sag, and SARFI increased by 5.39% and 5.31%, and ASIFI, MAIFI, and SAIFI weakened by 2.28%, 6.61%, and 1.48%, respectively compared to the deterministic MOIF model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0513.v1
Online: 26 July 2018 (13:15:59 CEST)
Team spirit is often considered a peculiar characteristic of sportspersons. While the importance of unity among athletes is evident in team games, its relevance in the training of sportspersons of individual sports, especially track and field athletics, is often not recognized. The purpose of this study is to review how team cohesion impacts athletes of various sports and understand how it could contribute to the overall performance of track and field athletes, who mainly compete individually.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0118.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Deep Learning; Optimization; Benchmarking; Gradient based optimizers
Online: 6 January 2023 (06:31:40 CET)
Initial choice of Learning Rate is a key part of gradient based methods and has a great effect on the performance of the Deep Learning Model.This paper studies the behavior of multiple gradient based optimization algorithm which are commonly used in Deep Learning and compare their performance on various learning rate. As observed popular choice of optimization algorithms are highly sensitive to various choice of learning rates. Our goal is to find which optimizer has an edge over others for a specific setting. We look at two datasets namely MNIST and CIFAR10 for benchmarking. The results are quite surprising, and it will help us to choose a learning rate more efficiently.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0288.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Idiosyncratic Volatility Estimation/Prediction; Machine Learning; Deep learning Based Regression; Tree-Based Regression; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 6 July 2023 (02:14:16 CEST)
Financial markets require a great deal of decision making from the investors and market makers. One metric that can help ease the process of decision making is investment risk which can be measured in two parts; systematic risk and idiosyncratic risk. Clear understanding of the volatilities in each risk component can be a powerful signal in recognizing the right assets to maximize the investment returns. In this paper, we focus on the idiosyncratic volatility values and pre-calculate the idiosyncratic volatility values for 31,198 members of NYSE, Amex and Nasdaq markets for the trades occurring between January 1963 and December 2019. Utilizing a subset of dataset, limited to Nasdaq100 index, we consider the application of machine learning techniques in predicting the idiosyncratic volatility values using the raw trade data to explore a data extension option for the future market trade records that have not yet occurred. We offer a deep learning based regression model and compare it with traditional tree-based methods on a small subset of our per-calculated idiosyncratic volatility dataset. Our analytical results show that the performance of the deep learning techniques is much more robust in comparison to that of the traditional tree-based baselines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1731.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: weightlifting; training; strength; power; team sports
Online: 28 November 2023 (09:25:00 CET)
Improving performance and promoting sustainability in women's handball are key objectives to maximize the potential of female players and ensure the long-term viability of the sport. In this context, training with Olympic movements and their derivatives improves the development of strength, power, and speed, which are determinants of performance in team sports. The aim of this study was to determine if training with Olympic movements produces significant improvements in jumping, throwing, sprinting, and change of direction performance in women handball players. Twenty-one female handball players participated in the study (10 for the control group and 11 for the intervention group). Age ranged from 15 to 17 years. All participants performed four assessment tests (Abalakov Test, throw test, 20-meter Sprint and V-Cut Test) to determine jump height, throwing speed, running speed, and change of direction ability. Measurements were carried out before and after the intervention. For six weeks, the control group performed the strength work established by the club twice a week while the intervention group additionally performed training with Olympic movements. Significant differences (p <0.05) were found between the pre and post measurement of the control group and the intervention group in jump height, throwing speed and running speed, being higher in the intervention group. For the change of direction, no significant differences were found. Between groups, significant differences were observed at the end of the intervention for jump height and running speed. The conclusion of this study was that, by training with Olympic movements, in addition to regular training, could produce greater improvements in jumping performance, throwing speed and running speed in female handball players.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: primary healthcare; reform; family health team
Online: 27 September 2023 (05:42:25 CEST)
Achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is a strategic objective of the Jordanian Government and has been prioritized in its strategies and plans. However, there are several challenges affecting primary health care in Jordan and the health system in general that prevent Jordan from achieving UHC. This paper highlights the importance of team-based care in the form of Family Health Teams (FHTs) to realize Jordan’s goal of achieving UHC. FHTs are a team-based approach that brings together diverse professionals to provide a comprehensive, efficient, patient-centered primary care system that meets the changing needs of Jordan's population and refugees. However, the implementation of FHT may encounter obstacles, including individual, organizational and institutional, and external barriers. To overcome such obstacles, several actions and processes need to be taken, including political commitment and leadership, implementing good governance and policy frameworks, allocating resources and funding, multisectoral collaboration, and engagement of communities and stakeholders. The successful implementation of FHTs requires participation from government officials, parliamentarians, civil society, and influential community, religious, and business leaders. A strategic policy framework, effective oversight, coalition building, regulation, attention to system design, and accountability are also essential. In conclusion, adopting the FHT approach in Jordan's Primary Health Care system offers a promising path towards achieving UHC, improving healthcare access, quality, and efficiency while addressing the unique challenges faced by the country's healthcare system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0473.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: team development; society development; maturity models
Online: 7 November 2022 (03:45:56 CET)
There are different Maturity, Motivation, and Development models. The models can be applied to the development of organizations, businesses, information technology infrastructure, human resources, and so on. This paper discusses society patterns that can be used in modeling society and team development. The model discussed has many advantages over existing ones. It assumes the Age of Creativity and the Creative Society Pattern as the upmost level of development. The patterns are juxtaposed with the 16 levels Simple Learning Motivation Hierarchy Model that allow modeling of dynamic processes with Expansion and Totality as the upmost levels. This approach eliminates the limitations of existing models and allows detailed modeling and planning. Explanation of the future development of humanity (up to the Age of Creativity) is one of the advantages of the model. The paper contains the description of the main peculiarities of society patterns and creates a basis for practical implementation of the model for society and team development. Organizations and teams can benefit from this model through its implementation in consulting and coaching processes. The model can be used in regional/organizational development and investment planning.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0263.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: chronic obstructive; patient discharge; patient care team; personalized care; interdisciplinary health team; patient safety; pulmonary disease; pulmonary medicine
Online: 14 July 2021 (09:58:17 CEST)
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often require frequent hospitalization due to worsening symptoms. Preventing prolonged hospital stay and readmission becomes a challenge for healthcare professionals treating patients with COPD. Although the integration of health and social care supports greater collaboration and enhanced patient care, organizational structure and poor leadership may hinder the implementation of patient-oriented goals. This paper presents a case of a 64-year-old chronic smoker with severe COPD who was to be discharged on long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT). It further highlights the healthcare decisions made to ensure the patient’s safety at home and further provides a long-lasting solution to the existing medical and social needs. The goal was accomplished through a discharge plan that reflects multidisciplinary working, efficient leadership, and change management using Havelock’s theory. While COPD is characterized by frequent exacerbation and hospital readmission, it was emphasized that most failed discharges could be attributed to bureaucratic organizational workflow which might not be in the patient’s best interest. It was further demonstrated that healthcare professionals are likely to miss the window of opportunity to apply innovative and long-lasting solutions to the patient’s health condition in an attempt to remedy the immediate symptoms of COPD
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1985.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: video quality consistency; adaptive QP; perceptual-based RDO
Online: 31 October 2023 (06:49:33 CET)
In industry 4.0 era, video applications such as surveillance visual systems, video conferencing, or video broadcasting have been playing a vital role. In these applications, for manipulating and tracking objects in decoded video, the quality of decoded video should be consistent because it largely affects to the performance of the machine analysis. To cope with this problem, we propose a novel perceptual video coding (PVC) solution in which a full reference quality metric named Video Multimethod Assessment Fusion (VMAF) is employed together with a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) to obtain the consistent quality while still achieving the high compression performance. First of all, to achieve the consistent quality requirement, we propose a CNN model with an expected VMAF as input to adaptively adjust the quantization parameters (QP) for each coding block. Afterwards, to increase the compression performance, a Lagrange coefficient of Rate-Distortion optimization (RDO) mechanism is adaptively computed under Rate-QP and Quality-QP models. Experimental results show that the proposed PVC has achieved two targets simultaneously: the quality of video sequence is kept consistently with an expected quality level and the bit rate saving of the proposed method is higher than traditional video coding standards and relevant benchmark, notably with around 10% bitrate saving in average.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1849.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: block-based Python Programming; programming environment; programming learning
Online: 27 July 2023 (10:19:16 CEST)
Advancements in computing technology have resulted in significant changes in education, healthcare, and manufacturing fields. Thus, personnel training in computer-related fields is directly related to national competitiveness. Therefore, the importance of programming education has been emphasized worldwide. Programming education has been conducted since the 1980s, however beginners often find programming tedious and difficult because of the cognitive burden of using text commands. Therefore, block-based programming environments, such as Scratch and Code.org, and beginner-oriented programming environments, such as Blockly and Pencil Code, have been de-veloped. However, they have limitations when transitioning from block to text-based programming. In this study, we conducted one semester of classes for 128 middle school, high school, and uni-versity students to determine whether an environment that allows using a text-based programming language in a block-based programming environment aids beginners’ understanding of program-ming instructions, command usage confidence, and programming usefulness. The results confirm that the usability of a block-based environment positively influences programming perception. This study is significant because it verifies the necessity and effectiveness of a block-based environment that employs a text-based programming language in programming education for beginners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0256.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: stock market prediction; machine learning; regressor models; tree-based methods; deep learning
Online: 16 March 2020 (01:45:16 CET)
Prediction of stock groups values has always been attractive and challenging for shareholders. This paper concentrates on the future prediction of stock market groups. Four groups named diversified financials, petroleum, non-metallic minerals and basic metals from Tehran stock exchange are chosen for experimental evaluations. Data are collected for the groups based on ten years of historical records. The values predictions are created for 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 days in advance. The machine learning algorithms utilized for prediction of future values of stock market groups. We employed Decision Tree, Bagging, Random Forest, Adaptive Boosting (Adaboost), Gradient Boosting and eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost), and Artificial neural network (ANN), Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) and Long short-term memory (LSTM). Ten technical indicators are selected as the inputs into each of the prediction models. Finally, the result of predictions is presented for each technique based on three metrics. Among all algorithms used in this paper, LSTM shows more accurate results with the highest model fitting ability. Also, for tree_based models, there is often an intense competition between Adaboost, Gradient Boosting and XGBoost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0698.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Mobile learning; Integration framework; Design-based research
Online: 30 July 2021 (11:43:12 CEST)
Background: In an age where information is generally accessible, most of the interest these days has focused on how accessible and convenient technology can be. So small and personal, mobile devices can transform our perception of learning by combining both mobility and convenience. Mobile learning is part of the digital learning landscape alongside e-learning and serious games. However, knowledge about effective design of mobile learning experiences remains of interest with a focus on appropriate design models and the embodiments that can be implemented to achieve the intended educational outcomes. Exploring the instructor's perspective on mobile learning is essential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the Moroccan instructors' perception and practice of mobile learning to inform the development of an ecologically valid mobile learning integration model. Methods: Higher education Instructors (n=41) were recruited to the study. The Moroccan instructors' perception and their experiences regarding their adoption of mobile learning were collected using an online survey. The analysis focused on their mobile use, perceived IT competency, and opinions on mobile learning. Results: We described most of the instructors' considerations regarding integrating mobile technologies into their teaching activities. We found that most of the mobile learning activities defined by the respondents corresponded to relatively advanced use of mobile devices. More promising, instructors have found innovative ways to use the educational potential of mobile devices. However, the prospect of mobile devices was still to challenge. No or poor Wi-Fi connection, number of devices or limited access, sometimes fees or applications incompatibility were identified as reasons and obstacles to mobile learning usage. Conclusion: Mobile learning is mostly perceived positively among Moroccan instructors allowing many applications and usage to enhance teaching and learning. In this study, a better understanding of aspects and factors influencing the integration of mobile learning in the Moroccan educational context is exposed, helping further the development of an ecologically valid mobile learning integration model. Future work on mobile learning should consider the highly paced evolution of mobile technologies, emphasizing the flexibility of integration frameworks to support instructors and learners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0848.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; STREAM; ChatGPT; Project-Based Learning; Pedagogy
Online: 12 June 2023 (14:28:14 CEST)
Integrating artificial intelligence (AI) and natural language processing (NLP) technologies with project-based learning experiences in Science,Technology, Reading, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics (STREAM) education offers the potential to enhance student engagement, critical thinking,problem-solving, and interdisciplinary learning. This paper presents a comprehensive approach to implementing AI and NLP technologies, such as ChatGPT, in STREAM project-based learning experiences, highlighting the potential advantages and challenges of this innovative educational approach. The proposed method encompasses personalized learning pathways, AI-powered research assistance, collaborative AI tools, real-time feedback, virtual mentoring, advanced simulation, and objective assessment. We also discuss the implications of this integration for educators, institutions, and students, along with recommendations for future research and development in this emerging field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1857.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: collaboration; gamification; game-based; massification; student engagement; talent
Online: 29 August 2023 (02:31:28 CEST)
Massification in higher education has made the satisfaction of students’ needs a difficult conundrum among university lecturers. In contrast, the use of innovative design for collaborative learning enhances student engagement in the populous student’s context. Moreover, this paper aims to extensively explore innovative designs for fostering student engagement and collaborative learning among first-year students at the University of Venda. The study employed a qualitative research method with the purposive sampling technique. Subsequently, a group of 200 students was the population of this study. Participant Observation and narrative inquiry were used as data collection instruments. The students in their respective groups were assigned topics from the module content to use their talents to demonstrate their understanding of certain content in the module. The non-surprising findings of this paper elucidated that collaborative learning expedites students’ mastery of key concepts and subject content. The module lecturers introduced students to these innovative designs to ensure collaborative learning and effective student engagement. The key findings elucidated these aspects namely, role-playing exercises, group projects, peer-to-peer learning, use of talents, and peer feedback. The implication of this study is that students learn to work together, delegate responsibilities and communicate effectively to attain a common goal. Using these strategies, the lecturers promote collaboration among students and foster a more engaging and interactive learning experience. This paper further recommends efficient and effective techniques and strategies to foster student engagement and collaboration to track and monitor at-risk students timeously.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0996.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: CGA model, multidisciplinary team, geriatric surgery, Cancer
Online: 16 November 2023 (02:33:32 CET)
Objectives As the epidemiological transition continues in sub-Saharan Africa, we will see in future more conditions that require invasive treatment (surgery, cancer and anaesthesia, ie..). Olders patients are vulnerable to complications such as functional decline, increased length of stay and mortality as a result of this type of treatment. Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) is a multidisciplinary diagnostic process aimed at identifying older people at risk of negative outcome. It is delivered by a multidisciplinary team and its benefits in reducing functional disability, incidence of mortality and other adverse health outcomes are well established. It is important to know whether this approach integrates care management strategies for older people in a context where health services for older people are scarce and staff have little training in geriatrics. The objective of this work was to review the literature on the use of CGA on invasive care (cancer, surgery, etc.) among older people in SSA. Methods A MEDLINE/PubMed database search was conducted to identify articles reporting CGA and conditions requiring invasive treatment in older patients in SSA. Results/Conclusion Taken together, the studies examined in this review show that little work has been done on the impact of CGA in older people invasive care in SSA. This review can help to assess the role of CGA in the care trajectories of older people in terms of prognosis, and thus encourage more in-depth research on this topic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1846.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: team sports; explosive strength; body composition; CMJ
Online: 26 May 2023 (04:24:30 CEST)
Player’s performance in an intense sport such as basketball is known to be related to attributes like speed, agility, and power. This study presents a comparative analysis of associations between anthropometric assessment and physical performance in different age-group elite youth basketball players, while simultaneously identifying the predictors for speed and agility in these players. U14 (n=44), U15 (n=45) and U16 (n=51) players were tested for anthropometry, lower body power, speed, and agility. U16 players were found to be taller, heavier, more muscular than U14 and U15 players. Also, the U16 group showed better performance in all performance tests. Age had a significant positive correlation with countermovement (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) performance in U14 players, and a significant negative correlation with 10m and 20m sprint times in U15 group. CMJ and DJ emerged as the most significant predictors for sprint and agility variables, respectively. Body fat percentage was found to be a significant predictor for the speed and agility tests in all age groups, but a negative lower-body power predictor. Therefore, besides all sport-specific and fitness tests, it is essential to place emphasis on the percentage of body fat when designing players’ individualized training programs, and during team selection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0149.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: virtual team adaptation; individual differences; management perspective
Online: 10 March 2022 (12:54:03 CET)
In the contemporary business world, digital transformations have undergone vast and important developments over the last several decades, and they have aided in the development of the virtual team concept, in which geographically dispersed team members work to achieve a common goal. Virtual teams, according to the literature, suffer from process losses more frequently than their face-to-face counterparts. Although just a few studies have looked at the effects of individual differences in virtual teams, this study fills in the gaps by examining the impact of individual differences: Age Disparity (AD), Gender Disparity (GD), Language Competency (LC), and IT Competency (ITC) in management perspective on virtual team adaptation in the Sri Lankan private sector. A survey was used to collect data from a sample of 175 private sector companies in Sri Lanka during the COVID- 19 pandemic, and the data was analyzed using partial least squares path modeling (PLS) to test the study's hypotheses. The results indicated that the hypotheses were statistically significant only in the language competency and IT competency and their effects were in the expected direction. Future research could benefit from perceptions of employees in public sector organizations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1975.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: forecasting; reinforcement learning; power grid; planning and scheduling; uncertainty in AI; agent-based systems; deep learning; stochastic optimization
Online: 28 September 2023 (10:14:29 CEST)
Continuous greenhouse gas emissions are causing global warming and impacting the habitats of many animals. Researchers in the field of electric power are making efforts to mitigate this situation. Operating and maintaining the power grid in an economic, low-carbon, and stable is challenging. To address the issue, we propose a grid dispatching technique that combines prediction technology, reinforcement learning, and optimization technology. Prediction technology can forecast future power demand and solar power generation, while reinforcement learning and optimization technology can make charging and discharging decisions for energy storage devices based on current and future grid conditions. In the power system, the aggregation of distributed energy resources increases uncertainty, particularly due to the fluctuating generation of renewable energy. This requires the use of advanced predictive control techniques to ensure long-term economic and decarbonization goals. In this paper, we present a real-time dispatching framework that integrates deep learning-based prediction, reinforcement learning-based decision-making, and stochastic optimization techniques. The framework can rapidly adapt to target uncertainty caused by various factors in real-time data distribution and control processes. The proposed framework achieved global Champion in the NeurIPS Challenge 2022 competition and demonstrated its effectiveness in practical scenarios of intelligent building energy management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0229.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI); CLOs; educational tools; hybrid learning; integrated management system; learning management system; PLOs; technology-embedded teaching; web-based teaching
Online: 26 January 2022 (11:54:27 CET)
With the rapid surge in technological advancements, an equal amount of investment in technology-embedded teaching has become vital to pace up with the ongoing educational needs. Distance education has evolved from the era of postal services to the use of ICT tools in current times. With the aid of globally updated content across the board, technology usage ensures all students receive equal attention without any discrimination. Importantly, web-based teaching allows all kind of students to learn at their own pace, without the fear of being judged, including professionals who can learn remotely without disturbing their job schedules. Having web-based content allows low-cost and robust implementation of the content upgradation. An improved, yet effective, version of the education using such tools is Hybrid Learning (HL). This learning mode aims to provide luxurious reinforcement to its legitimate candidates while maintaining the quality standards of various elements. Incorporated with both traditional and distance learning methods, along with exploiting social media tools for increased comfort level and peer-to-peer collaboration, HL ultimately facilitates the end user and educational setup. The structure of such a hybrid model is realized by delivering the study material via a learning management system (LMS) designed in compliance with quality standards, which is one of the fundamental tackling techniques for controlling quality constraints. In this paper, we present the recently piloted project by COMSATS University Islamabad (previously known as COMSATS Institute of Information Technology) which is driven by technology-embedded teaching model. This model is an amalgam of the traditional class room model with the aid of state-of-the-art online learning technologies. The students are enrolled as full-time students, with all the courses in traditional classroom mode, except one course offered as hybrid course. This globally adapted model helps the students to benefit from both face-to-face learning as well as gaining hands-on experience on technology-enriched education model providing flexibility of timings, learning pace, and boundaries. Our HL model is equipped with two major synchronous and asynchronous blocks. The synchronous block delivers real-time live interaction scenarios using discussion boards, thereby providing a face-to-face environment. Interactions via social network has witnessed equally surging improvement in the output performance. The asynchronous block refers to the lecture videos, slides and handouts, prepared by imminent professors, available 24/7 for students. To ensure quality output, our HL model follows the course learning outcomes (CLOs), and program learning outcomes (PLOs) as per international standards. As a proof of concept, we have deployed a mechanism at the end of each semester to verify the effectiveness of our model. This mechanism fundamentally surveys the satisfaction levels of all the students enrolled in the HL courses. With the surveys already conducted, a significant level of satisfaction has been noted. Extensive results from these surveys are presented in the paper to further validate the efficiency and robustness of our proposed HL model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0761.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Re-enaction history learning; Game-based learning; historical thinking skills; historical game; historical education
Online: 31 March 2021 (11:59:27 CEST)
Regardless of country and age, the importance of history education is always being emphasized. Although the importance of history education is being emphasized in Korea, there are many difficulties in getting students to understand history properly through school classes alone, and it is also difficult to attract students to participate in classes. The effectiveness of education using games has been proven 20 years ago, and the demand for game-based education is gradually increasing in the current education world, which is becoming more open. In this paper, based on the effects proven through research on the existing game-based education, the improvement of historical thinking ability, experiential history learning, and the problems of game-based education introduced in the ESN report and the discomfort of teachers who participated in the education were improved. A plan was suggested to select and use games suitable for basic education. In this thesis, we selected a history game with a clear historical and periodic background and without distortion of history, and experimented with teaching using games focusing on historical thinking and empirical history learning. The learning achievement of textbook-based education was compared.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0253.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Re-enaction history learning; Game-based learning; historical thinking skills; historical game; historical education
Online: 9 March 2021 (10:01:01 CET)
Regardless of country and age, the importance of history education is always being emphasized. Although the importance of history education is being emphasized in Korea, there are many difficulties in getting students to understand history properly through school classes alone, and it is also difficult to attract students to participate in classes. The effectiveness of education using games has been proven 20 years ago, and the demand for game-based education is gradually increasing in the current education world, which is becoming more open. In this paper, based on the effects proven through research on the existing game-based education, the improvement of historical thinking ability, experiential history learning, and the problems of game-based education introduced in the ESN report and the discomfort of teachers who participated in the education were improved. A plan was suggested to select and use games suitable for basic education. In this thesis, we selected a history game with a clear historical and periodic background and without distortion of history, and experimented with teaching using games focusing on historical thinking and empirical history learning. The learning achievement of textbook-based education was compared.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0054.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: electrocardiogram; K-means clustering algorithm; premature ventricular contraction; rule-based decision algorithm
Online: 3 March 2022 (07:22:36 CET)
Premature ventricular contraction (PVC) is one of the common ventricular arrhythmias, which may cause stroke or sudden cardiac death. Automatic long-term electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis algorithms could provide diagnosis suggestion even early warning for physicians, however, they are mutually-exclusive in terms of robustness, generalization and low complexity. In this study, a novel PVC recognition algorithm that combines deep learning-based heartbeat template clusterer and expert system-based heartbeat classifier is proposed. Long short-term memory-based auto-encoder (LSTM-AE) network was used to extract features from ECG heartbeats for K-means clustering. Thus, the templates were constructed and determined based on clustering results. Finally, the PVC heartbeats were recognized based on a combination of multiple rules, including template matching and rhythm characteristics. Three quantitative parameters, sensitivity (Se), positive predictive value (P+) and accuracy (ACC), were used to evaluate the performances of the proposed method on the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database and the St. Petersburg Institute of Cardiological Technics database. Se on the two test databases was 87.51% and 87.92%, respectively; P+ was 92.47% and 93.18%, respectively; and ACC was 98.63% and 97.89%, respectively. The PVC scores on the 3rd China Physiological Signal Challenge 2020 training set and hidden test set were 36,256 and 46,706, respectively, which could rank first in the open-source codes. The results showed that the combination strategy of expert system and deep learning can provide new insights for robust and generalized PVC identification from long-term single-lead ECG recordings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0077.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: rule based models; gene expression data; bayesian networks; parsimony
Online: 15 December 2016 (08:21:24 CET)
The comprehensibility of good predictive models learned from high-dimensional gene expression data is attractive because it can lead to biomarker discovery. Several good classifiers provide comparable predictive performance but differ in their abilities to summarize the observed data. We extend a Bayesian Rule Learning (BRL-GSS) algorithm, previously shown to be a significantly better predictor than other classical approaches in this domain. It searches a space of Bayesian networks using a decision tree representation of its parameters with global constraints, and infers a set of IF-THEN rules. The number of parameters and therefore the number of rules are combinatorial to the number of predictor variables in the model. We relax these global constraints to a more generalizable local structure (BRL-LSS). BRL-LSS entails more parsimonious set of rules because it does not have to generate all combinatorial rules. The search space of local structures is much richer than the space of global structures. We design the BRL-LSS with the same worst-case time-complexity as BRL-GSS while exploring a richer and more complex model space. We measure predictive performance using Area Under the ROC curve (AUC) and Accuracy. We measure model parsimony performance by noting the average number of rules and variables needed to describe the observed data. We evaluate the predictive and parsimony performance of BRL-GSS, BRL-LSS and the state-of-the-art C4.5 decision tree algorithm, across 10-fold cross-validation using ten microarray gene-expression diagnostic datasets. In these experiments, we observe that BRL-LSS is similar to BRL-GSS in terms of predictive performance, while generating a much more parsimonious set of rules to explain the same observed data. BRL-LSS also needs fewer variables than C4.5 to explain the data with similar predictive performance. We also conduct a feasibility study to demonstrate the general applicability of our BRL methods on the newer RNA sequencing gene-expression data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0013.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: competition; trust; team; evaluation; vocational training; leadership education
Online: 1 March 2023 (07:59:24 CET)
The research question in this article concerns how a competitive environment affects the learner (officer cadet's) personal leadership development and their relationship to their team and with future civilian foundations. More specifically, what are the possible learning effects of the “hidden” curriculum? This article investigates how a more than 250 years of leadership education provides new army officers with new skills and how such an environment may affect the cadets' leadership training. The paper builds on ethnographic data gathered during the three-year education program in most of the relevant practical locations and contexts. Findings regarding trust in their learning environment, cadets have reported scores of (Mean 2.83) on a 1 (low trust) to 5 (high trust) Likert scale, underpinning interviewdata regarding the lack trust in the academy and in their fellow cadets. Cadets also point out that competition has hindered their learning (Mean 2.50). These findings are interpreted in relation to possible negative effects stemming from internal competition and the evaluation system as a whole. The overall output of this system is a zero–sum game, and thus effects evaluative practices and learning processes. This study is of relevance to higher education officers responsible for designing learning environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0368.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Long Covid; rehabilitation; virtual methods; multi-disciplinary team
Online: 19 November 2021 (15:00:47 CET)
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected people from more deprived communities. The experience of Long Covid is similarly distributed but very few investigations have concentrated on the needs of this population. The aim of this project was to co-produce an acceptable intervention for people with Long Covid, living in communities recognised as more deprived. Methods: The intervention was based on a multi-disciplinary team using approaches from sport and exercise medicine and functional rehabilitation. The co-production process was undertaken with a stakeholder advisory group and patient public involvement representation. This study identified participants by postcode and the indices of multiple deprivation (IMD); recruitment and engagement were supported by an existing health and wellbeing service. A virtual ‘clinic’ was offered with a team of professional practitioners who met participants three times each; to directly consider their needs and offer structured advice. The acceptability of the intervention was based on the individual’s participation and their completion of the intervention. Results: Ten participants were recruited with eight completing the intervention. The partnership with an existing community health and wellbeing service was deemed to be an important way of reaching participants. Two men and six women ages ranging from 38 to 73 were involved and their needs were commonly associated with fatigue, anxiety and depression with overall de-conditioning. None reported serious hardship associated with the pandemic although most were in self-employment/part-time employment or were not working due to retirement or ill-health. Two older participants lived alone, and others were single parents and had considerable challenges associated with managing a household alongside their Long Covid difficulties. Conclusions: This paper presents the needs and perspectives of eight individuals involved in the process and discusses the needs and preferences of the group in relation to their support for self- managed recovery from Long Covid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0059.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; Burnout; Doodling; Team Mindfulness; Anxiety; Depression
Online: 3 November 2021 (08:03:22 CET)
Pre-COVID-19, doodling was identified as a measure of burnout in researchers attending a weekly, in-person health narratives research group manifesting team mindfulness. Under the group’s supportive conditions, variations in doodling served to measure change in participants’ reported depression and anxiety—internal states directly associated with burnout, adversely affecting healthcare researchers, their employment, and their research. COVID-19 demanded social distancing during the group’s 2020/21 academic meetings. Conducted online, the group’s participants who chose to doodle did so alone during the pandemic. Whether the sequestering of group participants during COVID-19 altered the ability of doodling to act as a measure of depression and anxiety was investigated. Participants considered doodling during the group’s online meetings increased their enjoyment and attention level—some expressed it helped them to relax. However, unlike face-to-face meetings during previous non-COVID-19 years, solitary doodling during online meetings was unable to reflect researchers’ depression or anxiety. COVID-19 limitations necessitating doodling alone maintained the benefits group members saw in doodling but hampered the ability of doodling to act as a measure of burnout in contrast to previous in-person doodling. This result is seen to correspond to one aspect of the group’s change in team mindfulness resulting from COVID-19 constraints.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0580.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Exercise; Sport; Team Sport; Resilience; Identity; Health; School
Online: 26 July 2021 (14:24:29 CEST)
Covid-19 restrictions impacted many people’s daily lives through infection, fear of infection and the implementation of restrictions on movement. Restrictions and fear of contamination impacted physical activity patterns activity and increased mental health issues globally across a variety of ages. This re-issue of a questionnaire sought to examine the impact of Covid-19 restrictions on frequency of physical activity, participation in sports, wellbeing and symptoms of anxiety and depression in Irish adolescents. 3,021 adolescents from 61 post-primary schools in the Republic of Ireland completed questionnaires. Consistent with a previous issue of the questionnaire, a minority of adolescents were found to meet the WHO’s physical activity guidelines (11.6% of males and 5.2% of females) although there were large decreases in 1st year males and females. Adolescents reporting elevated symptoms of depression increased from 39% to 46% with almost 3 in 5 females reporting symptoms of depression ranging from mild to extreme. Highest levels of wellbeing were found in adolescents who participated in 3 or more sports, although there was an 8% reduction in the amount of adolescents who participated in 3 or more sports. There were no changes in physical activity levels overall, despite changes within sub-groups and patterns of physical activity. There was a clear increase in symptoms of depression, with females impacted more than males. Previously active individuals were more likely to increase activity and therefore report higher levels of mental health while those who were less active were more likely to decrease activity and report lower mental health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1373.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: monthly precipitation forecast; wavelet-based machine learning; teleconnections
Online: 19 May 2023 (04:12:22 CEST)
An accurate and timely precipitation forecast is essential for water resources management in hydropower, irrigation, and reservoir control. The conventional methods are limited by their inability to capture the high precipitation variability in time and space. In the present work, a wavelet-based deep learning approach is adopted to forecast precipitation using the lagged monthly rainfall, local climate variables, and global teleconnections such as IOD, PDO, NAO, and Nino 3.4 as predictors. The method was tested and validated over the Krishna River Basin in India. Overall, the forecasting accuracy was higher using the wavelet-based hybrid models than the single-scale models. The proposed multi-scale model was then applied to the different climatic regions of the country, and it was shown that the model could forecast the rainfall at reasonable accuracy for different climate zones of the country.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0043.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Collaborative Problem Based Learning; Metacognitive; Chemistry Students; Systematic Literature Review
Online: 2 August 2021 (13:23:11 CEST)
Increasing the metacognitive abilities of chemistry students is an indisputable output of the teaching and learning process today. Collaborative problem based learning is a learning method that has been tested and proven to be applied, especially in Western countries in increasing the metacognitive abilities of students, but it is still very minimal applied in Asian countries, including Indonesia. Thus, this study was conducted to explore previous studies that examined collaborative problem-based learning in improving students' metacognitive abilities. The research design used in this study is a Systematic Literature Review with the requirements of the inclusion of articles on collaborative problem-based learning in improving the metacognitive abilities of chemistry students, accredited national and international publications between 2010 and 2020, full text, journal articles, and open access. The results of the exploration that were carried out found 102 articles, then the title and abstract were read into 20 articles, and 4 articles were read in full, which fulfilled all the stipulated inclusion requirements. The results of the systematic literature review conducted in this study provide empirical evidence of literacy that problem based learning improves the metacognitive abilities of chemistry students. However, most of research conducted still uses various instruments, which are not standardized and validated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0222.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: machine learning; CNT-reinforced cement-based composites; mechanical attributes
Online: 15 March 2022 (16:50:44 CET)
Time and cost-efficient techniques are essential to avoid extra conventional experimental studies with large date-set to characterize the mechanical properties of composite materials. Correlation between the structural performance and mechanical properties could be captured through the efficient predictive models. Several ensembled Machine Learning (ML) methods were implemented in this study, to materially characterize carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced cement-based composites. Proposed models were compared with each other to represent the accuracy of each method. The Flexural and Compressive Strength (target values) of CNT reinforced composites were predicted based on the data-rich framework provided in previous experimental investigations. These data were utilized for training of the proposed models by employing SciKit-Learn library in Python, followed by hyper-parameter tuning and k-fold cross-validation method for obtaining an efficient model to predict the target values. Random Forest (RF) and Gradient Boosting Machine (GBM) were developed for this purpose. The findings of this study would be useful for prospective composite designers in case of sufficient experimental data availability for ML model training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0513.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: project based learning; human powered vehicles; sustainable transportation design
Online: 23 October 2018 (03:42:42 CEST)
In this work, the decennial experience of Policumbent student team at Politecnico di Torino is summarized by focusing on the acquired knowledge in design of Human Powered Vehicles (HPVs) and on soft skills developed by both students and staff. Policumbent was funded by the authors at the end of 2008 in order to gather engineering students interested in design and construction of HPVs. In the last decade, the team has grown from 10 up to 50 students enrolled per year, exploring a range of HPV design for sports and mobility. Even when focusing on sport vehicles and extreme HPVs for speed record, such kind of projects allows students to familiarize with important concepts related to sustainable mobility: the amount of resistive forces and dissipated power, the role of vehicle weight and the impact of acceleration on the overall energetic balance as far as fundamental concepts about energy consumption, efficiency and emissions of the ``human engine'' in comparison with other kind of engines. By touching with hands such topics in the framework of a ``human-centred'' design project, the students have opportunity to develop awareness about the impact of design choices on sustainability of any kind of vehicle for transportation. Also, the paper retraces the team evolution path by focusing on a thorough analysis of what factors contributed to the success of this project.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0197.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: 3D human pose estimation; systematic literature survey; deep learning based methods
Online: 3 November 2023 (03:48:59 CET)
3D human pose estimation has made significant advancements through the integration of deep learning techniques. This survey provides a comprehensive review of recent 3D human pose estimation methods, with a focus on monocular images, videos, and multi-view cameras. Our approach stands out through a systematic literature review methodology, ensuring an up-to-date and meticulous overview. Unlike many existing surveys that categorize approaches based on learning paradigms, our survey offers a fresh perspective, delving deeper into the subject. For image-based approaches, we not only follow existing categorizations but also introduce and compare significant 2D models. Additionally, we provide a comparative analysis of these methods, enhancing the understanding of image-based pose estimation techniques. In the realm of video-based approaches, we categorize them based on the types of models used to capture inter-frame information. Furthermore, in the context of multi-person pose estimation, our survey uniquely differentiates between approaches focusing on relative poses and those addressing absolute poses. Our survey aims to serve as a pivotal resource for researchers, highlighting state-of-the-art deep learning strategies and identifying promising directions for future exploration in 3D human pose estimation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1174.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Swab; Surge; Simulation; Machine Learning modeling; Oil Based Drilling fluids
Online: 18 July 2023 (10:12:35 CEST)
Drilling operation is the major cost factor for the industry. Appropriately designed operations are essential for successful drilling. Optimized drilling operations also allow enhanced drilling performance and reduce the drilling cost. This is achieved by increasing the bit life (minimizing premature bit wear), drilling faster that allows reducing drilling time, and also reducing tripping operations. The paper presents two parts. The first part compares the parametric physic-based swab and surge simulation results obtained from Bingham Plastic, Power Law, and Robertson and Stiff models. The aim is to show how the model predictions deviate from each other. Two 80-20 Oil Water ratios (OWR) and two 90-10 OWR oil-based drilling fluids with 1.96 sg and 2.0 sg were considered in vertical- and deviated wells. Simulation results analysis revealed that the deviations depend on the drilling fluid’s physical and rheological parameters as well as the well trajectory. Moreover, the model’s predictions were inconsistent. Data-driven machine learning (ML) modeling makes up the second section. Data-driven modeling was done using both software-generated datasets and field datasets. Results show that the Random Forest Regressor (RF), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), LightGBM, XGboost, and Multivariate regression models predict the training and test datasets with higher R-squared and minimum root means square values. Deploying the ML model in real-time applications and the planning phase would have the potential application of artificial intelligence for well planning and optimization processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0011.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Wi-Fi; contention-based access scheme; channel utilization optimization; machine learning; reinforcement learning; NS-3, NS3-gym
Online: 1 November 2022 (02:39:05 CET)
The collision avoidance mechanism adopted by the IEEE 802.11 standard is not optimal. The mechanism employs a binary exponential backoff (BEB) algorithm in the medium access control (MAC) layer. Such an algorithm increases the backoff interval whenever a collision is detected to minimize the probability of subsequent collisions. However, the expansion of the backoff interval causes degradation of the radio spectrum utilization (i.e., bandwidth wastage). That problem worsens when the network has to manage the channel access to a dense number of stations, leading to a dramatic decrease in network performance. Furthermore, a wrong backoff setting increases the probability of collisions such that the stations experience numerous collisions before achieving the optimal backoff value. Therefore, to mitigate bandwidth wastage and, consequently, maximize the network performance, this work proposes using reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms, namely Deep Q Learning (DQN) and Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (DDPG), to tackle such an optimization problem. As for the simulations, the NS-3 network simulator is used along with a toolkit known as NS3-gym, which integrates a reinforcement-learning (RL) framework into NS-3. The results demonstrate that DQN and DDPG have much better performance than BEB for static and dynamic scenarios, regardless of the number of stations. Moreover, the performance difference is amplified as the number of stations increases, with DQN and DDPG showing a 27% increase in throughput with 50 stations compared to BEB. Furthermore, DQN and DDPG presented similar performances.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0044.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: deep reinforcement learning; model-based RL; hierarchy; trading; cryptocurrency; foreign exchange; stock market; risk; prediction; reward shaping
Online: 2 November 2021 (10:57:23 CET)
Deep reinforcement learning (DRL) has achieved significant results in many Machine Learning (ML) benchmarks. In this short survey we provide an overview of DRL applied to trading on financial markets, including a short meta-analysis using Google Scholar, with an emphasis on using hierarchy for dividing the problem space as well as using model-based RL to learn a world model of the trading environment which can be used for prediction. In addition, multiple risk measures are defined and discussed, which not only provide a way of quantifying the performance of various algorithms, but they can also act as (dense) reward-shaping mechanisms for the agent. We discuss in detail the various state representations used for financial markets, which we consider critical for the success and efficiency of such DRL agents. The market in focus for this survey is the cryptocurrency market.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; dynamic-based learning; , higher education; interactive learning; online classroom
Online: 2 April 2021 (14:17:22 CEST)
Purpose: Now traditional lecture-based teaching and learning have been affected by the COVID-19. The objectives of this article are to design the novel educational technique called ‘dynamic-based learning’ (DBL) that provides the combination of online teaching-learning methods and student’s creativity, to evaluate primary dynamic-based learning function, and to propose dynamic-based learning for higher education. Methods: DBL composes of four steps, including, preparation, homework, classroom, and evaluation, which was designed, and taught in medical and dental schools. Online support materials included mobile phone, email, Facebook Messenger, Line Messenger, Cisco Webex, and Zoom Meetings applications were recruited for this novel method. Results: A total of 32 third-year medical students and 26 sixth-year dental students was treated by DBL similarly. three subjects, including, Innovation in Dentistry, Basic Medical Research, and Principles of Pathology and Forensic Medicine were selected in this article. The results showed students could create their knowledge, ideas, and creativity during the online classes.Conclusion: DBL can be used as an alternative learning mode during the COVID-19 crisis. The benefits of DBL also include high flexibility, dynamic process, active learning, and high creativity. DBL should be tested with other disciplines such as engineering school, laws school, health sciences school, and should be compared with other traditional teaching and learning modes in the future. This method may support the global higher education systems to move forward the COVID-19 pandemic to set a novel standard of a future normal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0051.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Project-Based Learning (PBL); higher education; competencies; knowledge transfer (KT); rating
Online: 2 November 2020 (14:38:34 CET)
The aim of this paper is to contribute to the body of knowledge about Project-Based Learning (PBL) methodology in higher education by describing and analysing interrelations between competencies, and their contribution to knowledge transfer (KT) and students’ rating of the project. The sample consisted of 464 students from the Universities of Huelva (N=347; 74.8%) and Murcia (N= 117; 25.2%), enrolled in the second year of a degree in either Infant or Primary Education. Data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire comprising a total of 53 items measuring General, Specific and Transversal competencies, as well as students’ rating of the project. Competencies were selected from the course programmes for the degrees in Infant and Primary Education. Preliminary results showed that competencies were moderately to highly acquired after PBL, and that students reported notable KT as well as a positive assessment of the project. KT showed a high degree of association with students’ ratings and was established as a key factor in learning and learner satisfaction in higher education.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0026.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: mobile augmented reality; inquiry-based learning; K12 education; systematic literature review
Online: 2 March 2020 (07:34:27 CET)
A systematic review of the potential of implementing augmented reality (AR) in inquiry-based learning was conducted. We considered the purposes, potential advantages, application characteristics and the effects of using AR in inquiry-based learning. The findings reveal that AR, in the context of inquiry-based learning, is mostly implemented successfully to achieve cognitive and, less often, motivational and emotional learning goals. The AR solutions have mainly been applied in the Conceptualization and less in the Investigation phase. The affordances of AR in the Orientation, Conclusion and Discussion phase need to be applied in further studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0081.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Critical speed; exercise prescription; team sports; thresholds; shuttle running
Online: 2 February 2021 (10:05:08 CET)
The overarching purpose of this review was to highlight the utility of different aerobic field tests in terms of the parameters they provide, with a specific focus on shuttle running and all-out testing. Various field tests are discussed in detail and are categorised according to linear continuous running tests (e.g. 12-minute Cooper Test, University of Montreal Track Test [UMTT], 1200/1600 m time trials, 3-minute all-out test for running [3MT]), intermittent shuttle running tests (e.g. yo-yo inter-mittent recovery test level 1 [YYIR1], 30-15 intermittent fitness test [IFT], and the intermittent all-out shuttle test [IAOST]), and continuous shuttle running tests (e.g. 1.2 km shuttle run test [1.2SRT], maximal multi-stage 20-m shuttle test [MSR], 25-m, 30 m and 50-m 3-minute all-out shuttle test [AOST]). Readers will be guided through the theoretical and practical underpinnings of the 3MT methodology, where the all-out testing methodology is stationed within the testing paradigm, and how to practically implement and interpret the results thereof.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: player detection; team detection; player tracking data; ice hockey
Online: 10 May 2020 (15:00:28 CEST)
Accurate detection of players and teams in ice hockey games is crucial to the tracking of individual players on court and team tactical decisions, which is therefore becoming an important task for coaches and other analysts. However, hockey is a fluid sport due to complex dynamics and frequent substitutions by both teams, resulting in various body positions of players. Few traditional player detection models from other team sports take these characteristics into account, especially for the detection of teams without prior annotations. Here, we design a two-phase cascaded Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model coupling between individual players position information and team uniform colors to hierarchically detect players in ice hockey games. Our model filters most of disturbing information, such as audience and sideline advertising bars, in Phase I, and refines the detection of targeted players in Phase II, which is efficient and accurate with a precision rate of 91.30% and a recall rate of 95.60% for individual players detection, and an average accuracy of 93.05% in team classification from a self-built dataset of collected images in the 2018 Winter Olympics. Meanwhile, we also present results based on the images and real-time detection from broadcasting videos of 2019-20 NHL regular games covering all 31 teams to show the robustness of our model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0062.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: graph neural network; motif-based representation; molecular property prediction; graph matching; interpretability; GPU-enabled accelerating.
Online: 5 December 2022 (06:57:41 CET)
This work considers the task of representation learning on the attributed relational graph (ARG). Both the nodes and edges in an ARG are associated with attributes/features allowing ARGs to encode rich structural information widely observed in real applications. Existing graph neural networks offer limited ability to capture complex interactions within local structural contexts, which hinders them from taking advantage of the expression power of ARGs. We propose Motif Convolution Module (MCM), a new motif-based graph representation learning technique to better utilize local structural information. The ability to handle continuous edge and node features is one of MCM’s advantages over existing motif-based models. MCM builds a motif vocabulary in an unsupervised way and deploys a novel motif convolution operation to extract the local structural context of individual nodes, which is then used to learn higher-level node representations via multilayer perceptron and/or message passing in graph neural networks. When compared with other graph learning approaches to classifying synthetic graphs, our approach is substantially better in capturing structural context. We also demonstrate the performance and explainability advantages of our approach by applying it to several molecular benchmarks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1684.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Agent-based Modeling and Simulation; Reinforcement Learning; COVID-19; Social Simulation.
Online: 25 September 2023 (11:41:53 CEST)
This study assesses the impact of incorporating an adaptive learning mechanism into an agent-based model (ABMS) simulating behavior on a university campus during the course of a pandemic outbreak, with a particular case on the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim is to reduce overcrowding and infections on campus through the use of Reinforcement Learning (RL). Our findings indicate that RL is a viable approach for effectively representing agents’ behavior within this context. The results reveal specific temporal patterns of overcrowding violations. While our study successfully mitigated campus crowding, it had limited influence on altering the course of the epidemic. This highlights the necessity for comprehensive epidemic control strategies that consider the role of individual decision-making influenced by adaptive learning, along with the implementation of targeted interventions. This research significantly contributes to our understanding of adaptive learning within complex systems and offers valuable insights for shaping future public health policies in similar community settings. Future research directions encompass exploring various parameter settings and updating representations of the disease’s natural history.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0338.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: active learning; web-based quiz; Google Forms; reviewing habits; smartphone
Online: 19 April 2020 (07:59:23 CEST)
Active participation of students is paramount not only for their learning experiences but also for their academic performance. Therefore, various methods have been developed and proven to help students achieve active learning. However, several shortcomings in these methods have been indicated as increasing students’ sense of burden and discomfort, eventually preventing them from benefiting sufficiently. This study aimed to determine the efficiency of a low-load web-based review quiz built by the researchers on Google Forms to enhance students’ reviewing habits and active class participation. Participants in this study were 53 first-year dental hygiene students in a 10-class microbiology course. After each class, all students were given the web-based quiz to prepare for a paper-based review test, which assessed the learning of the content covered in the previous classes. We analyzed the correlations between frequency of participation in the web-based quiz and the average scores of the weekly review tests or the final examination scores. Consequently, voluntary participation in the web-based quiz positively correlated with both short-term and long-term students’ learning outcomes. Through this web-based quiz during the first year of the dental hygiene program, students can develop the “self-learning attitude” needed to pass the national examination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0490.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: cardiovascular 0-D model; pulmonary arterial pressure; gradient-based optimization; automatic differentiation
Online: 29 August 2022 (10:57:18 CEST)
Reliable quantification of pulmonary arterial pressure is essential in the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of a range of cardiovascular pathologies including rheumatic heart disease, yet an accurate and routinely available method for its quantification remains elusive. This work proposes an approach to infer pulmonary arterial pressure based on scientific machine learning techniques and non-invasive, clinically available measurements. A 0-D multicompartment model of the cardiovascular system was optimized using several optimization algorithms, subject to forward-mode automatic differentiation. Measurement data were synthesized from known parameters to represent the healthy, mitral regurgitant, aortic stenosed and combined valvular disease situations with and without pulmonary hypertension. Eleven model parameters were selected for optimization based on 95 % explained variation in mean pulmonary arterial pressure. A hybrid Adam and limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno optimizer yielded the best results with input data including valvular flow rates, heart chamber volume changes and systematic arterial pressure. Mean absolute percentage errors ranged from 1.8 % to 3.78 % over the simulated test cases. The model was able to capture pressure dynamics under hypertensive conditions with pulmonary arterial systole, diastole, and mean pressure average percentage errors of 1.12 %, 2.49 % and 2.14 %, respectively. The relatively low errors highlight the potential of the proposed model to recover pulmonary pressures for diseased heart valve and pulmonary hypertensive conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0093.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: game-based learning; learning practicies; learning with mobility; oncological treatment; well-being
Online: 5 July 2021 (11:45:18 CEST)
The use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in education brings up new possibilities of promoting the learning and health experiences. In this sense, education contexts of 21st century must consider these two areas of knowledge, especially their integration. This article presents learning practices developed with mobile devices and games, in order to improve learning and well-being in children and adolescents undergoing cancer treatment in non-formal educational setting. The methodology is based on qualitative case studies with content-based data analysis, involving informal interviews and observation methods. The study considers data from 5 patients who participated in the research between 2015 and 2019. The results demonstrate a positive influence of the practices with mobile technologies and games in terms of learning and in the well-being feeling of patients during the treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0114.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: indoor localization; crowdsourcing; received signal strength; graph-based semi-supervised learning; linear regression; compressed sensing.
Online: 18 April 2017 (12:33:47 CEST)
Indoor positioning based on the received signal strength (RSS) of the WiFi signal has become the most popular solution for indoor localization. In order to realize the rapid deployment of indoor localization systems, solutions based on crowdsourcing have been proposed. However, compared to conventional methods, crowdsourced RSS values are more erroneous and can result in large localization errors. To mitigate the negative effect of the erroneous measurements, a graph-based semi-supervised learning (G-SSL) method is used to exploit the correlation between the RSS values at nearby locations to estimate an optimal RSS value at each location. Before using the G-SSL method, the Linear Regression (LR) algorithm is proposed to solve the device diversity problem in crowdsourcing system. Since the spatial distribution of the APs is sparse, the Compressed Sensing (CS) method is applied to precisely estimate the location of the APs. Based on the location of the APs and a simple signal propagation model, the RSS difference between different locations is calculated and used as an additional constraint to improve the performance of G-SSL. Furthermore, to exploit the sparsity of the weights used in the G-SSL, we use the CS method to reconstruct these weights more accurately and make a further improvement on the performance of the G-SSL. Experimental results show improved results in terms of the smoothness of the radio map and the localization accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0372.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: machine learning; online algorithms; cyber-physical production systems; surrogate based optimization
Online: 7 October 2023 (04:57:38 CEST)
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) play an essential role in today’s production processes, leveraging Artificial Intelligence (AI) to enhance operations such as optimization, anomaly detection, and predictive maintenance. This article reviews a cognitive architecture for artificial intelligence, which has been developed to establish a standard framework for integrating AI solutions into existing production processes. Given that machines in these processes continuously generate large streams of data, Online Machine Learning (OML) was identified as a crucial extension to the existing architecture. To substantiate this claim, real-world experiments using a slitting machine were conducted to compare the performance of OML with traditional Batch Machine Learning. The evaluations clearly indicate that OML adds significant value to CPS and is strongly recommeded as an extension of related architectures such as the cognitive architecture for AI discussed in this article. Additionally, surrogate model-based optimization is employed to determine the optimal hyperparameter settings for the corresponding OML algorithms, aiming to achieve peak performance in their respective tasks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0290.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: COVID-19; image-based diagnosis; artificial intelligence; machine learning; deep learning; computerized tomography; coronavirus disease
Online: 14 October 2020 (09:07:51 CEST)
Several studies suggest that COVID-19 may be accompanied by symptoms such as a dry cough, muscle aches, sore throat, and mild to moderate respiratory illness. The symptoms of this disease indicate the fact that COVID-19 causes noticeable negative effects on the lungs. Therefore, considering the health status of the lungs using X-rays and CT scans of the chest can significantly help diagnose COVID-19 infection. Due to the fact that most of the methods that have been proposed to COVID-19 diagnose deal with the lengthy testing time and also might give more false positive and false negative results, this paper aims to review and implement artificial intelligence (AI) image-based diagnosis methods in order to detect coronavirus infection with zero or near to zero false positives and false negatives rates. Besides the already existing AI image-based medical diagnosis method for the other well-known disease, this study aims on finding the most accurate COVID-19 detection method among AI methods such as machine learning (ML) and artificial neural network (ANN), ensemble learning (EL) methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1568.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: inertial training; eccentric overload; strength training; young athletes; team sports
Online: 14 August 2023 (09:51:27 CEST)
Inertial training is one of the most popular training methodologies in the last years and one of the objects of study in recent literature, however more studies are necessary to know its usefulness in young athletes. The aim of the current systematic review is to evaluate the current literature surrounding the chronic effect of inertial training on physical capacities of team sports through functional test. This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA). The results revealed the effectiveness of these tools for improving abilities such jumps, sprints, change of directions and power measure. In conclusion, inertial training can be an adequate stimulus for the better performance in young athletes on team sports.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0728.v3
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Agile Software Development; Agile Methods; Software Team Productivity; Normality; Statistical Model
Online: 29 March 2021 (11:14:51 CEST)
Agile methods promise to achieve high productivity and provide high-quality software. Agile software development is the most important approach that has spread through the world of software development over the past decade. Software team productivity measurement is essential in agile teams to increase the performance of software development. Due to the prevalence of agile methodologies and increasing competition of software development companies, software team productivity has become one of the crucial challenges for agile software companies and teams. Awareness of the level of team productivity can help them to achieve better estimation results on the time and cost of the projects. However, to measure software productivity, there is no definitive solution or approach whether in traditional and agile software development teams that lead to the occurrence of many problems in achieving a reliable definition of software productivity. Hence, this study aims to propose a statistical model to assess the team’s productivity in agile teams. A survey was conducted with forty software companies and measured the impact of six factors of the team on productivity in these companies. The results show that team effectiveness factors including inter-team relationship, quality conformance by the team, team vision, team leader, and requirements handled by the team had a significant impact on the team’s productivity. Moreover, the results also state that inter-team relations affect the most on software teams’ productivity. Finally, the model fit test showed that 80% of productivity depends on team effectiveness factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0223.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: match analysis; team sport; key performance indicator; interaction; elite; score
Online: 19 November 2019 (03:57:36 CET)
The objective was to model the teams’ style of play (SoP) in elite football and relate them to the match result. For this, the twenty Spanish first division teams in the 2016-17 season were analysed, using nine interaction performance indicators (IRi). A principal component (PC) analysis was applied. From two PCs four SoPs were established: deep or high-pressure defending, and elaborate or direct attack. The SoPs were distributed according to average performance obtained throughout the championship. The connection between the preferred SoP and the final result was estimated. Teams with elaborate offensive styles and teams defensively minded got better results. In addition, most of the teams showed variability in their SoP. The applications of the study are: 1) the IRi have served to identify SoP and can be used as a reference to optimize team performance; 2) teams should have a varied SoP repertoire, as well as being prepared to deal with different SoPs; 3) particular player profiles should be connected with the desired SoP when creating the squad. 4) clubs should develop a varied range of SoPs at their academies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0335.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Cereals; Grain protein; Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS)-based sensors; Prediction algorithms; FOSS; Hone Lab
Online: 25 February 2022 (11:21:57 CET)
Achieving global goals on sustainable nutrition, health, and wellbeing will depend on delivering enhanced diets to humankind. This will require, among others, instantaneous access to information on food quality at key points within agri-food systems. Although stationary methods are usually used to quantify grain quality (wet-lab chemistry, benchtop NIR spectrometer); these do not suit many required user-cases, such as stakeholders in decentralized agri-food-chains that are typical for emerging economies. Therefore, we explored new technologies and models that might aid these particular user-cases. For this purpose, we generated the NIR spectra of 328 grain samples from multiple cereals (finger millet, foxtail millet, maize, pearl millet, sorghum) with a standard benchtop NIR Spectrometer (DS2500, FOSS) and a novel mobile NIR-based sensor (HL-EVT5, Hone). We explored a range of classical deterministic and novel machine learning (ML)-driven models to build calibrations out of the NIR spectra. We were able to build relevant calibrations out of both types of spectra. At the same time, ML-based methods enhanced the prediction capacity of calibration models compared to classical deterministic methods. We also documented that the prediction of grain protein content based on NIR spectra generated by a mobile sensor (HL-EVT5, Hone) was highly relevant for quantitative protein predictions (R2 = 0.91, RMSE = 0.97, RPD = 3.48). Thus, the findings of this study lay the foundations on which to expand the utilization of NIR spectroscopy applications for agricultural research and development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0306.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: online learning; face-to-face learning; learning effectiveness; challenges with online learning; lecture-based courses.
Online: 13 July 2021 (11:57:22 CEST)
During the COVID-19 outbreak, most university courses have been offered on online platforms. A sudden shift from face-to-face classroom learning to online formats could influence the learning effectiveness of classes. This study aims to investigate differences in the learning effectiveness of online and face-to-face lecture courses. It also explores factors that impact the effectiveness of online instruction. These factors include interactions among learners, interactions between learners and the instructor, the quality of online platforms, learners’ ability to use devices and follow instructions, and learners’ situational challenges. The study participants were 261 university students at King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi in Bangkok, Thailand. All participants were enrolled in at least one lecture course, such as history, humans and the environment, the environment and development, or general philosophy, during the 2019 academic year. A questionnaire was distributed to participants after they completed these courses in May 2020. Paired simple t-test analyses were used to compare the effectiveness of online and face-to-face classes, and a multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors that impact the learning effectiveness of online classes. The results show that online classes are less effective than face-to-face courses. The multiple regression analysis also revealed that the effectiveness of online learning was significantly impacted by learners’ ability to interact with classmates during class, their ability to interact with instructors after the class, the quality of online platforms, and disturbances or distractions in learners’ environments.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1586.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Big Model; Machine learning; Baidu Easy-DL; Water depth; Satellite-based Bathymetry
Online: 23 August 2023 (07:50:15 CEST)
Water depth estimation holds paramount importance in various domains including navigation, environmental monitoring, and resource management. Traditional depth measurement methods such as bathymetry can often be prohibitively expensive and time-consuming, especially in remote or inaccessible areas. This study delves into the application of machine learning techniques, with a specific focus on the Baidu Easy DL model, for water depth estimation leveraging satellite imagery. Utilizing Sentinel-2 satellite data over Rushikonda Beach in India and processing it into remote sensing reflectance using the ACOLITE software, the research compares the performance of several machine learning algorithms, including the Stumpf Model, Log-Linear Model, and the Baidu Easy DL Model, for accurate depth estimation. The results indicate that the Easy-DL model outperforms traditional methods, particularly excelling in the 0-11 meter depth range. This study showcases the substantial potential of machine learning in the realm of remote sensing, offering robust water depth estimates, even in complex coastal environments. Furthermore, it underscores the critical role of comprehensive training datasets and ensemble learning techniques in enhancing accuracy. This research not only opens avenues for further exploration of machine learning applications in remote sensing but also highlights the promising prospects of online model APIs in streamlining remote sensing data processing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0249.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: urothelial carcinoma; urine; liquid-based cytology; deep learning; cancer screening; whole slide image
Online: 14 November 2022 (09:31:16 CET)
Urinary cytology is a useful, essential diagnostic method in routine urological clinical practice. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) for urothelial carcinoma screening is commonly used in the routine clinical cytodiagnosis because of its high cell collection rate. Since conventional screening processes by cytoscreeners and cytopathologists using microscopes is limited in terms of human resources, it is important to integrate new deep learning methods that can automatically and rapidly diagnose a large amount of specimens without delay. The goal of this study was to investigate the use of deep learning models for the classification of urine LBC whole-slide images (WSIs) into neoplastic and non-neoplastic (negative). We trained deep learning models using 786 WSIs by transfer learning, fully supervised, and weakly supervised learning approaches. We evaluated the trained models on two test sets (equal and clinical balance) with a combined total of 750 WSIs, achieving ROC-AUCs for WSI diagnosis in the range of 0.984-0.990 by the best model, demonstrating the promising potential use of our model for aiding urine cytodiagnostic processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0205.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: itch; scratch; automated real-time detection; machine-learning based image classifier; image sharpness
Online: 19 January 2020 (03:13:48 CET)
A 'little brother' of pain, itch is an unpleasant sensation that creates a specific urge to scratch. To date, various machine-learning based image classifiers (MBICs) have been proposed for quantitative analysis of itch-induced scratch behaviour of laboratory animals in an automated, non-invasive, inexpensive and real-time manner. In spite of MBICs' advantages, the overall performances (accuracy, sensitivity and specificity) of current MBIC approaches remains inconsistent, with their values varying from ~50% to ~99%, for which the reasons underlying have yet to be investigated further, both computationally and experimentally. To look into the variation of the performance of MBICs in automated detection of itch-induced scratch, this article focuses on the experimental data recording step, and reports here for the first time that MBICs' overall performance is inextricably linked to the sharpness of experimentally recorded video of laboratory animal scratch behaviour. This article furthermore demonstrates for the first time that a linearly correlated relationship exists between video sharpness and overall performance (accuracy and specificity, but not sensitivity) of MBICs, and highlight the primary role of experimental data recording in rapid, accurate and consistent quantitative assessment of laboratory animal itch.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0025.v1
Subject: Computer Science, Computer Science And Mathematics Keywords: team formation; personality traits; software engineering; data-driven approach; simulated annealing
Online: 1 December 2023 (08:10:35 CET)
Collaboration among individuals with diverse skills and personalities is crucial in producing high-quality software. The success of any software project depends on the team’s cohesive functionality and mutual complementation. This study introduces a data-centric methodology for forming Software Engineering (SE) teams centred around personality traits. Our study analyzed data from an SE course where 157 students in 31 teams worked through four project phases and were evaluated based on deliverables and instructor feedback. Using the Five Factor Model (FFM) and a variety of statistical tests, we determined that teams with higher levels of extraversion and conscientiousness and lower neuroticism consistently performed better. We examined team member interactions and developed a predictive model using extreme gradient boosting. The model achieved a 74% accuracy rate in predicting inter-member satisfaction rankings. Through graphical explainability, it underscored incompatibilities among members, notably those with differing levels of extraversion. Based on our findings, we introduce a team formation algorithm using Simulated Annealing (SA), built upon the insights from our predictive model and additional heuristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0597.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: Medical Emergency Team; ICU admission; CPAP; Hematological critically ill patients; Prognostication
Online: 8 September 2023 (13:26:58 CEST)
Historically, admission of hematological patients in the ICU shortly after the start of a critical illness is associated with better survival rates. Early intensive interventions administered by MET could have a role in the management of hematological critically ill patients, eventually reducing ICU admission rate. In this retrospective and monocentric study, we evaluate the safety and effectiveness of intensive treatments administered by the MET in a medical ward frame. The administered interventions were mainly helmet CPAP and pharmacological cardiovascular support. Frequent reassessment by the MET at least every 8 to 12 hours was guaranteed. We analyze data from 133 hematological patients that required MET intervention. In hospital mortality was 38%; mortality doesn’t increase in patients not immediately transferred to the ICU. Only 3 patients died without a former admission in ICU; in these cases, mortality was not related to the acute illness. Moreover, 37% of patients overcame the critical episode in the hematological ward. Higher SOFA and MEWS scores were associated with a worst survival rate, while neutropenia and pharmacological immunosuppression were not. The MET approach seems to be safe and effective. SOFA and MEWS confirmed to be effective tools for prognostication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0079.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Stretch-shortening cycle; Peak power; Plyometric with load; Team sports; Throwing.
Online: 5 October 2020 (12:11:13 CEST)
This study examined the effects of incorporating 8 weeks of biweekly upper limb loaded plyometric training (elastic band) into the in-season regimen of handball players. Trial participants were assigned between control (n = 15, age: 18.1±0.5 years, body mass: 73.7±13.9 kg) and experimental (n = 14, age: 17.7±0.3 years, body mass: 76.8±10.7 kg) groups. Measures obtained pre- and post- included a cycle ergometer force-velocity test, ball throwing velocity in three types throw, 1-RM bench press and pull-over, and anthropometric estimates of upper limb muscle volumes. Gains in the experimental group relative to controls included absolute muscle power (W) (Δ23.3%; t-test p<0.01; d=0.083), relative muscle power (W.kg-1) (Δ22.3%; t-test p<0.01; d=0.091), and all 3 types of ball throw (Δ18.6%, t-test p<0.01, d=0.097 on jumping shot; Δ18.6%, t-test p<0.01; d=0.101 on 3-step running throw; and Δ19.1%, t-test p<0.01, d=0.072 on standing throw). Furthermore, a significant improvement by time interactions was observed in both groups on 1-RM bench press and pull-over performance. However, upper limb muscle volumes remained unchanged in both groups. We conclude that adding biweekly elastic band plyometric training to standard training improves measures important to game performance. Accordingly, such exercises can usefully be adopted as a part of handball training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0233.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: change of direction; speed; plyometric; drop jump; eccentric; team sport; hockey
Online: 11 October 2018 (08:02:32 CEST)
This study investigated the effects of two plyometric training protocols on sprint and change of direction (COD) performance in elite hockey players. A parallel-group randomized controlled trial design was used and seventeen elite male and female field hockey players were randomly allocated into either low-to-high (L-H, n = 8) or high-to-low (H-L, n = 9) training groups. Each group performed separate variations of the drop jump exercise twice weekly for six weeks, with an emphasis on either jump height (L-H) or drop height (H-L). Performance variables assessed included sprint times over 10 m and 20 m, as well as 505 time. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance was performed and Cohen’s d effect sizes were calculated. The H-L group displayed significant small ES improvement from baseline to post-training in the 10 m sprint (1.893 ± 0.08 s pre vs 1.851 ± 0.06 s post) (ES = −0.44) (P = <0.05). Small but not statistically significant differences between groups were observed for 10 m and 20 m sprint performance, and no significant differences were observed within or between groups for 505 time. These findings highlight the difficulty in substantially enhancing speed and COD ability in highly trained athletic populations through the addition of a low volume, short duration plyometric training protocol.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1672.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Recommendation System, Content-Based Filtering, Jaccard Similarity, Cosine Similarity, Mean Absolute Error
Online: 23 June 2023 (11:59:37 CEST)
This study aims to apply a Recommendation System with Content Based Filtering method with Jaccard Similarity and Cosine Similarity algorithms on the E-Learning Platform. Recommendation systems deal with how to provide personalized recommendations to users efficiently. The Content Based Filtering method with Jaccard Similarity and Cosine Similarity algorithms can be used to calculate the similarity value between E-Courses on the E-Learning Platform. Implementation for Recommendation System using Google Colaboratory with Python programming language. In the application of the Recommendation System dataset, Coursera Free Dataset consists of 975 instances. The recommendation results use the Jaccard Similarity algorithm with an average similarity value of 0.3 while the value of Cosine Similarity with the average similarity value is 0.6 where the similarity value of Cosine Similarity is higher. Based on the results of the Mean Absolute Error in the low recommendation system, the average MAE value for all iterations of Jaccard Similarity algorithm is 0.013 and for the Cosine Similarity algorithm the average MAE value for all iterations is 0.014. This shows that the Recommendation System with Jaccard Similarity and Cosine Similarity algorithms can be used on the E-Learning Platform to provide efficiency solutions for personalized recommendations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0715.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Video Games; Gamification; Game Based Learning; Sustainable Development; Sustainability; Higher Education; Undergraduate Students; College Students
Online: 10 May 2023 (08:54:10 CEST)
Nowadays, the European Union and the governments of the different countries have focused on the development of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and the 2030 agenda, something that has been translated into education itself. Video Games, Gamification, and Game Based Learning have become different strategies and tools to enhance the learning process and some of the growing approaches used by teachers to develop sustainable education in the classrooms. This research aims to analyze the characteristics to promote sustainability in education using games and technology, specifically its learning benefits for Higher Education. A systematic review of the literature was conducted following the PRISMA methodology. At first, 2025 documents were found which, after the filtering phases, the number of articles has been reduced to nine, which subsequently were analyzed in depth. The results indicated that among the benefits of the use of games mediated by technologies are the following: it favors education for sustainability and it promotes the educational inclusion and the work of various social skills such as collaborative and cooperative work. Also, showed an increase of the number of publications between 2019 and 2023, reflecting the growing interest in the topic. However, there are some research gap in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0035.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: landslide; classifier ensemble; instance based learning; Rotation Forest; GIS; Vietnam
Online: 4 May 2017 (08:25:12 CEST)
This study proposes a novel hybrid machine learning approach for modeling of rainfall-induced shallow landslides. The proposed approach is a combination of an instance-based learning algorithm (k-NN) and Rotation Forest (RF), state of the art machine techniques that have seldom explored for landslide modeling. The Lang Son city area (Vietnam) is selected as a case study. For this purpose, a spatial database for the study area was constructed, and then, was used to build and evaluate the hybrid model. Performance of the model was assessed using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC), area under the ROC curve (AUC), success rate and prediction rate, and several statistical evaluation metrics. The results showed that the model has high performance with both the training data (AUC = 0.948) and the validation data (AUC = 0.848). The results were compared with those obtained from soft computing techniques i.e. Random Forest, J48 Decision Trees, and Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks. Overall, the performance of the proposed model is better than those obtained from the above methods. Therefore, the proposed model is a promising tool for landslide modeling. The research result can be highly useful for land use planning and management in landslide prone areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: triple constraints; augmented reality; Augmented reality-based learning systems; time; cost; scope; artificial intelligence; education
Online: 9 December 2019 (09:17:17 CET)
Over the last few decades there has been an exponential growth in IT, motivating IT professionals and scientists to explore new dimensions resulting in the advancement of artificial intelligence and its subcategories like computer vision, deep learning and augmented reality. AR is comparatively a new area which was initially explored for gaming but recently a lot of work has been done in education using AR. Most of this focuses on improving students understanding and motivation. Like any other project, the performance of an AR based project is determined by the customer satisfaction which is usually affected by the theory of triple constraints; cost, time and scope. many studies have shown that most of the projects are under development because they are unable to overcome these constraints and meet project objectives. We were unable to find any notable work done regarding project management for augmented reality systems and application. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a system for management of AR applications which mainly focuses on catering triple constraints to meet desired objectives. Each variable is further divided into subprocesses and by following these processes successful completion of the project can be achieved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0367.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: young people experiencing homelessness; disadvantaged youth; engagement; community-based research; positive youth development; mental skills training
Online: 22 August 2022 (03:25:19 CEST)
Underpinned by the new world Kirkpatrick model and in the context of a community-based, sport psychology program (My Strengths Training for Life™) for young people experiencing homelessness, this process evaluation investigated: (1) young peoples’ reactions (program and facilitator evaluation, enjoyment, attendance, and engagement) to and learning (mental skills and transfer intention), (2) the relationship between reaction and learning variables, and (3) the mediators underpinning this relationship. 301 young people living in a West Midlands housing service completed questionnaires on demographics, reaction and learning variables. Higher levels of program engagement were positively associated with more favorable reactions to the program. Enjoyment positively predicted learning outcomes, which was mediated by transfer intention. Recommendations are made for: (1) a balance between rigor and flexibility for evaluation methods with disadvantaged youth, (2) including engagement as well as attendance for indicators of meaningful program participation, (3) measuring program experiences (e.g., enjoyment) to understand program effectiveness, and (4) providing opportunities for skill transfer during and after program participation. Findings have implications for researchers, program commissioners, and policy makers working designing and evaluating programs in community-based settings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0182.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: escape room; escape game; game design; team work; collaborative learning; student engagement
Online: 11 March 2020 (10:25:22 CET)
The global increase of recreational escape rooms has inspired teachers around the world to implement escape rooms in educational settings. As escape rooms are increasingly popular in education, there is a need to evaluate their use, and a need for guidelines in order to develop and implement escape rooms in the classroom. This systematic review synthesizes current practices and experiences, focussing on important educational and game design aspects. Subsequently, relations between the game design aspects and the educational aspects are studied. Finally, student outcomes are related to the intended goals. In different disciplines, educators appear to have different motives to use aspects such as time constraints or teamwork. These educators make different choices for related game aspects such as the structuring of the puzzles. Other educators base their choices on common practices in recreational escape rooms. However, in educational escape rooms players need to reach the game goal by achieving the educational goals. More alignment in game mechanics and pedagogical approaches are recommended. These and more results lead to recommendations for developing and implementing escape rooms in education, and will help educators creating these new learning environments, and eventually help students’ foster knowledge and skills more effectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0054.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Social Media; PMBOK knowledge areas; Delphi Study; Structured Case Study; Team effectiveness
Online: 4 December 2019 (12:37:54 CET)
Social media has become part and parcel of the world of today. These days, it’s still the most talked about thing. It cannot be overlooked because it plays a key role in our business functions such as marketing and advertising. Social Media is all about collaboration on files, ideas and projects that help users and stakeholders to successfully complete the project. It influences how people communicate, develop relationship, build trust, increase transparency and provide cultural context. The fundamental aim of this research is to investigate the capacity for project management in social media. This paper explains how social media is used for project management knowledge areas and process groups. Also this research aims to identify SM tools that can be suitable for project management processes. Two studies Delphi Study of three rounds and structured case study interview are used to investigate the impact on the performance of the project team and process robustness. These studies support social media use by accessing the contribution to relationship building, trusts, coordination and cohesion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0040.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: ADP-ribosylation; proteomics; post-translational modifications; deep-learning; stacking-based ensemble learning; protein network
Online: 4 January 2023 (02:26:50 CET)
Protein phosphorylation and ADP-ribosylation (ADPr), as two types of post-translational modifications (PTM), are the process of adding phosphate group and ADP-ribose moieties to proteins, respectively. Although both PTM types can occur on many amino acid types, serine is the most common. Serine phosphorylation (pS), serine ADPr (SADPr), and their in situ crosstalks (pSADPr) play essential roles in biological processes. Although in silico classifiers have been developed for predicting pS and SADPr sites, the classifier for predicting pSADPr sites is unavailable. In this study, we developed classifiers to predict pSADPr sites. Specifically, we collected 3250 human pSADPr, 7520 SADPr, 151,227 pS and 80,096 unmodified serine sites. Based on them, we investigated the characteristics of pSADPr sites and constructed three classifiers to predict pSADPr sites from the pS dataset, the SADPr dataset and the protein sequences separately. We built and evaluated five deep-learning classifiers in ten-fold cross-validation and independent test datasets. Three of them (e.g. Convolutional Neural Network with the One-Hot encoding, dubbed CNNOH) performed better than the rest two. For instance, CNNOH had the AUC values of 0.700, 0.914 and 0.954 for recognizing pSADPr sites from the SADPr, pS and unmodified serine sites.Therefore, it is challenging to distinguish pSADPr sites from SADPr sites compared to the other two. It is consistent with our observation that pSADPr's characteristics are more similar to those of SADPr than the rest. Furthermore, we used the classifiers as base classifiers to develop a few stacking-based ensemble classifiers to improve performance. However, none of the ensemble classifiers showed better performances, suggesting that the base classifiers have good enough performances. Finally, we developed an online tool for extensively predicting human pSADPr sites based on the CNNOH classifier, dubbed EdeepSADPr. It is freely available through http://edeepsadpr.bioinfogo.org/.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2039.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: Opisthorchis viverrini; Forest-based classification and regression; Machine learning; Ordinary least square
Online: 30 August 2023 (07:06:04 CEST)
Infection of liver flukes (Opisthorchis viverrini) is partly due to their suitability for habitats in sub-basin areas, which causes the intermediate host to remain in the watershed system in all seasons. Spatial monitoring of fluke infection at the small basin analysis scale is important because this can enable analysis at the level of the spatial factors involved and influencing infections. The spatial mathematical model was weighted by the nine spatial factors by dividing the analysis into two levels. 1) sub-basin boundary level analyzed with ordinary least square (OLS) model used to analyze spatial factors of liver fluke aimed at analyzing spatial factors related to human liver fluke infection according to sub-basin boundaries, and 2) infection risk positional analysis level with machine learning-based forest classification and regression (FCR) and displaying predictive results of infection risk locations along stream lines. The analysis results show 4 prototype models that import different independent variable factors. The results show that Model-1 and Model-2 give the most AUC = 0.964 and the variables that influence infection risk the most were distance to stream lines, and distance to water bodies, NDMI and NDVI factors rarely affect accuracy. This FCR machine learning application approach can be applied to the analysis of infection risk areas at the sub-basin level, but independent variables must be screened with a preliminary mathematical model weighted to the spatial units in order to obtain the most accurate predictions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0285.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Epidemiology; Wastewater-based Epidemiology; Phylogenetic Analysis; Machine Learning Approach; Molecular virology
Online: 5 May 2023 (03:31:35 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has posed a significant global threat, leading to several initiatives for its control and management. One such initiative involves wastewater-based epidemiology, which has gained attention for its potential to provide early warning of virus outbreaks and real-time information on its spread. In this study, water samples from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located at the south east of Spain (Region of Murcia) namely Murcia, and Cartagena, were analyzed by RT-qPCR, Phylogenetic Analysis, and Machine Learning Approach. The aim was to determine whether SARS-CoV-2 detection in the WWTPs of these two cities could serve as a proxy for the virus's spread in the population. The results confirmed that the levels of SARS-CoV-2 in these wastewater samples changed concerning the number of SARS-CoV-2 cases detected in the population and variant occurrences were in line with clinical reported data. Additionally, the phylogenetic analysis showed that samples obtained in close sampling times exhibited a higher similarity than those obtained more distantly in time. A second analysis using a machine learning approach based on the mutations found in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was also conducted. Hierarchical Clustering (HC) was used as an efficient unsupervised approach for data analysis. Results indicated that samples obtained in October 2022 in Murcia and Cartagena were significantly different, which corresponded well with the different virus variants circulating in the two locations. The proposed methods in this study are adequate for comparing the Accumulated Natural Vector (ANV) of the SARS-CoV-2 sequences as a preliminary evaluation of potential changes in the variants that are circulating in a given population at a specific time point.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0339.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: application based active learning; active learning methodology; cooperative learning; DC/DC converter; DC motor; DC/AC converter engineering education; learner-centered teaching
Online: 18 November 2021 (18:18:33 CET)
This paper presents an Application Based Active Learning (ABAL) methodology on Power Electronics (PE) and Electric Machines (EM) as a hybrid laboratory course for the undergraduate students to design and implement the real-world engineering problems. The ABAL is a type of active learning which is a branch of Learner-centered teaching (LCT). The DC/DC converter along with the speed control of DC separately excites the motor. In addition, a DC/AC converter is designed to control the speed of an induction motor. The results are then investigated on a hardware platform under the ABAL experimental methodology. This paper also discusses the problem identification selection of the equipment, circuit design, hardware mounting and critical analysis of the results acquired from the hybrid laboratory. The ABAL methodology was evaluated based on student satisfaction, feedback, grades and interest to solve the real-world problem rather than cramming the engineering concepts and fulfill so-called lab routine and tasks
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0219.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: informal settlement indicators; very high resolution (VHR); urbanisation; sustainable development goals; object-based image analysis (OBIA); machine learning (ML); random forest (RF)
Online: 12 September 2018 (12:32:25 CEST)
The identification of informal settlements in urban areas is an important step in developing and implementing pro-poor urban policies. Understanding when, where and who lives inside informal settlements is critical to efforts to improve their resilience. This study aims to analyse the capability of machine-learning (ML) methods to map informal areas in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, using very-high-resolution (VHR) imagery and terrain data. Fourteen indicators of settlement characteristics were derived and mapped using an object-based ML approach and VHR imagery. These indicators were categorised according to three different spatial levels: environ, settlement and object. The most useful indicators for prediction were found to be density and texture measures, (with random forest (RF) relative importance measures of over 25% and 23% respectively). The success of this approach was evaluated using a small, fully independent validation dataset. Informal areas were mapped with an overall accuracy of 91%. Object-based ML as a hybrid approach performed better (8%) than object-based image analysis alone due to its ability to encompass all available geospatial levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0262.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: sarcoma; multidisciplinary team / MDT; sarcoma surgery; orthopedic oncology; real-world data registry; exposure; experience
Online: 18 July 2022 (10:18:33 CEST)
Purpose: To meet the challenges of the precision medicine era, quality assessment of shared sarcoma care becomes pivotal. The MDT approach is the most important parameter for succesfull outcome. Because of all MDTs disciplines surgery is the key step to render sarcoma patients disease free, defining the spectrum of a sarcoma surgeon is critical. To the best of the authors knowledge, a comprehensive interoperable digital platform to assess the scope of sarcoma surgery and the experience of a sarcoma surgeon in its full complexity is lacking. Methods: A web-based real-world data (RWD) registry on sarcoma surgery has been created to assess the clinical exposure, tumor characteristics, and surgical settings and techniques applied for both resections and reconstructions of sarcomas and thereby the surgical exposure of an individual surgeon over time. Results: During 10 years, there were 723 sarcoma board/MDT meetings discussing 3130 patients. A total of 1094 patients underwent 1250 surgical interventions on mesenchymal tumors by one single sarcoma surgeon. These included 615 deep soft tissue tumors (197 benign, 102 intermediate, 281 malignant, 27 simulator, 7 metastasis, 1 blood), 116 superficial soft tissue tumors (45 benign, 12 intermediate, 40 malignant, 18 simulator, 1 blood) and 519 bone tumors (129 benign, 112 intermediate, 182 malignant, 18 simulator, 46 metastasis, 14 blood and 18 sequelae of 1st treatment). Detailed types of resections and reconstructions were analyzed. Conclusion: A web-based RWD sarcoma surgeon registry with transparent real-time descriptive analytics is feasible and enables large scale definition of the surgical complexity and ultimately quality of sarcoma care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0157.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: case on-time start; case on-time finish; perioperative services; team familiarity; OR efficiency
Online: 3 November 2020 (14:16:44 CET)
Efficient use of the operating room (OR) is crucial for any hospital. One of the major inefficiencies in the OR is surgical cases not starting or finishing on time as scheduled. When a case is delayed, it affects all subsequent cases in that OR. This study uses discrete choice analysis to determine the significant factors, including team familiarity, that influence OR case on-time start and finish. A case is considered on-time if the documented procedure start and finish times are no more than 10 minutes after the scheduled start and finish times. The analysis uses surgical case data from a large tertiary referral hospital and academic center in Greenville, South Carolina. The case data includes all surgical cases (15,091) performed during regular workdays in 2013. Two binary logit models are developed: one for case on-time start and one for case on-time finish. Results indicate that higher team familiarity between surgeon and anesthesiologist, surgeon and circulating nurse, surgeon and scrub nurse, and surgeon and CRNA improve the likelihood of an OR case on-time start and on-time finish. This finding indicates that the OR scheduling staff in the study hospital make a concerted effort to schedule the surgical teams with members who have worked well together in the past.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: hurricane; tree risk assessment; urban forest strike team; species failure profile; likelihood of failure
Online: 24 April 2020 (04:37:51 CEST)
Trees in residential landscapes provide many benefits, but can injure persons and damage property when they fail. In hurricane-prone regions like Florida, USA, the regular occurrence of hurricanes has provided an opportunity to assess factors that influence the likelihood of wind-induced tree failure and develop species failure profiles. We assessed open-grown trees in Naples, Florida, following the passage of Hurricane Irma in September 2017 to determine the effect of relevant factors on the degree of damage sustained by individual trees. Of 4,034 assessed individuals (n = 15 species), 74% sustained no damage, 4% sustained only minor damage (i.e., minimal corrective pruning needed), 6% sustained significant damage (i.e., major corrective pruning needed), and 15% were whole tree failures (i.e., overturned trees or trees requiring removal). The proportion of individuals in each damage category varied among species, stem diameter at 1.4 m above ground, and the presence of utility lines, which was a proxy for maintenance. We compared our results with the findings of seven previous hurricanes in the region to explore species’ resilience in hurricanes.
DATASET | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0011.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: antigen-antibody complex structure; interfacial electrostatic feature; Machine Learning-Based Antibody Design; Protein Data Bank
Online: 1 March 2020 (12:39:55 CET)
The importance of antibodies in health care and the biotechnology research and development demands not only knowledge of their experimental structures at high resolution, but also practical implementation of this knowledge for both effective and efficient design and production of antibody for its use in both medical and research applications. While the experimental wet-lab approach is usually costly, laborious and time-consuming, computational (dry-lab) approaches, in spite of their intrinsic limitations in comparison with its experimental (wet-lab) counterpart, provide a cheaper and faster alternative option. For the first time, this article reports a comprehensive set of structural electrostatic features extracted from experimentally determined antigen-antibody-related structures, including especially those structural electrostatic features at the interfaces of all experimentally determined antigen-antibody complex structures as of February 29, 2020, to facilitate effective and efficient machine learning-based computational antibody design using currently available experimental structures inside Protein Data Bank.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0012.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: role-based access control; attribute-based access control; attribute-based encryption
Online: 8 July 2016 (10:12:21 CEST)
Cloud Computing is a promising and emerging technology that is rapidly being adopted by many IT companies due to a number of benefits that it provides, such as large storage space, low investment cost, virtualization, resource sharing, etc. Users are able to store a vast amount of data and information in the cloud and access it from anywhere, anytime on a pay-per-use basis. Since many users are able to share the data and the resources stored in the cloud, there arises a need to provide access to the data to only those users who are authorized to access it. This can be done through access control schemes which allow the authenticated and authorized users to access the data and deny access to unauthorized users. In this paper, a comprehensive review of all the existing access control schemes has been discussed along with analysis. Keywords: role-based access control, attribute-based access control, attribute-based encryption
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0460.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: education for sustainable development; confusion; intelligent tutoring system (ITS); ASSISTments; machine learning; computer-based homework; algebra mathematics technology education; sustainable development
Online: 19 November 2018 (11:46:56 CET)
Incorporating substantial sustainable development issues into teaching and learning is the ultimate task of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The purpose of our study is to identify the confused students who have failed to master the skill(s) given by the tutors as a homework using Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). We have focused ASSISTments, an ITS in this study and scrutinized the skill-builder data using machine learning techniques and methods. We used seven candidate models that include: Naïve Bayes (NB), Generalized Linear Model (GLM), Logistic Regression (LR), Deep Learning (DL), Decision Tree (DT), Random Forest (RF), and Gradient Boosted Trees (XGBoost). We trained, validated and tested learning algorithms, performed stratified cross-validation and measured the performance of the models through various performance metrics i.e., ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic), Accuracy, Precision, Recall, F-Measure, Sensitivity & Specificity. We found GLM, DT & RF are high accuracies achieving classifiers. However, other perceptions such as detection of unexplored features that might be related to the forecasting of outputs can also boost the accuracy of the prediction model. Through machine learning methods, we identified the group of students which were confused attempting the homework exercise and can help students foster their knowledge, and talent to play a vital role in environmental development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1187.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization (TLBO); Thermal Units; Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs); Comparative Study; Load Management Strategies
Online: 16 August 2023 (10:04:39 CEST)
This research paper presents an enhanced economic load dispatch (ELD) approach using the Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization (TLBO) algorithm for 10 thermal units, examining the impact of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) in different charging scenarios. The TLBO algorithm is utilized to optimize the ELD problem, considering the complexities associated with thermal units. The integration of PEVs in the load dispatch optimization is investigated, and different charging profiles and probability distributions are defined for PEVs in various scenarios, including overall charging profile, off-peak charging, peak charging, and stochastic charging. These tables allow for the modeling and analysis of PEV charging behavior and power requirements within the power system. By incorporating PEVs, additional controllable resources are introduced, enabling more effective load management and grid stability. The comparative analysis showcases the advantages of the TLBO-based ELD model with PEVs, demonstrating the potential of coordinated dispatch strategies leveraging PEV storage and controllability. This paper emphasizes the importance of integrating PEVs into the load dispatch optimization process, utilizing the TLBO algorithm, to achieve economic and reliable power system operation while considering different PEV charging scenarios.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer tumor; classification; majority-based voting mechanism; multilayer perceptron learning network; simple logistic regression; stochastic gradient descent learning; wisconsin breast cancer dataset
Online: 27 November 2019 (09:51:31 CET)
Breast cancer is the most common cause of death for women worldwide. Thus, the ability of artificial intelligence systems to predict and classify breast cancer is very important. In this paper, a hybrid ensemble method classification mechanism is proposed based on a majority voting mechanism. First, the performance of different state-of-the-art machine learning classification algorithms for the Wisconsin Breast Cancer Dataset (WBCD) were evaluated. The three best classifiers were then selected based on their F3 score. F3 score is used to emphasize the importance of false negatives (recall) in breast cancer classification. Then, these three classifiers, simple logistic Regression learning, stochastic gradient descent learning and multilayer perceptron network, are used for ensemble classification using a voting mechanism. We also evaluated the performance of hard and soft voting mechanism. For hard voting, majority-based voting mechanism was used and for soft voting we used average of probabilities, product of probabilities, maximum of probabilities and minimum of probabilities-based voting methods. The hard voting (majority-based voting) mechanism shows better performance with 99.42% as compared to the state-of-the-art algorithm for WBCD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0469.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: burnout; team mindfulness; work engagement; online meetings; academic meetings; writing prompts; doodling; COVID-19; online games
Online: 31 October 2022 (06:55:37 CET)
Burnout, a negative job-related psychological state particularly associated with the health professions, equates to a loss of valuable research in healthcare researchers. Team mindfulness, recognized to enhance personal fulfilment through work engagement, represents one important aspect found effective in reducing burnout. In a specific series of diverse membership academic meetings intended to reduce research burnout—employing writing prompts, doodling and continuous developmental feedback to do so—team mindfulness was demonstrated when conducted in person. Therefore, determining if team mindfulness is evident when holding such academic meetings online is relevant. When COVID-19 limitations required moving these academic meetings online, it was previously noted and reported that team mindfulness was affected in no longer being present during the first eighteen months of restrictions. To discover if this result persisted, question asking, doodles submitted and feedback responses were analyzed of the following year’s academic meetings for the same group, both quantitively and qualitatively. In finding the team mindfulness of these meetings additionally compromised the second full year, online practices actually found successful at creating and supporting team mindfulness—online games—are identified and considered. Concluding implications are noted and recommendations made regarding team mindfulness in reducing burnout for future online academic meetings.
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Multi-Target Detection and Tracking; Multi-copter Drone; Aerial Imagery, Image Sensor, Deep Learning, GPU-based Embedded Module, Neural Computing Stick; Image Processing
Online: 18 July 2019 (10:09:05 CEST)
In recent years, demand has been increasing for target detection and tracking from aerial imagery via drones using onboard powered sensors and devices. We propose a very effective method for this application based on a deep learning framework. A state-of-art embedded hardware system empowers small flying robots to carry out the real-time onboard computation necessary for object tracking. Two types of embedded modules were developed: one is designed using a Jetson TX or AGX Xavier, and the other is based on an Intel Neural Compute Stick. These are suitable for real-time onboard computing power on small flying drones with limited space. A comparative analysis of current state-of-art deep-learning-based multi-object detection algorithms was carried out utilizing the designated GPU-based embedded computing modules to obtain detailed metric data about frame rates as well as the computation power. We also introduce an effective target tracking approach for moving objects. The algorithm for tracking moving objects is based on the extension of simple online and real-time tracking. It was developed by integrating a deep-learning-based association metric approach (Deep SORT), which uses a hypothesis tracking methodology with Kalman filtering and a deep-learning-based association metric. In addition, a guidance system that tracks the target position using a GPU-based algorithm is introduced. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms by real-time experiments with a small multi-rotor drone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0429.v1
Online: 6 June 2023 (09:43:32 CEST)
Many theoretical models of iron-based superconductors have been proposed but Tc calculations based on the models are usually missing. We have chosen two models of iron-based superconductors in the literature and then compute the Tc values accordingly: Recently two models have been announced which suggest that superconducting electron concentration involved in the pairing mechanism of iron-based superconductors may have been underestimated, and that the antiferromagnetism and the induced xy potential may even have a dramatic amplification effect on electron-phonon coupling. We use bulk FeSe, LiFeAs and NaFeAs data to calculate the Tc based on these models and test if the combined model can predict the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) of the nanostructured FeSe monolayer well. To substantiate the recently announced xy potential in the literature, we create a two-channel model to separately superimpose the dynamics of the electron in the upper and lower tetrahedral plane. The results of our two-channel model support the literature data. While scientists are still searching for a universal DFT functional that can describe the pairing mechanism of all iron-based superconductors, we base on the ARPES data to propose an empirical combination of DFT functional for revising the electron-phonon scattering matrix in the superconducting state, which ensures that all electrons involved in iron-based superconductivity are included in the computation. Our computational model takes into account this amplifying effect of antiferromagnetism and the correction of the electron-phonon scattering matrix together with the abnormal soft out-of-plane lattice vibration of the layered structure, which allows us to calculate theoretical Tc values of LiFeAs, NaFeAs and FeSe as a function of pressure that correspond reasonably well to the experimental values. More importantly, by taking into account the interfacial effect between an FeSe monolayer and its SrTiO3 substrate as an additional gain factor, our calculated Tc value is up to 91 K high, and provides evidence that the strong Tc enhancement recently observed in such monolayers with Tc reaching 100 K may be contributed from the electrons within the ARPES range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0035.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: patients with oral cancer; LINE official account; oncological case management; interdisciplinary team; SDG “Good Health and Well-being”
Online: 1 June 2023 (05:14:11 CEST)
Background: Cancer patients require cross-professional care during the diagnosis and treatment periods. Therefore, methods for effectively carrying out case management are essential to tumor care. Purpose: To investigate the effects of using the community software LINE Official Ac-count on oral cancer case management. Methods: An experimental design was used; 100 patients were randomly divided into two groups by using a computer-generated random number table. The experimental group used LINE Official Account, which gave them self-care information, timely messages, and one-on-one health-care consultations. The control group followed standard healthcare practices. Results: The experimental group was satisfied with the self-care information provided by LINE Official Account (86.9%), patients regularly checked the self-care information (89.4%) and would check the information when receiving a push notification (54.3%). Ten patients used the one-on-one consultation(20.0%). LINE Official Account had a significant effect on the rate of participation in support groups. Generalized estimating equations indicated a significant difference between the two groups regarding the overall quality of life over 7 days (P = 0.023). Conclusion: Community software applications used in oncological case management can improve self-management and empower, also enable tracking of long-term follow-up effectiveness and reinforce the case manager’s role as a family therapist. Therefore, this study recommends that case manager systems be incorporated into mobile applications to increase the sustainable management, accessibility, effectiveness, and satisfaction of oncological management systems. This study also provides the value of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with Good Health and Well-being, and decreased social withdrawal among patients with oral cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0141.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; target identification; activity-based probes; affinity-based probes
Online: 2 June 2023 (07:39:37 CEST)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), a disease that alt-hough preventable and curable, remains a global epidemic due to the emergence of resistance and a latent form responsible for a long period of treatment. Drug discovery in TB is a challenging task due to the heterogeneity of the disease, the emergence of resistance and an uncomplete knowledge of the pathophysiology of the disease. The limited permeability of the cell wall and the presence of multiple efflux pumps remain a major barrier to achieve effective intracellular drug accumulation. While the complete genome sequence of Mtb has been determined and several potential protein targets have been validated, the lack of adequate models for in vitro and in vivo studies is a limit-ing factor in TB drug discovery programs. In current therapeutic regimens, less than 0.5% of bac-terial proteins are targeted being the biosynthesis of the cell wall and the energetic metabolism two of the most important processes exploited for TB chemotherapeutics. This review provides an overview on the current challenges in TB drug discovery and emerging Mtb druggable proteins, and how chemical probes for protein profiling enabled the identification of new targets and bi-omarkers, paving the way to disruptive therapeutic regimens and diagnostic tools.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0544.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: pillar-based lake management; object-based lake management; Lake Rawapening
Online: 29 November 2022 (08:49:57 CET)
Lake Rawapening, Semarang Regency, Indonesia, has incorporated a holistic plan in its management practices. However, despite successful target achievements, some limitations remain that a review of its management plan is needed. This paper identifies and analyzes existing lake management strategies as a standard specifically in Lake Rawapening by exploring various literature, both legal frameworks and scholarly articles indexed in Google Scholar and published in Water by MDPI about lake management in many countries. There are two major types of lake management, namely pillar-based and object-based. While the former is the foundation of a conceptual paradigm that does not comprehensively consider the roles of finance and technology in the lake management, the latter indicates the objects to manage so as to create standards or benchmarks for the implementation of various programs. Overall, Lake Rawapening management should include more programs on erosion-sedimentation control and monitoring of operational performance using information systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0336.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: nature-based solutions; climate change adaptation; biodiversity; ecosystem-based adaptation
Online: 23 October 2021 (14:19:30 CEST)
Nature-based solutions (NbS) are increasingly recognised for their potential to address both the climate and biodiversity crises. These outcomes are interdependent, and both rely on the capacity of NbS to support and enhance the health of an ecosystem: its biodiversity, the condition of its abiotic and biotic elements, and its capacity to function normally despite environmental change. However, while understanding of ecosystem health outcomes of nature-based interventions for climate change mitigation is growing, the outcomes of those implemented for adaptation remain poorly understood with evidence scattered across multiple disciplines. To address this, we conducted a systematic review of the outcomes of 109 nature-based interventions for climate change adaptation using 33 indicators of ecosystem health across eight broad categories (e.g. diversity, biomass, ecosystem functioning and population dynamics). We showed that 88% of interventions with positive outcomes for climate change adaptation also reported measurable benefits for ecosystem health. We also showed that interventions were associated with a 67% average increase in local species richness. All eight studies that reported benefits in terms of both climate change mitigation and adaptation also supported ecosystem health, leading to a triple win. However, there were also trade-offs, mainly for forest management and creation of novel ecosystems such as monoculture plantations of non-native species. Our review highlights two major limitations of research to date. First, only a limited selection of metrics are used to assess ecosystem health and these rarely include key aspects such as functional diversity and habitat connectivity. Second, taxonomic coverage is poor: 67% of outcomes assessed only plants and 57% did not distinguish between native and non-native species. Future research addressing these issues will allow the design and adaptive management of NbS to support healthy and resilient ecosystems, and thereby enhance their effectiveness for meeting both climate and biodiversity targets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1108.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: biopolymers; nanogels; drug delivery; polysaccharide-based nanogels; protein-based nanogels; nanotechnology
Online: 28 April 2023 (04:32:57 CEST)
Due to their increased surface area, extent of swelling and active substance loading capacity and flexibility, nanogels made from natural and synthetic polymers have gained significant interest in the scientific and industrial areas. Especially, customized design and implementation of non-toxic, biocompatible, and biodegradable micro/nano carriers makes their usage very feasible for a range of biomedical applications, including drug delivery, tissue engineering, and bioimaging. The design and application methodologies of nanogels have been outlined in this review. Additionally, the most recent advancements in nanogel biomedical applications have been discussed, with a particular emphasis on applications for the delivery of drugs and biomolecules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0133.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: tactile sensing; vision-based tactile sensing; event-based vision; robotic manufacturing
Online: 10 April 2023 (03:06:15 CEST)
Vision-based tactile sensors (VBTS) have become the de facto method of giving robots the ability to obtain tactile feedback from their environment. Unlike other solutions to tactile sensing, VBTS offers high spatial resolution feedback without compromising on instrumentation costs or incurring additional maintenance expenses. However, conventional cameras used in VBTS have a fixed update rate and output redundant data, leading to computational overhead downstream. In this work, we present a neuromorphic vision-based tactile sensor (N-VBTS) that employs observations from an event-based camera for contact angle prediction. Particularly, we design and develop a novel graph neural network, dubbed TactiGraph, that asynchronously operates on graphs constructed from raw N-VBTS streams exploiting their spatiotemporal correlations to perform predictions. Although conventional VBTS uses an internal illumination source, TactiGraph is reported to perform efficiently in both scenarios, with and without an internal illumination source. Rigorous experimental results revealed that TactiGraph achieved a mean absolute error of 0.62∘ in predicting the contact angle and was faster and more efficient than both conventional VBTS and other N-VBTS, with lower instrumentation costs. Specifically, N-VBTS requires only 5.5% of the compute-time needed by VBTS when both are tested on the same scenario.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0212.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: Knowledge Graphs; Link Prediction; Semantic-Based Models; Translation Based Embedded Models
Online: 17 February 2022 (11:49:24 CET)
For disciplines like biological science, security, and the medical field, link prediction is a popular research area. To demonstrate the link prediction many methods have been proposed. Some of them that have been demonstrated through this review paper are TransE, Complex, DistMult, and DensE models. Each model defines link prediction with different perceptions. We argue that the practical performance potential of these methods, having similar parameter values, using the fine-tuning technique to evaluate their reliability and reproducibility of results. We describe those methods and experiments; provide theoretical proofs and experimental examples, demonstrating how current link prediction methods work in such settings. We use the standard evaluation metrics for testing the model's ability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0027.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Zoo animal welfare; Five Domains; Validity; Animal-based; Resource-based; Scoring
Online: 22 December 2021 (11:59:32 CET)
Zoos are increasingly putting in place formalized animal welfare assessment programs to allow monitoring of welfare over time, as well as to aid in resource prioritization. These programs tend to rely on assessment tools that incorporate resource-based and observational animal- focused measures since it is rarely feasible to obtain measures of physiology in zoo-housed animals. A range of assessment tools are available which commonly have a basis in the Five Domains framework. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted to bring together recent studies examining welfare assessment methods in zoo animals. A summary of these methods is provided with advantages and limitations of the approach es presented. We then highlight practical considerations with respect to implementation of these tools into practice, for example scoring schemes, weighting of criteria, and innate animal factors for consideration. It is concluded that would be value in standardizing guidelines for development of welfare assessment tools since zoo accreditation bodies rarely prescribe these. There is also a need to develop taxon or species- specific assessment tools to inform welfare management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0108.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: academic meetings; video conferencing; Zoom; private Facebook group; narrative research; COVID-19; self-directed learning; team mindfulness; democratic meetings
Online: 21 October 2021 (12:10:57 CEST)
The online learning necessitated by COVID-19 social distancing limitations has resulted in the utilization of hybrid online formats focused on maintaining visual contact among learners and teachers. The preferred option of video conferencing for academic meetings has become that of Zoom. The needs of one voluntary, democratic, self-reflective university research group—grounded in responses to writing prompts—differed in learning focus. Demanding a safe space to encourage and record both self-reflection and creative questioning of other participants, the private Facebook group was chosen over video conferencing to maintain the concentration on group members’ written responses rather than how they saw themselves (and thought others saw them) on screen. A narrative research model initiated in 2015, the 2020/21 interaction of the group in the year’s worth of Facebook entries, and the yearend feedback received from group participants, will be compared with previous years when the weekly group met in-person. The results in relation to COVID-19 limitations indicate that an important aspect of self-directed learning related to trust that comes from team mindfulness is lost when face-to-face interaction is eliminated regarding the democratic nature of these meetings. With online meetings the new standard, maintaining trust requires improvements to online virtual meeting spaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0782.v1
Online: 9 August 2023 (12:18:12 CEST)
Herein we report the expansion of the chemical space available from the chitin, accessible via the biogenic N-platforms 3A5AF, M4A2C and di-HAF. The biologically active heteroaromatics furo[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-one and furo[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-amine can be selectively accessed from 3A5AF and M4A2C, respectively. The chiral pool synthon di-HAF is a viable substrate for the Achmatowicz rearrangement, providing streamlined access to 2-aminosugars possessing a versatile hydroxymethyl group at C5.