ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0487.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: water quality monitoring; wetland ecosystem services; spatial variation; temporal variation
Online: 29 August 2022 (10:46:13 CEST)
Stream chemistry effectively integrates watershed ecosystem processes on both spatial and temporal scales. Streams of coastal areas integrate a more homogeneous, flat topography wherein there can be interactions between the stream and the body of water into which it drains, especially where tidal fluxes occur. The present study assessed water quality of Thompson Bayou, which comes to the campus of the University of West Florida in a wetland after flowing through 4 km of commercial and private property with associated impacts on water quality. Sampling was carried out for one year at eight discrete sites along Thompson Bayou from the UWF campus to the Escambia River. We used a portable field meter to measure temperature, pH, dissolved O2 (DO), and specific conductivity (SC). Except for temperature, all variables exhibited a spatial pattern of significant variation with distance, with consistent increases in DO and SC as the stream approached the river. These variables also exhibited a temporal pattern of significant seasonal variation, including—and especially—temperature. Data suggest that spatial and temporal patterns of water quality of Thompson Bayou are determined by (1) processing of water by the wetland, (2) interactions of the stream channel with upland forest stands, and (3) the tidal hydrology of the Escambia River.
CONFERENCE PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0011.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: satellite data; fine particulate matter; air pollution; geographic information system; health risks; spatial analysis; Saudi Arabia
Online: 1 December 2016 (15:25:56 CET)
The study of the concentrations and effects of fine particulate matter in urban areas have been of great interest to researchers in recent times. This is due to the acknowledgment of the far-reaching impacts of fine particulate matter on public health. Remote sensing data have been used to monitor the trend of concentrations of particulate matter by deriving aerosol optical depth (AOD) from satellite images. The Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) has released the second version of its global PM2.5 data with improvement in spatial resolution. This paper revisits the study of spatial and temporal variations in particulate matter in Saudi Arabia by exploring the cluster analysis of the new data. Cluster analysis of the PM2.5 values of Saudi cities is performed by using Anselin local Moran’s I statistic. Also, the analysis is carried out at the regional level by using self-organizing map (SOM). The results show an increasing trend in the concentrations of particulate matter in Saudi Arabia, especially in some selected urban areas. The eastern and south-western parts of the Kingdom have significantly clustering high values. Some of the PM2.5 values have passed the threshold indicated by the World Health Organization (WHO) standard and targets posing health risks to Saudi urban population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0480.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: GIS; RUSLE; Sediment Yield; Spatial Variation; Temporal Variation
Online: 22 February 2021 (14:57:30 CET)
Sediment accumulation in a dam reservoir is a common happening environmental problem throughout the world. Topographic conditions, land use land cover change, the intensity of rainfall, and the soil characteristics are the major driving factors for sedimentation to occur. The effect of sedimentation in a dam reservoir is very visible in the watershed as a result of hilly topographic conditions, high rainfall intensity, thin land cover, and less soil infiltration capacity. In this paper, an integrated RUSLE and GIS technique was implemented to estimate a mean annual sediment yield based on spatial and temporal variations in Nashe dam reservoir situated in Fincha catchment, Abaya River basin, Ethiopia. Spatial and temporal estimation of mean annual sediment yield was estimated using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model and GIS. Historical 6-year (2014-2019) rainfall for the temporal variations and other physical factors such as soil erodibility, slope and length steepness, management and land used land cover, and support practice for spatial variations were used as sediment driving factors. The mean annual sediment yield ranges from 0 to 2712.65 t ha-1 year-1 was seen. Spatially, Very high, high, moderate, low, and very low sediment yield severity with total area coverage with 25%, 10%, 30%, 15%, and 20% in 2017, 2015, 2019, 2014, and 2018 respectively. The information about the spatial and temporal variations of the severity of sediment yield in RUSLE model has a paramount role to control the entry of sediment into the dam reservoir in this watershed. The results of the RUSLE model can also be further considered along with the watershed for planning strategies for dam reservoirs in the catchment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1035.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Qinghai-Tibet Plateau; normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI); spatial and temporal changes; driving forces; geographic detector
Online: 15 August 2023 (02:38:59 CEST)
The vegetation types on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are complex and diverse, and the ecological environment is fragile and sensitive. It is very important to study the dynamic changes in vegetation and the main factors related to these changes to grasp the present state of the regional ecosystem, maintain the balance of the ecosystem and promote the sustainable development of the ecosystem. Therefore, this paper is based on SPOT/VEG NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) data, land use data, topographic data and meteorological data from 1999 to 2019. The spatiotemporal variation in the NDVI over the Tibetan Plateau in the last 21 years and its response to different driving factors were investigated by using the Sen slope method, Mann–Kendall mutation test, partial correlation analysis and geographical detector method. The results showed that (1) the vegetation coverage on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau showed an increasing trend from 1999 to 2019, with increases in approximately 67.00% of the plateau area. (2) The spatial differences in vegetation coverage were large; notably, low-density vegetation areas decreased obviously, moderate-density vegetation areas accounted for approximately 50% of the total area, high-density vegetation areas were the least common, and the overall growth rate was significant. (3) The NDVI was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation, and a positive correlation was observed in more than 66% of the region. (4) The order of the influence of single driving factors on the NDVI was as follows: precipitation > soil type > altitude > temperature > gradient > slope > population density > GDP. (5) The effect of multiple factors was significantly higher than that of single driving factors, with a notable nonlinear influence. The interactions between meteorological factors, such as precipitation, and topographic factors, such as altitude, were important, with a q value over 0.79.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0752.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: spatial analysis; urban development; sustainable infrastructure; urban scales
Online: 28 April 2021 (15:29:41 CEST)
The reality of people’s lives has shifted from rural to urban areas, where an ever-increasing proportion of the world’s population lives. Providing infrastructure to serve these areas, especially in the Global South, is a key task of sustainable development. A deep understanding of the spatial arrangement and scales of these urban structures and their temporal evolution can help to develop innovative solutions to issues of energy, water, or transportation infrastructures. For this purpose, in this work we study the temporal evolution of urban built-up structures (Global Artificial Impervious Area) and population distributions (Global Human Settlement Population) in four regions of the Global South (Argentina, India, Egypt, and Nigeria). We qualitatively analyze regularity through the pair correlation function and subsequently identify typical scales within the different interurban systems. In doing so, we identify that especially the large settlement objects arrange themselves in a regular way and thus typical scales exist in urban systems. Thus, settlement objects are usually located about 20 to 40 km apart from each other. This information can be used to develop sustainable infrastructure concepts, for example for passenger transport between settlements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0103.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: ordinary kriging; geostatistical analysis; spatial variability; Moso bamboo
Online: 24 October 2016 (09:48:08 CEST)
Moso bamboo is famous for fast growing and biomass accumulation, as well as high annual output for timber and bamboo shoots. These high outputs require high nutrient inputs to maintain and improve stand productivity. Soil nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) are important micronutrients for plant growth and productivity. Due to high variability of soils, analysing spatial patterns of soil N, P and K stocks is necessary for scientific nutrient management in Moso bamboo forests. In this study, soils were sampled from 138 locations across Yong’an City and ordinary kriging was applied for spatial interpolation of soil N, P and K stocks. Soil N stock showed a strong spatial dependence while soil N and P stocks presented a moderate spatial dependence, indicating soil N was mainly controlled by intrinsic factors while soil N and P stocks were controlled by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Different spatial patterns were observed for soil N, P and K stocks across the whole study area, indicating that fertilizations with different ratios of N:P:K should be applied for different sites to maintain and improve stand productivity. The total soil N, P and K stocks within 0-60 cm were 0.624, 0.020 and 0.583 Tg, respectively.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0114.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: HOX gene collinearity; spatial collinearity; temporal collinearity; TC disappearence; TC reappearence
Online: 7 September 2021 (09:56:27 CEST)
It was observed that a cluster of ordered genes (Hox1, Hox2, Hox3,…) in the genome are activated in the ontogenetic units (1, 2, 3,…) of an embryo along the Anterior/Posterior axis following the same order of the Hox genes. This Spatial Collinearity (SC) is very strange since it correlates events of very different spatial dimensions. It was later observed in vertebrates, that, in the above ordering, first is Hox1expressed in ontogenetic unit 1, followed later by Hox2 in unit 2, and even later Hox3 in unit 3….This temporal collinearity (TC) is an enigma and even to-day is explored in depth. In 1999 T. Kondo and D. Duboule, after posterior upstream extended DNA excisions , concluded that the Hox cluster behaves ‘as if’ TC disappears. Here the consideration of TC really disappearing is taken face value and its repercussions are analyzed. Furthermore, an experiment is proposed to test TC disappearance. An outcome of this experiment could be the reappearance (partial or total) of TC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1293.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: spatial proteomics; spatial resolution; temporal resolution; super-resolution microscopy; fluorescence microscopy,
Online: 18 May 2023 (07:54:20 CEST)
Dawn of the omics revolution in biological sciences meant that we seek to understand more and in greater detail the molecular constituents of cells and biological systems. While we have gained significant insights from conventional omics tools, we now seek to understand the spatial dimensions of the data where subcellular localisation may impact on cellular physiology and phenotype. This review paper seeks to address current questions in the new field of image-based spatial proteomics as well as outline future challenges of the field. At first glance, spatial proteomics offers enormous potential to expand our understanding of different cell types in different disease and cell states. But limitations in types of fluorophores and issues with spectral overlap significantly hampers the practical implementation of the technique. On the other hand, while we have super-resolution microscopy techniques such as STED, PALM and STORM able to achieve 10 to 20 nm spatial resolution in single molecule localisation, problems with slow image acquisition limits high temporal resolution tracking of multiple protein targets in live cell imaging. Hence, the field of spatial proteomics is a mix of promises and challenges where we could image, in multi-colour, upwards of 10 well-chosen proteins that could inform on the molecular mechanisms of selected biological processes, but, at present, the method could not tackle larger scale questions. In essence, current implementation of image-based spatial proteomics is useful, but it is unable to fulfil the mission of large-scale projects such as the Human Protein Atlas or Human Cell Atlas. Future challenges in the field includes the development of more fluorophores (especially photoswitchable and photoactivable ones) for single molecule localisation microscopy, as well as seeking to improve temporal resolutions to the sub-millisecond range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0550.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: social vulnerability; natural hazards; spatial analysis; risk; severe weather; Mexico
Online: 10 October 2023 (05:44:43 CEST)
The spatial and temporal changes in social vulnerability to natural hazards in Mexico are analyzed. To this end, using census data from 2000, 2010, and 2020 and a statistical method, different indices were computed, and with a GIS-based approach, patterns of social vulnerability are examined. In addition, a risk assessment test for severe weather (thunderstorms, hailstorms, and tornadoes) is made out. The results show different common social vulnerability driving factors in the three analyzed years, with root causes that have not been addressed since the beginning of the century. Likewise, a wider gap between Mexico's most and least vulnerable populations is identified. The changes in spatial patterns respond to different historical situations, such as migration, urbanization, and increased population. Also, poverty, ethnicity, and marginalization factors located in very particular regions in Mexico have remained relatively the same in the last few years. These situations have strongly influenced the spatial-temporal distribution of vulnerability in the country. The role of social vulnerability in the disaster risk to extreme events such as thunderstorms, hailstorms, and tornadoes in Mexico is fundamental to understanding changes in disaster distribution at the national level, and it is the first step to generating improvements in integrated risk management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0134.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: spatial-spectral feature; very high spatial resolution image; classification; Tobler’s First Law of Geography
Online: 17 March 2017 (05:06:12 CET)
Aerial image classification has become popular and has attracted extensive research efforts in recent decades. The main challenge lies in its very high spatial resolution but relatively insufficient spectral information. To this end, spatial-spectral feature extraction is a popular strategy for classification. However, parameter determination for that feature extraction is usually time-consuming and depends excessively on experience. In this paper, an automatic spatial feature extraction approach based on image raster and segmental vector data cross-analysis is proposed for the classification of very high spatial resolution (VHSR) aerial imagery. First, multi-resolution segmentation is used to generate strongly homogeneous image objects and extract corresponding vectors. Then, to automatically explore the region of a ground target, two rules, which are derived from Tobler’s First Law of Geography (TFL) and a topological relationship of vector data, are integrated to constrain the extension of a region around a central object. Third, the shape and size of the extended region are described. A final classification map is achieved through a supervised classifier using shape, size, and spectral features. Experiments on three real aerial images of VHSR (0.1 to 0.32 m) are done to evaluate effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach. Comparisons to state-of-the-art methods demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method in VHSR image classification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1590.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: ontology; spatial-temporal ontology; ocean circulation; semantic analysis; Web Ontology Language (OWL)
Online: 23 May 2023 (07:12:42 CEST)
Ocean circulation serve as the primary channels for transporting material and energy flows throughout the entire ocean system, which plays a crucial role in shaping Earth’s climate, weather patterns, and marine ecosystems. The ocean movements have far-reaching impacts on both the environment and human life. An effective method for semantically modeling the ocean circulation is urgently required to be established. To achieve a unified description of ocean circulation at the semantic level, this paper introduces the theory and methodology of ocean ontology, which is developed through an analysis of domain knowledge in ocean circulation. We focus on analyzing the concepts, temporal relationships, and spatial relationships of ocean circulation. By defining classes, properties, relationships, instances, and constraint conditions within the logical structure of an ontology, it is feasible to formalize the expression of conceptual elements and their relationships. Additionally, semantic inference rules are established to finalize the construction of the ocean circulation ontology. The effectiveness of ontology construction has been verified through practical examples. Furthermore, a specialized knowledge base framework has been developed upon the ontology description of ocean circulation. Some examples of knowledge base queries have been articulated and verified. The results demonstrate that this ontology can effectively represent the relevant knowledge in the domain of ocean circulation and provide a meaningful strategy for investigating semantic integration and knowledge sharing in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0485.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Industrial green innovation efficiency; Innovation value chain perspective; Super-efficient network SBM model; Spatial Dubin model
Online: 25 November 2021 (16:06:00 CET)
Green innovation has become an important combination of high-quality economic growth and sustainable development of ecological environment. In this paper, the super-efficiency network SBM model is used to measure the two-stage green innovation efficiency of industrial science and technology R&D and achievement transformation in 30 provinces and cities from 2009 to 2019, and exploratory Data Analysis (ESDA) and spatial econometric model are used to investigate the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics and influencing factors of green innovation efficiency. The results show that: firstly, the overall efficiency of industrial green innovation is low, and the efficiency of scientific research and development and achievement transformation has experienced three stages of "upward-declining-revitalized period". The low efficiency of achievement transformation is an important factor hiding the improvement of the efficiency of industrial green innovation. Secondly, The industrial green innovation efficiency gradually increases from northwest to southeast, forming a centralized "line" and "block" distribution. The high efficiency area is still concentrated in the eastern coastal region, and the balanced development trend is obvious in the central and western regions. Finally, openness has a positive impact on the two-stage green innovation efficiency; Industrial structure and government investment in science and technology have a positive impact on the efficiency of science and technology research and development, but have no significant effect on the efficiency of achievement transformation. Enterprise size has a positive effect on achievement transformation efficiency, but has no significant effect on R&D efficiency. Environmental regulation has a positive impact on R&D efficiency and a negative impact on achievement transformation efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1601.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: FY-4A/AGRI LST; In situ measurement; remote sensing product evaluation; surface heat resource; temporal and spatial analysis
Online: 25 September 2023 (10:09:45 CEST)
Land surface temperature (LST) is a crucial parameter in climate and ecology, exerting significant influence on meteorological conditions, ecosystems, and human life. LST data sources are diverse, with remote sensing being the prevailing means of acquisition. FY-4A/AGRI offers high-quality LST products for East Asia. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the product in Hunan Province and conducted refined analysis of surface heat resources based on the 4km/1h resolution product over a two-year period. The results demonstrate that the FY-4A LST product effectively captures surface temperature (R=0.893), albeit with a relatively high error level (Bias=-6.295℃; RMSE=8.58℃), particularly in capturing high LST values. The performance of this product is superior in the eastern flat terrain area of Hunan Province compared to its performance in the western mountainous region due to environmental conditions causing systematic errors that contribute to instability in detection deviation for this product. Surface heat resources are more abundant in eastern Hunan Province than in mountainous areas located west and southwardly, and the detailed distribution of them at finer scales is mainly influenced by the terrain and climate conditions. There is no obvious seasonal difference in the distribution of heat resources except in winter, and rapid urbanization within Chang-Zhu-Tan urban agglomeration during two years has significantly altered the spatial distribution pattern of surface heat resources across Hunan Province. These findings provide a quantitative baseline for assessing FY-4A satellite's detection capability while serving as a reference for further application of its LST products and establishing foundations for divisional classification and utilization strategies pertaining to surface heat resources within Hunan Province.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0523.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: coupled chaotic oscillators; spatial-temporal patterns; regular patterns
Online: 9 October 2023 (10:45:47 CEST)
A closed chain of oscillators can be considered as a model of ring-shaped ecosystems, such as atolls or coastal zones of inland reservoirs. As an oscillator model, we use the logistic map that often referred to as an archetypical example of how complex dynamics can arise from very simple nonlinear equations. We investigate the influence of the model parameters both on the nature of oscillations in the oscillator ring and on the spatial structures that arise in this case. Namely, we demonstrate a variety of emerging spatial structures depending on the initial conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0603.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Ecosystem Services; Spatial Modelling; Soil Erosion; Sediment retention; InVEST model
Online: 24 March 2021 (16:22:25 CET)
Soils provide important regulating ecosystem services and have crucial implications for human well-being and environmental conservation. However, soil degradation and particularly soil erosion jeopardize the maintenance and existence of these services. This study explores the spatio-temporal relationships of soil erosion to understand the distribution patterns of sediment retention services in mainland Portugal. Based on Corine Land Cover maps from 1990 to 2018, the InVEST Sediment Delivery Ratio (SDR) model was used to evaluate the influence of sediment dynamics for soil and water conservation. Spatial differences in the sediment retention levels were observed within the NUTS III boundaries, showing which areas are more vulnerable to soil erosion processes. Results indicated that the Region of Leiria, Douro and the coastal regions have decreased importantly sediment retention capacity over the years. However, in most of the territory (77.52%) changes in sediment retention were little or not important (i.e., less than 5%). The statistical validation of the model proved the consistency of the results, highlighting the usefulness of this methodology to analyse the state of soil erosion in the country. These findings can be relevant to support strategies for more efficient land use planning regarding soil erosion mitigation practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0583.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: Agricultural surface pollution; Yangtze River Economic Zone; spatial and temporal characteristics; threshold effect
Online: 8 September 2023 (09:00:39 CEST)
In order to better realize rural revitalization, this paper analyzes the spatial and temporal char-acteristics and influencing factors of agricultural surface source pollution in the Yangtze River Economic Belt from the three perspectives of government, enterprise and agriculture by using the spatial Durbin model and the dynamic GMM method in the period of 2006-2021, and further re-searches the threshold characteristics of the distortion of the factor market on the agricultural surface source pollution under the different strengths of environmental regulation. The results show that there is a positive spatial correlation between agricultural surface pollution in the Yangtze River Economic Belt, and government environmental regulation, input factor market distortion and labor force transfer all have a significant impact on agricultural surface pollution. Among them, factor market distortion has a significant spatial spillover effect on agricultural surface pollution in the Yangtze River Economic Zone, and has a significant single-threshold ef-fect on environmental regulation. Accordingly, the government should strengthen environmental regulation, continuously improve the agricultural factor market mechanism, and pay attention to the construction of talents to provide support for rural revitalization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0626.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Coronavirus; Spatial Similarity; Fractal Theory; Neural Networks; Fuzzy Logic.
Online: 25 June 2021 (15:55:53 CEST)
In this article, the evolution in space and in time of the coronavirus pandemic is studied by utilizing a neural network with a self-organizing nature for the spatial analysis of data, and a fuzzy fractal method for capturing the temporal trends of the time series of the countries. Self-organizing neural networks possess the capability for clustering countries in the space domain based on their similar characteristics with respect to their coronavirus cases. In this form enabling finding the countries that are having similar behavior and thus can benefit from utilizing the same methods in fighting the virus propagation. To validate the approach, publicly available datasets of coronavirus cases worldwide have been used. In addition, a fuzzy fractal approach is utilized for the temporal analysis of time series of the countries. Then, a hybrid combination of both the self-organizing maps and the fuzzy fractal approach is proposed for efficient COVID-19 forecasting of the countries. Relevant conclusions have emerged from this study, that may be of great help in putting forward the best possible strategies in fighting the virus pandemic. A lot of the existing works concerned with the Coronavirus have look at the problem mostly from the temporal viewpoint that is of course relevant, but we strongly believe that the combination of both aspects of the problem is relevant to improve the forecasting ability. The most relevant contribution of this article is the proposal of combining neural networks with a self-organizing nature for clustering countries with high similarity and the fuzzy fractal approach for being able to forecast the times series and help in planning control actions for the Coronavirus pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0134.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: spatial resolution; interpolation method; CREST model; Qinhuai catchment
Online: 13 August 2016 (04:28:19 CEST)
Distributed/semi-distributed models are considered to be sensitive to the spatial resolution of the data input. In this paper, we take a small catchment in high urbanized Yangtze River Delta, Qinhuai catchment as study area, to analyze the impact of spatial resolution of precipitation and the potential evapotranspiration (PET) on the long-term runoff and flood runoff process. The data source includes the TRMM precipitation data, FEWS download PET data, and the interpolated metrological station data. GIS/RS technique was used to collect and pre-process the geographical, precipitation and PET series, which were then served as the input of CREST (Coupled Routing and Excess Storage) model to simulate the runoff process. The results clearly showed that, the CREST model is applicable to the Qinhuai catchment; the spatial resolution of precipitation had strong influence on the modelled runoff results and the metrological precipitation data cannot be substituted by the TRMM data in small catchment; the CREST model was not sensitive to the spatial resolution of the PET data, while the estimation fourmula of the PET data was correlated with the model quality. This paper focused on the small urbanized catchment, suggesting the influential explanatory variables for the model performance, and providing reliable reference for the study in similar area.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0173.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: high-speed photography; spatial resolution; frame rate; the raster principle
Online: 4 December 2023 (15:11:43 CET)
Due to the lack of theoretical research on the amount of spatio-temporal information in the high-speed photography technologies, obtaining an optimized system with a best amount of spatio-temporal information remains a challenge, resulting in insufficient effective information and observation accuracy for ultrafast events. The paper presents an ultrafast raster imaging (URI) system with a large amount of spatio-temporal information based on the all-optical raster principle in single-shot. Specifically, we derive the optimal equation of spatial resolution and the expression for the maximum amount of spatio-temporal information that can achieve excellent performance for an URI system. It serves as a general guideline for getting a large amount of information design in the URI system. Compared to the existing URI systems, the advanced URI system exhibits an improvement of nearly 1 order of magnitude in the amount of spatio-temporal information, and more than twofold in spatial resolution. It shows a great potential for capturing intricate and non-repetitive ultrafast events on the femtosecond time scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1546.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Brazil; control measures; COVID-19; spatial analysis; temporal analysis
Online: 22 August 2023 (09:39:45 CEST)
Data on the temporal and spatial evolution of Sars-Cov-2, local control measures and their effects on morbidity and mortality patterns in rural Brazil are scarce. We analyzed data from case notification systems, epidemiological investigation reports, and municipal decrees in a small municipality in northeast Brazil. For spatial analysis, cases and deaths in the urban area were mapped. There were a total of 3,020 cases of COVID-19 from April 2020 to December 2021; 135 (4.5%) died. The cumulative incidence and mortality rates were 5,650.3 cases and 252.6 deaths per 100,000 population, respectively. The index case of Sars-Cov-2 in the city was diagnosed in March 2020. The first peak of cases and deaths occurred in May 2020. The second wave of infection peaked in May 2021, with the highest number of deaths in March 2021. In spatial analysis, the highest density of cases and deaths occurred in the urban area. The municipal government issued 69 decrees on restriction measures, surveillance, and maintenance of social isolation to address the spread of SarsCov-2. The spread of the Sars-Cov-2 pandemic in Itapajé mirrored the behavior observed in large metropolitan regions, from central neighborhoods to the periphery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0088.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: canopy; root; biomass; spatial wavelet coherence; radar; lidar
Online: 21 October 2016 (06:05:11 CEST)
Ecosystem physical structure, defined by the quantity and spatial distribution of biomass, influences a range of ecosystem functions. Remote sensing tools permit the non-destructive characterization of canopy and root features, potentially providing opportunities to link above- and belowground structure at fine spatial resolution in functionally meaningful ways. To test this possibility, we employed ground-based portable canopy lidar (PCL) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) along co-located transects in forested sites spanning multiple stages of ecosystem development and, consequently, of structural complexity. We examined canopy and root structural data for coherence at multiple spatial scales ≤ 10 m within each site using wavelet analysis. Forest sites varied substantially in vertical canopy and root structure, with leaf area index and root mass more evenly distributed by height and depth, respectively, as forests aged. In all sites, above- and belowground structure, characterized as mean maximum canopy height and root mass, exhibited significant coherence at a scale of 3.5-4 meters, and results suggest that the scale of coherence may increase with stand age. Our findings demonstrate that canopy and root structure are linked at characteristic spatial scales, which provides the basis to optimize scales of observation. Our study highlights the potential, and limitations, for fusing lidar and radar technologies to quantitatively couple above- and belowground ecosystem structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1628.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Epidemic Spatial Heterogeneity; Diversity; Spatio-Temporal Patterns; Cluster Analysis
Online: 22 June 2023 (12:45:04 CEST)
Results from an explorative study revealing spatio-temporal patterns of the SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 epidemic in Germany are presented. We dispense with contestable model assumptions and show the intrinsic spatio-temporal patterns of the epidemic dynamics. The analysis is based on COVID-19 incidence data, which are age-stratified and spatially resolved at the county level, provided by the Federal Government’s Public Health Institute of Germany (RKI) for public use. Although the 400 county-related incidence time series show enormous heterogeneity both with respect to temporal features as well as spatial distributions, the counties’ incidence curves organise into well distinguished clusters that coincide with East and West Germany. The analysis is based on dimensionality reduction, multidimensional scaling, network analysis, and diversity measures. Dynamical changes are captured by means of difference-in-difference methods which are related to fold changes of the effective reproduction numbers. The age-related dynamical patterns suggest a considerably stronger impact of children, adolescents and seniors on the epidemic activity than previously expected. Besides these concrete interpretations, the work mainly aims at providing an atlas for spatio-temporal patterns of the epidemic which serves as a basis to be further explored with the expertise from different disciplines, particularly sociology and policy makers. The study should also be understood as a methodological contribution to getting a handle on the unusual complexity of the COVID-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0084.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: light pollution; monitoring approach; spatial distribution; residential zone; Beijing
Online: 14 March 2017 (13:23:18 CET)
Outdoor lighting is becoming increasingly widespread, and residents are suffering from serious light pollution as a result. Residents’ awareness of their rights to protection has gradually increased. However, due to the sometimes-inaccessible nature of residential vertical light incidence intensity data and the high cost of obtaining specific measurements, there is no appropriate hierarchic compensation for residents suffering from different degrees of light pollution. It is therefore important to measure light pollution levels and their damage at the neighborhood scale to provide residents with basic materials for proper protection and to create more politically suitable solutions. This article presents a light pollution assessment method that is easy to perform, is low-cost, and has a short data-processing cycle. This method can be used to monitor residential zone light pollution in other cities. We chose three open areas to test the spatial variation pattern of light intensity. The results are in accordance with spatial interpolation patterns and can be fit, with high precision, using the IDW method. This approach can also be used in 3 dimensions to quantitatively evaluate the distribution of light intensity distribution. We use a mixed-use zone in Beijing known as The Place as our case study area. The vertical illumination at the windows of residential buildings ranges from 2 lux to 23 lux; the illumination in some areas is far higher than the value recommended by CIE. Such severe light pollution can seriously interfere with people's daily lives and has a serious influence on their rest and health. The results of this survey will serve as an important database to assess whether the planning of night-time lighting is scientific and whether it provides residents with a basis for the protection of their rights.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0033.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: industrial pollutant emissions; urbanization; the spatial panel model; Chinese case
Online: 14 July 2016 (12:12:25 CEST)
Urbanization is considered as a main indicator of regional economic development due to its positive effect on promoting industrial development; however, many regions, especially developing countries, are troubled by its negative effect — the aggravating environmental pollution. Many researchers have indicated that rapid urbanization stimulated the expansion of industrial production scale and increased industrial pollutant emissions. However, this judgement contains a grave deficiency in that urbanization not only expands industrial production scales but can also increase industrial labour productivity and change the industrial structure. To modify this deficiency, we first decompose the influence which urbanization impacts on industrial pollutant emissions into the scale effect, the intensive effect and the structure effect by using the Kaya Identity and the LMDI Method; second, we perform an empirical study of the three effects’ impacts by applying the spatial panel model with data from 282 Chinese cities between 2003 and 2013. Our results indicate that (1) there are significant reverse U-shapes between Chinese urbanization rate and its industrial pollutant emissions; (2) the scale effect and the structure effect have aggravated Chinese industrial waste water discharge, sulphur dioxide emissions and soot (dust) emissions, while the intensive effect has generated a decreasing and ameliorative impact on that aggravated trend. The definite relationship between urbanization and industrial pollutant emissions depends on the combined influence of the scale effect, the intensive effect and the structure effect; (3) there are significant spatial autocorrelations of industrial pollutant emissions between Chinese cities, but the spatial spillover effect from other cities does not aggravate local urban industrial pollutant emissions, we offer an explanation to this contradiction that the vast rural areas surrounding Chinese cities have served as sponge belts and have absorbed the spatial spillover of cities’ industrial pollutant emissions. According to the results, we argue that this type of decomposition of the influence into three effects is necessary and meaningful, it establishes a solid foundation for understanding the relationship between urbanization and industrial pollutant emissions, and effectively helps to meet relative policy making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0635.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Embedded spatial-temporal convolutional neural network (EST-CNN); aerosols classification; fire smokes; interferential aerosol
Online: 9 November 2023 (11:46:42 CET)
Photoelectric smoke detectors are the most cost-effective devices for very early fire alarms. However, due to different light intensity response values for different fire smoke and interference from interferential aerosols, they have a high false alarm rate, which limits their popularity in Chinese homes. To address these issues, an embedded spatial-temporal convolutional neural network (EST-CNN) model is proposed for real fire smokes identification and aerosols (fire smokes and interferential aerosol) classification. EST-CNN consists of three modules including information fusion, scattering feature extraction, and aerosol classification. Moreover, a two dimensional spatial-temporal scattering (2D-TS) matrix is designed to fuse the scattered light intensities in different channels and adjacent time slices, which is the output of the information fusion module and the input of the scattering feature extraction module. EST-CNN is trained and tested with experimental data measured on the established fire test platform using the developed dual-wavelength dual-angle photoelectric smoke detector. The optimal network parameters are selected through extensive experiments resulting in an average classification accuracy of 95.6% for different aerosols with only 66 kB network parameters. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the designed EST-CNN model to be directly installed in existing commercial photoelectric smoke detectors to realize aerosol classification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0525.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Autoregressive process; Bayesian Poisson model; principal component analysis (PCA); spatial conditional autoregressive; Sustainable Development Goals
Online: 10 July 2023 (09:53:15 CEST)
There is voluminous literature on Food Security in Africa. This study explicitly considers the spatio-temporal factors in addition to the usual FAO-based metrics in modeling and understanding the dynamics of food security and nutrition across the African continent. To better understand the complex trajectory and burden of food insecurity and nutrition in Africa, it is crucial to consider space-time factors when modeling and interpreting food security. The spatio-temporal anova model was found to be superior(employing statistical criteria) to the other there models from the spatio-temporal interaction domain models. The results of the study suggest that dietary supply adequacy, food stability, and consumption status are positively associated with severe food security, while average food supply and environmental factors have negative effects on Food Security and Nutrition. The findings also indicate that severe food insecurity and malnutrition are spatially and temporally correlated across the African continent. Spatio-temporal modeling and spatial mapping are essential components of a comprehensive practice to reduce the burden of severe food insecurity. likewise, any planning and intervention to improve the average food supply and environment to promote sustainable development should be regional instead of one size fit all.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0388.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: spatial single-cell analysis; intratumor heterogeneity; kriging; spatial entropy; Was-serstein distance; cancer; RNA-seq
Online: 26 September 2022 (08:57:58 CEST)
Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) is associated with therapeutic resistance and poor prognosis in cancer patients, and attributed to genetic, epigenetic, and microenvironmental factors. We developed a new computational platform, GATHER, for geostatistical modeling of single cell RNA-seq data to synthesize high-resolution and continuous gene expression landscapes of a given tumor sample. Such landscapes allow GATHER to map the enriched regions of pathways of interest in the tumor space and identify genes that have spatial differential expressions at locations representing specific phenotypic contexts using measures based on optimal transport. GATHER provides new applications of spatial entropy measures for quantification and objective characterization of ITH. It includes new tools for insightful visualization of spatial transcriptomic phenomena. We illustrate the capabilities of GATHER using real data from breast cancer tumor to study hallmarks of cancer in the phenotypic contexts defined by cancer associated fibroblasts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0149.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Spatial Pattern; Land Use; Spatial Metric; Aggregation; Diversity
Online: 19 May 2017 (16:21:11 CEST)
Pekalongan is one of several cities that lies in the northern coast of Java island which is often flooded due to sea level rise. This condition impacted its urban development characteristic and increase in the future. In this research both Geographical Information System based and Spatial Metric approach are used. The spatial pattern is analyzed by using spatial metric based on the exploration of land use change that occurred. In this research, the spatial pattern is focused on aggregation pattern and diversity in coastal area. The result shows that the land use of coastal area are dominated with swamp, then followed by settlement and fishpond. It is also shown that the greatest land use change occurred on paddy field and swamp areas. Based on the spatial metric calculation, the aggregation level of land use decrease periodically and has a small growth level. It is indicated from its metric value aggregation and diversity from two periods: 2003-2009 and 2009-2016. Overall the land use of Pekalongan experienced large dynamics, especially in its coastal area. The spatial pattern trend in those area tend to be more sprawl as defined by the decrease of aggregation pattern and low level of land use growth pattern.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0145.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: spatial pattern; land use; spatial metric; aggregation; diversity
Online: 19 May 2017 (08:43:14 CEST)
Pekalongan is one of several cities that lies in the northern coast of Java island which is often flooded due to sea level rise. This condition impacted its urban development characteristic and increase in the future. In this research both Geographical Information System based and Spatial Metric approach are used. The spatial pattern is analyzed by using spatial metric based on the exploration of land use change that occurred. In this research, the spatial pattern is focused on aggregation pattern and diversity in coastal area. The result shows that the land use of coastal area are dominated with swamp, then followed by settlement and fishpond. It is also shown that the greatest land use change occurred on paddy field and swamp areas. Based on the spatial metric calculation, the aggregation level of land use decrease periodically and has a small growth level. It is indicated from its metric value aggregation and diversity from two periods: 2003-2009 and 2009-2016. Overall the land use of Pekalongan experienced large dynamics, especially in its coastal area. The spatial pattern trend in those area tend to be more sprawl as defined by the decrease of aggregation pattern and low level of land use growth pattern.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0167.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: renewable energy; energy consumption; air pollution; spatial dubin model; spatial analysis
Online: 9 July 2020 (06:00:31 CEST)
The rapid development of China's economy has led to a rapid increase in energy production and use. Among them, the excessive consumption of coal in fossil energy consumption is the leading cause of air pollution in China. This paper incorporates renewable energy innovation, fossil energy consumption and air pollution into a unified analysis framework, and uses spatial measurement models to investigate the spatial effects of renewable energy green innovation and fossil energy consumption on air pollution in China, and decomposes the total impact into direct and indirect effects. influences. The empirical results show that China's air pollution, renewable energy green innovation and fossil energy consumption are extremely uneven in geographical space, generally showing the characteristics of high in the east and low in the west, and showing a strong spatial aggregation phenomenon. Fossil energy consumption will lead to increased air pollution, and the replacement of fossil fuels with clean and renewable energy is an important means of controlling pollution emissions. The direct and indirect effects of renewable energy green innovation on air pollution are significantly negative, indicating that renewable energy green innovation not only suppresses local air pollution, but also suppresses air pollution in neighboring areas. The consumption of fossil energy will significantly increase the local air pollution, and the impact on the SO2 and Dust&Smoke pollution in the adjacent area is not very obvious. It is recommended to strengthen investment in renewable energy green innovation, reduce the proportion of traditional fossil energy consumption, and pay attention to the spatial connection and spillover of renewable energy green innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0566.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Air puff, CorvisST; ORA; Airflow pressure of NCT,; Physical dimension of jet stream; Temporal and spatial distribution of the air puff
Online: 27 January 2021 (16:02:22 CET)
(1) Aim of the study was to investigate the spatial and temporal characteristics of the airflow created by two commercially available non-contact tonometers, the CorvisST and the Ocular Re-sponse Analyser. (2) The airflow pressure was measured using a MEMS pressure sensor to inves-tigate the spatial and temporal distribution. The airflow from the CorvisST and Ocular Response Analyser were mapped to a 600µm and a 1mm resolution grid, respectively. (3) Central airflow pressure of the CorvisST (96.4 ± 1.4)mmHg was higher than the Ocular Response Analyser (91.7 ± 0.7)mmHg. The duration of the air-puffs also differed, with the CorvisST showing a shorter du-ration (21.483 ± 0.2881)ms than the ORA (23.061 ± 0.1872)ms. The rising edge of the CorvisST airflow pressure profile demonstrated a lower gradient (+8.94mmHg/ms) compared to the Oc-ular Response Analyser (+11.00mmHg/ms). Both had similar decay response edges; CorvisST -11.18mmHg/ms, Ocular Response Analyser -11.65mmHg/ms. (4) The study presents a valid method to investigate physical dimensions of the airflow pressure of non-contact tonometers. Novel findings relating to the magnitude, duration and spatial characteristics of the respective airflow pressures are reported. It is anticipated that this information will better inform clinical studies and theoretical models relating to ocular biomechanics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0128.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Precipitation; Tibetan Plateau; trends; temporal-spatial distribution; hydrological cycle;
Online: 29 January 2017 (09:43:00 CET)
The Tibetan Plateau(TP) is known as ‘the water tower of Asian’, its precipitation variation play an important role in the eco-hydrological processes and water resources regimes. based on the monthly mean precipitation data of 65 meteorological stations over the Tibetan Plateau and the surrounding areas from 1961-2015,variations, trends and temporal-spatial distribution were analyzed, furthermore, the possible reasons were also discussed preliminarily. The main results are summarized as follows: the annual mean precipitation in the TP is 465.54mm during 1961-2015, among four seasons, the precipitation in summer accounts for 60.1% of the annual precipitation, the precipitation in summer half year (May.- Oct.) accounts for 91.0% while that in winter half year (Nov.- Apr.) only accounts for 9.0%; During 1961-2015, the annual precipitation variability is 0.45mm/a and the seasonal precipitation variability is 0.31mm/a, 0.13mm/a, -0.04mm/a and 0.04mm/a in spring, summer, autumn and winter respectively on the TP; The spatial distribution of precipitation can be summarized as decreasing from southeast to northwest in the TP, the trend of precipitation is decreasing with the increase of altitude, but the correlation is not significant. The rising of air temperature and land cover changes may cause the precipitation by changing the hydrologic cycle and energy budget, furthermore, different pattern of atmospheric circulation can also influence on precipitation variability in different regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0067.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: spatial scale; CCA; indicator species analysis; land use; SWAT; bioassessment
Online: 17 February 2017 (07:33:16 CET)
We evaluated the potential of using fish species and functional traits as indicators of land use impacts to fish assemblages. We used environmental data collected at multiple spatial scales (local, reach, and upstream catchment) for 19 tributary and main stem sites in the Nolichucky River watershed in Tennessee. Canonical correspondence analyses showed that temperature, elevation, specific conductivity, sediment yield, impervious surfaces, and row crop cover at the catchment scale were strongly associated with fish assemblage structure, as well as forest cover from all three spatial scales. Blocked indicator species analysis, with stream size as the block, showed that significantly strong indicators of the least-impacted riparian land use condition (≥60% forest cover) were Saffron Shiner (Notropis rubricroceus), Rainbow Trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss), Longnose Dace (Rhynichthys cataractae), Creek Chub (Semotilus atromaculatus), and Mottled Sculpin (Cottus bairdi). Traits indicative of the least-impacted sites were the herbivorous trophic guild, mean female age-at-maturity, longevity, rock-gravel spawners, montane geology and pelagic swimmers. Specific conductivity was strongly related to multiple catchment-scale land use variables, and was a strong local-scale influence on fish assemblage structure. Our results show promise for using a relatively common but endemic southern Appalachian fish species, the Saffron Shiner, as an indicator for land-use related impacts to these streams.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0790.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Cognitive style; Spatial Cognition; Sense of Direction; Spatial Orientation; Mental Rotation; Individual Differences
Online: 30 April 2021 (15:23:16 CEST)
Background: Military pilots show high visuo-spatial skills. Previous studies demonstrate that they are better in mental rotating a target, in taking different perspectives, in estimating distances, in travel planning and in topographic memory. Here, we compared navigational cognitive styles between military pilots and people without flight experience. Pilots were expected to be more survey users than non-pilots, showing higher navigational strategies. Method: 106 jet military pilots of Italian Air Force and 92 non-pilots were enrolled in order to investigate group differences in navigational styles. Participants were asked to perform a reduced version of the Spatial Cognitive Style Test – SCST, consisting of six tasks that allow to distinguish individuals in landmark (people orient themselves by using a figurative memory for environmental objects), route (people use an egocentric representation of the space) and survey (people have a map-like representation of the space) users. Results: In line with our hypothesis, military pilots mainly adopt a survey style, whereas non-pilots mainly adopt the route style. In addition, pilots outperformed non pilots in both the 3D-Rotation task and Map Description Task. Conclusion: Military flight expertise influences some aspects of the spatial ability, leading to enhance human navigation. Although, it must be considered that they are a population whose navigational skills were already high at the time of selection at the academy before formal training began.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0862.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: spatial modeling; machine learning; glacier mapping; glacier retreat; climate change; spatial autocorrelation; spatial cross-validation
Online: 13 October 2023 (09:45:37 CEST)
Accurately glacier mapping is crucial for understanding climate change impacts, but existing efforts may be biased due to overlooking spatial autocorrelation during map validation. To address this, we compared several widely used machine learning algorithms as gradient boosting machines (GBM), k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and random forest (RF) with parametric logistic regression (GLM) and an unsupervised remote sensing-based method (NDSI) for mapping Peru's glacier regions in a thoughtful experimental setup. Spatial and non-spatial cross-validation methods were used to evaluate model’s performance and compared with a fully independent test set. Performance differences of up to 18% were found between bias-reduced (spatial) and overoptimistic (non-spatial) cross-validation results when compared to independent test set, emphasizing the need to consider spatial autocorrelation when using machine learning for glacier mapping. K-nearest neighbors (KNN) was the overall best model across regions consistently demonstrating the highest performance followed by logistic regression (LR) and gradient boosting machines (GBM). Our novel validation approach, accounting for spatial characteristics, provides valuable insights for glacier mapping studies and future efforts on glacier retreat monitoring. Incorporating this approach improves the reliability of glacier mapping, guiding future national-level initiatives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0398.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Two-tiered mobile wireless sensor networks; Internet of Things; fine-grained spatial-temporal Top-k query; privacy preservation; completeness verification
Online: 17 February 2021 (14:24:16 CET)
To ensure the security of spatial-temporal Top-k query in two-tiered wireless sensor networks, many schemes have been proposed in the literature in the past decade. However, most of them only consider the scenario where sensor nodes are static, and cannot achieve the security goal for spatial-temporal Top-k query in mobile sensor networks, because the mobility of the sensor nodes will affect the spatial-temporal relationships of the sensory data items generated by the sensor nodes. Although we have proposed some schemes for two-tiered mobile wireless sensor networks (TMWSNs) in our previous work, there is still large room to improve their performances. In this paper, we proposed a novel scheme named STQ-TMWSN for secure fine-grained spatial-temporal Top-k query in TMWSNs based on the virtual-grid construction and the size-order encryption binding. Theoretic analysis shows that STQ-TMWSN can achieve low computation complexity and high security performance. Simulation results indicate that STQ-TMWSN brings much lower communication cost than the state-of-the-art schemes on securing Top-k query in TMWSNs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1243.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: agricultural green development; ecological conservation developing area; spatial and temporal heterogeneity; energy consumption; resources utilization efficiency; Obstacle degree calculating model
Online: 20 October 2023 (08:36:43 CEST)
As an irreplaceable ecological barrier, the ecological conservation developing area (ECDA) is vital for the integrated construction of urban and rural areas, and optimization and adjustment of industrial structure. Developing green agriculture is the foundation and guarantee for improving the rural ecological environment and meeting the increasing needs of farmers′ income. Issued by the Chinese government, No. 1 Central Document stated the necessity of promoting agricultural green development (AGD) and the related technologies in dealing with ecological pressure and resource shortages, especially for large cities like Beijing. However, few empirical studies have conducted on spatiotemporal variations of AGD in ECDA of large cities. Based on the green agricultural traits of Beijing and the accessible data, we evaluate AGD and analyze its spatial and temporal heterogeneity of Beijing ECDA by constructiing a framework with 13 indicators. The weight coefficients of AGD indicators were calculated by the projection pursuit method, with the district panel data from 2006 to 2016. The results demonstrated that energy consumption is a vital factor of green agriculture production, and agricultural output value per unit of the arable land area is the key to the green agricultural revenue. From 2006 to 2016, the AGD index of ECDA had an increasing trend till 2012, followed by a decreasing tendency. The AGD index of the northern region is higher than the southern of ECDA. The obstacle degree model was used to verify AGD limiting factors. They were poor infrastructure, slow agritourism, low labor productivity, and low resource utilization efficiency that varied by districts in ECDA. Given these findings, our study is conducive to the AGD evaluation at the district (county) level for ECDA of large cities and also provides important policy implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0028.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: GPS trajectory; GPS sensor; trajectory similarity measure; spatial-temporal data
Online: 6 March 2017 (06:51:37 CET)
With the rapid spread of built-in GPS handheld smart devices, the trajectory data from GPS sensors has grown explosively. Trajectory data has spatio-temporal characteristics and rich information. Using trajectory data processing techniques can mine the patterns of human activities and the moving patterns of vehicles in the intelligent transportation systems. A trajectory similarity measure is one of the most important issues in trajectory data mining (clustering, classification, frequent pattern mining, etc.). Unfortunately, the main similarity measure algorithms with the trajectory data have been found to be inaccurate, highly sensitive of sampling methods, and have low robustness for the noise data. To solve the above problems, three distances and their corresponding computation methods are proposed in this paper. The point-segment distance can decrease the sensitivity of the point sampling methods. The prediction distance optimizes the temporal distance with the features of trajectory data. The segment-segment distance introduces the trajectory shape factor into the similarity measurement to improve the accuracy. The three kinds of distance are integrated with the traditional dynamic time warping algorithm (DTW) algorithm to propose a new segment–based dynamic time warping algorithm (SDTW). The experimental results show that the SDTW algorithm can exhibit about 57%, 86%, and 31% better accuracy than the longest common subsequence algorithm (LCSS), and edit distance on real sequence algorithm (EDR) , and DTW, respectively, and that the sensitivity to the noise data is lower than that those algorithms.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0753.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: HOX genes; Hox gene collinearity; spatial collinearity; temporal collinearity; vertebrates; elongated gene cluster
Online: 4 January 2021 (08:30:15 CET)
Hox gene collinearity (HGC) is a multiscalar property of many animal phyla particularly important during embryogenesis. It relates events occurring in Hox clusters inside the chromosome DNA and embryonic tissues. These two entities differ in size by more than four orders of magnitude. HGC is observed as spatial collinearity (SC) where the Hox genes are located in the order H1, H2, H3 … along the 3’ to 5’ direction of the DNA sequence. The corresponding embryonic tissues (E1, E2, E3, …) are activated along the Anterior – Posterior axis in the same order. Besides this collinearity a temporal collinearity (TC) has been also observed in many vertebrates. According to TC first is H1 expressed in E1, later is H2 in E2, followed by H3,… Lately doubt has been raised whether TC really exists. A biophysical model (BM) has been formulated and tested in the last twenty years. According to BM, physical forces are created which pull the Hox genes one after the other driving them to a transcription factory domain where they are transcribed. The existing experiments support this BM description. In the present work two equivalent realizations of BM are presented which explain the recent findings on TC as observed in the vertebrates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: solar power interpolation; solar power attenuation; spatial autocorrelation; semi-variograms; geosatistics
Online: 7 December 2018 (03:55:55 CET)
To reduce solar power production invariance, it is critical to study varying patterns of power production in the concerned region. Analyzing the patterns of past power production trends can help simulate power production scenarios for future. The current study area is around Amsterdam, located in Netherlands. PVoutput.org website is used to mine 6 months of solar power production data for 120 stations around Amsterdam city. FME Workbench software is used to actively fetch the data from the mentioned website and manage in a MySQL database. Solar attenuation maps created using ArcGIS, helped to graphically visualize the variations in solar power production at different times and locations. Further, spatial autocorrelation is checked between the stations using semi-variograms in geostatistical tool of ArcMap. This feature allows to check whether the stations located close to each other are more correlated to each other rather than stations which are far apart. The statistical data analysis of power production can aid solar power production companies to better interpolate and predict solar power in advance for the concerned study region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0271.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: MSM; PrEP uptake; socio-spatial analysis; HIV prevention
Online: 20 May 2022 (09:11:25 CEST)
PrEP uptake in the Netherlands is growing but remains at suboptimal levels. Hence, the analysis of hurdles is paramount. Given the initial focus of PrEP provision among men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) via a demonstration project that was launched in June 2015, AmPrEP in Amsterdam, and pharmacies in the main urban areas (so called “Randstad”, entailing Amsterdam, Utrecht, Leiden, The Hague and Rotterdam), investigating regional differences is necessary. This study seeks to unravel regional differences jointly with psycho-social determinants of PrEP uptake. This cross-sectional study included 3,232 HIV-negative Dutch MSM recruited via the EMIS survey in late 2017. Prevalence and standardized prevalence ratio (SPR) of PrEP awareness, intention and uptake were measured on a regional level (Randstad vs. the rest of the country). Multilevel logistic modelling was conducted to identify the association of PrEP uptake with PrEP awareness and intention, sociodemographic, psycho-social determinants, and random effects from regional differences. MSM from the Randstad used more PrEP (SPR=1.4 vs. 0.7) compared to the rest of the country, but there were minor differences for awareness and intention. The regional distinction was estimated to explain 4.6% of the PrEP use variance. We observed a greater influence from PrEP intention (OR=4.5, 95%CI 2.0-10.1), while there was limited influence from the awareness of PrEP (OR=0.4, 95%CI 0.04-4.4). Lower education (OR=0.4, 95%CI 0.2-0.9) was negatively associated with PrEP uptake, however, no significant difference was found between middle and high education (OR=1.2, 95%CI 0.7-2.0). We showed that regional differences – MSM in non-urban regions – and other psycho-social determinants account for lower PrEP uptake. Based on these findings, more fine-tuned PrEP access with a focus on non-urban regions can be implemented, and tailored campaigns increasing intention/use can be conducted among target populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0974.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Eco-efficiency of cultivated land use; Super-EBM model; Spatial-temporal evolution; The region around Beijing-Tianjin
Online: 14 September 2023 (09:12:32 CEST)
The eco-efficiency of cultivated land use (ECLU) is an important indicator for the construction of ecological civilization in China. Exploring the spatiotemporal dynamic evolution of the ECLU is helpful for sustainable use of arable land, ensuring food security and ecological security. However, previous studies have mostly focused on the use of a slacks-based measure (SBM) model for ECLU measurement, ignoring the more accurate epsilon-based measure (EBM) model. Therefore, in this study, firstly, we explored the conceptual framework of ECLU, and then, based on the panel data of the counties in the region around Beijing and Tianjin from 2005 to 2020, we investigated the spatial and temporal evolution of ECLU by using the Super-EBM model, kernel density estimation method, and spatial Markov chain model. Results displayed: (1) From 2005 to 2020, the ECLU in the region around Beijing and Tianjin displayed an increasing state, but the average value was only 0.55. (2) The time evolution of the ECLU has gradually polarized, the internal gap has widened, but it tends to stabilize. (3) The ECLU in the region around Beijing-Tianjin was more inclined to keep it the same and there was a "club convergence" phenomenon, which was meaningfully affected by the background of neighboring areas. In the light of local conditions, the government should reasonably formulate the path to optimize the ECLU, strengthen the linkage with the surrounding cities, and bring into play the positive spillover effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0504.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: geospatial; computation; spatial benchmark; cybergis
Online: 24 August 2020 (03:12:06 CEST)
Technologies around the world produce and interact with geospatial data instantaneously, from mobile web applications to satellite imagery that is collected and processed across the globe daily. Big raster data allows researchers to integrate and uncover new knowledge about geospatial patterns and processes. However, we are also at a critical moment, as we have an ever-growing number of big data platforms that are being co-opted to support spatial analysis. A gap in the literature is the lack of a robust framework to assess the capabilities of geospatial analysis on big data platforms. This research begins to address this issue by establishing a geospatial benchmark that employs freely accessible datasets to provide a comprehensive comparison across big data platforms. The benchmark is a critical for evaluating the performance of spatial operations on big data platforms. It provides a common framework to compare existing platforms as well as evaluate new platforms. The benchmark is applied to three big data platforms and reports computing times and performance bottlenecks so that GIScientists can make informed choices regarding the performance of each platform. Each platform is evaluated for five raster operations: pixel count, reclassification, raster add, focal averaging, and zonal statistics using three different datasets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0218.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: COVID-19; mortality; spatial analysis; hexbin map
Online: 12 January 2021 (11:07:47 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused ~ 2 million fatalities. Significant progress has been made in advancing our understanding of the disease process, one of the unanswered questions, however, is the anomaly in the case/mortality ratio with Mexico as a clear example. Herein, this anomaly is explored by spatial analysis and whether mortality varies locally according to local factors. To address this, hexagonal cartogram maps (hexbin) used to spatially map COVID-19 mortality and visualise association with patient-level data on demographics and pre-existing health conditions. This was further interrogated at local Mexico City level by choropleth mapping. Our data show that the use of hexagonal cartograms is a better approach for spatial mapping of COVID-19 data in Mexico as it addresses bias in area size and population. We report sex/age-related spatial relationship with mortality amongst the Mexican states and a trend between health conditions and mortality at the state level. Within Mexico City, there is a clear south, north divide with higher mortality in the northern municipalities. Deceased patients in these northern municipalities have the highest pre-existing health conditions. Taken together, this study provides an improved presentation of COVID-19 mapping in Mexico and demonstrates spatial divergence of the mortality in Mexico.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0271.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: COVID-19; human mobility; spatial autocorrelation; temporal autocorrelation; Facebook mobility data
Online: 19 September 2022 (09:33:10 CEST)
COVID-19 is the most severe health crisis of the 21st century. COVID-19 presents a threat to almost all countries world-wide. The restriction of human mobility is one of the strategies used to control the transmission of COVID-19. However, it has yet to be determined how effective this restriction is in controlling the rise in COVID-19 cases, particularly in major capital cities such as Jakarta, Indonesia. Using Facebook's mobility data, our study explores the impact of restricting human mobility on COVID-19 case control in Jakarta. Our main contribution is showing how the restriction of human mobility data can give important information about how COVID-19 spreads in different places. We proposed modifying a global regression model into a local regression model by accounting for the spatial and temporal interdependence of COVID-19 transmission across space and time. We applied Bayesian hierarchical Poisson spatiotemporal models with spatially varying regression coefficients. We estimated the regression parameters using an Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation. We found that the local regression model with spatially varying regression coefficients outperforms the global regression model based on DIC, WAIC, MPL, and R2 criteria for model selection. In Jakarta's 44 districts, the impact of human mobility varies significantly. The impacts of human mobility on the log relative risk of COVID-19 range from –4.445 to 2.353. The prevention strategy involving the restriction of human mobility may be beneficial in some districts but ineffective in others. Therefore, a cost-effective strategy had to be adopted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1450.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: semantic and linguistic technologies; spatial data mining; spatial data analytics; spatio-temporal characterization; social media
Online: 23 October 2023 (16:15:23 CEST)
At the beginning of 2019, the petroleum crisis impacted many economies dependent on this industry. The Mexican government started programs to identify points and government officials involved in the gasoline stealing from PEMEX (Petróleos Mexicanos), the country’s leading government petroleum company. The programs consisted of supervising and monitoring the Mexican country network of gasoline ducts to detect points where gasoline was being stolen. Consequently, large urban regions faced a lack and shortage of gasoline. This situation generated several reactions in social media and many open data in news media. Although the government provided open data about stealing gasoline locations related to crimes, it did not analyze the collected data to identify patterns, insights, and the spatio-temporal characterization of this phenomenon. This paper presents a study to deal with the regional semantics described in the social media locations of gasoline stealing. Thus, a framework to discover the trends that emerge from social media and how it is correlated with the government’s open data is also presented—the proposed methodology used machine learning techniques based on linguistic and semantic technologies. The analysis was applied to a dataset of 24,317 geo-referenced tweets. The obtained results reflected the Mexican thinking opinion regarding discovered social topics, polarization maps, and regional insights. According to discovered trends, there were long fuel lines between 1.5 and 5 kilometers (on average) at fuel stations in different Mexican states.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2012.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: spatial aging; elderly population; spatial distribution; spatial evolution; Wuhan
Online: 29 May 2023 (12:43:33 CEST)
Understanding the spatial distribution pattern and evolution characteristics of the elderly population in urban areas is of great significance for the development of urban planning and the implementation of public management policies in the context of rapid aging. Accurately identifying the spatial distribution and evolution characteristics of the elderly population in the city requires a comprehensive analysis of multiple indicators and large-scale data. Taking Wuhan city as an example, this article measures the spatial distribution characteristics and evolution trend of the elderly population from 2000 to 2020 at the street/township level, based on the fifth, sixth, and seventh census data, using methods such as kernel density hotspot detection, spatial clustering analysis, and standard deviation ellipse analysis. The results show that: ① there are significant differences in the aging spatial pattern between the central area and the suburban areas of Wuhan; ② overall, Wuhan's aging rate shows a typical "core-periphery" growth mode in space, while the density of the elderly population has significant spatial aggregation characteristics and shows an evolution trend of "centralized concentration, peripheral outliers, axial development, and near-field growth"; ③the center of gravity of the elderly population remains relatively stable over time.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0004.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Spatial transcriptomics; Molecular imaging; single-cell RNA-seq; intratumoral heterogeneity
Online: 1 February 2022 (11:08:51 CET)
Intratumoral heterogeneity associates with more aggressive disease progression and worse patient outcomes. Understanding the reasons enabling the emergence of such heterogeneity remains incomplete, which restricts our ability to manage it from a therapeutic perspective. Technological advancements such as high-throughput molecular imaging, single-cell omics and spatial transcriptomics now allow recording the patterns of spatiotemporal heterogeneity in a longitudinal manner, thus offering insights into the multi-scale dynamics of its evolution. Here, we review latest technological trends and biological insights from molecular diagnostics as well as spatial transcriptomics, both of which have witnessed a burgeoning growth in recent past in terms of mapping heterogeneity within tumor cell types as well as stromal constitution. We also discuss ongoing challenges, indicating possible ways to integrate insights across these methods to have a systems-level spatiotemporal map of heterogeneity in each tumor, and a more systematic investigation of implications of heterogeneity for the patient outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0196.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: kinetic model; dual-wavelength; photopolymerization; spatial confirmation; additive manufacturing; 3d printing
Online: 17 October 2019 (12:33:03 CEST)
The kinetics and modeling of dual-wavelength controlled photopolymerization confinement (PC) are presented and measured data are analyzed by analytic formulas and numerical data. The UV-light initiated inhibition effect is strongly monomer-dependent and different monomers have different C=C bond rate constants and conversion efficacy. Without the UV-light, for a given blue-light intensity, higher initiator concentration (C10) and rate constant (k’) lead to higher conversion, as also predicted by analytic formulas, in which the total conversion rate (RT) is an increasing function of k’R, which is proportional to k[gB1C1]0.5. However, the coupling factor b1 plays a different role that higher b1 leads to higher conversion only in the transient regime; whereas higher b1 leads lower steady-state conversion. For a fixed initiator concentration C10, higher inhibitor concentration (C20) leads to lower conversion due to stronger inhibition effect. However, same conversion reduction was found for the same H-factor of H0 = [b1C10 - b2C20]. Conversion of blue-only are much higher than that of UV-only and UV-blue combined, in which high C20 results a strong reduction of blue-only-conversion, such that the UV-light serves as the turn-off (trigger) mechanism for the purpose of spatial confirmation within the overlap area of UV and blue light. For example, UV-light controlled methacrylate conversion of a glycidyl dimethacrylate resin formulated with a tertiary amine co-initiator, and butyl nitrite, subject to a continuous exposure of a blue light, but an on-off exposure of a UV-light. Finally, we developed a theoretical new finding for the criterion of a good material/candidate governed by a double ratio of light-intensity and concentration, [I20C20.]/[I10C10].
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1416.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: ecosystem services; ecological risk; spatial relationships; driving factors; Chongqing
Online: 21 August 2023 (08:08:56 CEST)
The rapid development of the regional economy in China has led to the rise of local ecological risks. It is very important to provide enjoyable ecosystem services to residents while reducing ecological risks. In order to understand spatial relationships between ecosystem services and ecological risks, we took Chongqing as an example in this study to assess the spatial relationship between ecosystem services and ecological risks at the county scale based on the ES-DPSIR system. The main findings include: (1) significant variation in the spatial distribution of the comprehensive ecosystem service index, where the lowest ecosystem service index (0.013) was found in the main urban area of Chongqing and the scores gradually increased outward from this center, reaching 0.689 in the outermost areas, (2) the increase of the comprehensive ecological risk index from east to west, ranging from -0.134 to 0.333, (3) the spatial relationship between ecosystem services and ecological risks was prominent, with 52.63% of the districts and counties being imbalanced or mild imbalanced, and (4) the significant differences between development trends of ecosystem services-ecological risks, including 60.53% being imbalanced districts and 30.47% mildly balanced. Overall, it was necessary to improve the relationship between ecosystem services and ecological risks in Chongqing by reducing ecological risks., and these research results could provide effective approaches and technical support for improving regional ecological security and enhancing ecosystem service capabilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0082.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: samples size; spatial dependency; skewness; Bayesian Maximum Entropy
Online: 6 September 2022 (04:21:52 CEST)
Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) is increasingly used in predicting and mapping spatio-temporal data. However, studies that have fully evaluated its robustness empirically are rare. Therefore, this research examined empirically the effect of skewness, sample size and spatial dependency level using simulated data. We considered symmetric data, data positively skewed by 1, 3, 6 and 9, data with weak, moderate, and strong spatial dependency levels, and sample sizes from 100 to 500 at the interval length of 50. The results showed that the variation of sample sizes and spatial dependency levels do not affect the Mean Square Error (MSE) and bias of BME prediction. However, skewness affects the MSE of prediction but does not affect the bias. This result indicates that BME is robust to sample size and is unbiased. Despite the significant difference due to skewness, a graphical plot showed values of MSE close to zero, suggesting that BME can be considered robust to skewness.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: headwater catchment; water quality assessment; driving factors; spatial and temporal analysis; Southeast China
Online: 27 December 2019 (10:30:07 CET)
Safety of source water streams is an urgent environmental issue, while protections in monsoon controlled subtropical regions face difficulties because of the lack of small scaled observation and analysis in small source water catchments. Basing on continuous weekly water quality data (2014-2017) in Pingqiao River Catchment, the annual average values of TN, NO3, NH4 and TP are 3.36, 1.64, 0.28 and 0.02 (mg/L) respectively. During dry, normal and wet seasons, the variability of parameters is over 35%, which indicates an obvious seasonality. Multiple methods are combined in order to assess the water quality and find the driving factors during dry, normal and wet seasons. This study suggests precipitation and fertilization are the mainly seasonal factors, which can make water quality better in wet season than dry season due to the dilution effect. The mechanism between seasonality and compound of nutrients can also be traced by log(TN:TP), and log(NO3:NH4). Among six main land use types (forest, tea plantation, cropland (paddy), urban, bare soil and water), the former three ones are influential mostly during dry and wet season. Tea plantation has the largest nutrients discharge amount per area, which is similar to cropland in dry season. By contrary, forest has the double power in reducing nitrogen release in wet and normal seasons. When transformed into paddies, croplands can lower the phosphorus concentration. Conclusions of this study can be used in southeastern China and similar regions on source water protection and agricultural plans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0209.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: mHM, remote sensing, spatial pattern, sensitivity analysis, GLUE, actual evapotranspiration
Online: 11 August 2018 (18:36:29 CEST)
Hydrologic models are conventionally constrained and evaluated using point measurements of streamflow, which represents an aggregated catchment measure. As a consequence of this single objective focus, model parametrization and model parameter sensitivity are typically not reflecting other aspects of catchment behavior. Specifically for distributed models, the spatial pattern aspect is often overlooked. Our paper examines the utility of multiple performance measures in a spatial sensitivity analysis framework to determine the key parameters governing the spatial variability of predicted actual evapotranspiration (AET). Latin hypercube one-at-a-time (LHS-OAT) sampling strategy with multiple initial parameter sets was applied using the mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM) and a total of 17 model parameters were identified as sensitive. The results indicate different parameter sensitivities for different performance measures focusing on temporal hydrograph dynamics and spatial variability of actual evapotranspiration. While spatial patterns were found to be sensitive to vegetation parameters, streamflow dynamics were sensitive to pedo-transfer function (PTF) parameters. Above all, our results show that behavioral model definition based only on streamflow metrics in the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) type methods require reformulation by incorporating spatial patterns into the definition of threshold values to reveal robust hydrologic behavior in the analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0059.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: riparian zone; transitional environment; riparian forest buffer; spatial modelling; mapping; spatial ecology; ecosystem functions
Online: 6 August 2016 (06:07:11 CEST)
Riparian zones represent ecotones between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and are of utmost importance to biodiversity and ecosystem functions. Modelling/mapping of these valuable and fragile areas is needed for an improved ecosystem management, based on an accounting of changes and on monitoring of their functioning in time. In Europe, the main legislative driver behind this goal is the European Commission’s Biodiversity Strategy to 2020, on one hand aiming at reducing biodiversity loss, on the other hand enhancing ecosystem services by 2020, and restoring them as far as feasible. A model, based on Earth Observation data, including Digital Elevation Models, hydrological, soil, land cover/land use data, and vegetation indices is employed in a multi-modular and stratified approach, based on fuzzy logic and object based image analysis, to delineate potential, observed and actual riparian zones. The approach is designed in an open modular way, allowing future modifications and repeatability. The results represent a first step of a future monitoring and assessment campaign for European riparian zones and their implications on biodiversity and on ecosystem functions and services. Considering the complexity and the enormous extent of the area, covering 39 European countries, including Turkey, the level of detail is unprecedented. Depending on the accounting modus, 0.95%–1.19% of the study area can be attributed as actual riparian area (considering Strahler’s stream orders 3-8, based on the Copernicus EU-Hydro dataset), corresponding to 55,558–69.128 km2. Similarly depending on the accounting approach, the potential riparian zones are accounted for about 3-5 times larger. Land cover/land use in detected riparian areas was mainly of semi-natural characteristics, while the potential riparian areas are predominately covered by agriculture, followed by semi-natural and urban areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0067.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: spatial analysis; risk taking; preparedness of local population; the City of Abhar
Online: 24 July 2017 (12:40:30 CEST)
Understanding the vulnerability of areas and the likelihood of specific disasters, particularly earthquakes, is one of the most important issues in Iran. One of the major concerns in Iran is the resilience of rural communities. The present study is devoted to spatial analysis of risk in rural areas and the evaluation of preparedness in the rural districts of the city of Abhar. In particular, this study evaluates the resilience to earthquakes. The research was conducted in two parts in which the first part has used the VIKOR Multiple criteria decision making model as well as the employment of this model in the ArcGis. The second part of the study used field studies, in the form of questionnaires, to evaluate the readiness of the local population against the risks of earthquakes. Four indicators, individual, physical, economic abilities and access, were assessed. The population included rural districts, where statistical samples were villagers. Results of the spatial analysis indicated that 15 villages are in the high-risk areas, 24 villages were in the medium-risk areas and all other villages were in low-risk areas. In terms of readiness of the locals, the results indicated a lack of planning with regards to the four mentioned indicators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0447.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: socio-environmental vulnerability; Barcelona; spatial analysis; qualitative methodology; GIS
Online: 19 October 2018 (11:33:48 CEST)
The city of Barcelona, like other cities in the world, suffers strong internal socio-economic inequalities. Numerous works have sought to detect, quantify, characterize and / or map existing intra-urban differences, almost always based on quantitative methodologies. With this contribution, we intend to illuminate the complementary role that qualitative methodologies can play in studies on urban socio-environmental vulnerability. We consider aspects that are not quantifiable but that may be inherent to many such vulnerable spaces, both in the constructed environment and in the social ambit. These questions are considered through selected neighborhoods of Barcelona which have been shown (in prior works, mainly studies of quantitative manufacturing) to possess elements of vulnerability including a high presence of immigrants from less-developed countries, low per capita income, aging populations, or low educational levels. The results reveal the multidimensionality of vulnerability in the neighborhoods analyzed, as well as the essential complementarity among methodologies that detect and support possible public actions aimed at reducing or eliminating intra-urban inequalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0386.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: autodissemination; dengue; ovitraps; Philippines; pyriproxyfen; spatial analysis
Online: 21 November 2022 (09:44:35 CET)
Dengue infection is one of the most important vector-borne diseases worldwide and is a significant public health problem in the tropics. Mosquito control continues to be the primary approach to reducing the disease burden and the dengue virus (DENV) spread. Aside from the traditional larviciding and adulticiding interventions, autodissemination using pyriproxyfen-treated (AD-PPF) ovitraps is one of the promising methods to complement existing vector control strategies. Our paper assessed the efficacy of AD-PPF in reducing DENV infection in two barangays in Parañaque City. Using saliva samples from the participants from both the control and intervention sites, we collected the seroprevalence data for three months in each of the two years. Spatial analysis was conducted to determine hotspot areas and identify DENV infection distributions across the trial periods. Results showed that the intervention site was identified as having clustering of DENV infection in Month 0 of Year 1 and shifted to random dispersion of dengue cases at the end of Month 3 in Year 2. The disappearance of the clustering of the intervention site translates to a decrease in the cases of DENV infection relative to the control site. Furthermore, we also identified that DENV infection transmission occurs at a small-scale level that did not go beyond 86 meters. In conclusion, AD-PPF is suggested to be an effective strategy and may be used as an additional vector control approach, albeit in its short-term implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0281.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Technology finance; Quality of economic development; Spatial econometric model
Online: 27 August 2019 (10:28:53 CEST)
(1) Background: Most of the existing studies focus on the evaluation of technology finance; the relationship between technology finance and technology innovation. But there are few studies on the development of technology finance and the quality of economic development in our country; (2) Methods: Based on the panel data of 30 provinces in China, this paper constructs an index system to measure the development of technology finance through the improved entropy method, and tests the spatial correlation of the development of technology finance in China by Moran'I index. According to the test results, this paper constructs a spatial econometric model to empirically analyze the promoting effect of scientific, technological and financial development on high-quality economic development, and analyzes its promoting effect in different regions and different time periods; (3) Results: The results show that the quality of China's economic growth is spatially dependent, and the development of science, technology and finance can significantly promote the quality economic development in China. And the promotion coefficient of the central region is the largest, as well as the coefficient of the eastern region is the smallest. The promotion coefficient was small and not significant before 2015, and was significantly positive after 2015; (4) Conclusions: this paper puts forward the corresponding policy recommendations according to the research results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0292.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: cultural differences; spatial interaction patterns; emotion analysis; Zhihu topic data; cultural geography
Online: 22 December 2019 (10:05:48 CET)
As an important research content in cultural geography, the exploration and analysis of the laws of regional cultural differences has great significance for the discovery of distinctive cultures, protection of regional cultures and in-depth understanding of cultural differences. In recent years, with the "spatial turn" of sociology, scholars are paying more and more attention to the implicit spatial information in social media data and the various social phenomena and laws they reflect. One important aspect is to grasp the social cultural phenomena and its spatial distribution characteristics through the text. Using machine learning methods such as the popular natural language processing (NLP), this paper can not only extract hotspot cultural elements from text data but also accurately detect the spatial interaction pattern of some specific cultures and the characteristics of emotions towards non-native cultures. Taking the 6,128 answers to the question “what are the differences between South and North China that you never know” on the Zhihu Q&A Platform as an example, with the help of NLP, this paper has explored the cultural differences between South and North China in people’s mind. This paper probes into people’s feeling and cognition of the cultural differences between South and North China from three aspects, including spatial interaction patterns of hotspot cultural elements, components of hotspot culture and emotional characteristics under the influence of cultural differences between North and South. The study reveals that 1) people from North and South China have great differences in recognizing each other’s culture. 2) Food culture is the most popular among many cultural differences. 3) People tend to show negative attitude towards the food cultures different from their own. All these findings shed light upon the understanding of regional cultural differences and addressing cultural conflicts. In addition, this paper also provides an effective solution to the study from a macro perspective, which have been difficult for new cultural geography.
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: spatial machine learning; spatial dependence; spatial heterogeneity; scale; spatial observation matrix; learning algorithm; deep learning
Online: 6 August 2021 (14:18:55 CEST)
Properties of spatially explicit data are often ignored or inadequately handled in machine learning for spatial domains of application. At the same time, resources that would identify these properties and investigate their influence and methods to handle them in machine learning applications are lagging behind. In this survey of the literature, we seek to identify and discuss spatial properties of data that influence the performance of machine learning. We review some of the best practices in handling such properties in spatial domains and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. We recognize two broad strands in this literature. In the first, the properties of spatial data are developed in the spatial observation matrix without amending the substance of the learning algorithm; in the other, spatial data properties are handled in the learning algorithm itself. While the latter have been far less explored, we argue they offer the most promising prospects for the future of spatial machine learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0139.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy; spatial transcriptomics; single nucleus RNA-sequencing; gene expression; bioinformatics; cardiovascular disorder; genetic disorder
Online: 4 July 2023 (05:18:51 CEST)
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common inherited disorder that can lead to heart failure and sudden cardiac death, characterized at the histological level by focal areas of myocyte disarray, hypertrophy and fibrosis, and few disease-targeted therapies exist. To identify, focal, spatially restricted alterations in transcriptional pathways and reveal novel therapeutic targets, we performed a spatial transcriptomic analysis of areas of focal myocyte disarray compared to areas of normal tissue, using a commercially available platform (GeoMx, nanoString). We analyzed surgical myectomy tissue from four patients with HCM and control interventricular septum tissue from two unused organ donor hearts that were free of cardiovascular disease. Histological sections were reviewed by an expert pathologist and 72 focal areas with varying degrees of myocyte disarray (normal, mild, moderate, severe) were chosen for analysis. Areas of interest were interrogated with the Human Cancer Transcriptome Atlas designed to profile 1800 transcripts. Differential expression analysis revealed significant changes in gene expression between HCM and Control tissue, and functional enrichment analysis indicated these genes were primarily involved in interferon production and mitochondrial energetics. Within HCM tissue, differentially expressed genes between areas of mild and moderate disarray were enriched for genes related to mitochondrial energetics (moderate disarray) and response to oxygen/cytokine levels (mild disarray). The comparison between areas of moderate and severe disarray were enriched for genes related to the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) cascade in severe disarray. Analysis of ligand-receptor pair gene expression revealed that HCM tissue exhibited downregulation of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), NOTCH, junctional adhesion molecule, and CD46 signaling, while showing upregulation of fibronectin, CD99, cadherin, and amyloid precursor protein signaling. A deconvolution analysis utilizing the matched single nuclei RNA-sequencing (snRNA-seq) data to determine cell type composition in areas of interest revealed significant differences in fibroblast and vascular cell composition in areas of severe disarray when compared to normal areas in HCM samples. Cell composition in normal areas from control tissue was also divergent from normal areas in HCM samples, which was consistent with the differential expression results. Overall, our data identify novel and potential disease-modifying targets for therapy in HCM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0063.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: regional group interaction; similar hotspot flow patterns; spatial interaction; visual analytics; Geo-Information-Tupo; GIS
Online: 4 July 2018 (09:26:18 CEST)
The interaction between different regions normally is reflected by the form of the stream. For example, the interaction of the flow of people and flow of information between different regions can reflect the structure of cities’ network, and also can reflect how the cities function and connect to each other. Since big data has become increasingly popular, it is much easier to acquire flow data for various types of individuals. Currently, it is a hot research topic to apply the regional interaction model, which is based on the summary level of individual flow data mining. So far, previous research on spatial interaction methods focused on point-to-point and area-to-area interaction patterns. However, there are a few scholars who study the hotspot interaction pattern between two regional groups with some predefined neighborhood relationship by starting with two regions. In this paper, a method for identifying a similar hotspot interaction pattern between two regional groups has been proposed, and the Geo-Information-Tupu methods are applied to visualize the interaction patterns. For an example of an empirical analysis, we discuss China’s air traffic flow data, so this method can be used to find and analyze any hotspot interaction patterns between regional groups with adjoining relationships across China. Our research results indicate that this method is efficient in identifying hotspot interaction flow patterns between regional groups. Moreover, it can be applied to any analysis of flow space that is used to excavate regional group hotspot interaction patterns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2021.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Aging-friendly city; Ahwaz; Spatial analysis; Hot spots indicator; Geographic information system (GIS)
Online: 29 June 2023 (03:30:54 CEST)
Objectives: The present study was conducted to evaluate the indicators of the aging-friendly using GIS software in the eight districts of Ahwaz, southwest Iran in 2022. Materials and methods: this descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 317 older adults by stratified random sampling method. Data collection tools were demographic characteristics and aging-friendly city indicators. GIS methods were used for the spatial analysis and SPSS version 28 software was used to analyze descriptive statistics. Results: The mean age of the participants was 66.21±6.99 years. Most of the participants in this study were male (53.9%), illiterate (34.7%), married (84.9%) and residents of district 7 (22.1%). The findings of the present study showed that all 8 districts follow spatial autocorrelation and cluster pattern in all components of the aging-friendly city (urban open spaces, intra-urban transportation system, public and religious places and buildings, safety and ease of traffic, social participation and communication, social respect, culture-recreation, health and treatment). Conclusion: According to the results, the city of Ahwaz is far from the ideal level among the components of an aging-friendly city; therefore, provincial and city officials should pay more attention to these indicators and take more effective steps to increase their quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0059.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: average generalized ambiguity function; passive bistatic SAR; PSK modulating signal; spatial resolution
Online: 10 October 2017 (07:56:47 CEST)
The formula of the Generalized Ambiguity Function (GAF) of passive bistatic SAR system using the non-cooperative illuminators which transmit PSK modulating signals is derived to analyze the spatial resolution of the system. The average GAF is introduced to remove the effect of particular sequence of symbols on resolution because the particular sequence of symbols is usually unpredictable before being received. The influence of the waveform parameters of the PSK modulating signals, such as length of the symbol sequence and roll-off factor, on spatial resolution is investigated by numerical simulation. It is confirmed that the influence of the length of the symbol sequence and roll-off factor is very slight but still exists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0008.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Copula Regression; ICT resources; Middle East; Spatial Analysis; Students Well-being; Sustainable Development Goals
Online: 2 July 2020 (13:18:03 CEST)
Target 9.c of the 2015 United Nations (UN) sustainable development goals (SDGs) specifically addresses increasing access to information and communication technology (ICT) resources, and striving for universal access to the internet by 2020. The present study seeks to evaluate the effectiveness of the youth related national strategies implemented in this regard by a select number of countries in the Middle East region. The study does so, by relying on a spatial bivariate copula regression analysis of data on youth respondents from five countries, extracted from the 2018 Program for international students’ assessment (PISA). Focusing specifically on evaluating the availability of ICT resources to the youth population, and also identifying the impact of ICT resources on youth subjective well-being in the region, we find that except for the UAE and Qatar that have above OECD average youth performance on the ICT resource index, youth from the remaining countries reported below OECD level average access to ICT resources. The within region cross-country comparative analysis of ICT resources availability to the youth population at home, also highlighted significant heterogeneity across the five countries, post 2015 SDG adoption by UN country members. Furthermore, looking at the impact of ICT resources on youth well-being, controlling for not only cross-country spatial correlations, and factors such as home educational resources, cultural possessions at home, parental occupation status, youth expected occupation status, economic and socio-cultural status, age, gender, and grade level in school; we found that every standard deviation increase in ICT resources to the youth population in the region raises their self-expressed sense of belonging in school by 1.88% standard deviations. Given the empowering nature of ICT resources to youth, and the potential of both to support national as well as regional economic development initiatives, a concerted effort to ease ICT resources diffusion by member countries in the middle east region could assist not only each country in its own development path, but also the region as a whole to live up to its growth potential by the 2030.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0413.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Spatial Econometrics; Spatial Weight Matrix; Spatial Autocorrelation; Cross-Section Models; R Software
Online: 7 September 2023 (03:27:25 CEST)
This paper introduces the spatial component in cross-section econometric estimations and specifically, the spatial dependence effect inherent in some of the variables involved in the modelling process. First, the spatial structure of the data from thematic maps is observed and Moran's spatial autocorrelation indicators are presented. Subsequently, the spatial weights matrix is built under different specifications. Finally, several modelling specification strategies are shown and the interpretation of the estimated coefficients. The theoretical concepts are illustrated with examples and their corresponding R software codes. This code and databases are available in a freely accessible repository in the BE2SHARE-EUDAT platform so that they can be easily reproduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0214.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: spatial analysis; innovation flows; urban transition; inclusive; clusters; lagging regions; network analysis, data city.
Online: 14 January 2022 (13:55:41 CET)
The economy is a complex system, and the interactions between different agents are still not easy to quickly see-through. This complexity should reflect in a spatial dimension; in this way, tracking the tradeoffs opens a new window to the nexus of place and flow. Due to the fact, the economic systems often go through transitions and end up in another state, and this evolution is embedded in cities as the new motor of paradigm shift. To adequately represent and study these dynamics, we aim to develop an integrated method based on network analysis science and geographic economy synthesis to detect a multiscale navigator to track the transition from regional to the local level. This paper seeks to explore the specialization of regional clusters and their innovative behaviour in a particular lagging region, hence unfolding the innovation ecosystem to the smallest granularity then simulating the emergence phase of this complex system. First, our findings reveal that the local scale is relevant to start a bottom-up planning approach on policy implementation. Second, the global challenges could be addressed on a regional scale if we investigate the local complexity to unfold the innovation flow over its complex ecosystem and lead the knowledge as a critical element for inclusive transition, most probably into cities. Finally, the innovation network is an existing fact which can translate as a host for prosperity; In this line of reasoning, we intend to spatialize the track of the innovation flow to achieve transition hotspots and respond adequately to upcoming world concerns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0579.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: SAHP (Spatial Analytical Hierarchy Process); Moringa Oleifera; multicriteria evaluation; GIS (Geographic Information System)
Online: 26 August 2020 (10:35:37 CEST)
Land suitability analysis is a basic premise for allocating specific land for specific purpose. The objective of this study was to predict the suitable sites for cultivating Moringa oleifera tree in Ethiopia using Spatial Analytic Hierarchy Process. Findings of this study will have paramount significance in supporting decision making in the agroforestry development sector. This study employs Spatial Analytic Hierarchy Process and Geographic Information System to generate valuable information in land allocation for moringa oleifera tree production. Climate, topography, soil type and land use parameters were evaluated for suitability analysis. The results of the study revealed that most of the central part of the country are categorized as moderately suitable for the production of moringa oleifera tree. Areas classified as highly suitable are distributed along the borders of southern and western part of the country. However, some of the central part was classified as not suitable for Moringa oleifera tree production. This paper tried to investigate analysis of spatial data to predict suitable site for moringa tree production at national level. At national level, highly suitable, moderately suitable, and not suitable class covers an area of 308,508.2, 1,628,930.8 and 59891.3 Square Kilometer respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0075.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Vehicle Exhaust PM2.5, MOVES, Artificial Neural Network, Spatial Analysis, Aerosol Optical Depth
Online: 15 October 2020 (11:57:19 CEST)
This study aims to develop a hybrid approach based on backpropagation Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and spatial analysis techniques to predict particulate matter of size 2.5 µm (PM2.5) from vehicle exhaust emissions in the State of California using Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and several climatic indicators (relative humidity, temperature, precipitation, and wind speed). The PM2.5 data were generated using Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES), the measured climatic variables and AOD were obtained from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS), and NASA’s Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The data were resampled to a seasonal format and downscaled over grids of 10 by 10 to 150 by 150, and precipitation was determined to be the most important independent variable. Coefficient of determination ( ), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) were used to assess the quality of the ANN prediction model. The model peaked at winter seasons with = 0.984, RMSE = 0.027, and MAPE = 25.311, whereas it had the lowest performance in summer with = 0.920, RMSE = 0.057, and MAPE = 65.214. These results indicate that the ANN model can accurately predict the PM2.5 concentration and can be used to forecast future trends.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1789.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: young adults; housing; living at home; spatial autoregressive panel data model; Sweden
Online: 27 October 2023 (11:13:43 CEST)
This study investigates why young adults live with their parents in Sweden. As young adults’ living arrangements affect decisions about marriage, education, childbirth, and participation in the workforce, more knowledge for policy makers is crucial to implementing effective policies to support young adults and promote financial independence and well-being. Using a data set from 1998 to 2021 at the municipal level in Sweden, we used a spatial autoregressive panel data model to examine the proportion of young adults living at home and regional disparities. The study uncovers intraregional variations, illustrating how different municipalities within Sweden exhibit different patterns of young adults living at home. Our findings reveal that economic factors, such as unemployment, significantly impact this pattern. The dynamics of the housing market, demographic factors, cultural differences, and location-specific characteristics also play an essential role in explaining this pattern. The findings suggest that the key drivers are the lack of rental housing, high unemployment rates, a high degree of urbanisation, interregional migration, and lack of social capital.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0299.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: site identification; electric charging infrastructure; electromobility; spatial analysis; modal split; public transport
Online: 22 May 2018 (10:49:04 CEST)
The spread of charging infrastructure (CIS) for battery electric vehicles is crucial for coping with the increasing number of electric vehicles. Therefore, the selection of ideal (fast-) charging locations determines acceptance, utilization and, thus, the economic viability of a single site or the whole charging network. The methodology of the Integrated Model Approach STELLA for site identification of CIS uses proven methods of traffic modeling such as the classic four-step traffic modeling in a new context to enable statements regarding the positioning of CIS. Based on different spatial analyzes and characterizations of urban quarters, traffic generated by individuals is calculated using the FGSV approach of 2010. Because only (electric) motorized individual traffic is of importance for CIS, the share of trips is calculated by differentiating the modal split between various transport groups. One approach is to concretize the modal split share of public transport based on analyzes of different criteria and data sets, e.g. the accessibility of stops. The model approach STELLA, which also combines various extensive data (e.g. transport networks and traffic volumes, settlement structures, vehicle characteristics, power supply data and user requirements), is currently developed for a planning area covering the entire territory of the Federal Republic of Germany.  STELLA is the acronym for the German term "STandortfindungsmodell für ELektrische LAdeinfrastruktur”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0792.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Sea level change; Paleo-coastline; Prehistory; Southwestern Iberian Peninsula; Marine resources exploitation; Spatial Database; Geostatistical analysis
Online: 12 October 2023 (14:23:10 CEST)
This paper an approach for analyzing the impact of sea level changes on prehistoric human settlement patterns in the Southwestern Iberian Peninsula. The approach is based on highly qualified and fully georeferenced information sources managed within a spatial database. This allows for a more precise analysis of the distance to the coast and its relation to marine resources from a specific location, areas that may have lost their archaeological potential due to being currently submerged, and the actual distribution of sites as a starting point for territorial analysis. Coastal changes, such as sea level fluctuations over the past 120,000 years, have affected the position of the coastline and influenced human settlement patterns. Through an analysis of the archaeological site locations relative to their paleo-coastlines based on available dating data, this study emphasizes the necessity of adopting a comprehensive approach to comprehend human settlement patterns and their correlation with the dynamic coastal changes. This approach provides valuable insights for formulating strategies for exploiting coastal resources and structuring socio-economic systems in the region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0579.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Graph Theory; Computational Geometry; Spatial Statistics; Image analysis; Tessellations; Voronoi Polygons; Delaunay Triangulations; Minimal Spanning Trees; Pitteway Violations
Online: 31 August 2021 (15:58:36 CEST)
Every biological image contains quantitative data that can be used to test hypotheses about how patterns were formed, what entities are associated with one another, and whether standard mathematical methods inform our understanding of biological phenomena. In particular, spatial point distributions and polygonal tessellations are particularly amendable to analysis with a variety of graph theoretic, computational geometric, and spatial statistical tools such as: Voronoi Polygons; Delaunay Triangulations; Perpendicular Bisectors; Circumcenters; Convex Hulls; Minimal Spanning Trees; Ulam Trees; Pitteway Violations; Circularity; Clark-Evans spatial statistics; Variance to Mean Ratios; Gabriel Graphs; and, Minimal Spanning Trees. Furthermore, biologists have developed a number of empirically related correlations for polygonal tessellations such as: Lewis’s Law (the number of edges of convex polygons are positively correlated with the areas of these polygons): Desch’s Law (the number of edges of convex polygons are positively correlated with the perimeters of these polygons); and Errara’s Law (daughter cell areas should be roughly half that of their parent cells’ areas). We introduce a new Pitteway Law that the number of sides of the convex polygons in a Voronoi tessellation of biological epithelia is proportional to the minimal interior angle of the convex polygons as angles less than 90 degrees result in Pitteway violations of the Delaunay dual of the Voronoi tessellation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1922.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: long-span spatial steel structure; time-varying mechanical; integral lifting; construction process; displacement difference
Online: 26 May 2023 (10:44:09 CEST)
Improper lifting measures of long-span spatial steel structures during construction process may delay the construction period and even cause safety accidents. Few studies on long-span spatial steel structures considered time-varying mechanical characteristic during construction process. In order to achieve safe and efficient installation in a long-span spatial steel structure, this research presents a time-varying mechanical analysis of the synchronous and asynchronous integral lifting and a single and interlaced point’s asynchronous integral lifting analysis method of a long-span spatial steel structure. The results showed that in the case of asynchronous lifting of single point, the displacement influence on other members is related to the distance. The closer the distance from the lifting point, the greater the influence. In asynchronous integral lifting, the lifting point with large lifting force is first installed to the specified position, and the lifting point with small lifting force is installed to the specified position.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1515.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: Geochemical singularity index; Spatial Overlay Analysis; Gangdese metallogenic belt; porphyry Cu deposit
Online: 22 May 2023 (11:11:38 CEST)
It is found in this paper that ILR-RPCA-back CLR has two problems when dealing with the closure effect of geochemical data. (1) After ilr transformation, RPCA is used for processing. It can be seen from the double-plot diagram that the first principal component and the second principal component transform with the element sequence transformation, and the unique principal component cannot be calculated; (2) the score and the load are transformed into the CLR space through the U matrix. According to the formula CLR=ALR·U, the score result can correspond to the original order of elements. However, the load result obtained by the use of this formula cannot correspond to the original order of elements, and the result can only be obtained through the formula” CLR=UT·ALR”. In order to obtain the best element assemblage of porphyry copper deposit, this paper adopted the mineral assemblage of discovered deposits in Gangdese metallogenic belt for statistical analysis, and obtained that the element assemblage of porphyry copper deposit was Cu, Mo, Au, Ag, W, Bi. Then, by analyzing the singularities of the composite elements, the spatial overlay of the combined element is carried out, and C-A fractal filtering is applied to identify the anomaly and background. In order to facilitate comparison, the different minerals and ore deposit types have been analyzed, the results show that (1) in view of the porphyry copper deposits, recognition effect of combination elements are better than which single element, (2) skarn type copper deposit that it has nothing to do with the porphyry had a high degree of difference, but skarn type copper deposit related to the porphyry had a low degree of difference, (3) This method has a certain advantage over the single element method in porphyry gold deposits, and it can reduce the level of anomalies. Such an advantage is that in the aspect of anomaly evaluation of porphyry copper deposits, the level is reduced at the initial stage of evaluation to reduce the investment in such anomalies, (4) This method has limited ability to distinguish porphyry copper deposit from porphyry molybdenum deposit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0166.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: spatiotemporal database; spatial analysis; seasonal precipitation; spearman correlation coefficient; pacific decadal oscillation; southern oscillation index; north atlantic oscillation
Online: 16 January 2020 (10:59:53 CET)
Temporary changes in precipitation may lead to sustained and severe drought or massive floods in different parts of the world. Knowing variation in precipitation can effectively help the water resources decision-makers in water resources management. Large-scale circulation drivers have a considerable impact on precipitation in different parts of the world. In this research, the impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on seasonal precipitation over Iran was investigated. For this purpose, 103 synoptic stations with at least 30 years of data were utilized. The Spearman correlation coefficient between the indices in the previous 12 months with seasonal precipitation was calculated, and the meaningful correlations were extracted. Then the month in which each of these indices has the highest correlation with seasonal precipitation was determined. Finally, the overall amount of increase or decrease in seasonal precipitation due to each of these indices was calculated. Results indicate the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), NAO, and PDO have the most impact on seasonal precipitation, respectively. Also, these indices have the highest impact on the precipitation in winter, autumn, spring, and summer, respectively. SOI has a diverse impact on winter precipitation compared to the PDO and NAO, while in the other seasons, each index has its special impact on seasonal precipitation. Generally, all indices in different phases may decrease the seasonal precipitation up to 100%. However, the seasonal precipitation may increase more than 100% in different seasons due to the impact of these indices. The results of this study can be used effectively in water resources management and especially in dam operation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0273.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: optical communications; optical spatial modulation; free-space optical communication; multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems; pulse position modulation; atmospheric turbulence
Online: 12 November 2018 (09:26:34 CET)
In this paper, spatial pulse position modulation (SPPM) is used as a case study to investigate the performance of the optical spatial modulation (SM) technique in outdoor atmospheric turbulence (AT). A closed-form expression for the upper bound on the asymptotic symbol error rate (SER) of SPPM in AT is derived and validated by closely-matching simulation results. The error performance is evaluated in weak to strong AT conditions. As the AT strength increases from the weak to strong, the channel fading coefficients become more dispersed and differentiable. Thus, a better error performance is observed under moderate-to-strong AT compared to weak AT. The performance in weak AT can be improved by applying unequal power allocation to make FSO links more distinguishable at the receiver. Receive diversity is considered to mitigate irradiance fluctuation and improve the robustness of the system to turbulence-induced channel fading. The diversity order is computed as half of the number of detectors. Performance comparisons, in terms of energy and spectral efficiencies, are drawn between the SPPM scheme and conventional MIMO schemes such as repetition coding and spatial multiplexing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0279.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Traps; beetles; monitoring; surveys; spatial distribution
Online: 19 October 2022 (10:07:04 CEST)
Monitoring is an important component of pest management, to prevent or mitigate outbreaks of native pests, and to check for quarantine organisms. Surveys often rely on trapping, especially when the target species respond to semiochemicals. Many traps are available for this purpose, but they are bulky in most cases, which raises transportation and deployment issues, and they are expensive, which limits the size and accuracy of any network. To overpass these difficulties, entomologists have used recycled material, such as modified plastic bottles, producing cheap and reliable traps but at the cost of recurrent handywork, not necessarily possible for all end-users (e.g., for national plant protection organizations). These bottle-traps have allowed very large surveys which would have been impossible with standard commercial traps, and we illustrate this approach with a few examples. Here we present, under a Creative Commons BY-SA License, the blueprint of a fan-trap, a foldable model, laser-cut from a sheet of polypropylene, that can rapidly be produced in large numbers, and could be transported and deployed in the field with very little efforts. Our first field comparisons show that fan-traps are as efficient as bottle-traps, and we describe two cases where they are being used for monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0288.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: MV/LV network; GIS planning; Spatial network analysis; 3D virtual city; Web and 3D Web GIS applications
Online: 20 January 2022 (08:32:37 CET)
Electric energy has become essential nowadays not only for the daily life of each of us but also for the economy of different countries. The dissemination of geographic information plays an important role in national development as it facilitates communication between managers, investors, and consumers in this sector. Since the management of electricity network data was previously done in Tunisia based on paper maps and plans, the purpose of this article is to present a case of planning based on GIS, Web, and 3D Web GIS, which would have significant positive consequences on this sector from a technical and financial sides with an improvement in customer satisfaction and the creation of an intelligent electricity network which will be a real decision-making tool. This work draws up an inventory of the network MV (Medium Voltage)/LV (Low Voltage) of the region of Medjez El Bab which routes electricity to the big centers of consumption with access to MV/LV subscribers. The analysis of the network's impedance allowed carrying out different scenarios to optimize performance and obtain more realistic routes. Many thematic maps were produced as part of this project (Slope map, Land use map, map of the MV voltage domains, map of the MV/LV transformer stations power, etc.). A three-dimensional virtual city has been developed to visualize the graphical and attribute data for the study area. A Web and 3D Web GIS applications that allows the publication of the interactive maps on the Web as well as the database information have been developed to offer users the possibility of consulting the produced products by internet. Finally, a website related to the study was developed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0495.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: 3D modelling, geotechnical properties, spatial modelling,
Online: 9 October 2023 (11:42:43 CEST)
Geotechnical investigation is an important site characterization process in engineering construction. Excavation pits and boreholes are popular geotechnical investigation methods for accessing subsurface soil and rock characteristics. Although they are accurate, they are limited to the discrete locations where tests are carried out. The demand for 3D representation has been increasing as an alternative for improved visualization of geotechnical investigations. This study developed a procedure for 3D modelling of geotechnical investigations using open-source software. It improves 3D visualization of geotechnical investigations and characterization of accuracy and uncertainty assessment. Presently, most geotechnical investigations do not regularly report uncertainty assessment despite its importance in risk analysis of the investigations. The procedure developed in this study was tested in a proposed site for construction of an Inland Container Depot where it depicted geotechnical soil properties with more than 80% accuracy on holdout samples. It was able to model both horizontal and vertical variations of the soil properties with quantification of uncertainty. More testing and wide applications are recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0341.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Green total factor productivity; Economic agglomeration; Employment density; Dynamic spatial Dupin model; Spatial spillover
Online: 25 October 2021 (10:41:24 CEST)
In the context of carbon emissions peak, environmental issues highlight the importance of the green economy, how does economic agglomeration release growth potential and enable the coordinated development of the economy and environment? There are few works of literature to analyze it within the framework of spatial economy. This paper constructs a theoretical model to clarify the influence mechanism of economic agglomeration on green total factor productivity (GTFP), and then uses a dynamic SDM model to test the theoretical hypothesis. This contribution has three main findings. First, there is a "U-shaped" curve relationship between economic agglomeration and GTFP, and the formation mechanism is that economic agglomeration has a threshold effect on the agglomeration externalities such as infrastructure sharing, knowledge spillover, and labor market upgrading. Second, the mismatch of industrial structure is an important reason that the economic agglomeration in this region has not produced an obvious spatial spillover effect on other regions; Relaxing restrictions on the concentration of economic activity to regional centers would contribute to the improvement of GTFP. Third, GTFP has the classic "snowball effect" in the time dimension, but has the obvious "warning effect" in the space and time dimension. Based on this, this paper believes that at the present stage, it is necessary to adapt to the layout of economic geography, promote the rational allocation of human resources in the territorial space, promote the coordination between economic agglomeration and the development goal of green economy, and at the same time, it is necessary to cultivate the cooperative linkage mechanism of green economy development and transformation among cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0505.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Land subsidence; urban underground space; cause-effect; spatiotemporal; economic impact; spatial planning model; Shanghai
Online: 20 February 2023 (13:02:01 CET)
As a rapidly growing coastal megacity, Shanghai is continuously threatened with land subsidence issues since 1920s. Land subsidence was controlled in 1960s, however in 1990s, unconscious and dangerous urban underground space (UUS) exploration and tunneling development are causing further land subsidence. It is imperative to study previous relations towards future adaptive and resilient scenario modelling and planning. There are multiple cause-effect factors determined in the urban built environment of Shanghai megacity. This paper presents the current evidence based on the relations of the multifactor of the spectrum. Methods consist of understanding the cause-effect relations and spatiotemporal from the crucial period of 1960-2020. Data are collected secondarily from multiple open sourced databases. The results determine Shanghai are highly influenced by the UUS development induced-subsidence, tunneling leakage and weak spatial modelling. Spatiotemporal pattern has shown a mixed positive-negative impact: population, land subsidence is growing in parallel distribution (positive) with tunneling leakage, construction of tunneling, metro system, UUS development, building price, reconstruction area, GDP growth, land price, arable land decrease and further tunnel settlement in Urban City Centre, Pudong New Area, Minhang, Baoshan and Songjiang districts. These results are useful for further adaptive and resilient scenario modelling and spatial planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1949.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: heavy metals; spatial distribution; atmospheric deposition; migration
Online: 30 November 2023 (10:42:44 CET)
The migration paths and distribution driving factors of heavy metals in dry and windy area polluted by their production in the North China need a further research. To address this research gap, we collected 675 soil samples, 72 atmospheric deposition samples and 20 water samples around a production area and measured its heavy metal concentrations. Results showed that the Cu, Zn, As and Pb in 0-10 cm soil layer showed a fan-shaped distribution, which was consistent with their atmospheric deposition fluxes. It indicated the distribution patterns of these heavy metals were driven by strong winds in studied area. Although Cr concentrated to the production area in the 0-10 cm soil layer, principal component analysis showed that this migration was through wind as well. The concentration of Cd in the river increased from 0.257 mg/L to 0.460 mg/L along water flowing, and caused the same distribution trend in soil near the river from upstream to downstream. Unlike the above, surface runoff should drive the Cd migration. The concentration of Pb in the river was over threshold of pollution, and also led to an accumulation in the 5-10 cm soil layer. It suggested that the migration of Pb was through both wind and surface runoff. Six studied heavy metals showed different migration behaviors, and specific control strategies for individual heavy metal should be concerned.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0604.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Land surface temperature; urban spatial form; building form; gravity index; thermal adaptiveness; quadrant analysis; spatial regression
Online: 8 August 2023 (07:26:57 CEST)
Climate change is expected to result in rising temperatures, leading to increased occurrences of extreme weather events like heat waves and cold spells. Urban planning responses are crucial for improving the adaptive capacity of cities and communities in dealing with significant temperature variations across seasons. This study aims to investigate the relationship between urban temperature fluctuations and urban morphology throughout the four seasons. Through quadrant and statistical analyses, the study identifies built-environment factors that contribute to moderate seasonal land surface temperatures (LST). The research focuses on Seoul, South Korea as a case study and calculates seasonal LST values at both the grid level (100m×100m) and street-block level, incorporating factors such as vegetation density, land use patterns, albedo, two- and three-dimensional building forms, and gravity indices for natural reserves. The quadrant analysis reveals spatial segregation between areas demonstrating high LST adaptability (cooler summers and warmer winters) and those displaying LST vulnerability (hotter summers and colder winters), with significant differences in vegetation and building forms. The spatial regression analysis demonstrates that higher vegetation density and proximity to water bodies play key roles in moderating LST, leading to cooler summers and warmer winters. Building characteristics have an invariant impact on LST across all seasons, where horizontal expansion contributes to higher LST, while vertical expansion reduces LST. These findings are consistent for both grid- and block-level analyses. The study emphasizes the flexible role of the natural environment in moderating temperatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0172.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: spatial data infrastructure; sensor web; geographical information system; smart cities; knowledge based system; expert system; spatial technologies
Online: 27 November 2017 (07:49:48 CET)
Spatio-temporal aspects of data lead to critical information. Sensors capture data at all scales continually so it is imperative that useful information be extracted ubiquitously and regularly. Location plays a vital part by helping understand relations between datasets. It is crucial to link developmental works with spatial attributes and current challenge is to create an open platform that manages real-time sensor data and provides critical spatial analytics atop expert domain knowledge provided in the system. That is a two-faced problem where the solution tackles not only data from multiple sources but also runs data management platform, a spatial data infrastructure(SDI) as backbone framework able to harness sensor web(SW). The paper proposes development of such a globally shared open spatial expert system(ES), SmaCiSENS, a first of a kind geo-enabled knowledge based(KB) ES for multiple fields, smarter cities to climate modeling. SmaCiSENS is integration of SW and SDI with domain KB on data and problems, ready to infer solutions. The paper describes an architecture for semantic enablement for SW, SDI; connect interfaces, functions of SDI and SW, and sensor data application program interfaces (APIs) to better manage climate modeling, geohazard, global changes, and other vital areas of attention and action.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0110.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: blockchain; spatial crowdsourcing; task assignment; smart contract
Online: 9 May 2022 (09:09:49 CEST)
Spatial crowdsourcing emerges as a new computing paradigm that enables mobile users to accomplish spatio- temporal tasks in order to solve human-intrinsic problems. Existing crowdsourcing systems critically use centralized servers for interacting with workers and making task assignment decisions. These systems are hence susceptible to issues such as the single point of failure and the lack of operational transparency. Prior work, therefore, turns to blockchain-based decentralized crowdsourcing systems, yet still suffers from problems of lacking efficient task assignment scheme, requiring a deposit to an untrusted system, low block generation speed, and high transaction fees. To address these issues, we design a blockchain-based decentralized framework for spatial crowdsourcing, which we call SC-EOS. Our system does not rely on any trusted servers, while providing efficient and user-customizable task assignment, low monetary cost, and fast block generation. More importantly, it frees users from making a deposit into an untrusted system. Our framework can also be extended and applied to generic crowdsourcing systems. We implemented the proposed system on the EOS blockchain. Trace-driven evaluations involving real users show that our system attains the comparable task assignment performance against a clairvoyant scheme. It also achieves 10× cost savings than an Ethereum-based implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0615.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Spatial Analyses; Epidemiology; Power laws; Tropical cities
Online: 29 October 2020 (14:03:44 CET)
Colombia has one of the largest numbers of internally displaced populations in the world and recently entered a period of post-conflict. These socio-political processes and trends have increased the migration of people towards cities and accordingly are affecting the distribution and occurrence of tropical diseases in its urban and peri-urban areas. Studies have suggested that many human phenomena such as urbanization scale according to the size of human populations regardless of cultural context. But other studies show that health epidemics such as malarial and human immunodeficiency virus infections, follow a scale-free distribution in terms of population size and density. We explore these relationships and dynamics in a tropical context using statistical analyses and available geospatial data to identify the scale dynamics between urbanization processes and disease transmission in Colombia. We found that rural populations and certain disease dynamics were described by power-laws that are frequently mentioned in urbanization studies. However, we found that malaria presented higher intensity of infection in human settlements of less than 50,000 individuals, particularly for ethnic indigenous populations. Results indicate that epidemics and urbanization dynamics do indeed follow scales in Colombia; findings that differ from previous epidemiological studies such as those for malarial infection. Additionally, we identified trends showing that malarial infections become endemic in peri-urban areas. Targeting such peri-urban locations and certain demographic groups are key for managing public health issues in the urbanizing tropics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0502.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: suburbs; locational attainment; spatial assimilation; race and ethnicity
Online: 26 September 2018 (08:26:39 CEST)
The present study examines inner and outer suburban ring attainment outcomes among racial and ethnic groups residing in the nation’s metropolitan areas. The main objective is to evaluate the extent to which the relationship between racial and ethnic group’s socioeconomic status characteristics and residence between inner and outer suburban rings conforms to the tenets of the spatial assimilation model. Using micro-level data from the 5-year 2012-2016 American Community Survey, the author calculates multinomial logistic regression models to determine the effects of SES and other relevant predictors on residence within the nation’s metropolitan area’s suburban inner and outer rings. The results both confirm and contradict the main tenets of the spatial assimilation model. To the extent that income, education, and homeownership are positively related to residence in both suburban rings, the findings also suggest that access to inner and outer rings is hierarchically stratified by race and ethnicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0333.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: interaction; immaterial; immersion; augmented reality; artificial intelligence; spatial perception; spatial narrative; cyberspace
Online: 14 April 2023 (02:48:58 CEST)
Despite its apparent lack of physicality, the virtual environment produces real experiences to its users. In its intangible context of digital operation, the virtual setting can be a meeting point for individuals to interact and to gain experiences that have an impact upon their lives. After more than three decades of broad accessibility and use of the internet and various digital platforms, the virtual experience has also prompted to rethink many of the assumptions commonly attributed to physical space. From a practical point, the virtual world has been an extension of the real one as a new site that can host people’s activities without many of the limitations associated with the material world. Given its absence of physical restrictions, the virtual space appears as a boundless one, whose potential of evolution is still unclear. This sense of limitedness has caused to shift our common sense about physical space as well, including architectural perception and the methods and practices applied to design it. In response, this present study focuses on the ways in which elements and concepts of the virtual world may be transferred to physical space and enrich architectural aims and the broader design discourse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0022.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Heckit models; spatial effects; local spatial autocorrelation; SLX model; education accessibility; Chile
Online: 20 December 2021 (10:47:44 CET)
This study contributes to the debate on accessibility of higher education in Chile, focusing on both socioeconomic and geospatial dimensions of access to university study. The central question we address in this paper is the following: Does geography (physical distance and neighborhood effects) play a significant role in determining accessibility of higher education in Chile? We use Heckman probit-type (Heckit) models to adjust for selection in the process of completing the trajectory towards higher education – that is, pre-selection, application to study at university, and ultimately admission (or denial) to a higher education institution. The results shows that the geospatial elements have a significant local effect on the student’s application and access to Chilean universities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0211.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: COVID-19; spatial; mobility; spatial weight matrices; principal component analysis; hierarchical clustering
Online: 8 June 2021 (10:56:22 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic starting in the first half of 2020 has changed the lives of everyone across the world. Reduced mobility was essential due to it being the largest impact possible against the spread of the little understood SARS-CoV-2 virus. To understand the spread, a comprehension of human mobility patterns is needed. The use of mobility data in modelling is thus essential to capture the intrinsic spread through the population. It is necessary to determine to what extent mobility data convey the same message of mobility within a region. This paper compares different mobility data sources by constructing spatial weight matrices and further compares the results through hierarchical clustering. This provides insight for the user into which data provides what type of information and in what situations a particular source is most useful.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0263.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Regional Economic; Innovation-driven; Development; Spatial Characteristics
Online: 12 July 2021 (13:42:16 CEST)
This paper uses the spatial analysis software GeoDa as a tool, takes GRP (Gross regional product) of Sichuan Province in 2012 and 2018 as the dependent variable, and takes the city (autonomous prefecture) factor-driven, investment-driven and innovation-driven indicators as the dependent variable to explore the impact of innovation activities on regional economic development and the spatial distribution characteristics of regional economy. Through the comparison of the global correlation and local correlation, this paper explores the crux of the regional economic polarization and unbalanced development, and puts forward some measures to solve the existing economic development problems, such as cultivating and improving the regional industrial dependence, accelerating the regional transportation accessibility and convenience, and constructing the regional collaborative innovation system, So as to achieve the strategic goal of the construction of innovative Province in Sichuan Province.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0086.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: sensory preconditioning; source memory; spatial learning; episodic memory
Online: 16 December 2016 (08:28:24 CET)
Loss of function of the hippocampus or frontal cortex is associated with reduced performance on memory tasks in which subjects are incidentally exposed to cues at specific places in the environment and are subsequently asked to recollect the location at which the cue was experienced. Here, we examined the roles of the rodent hippocampus and frontal cortex in cue-directed attention during encoding of memory for the location of a single incidentally experienced cue. During a spatial sensory preconditioning task, rats explored an elevated platform while an auditory cue was incidentally presented at one corner. The opposite corner acted as an unpaired control location. The rats demonstrated recollection of location by avoiding the paired corner after the auditory cue was in turn paired with shock. Damage to either the dorsal hippocampus or the frontal cortex impaired this memory ability. However, we also found that hippocampal lesions enhanced attention directed towards the cue during the encoding phase while frontal cortical lesions reduced cue-directed attention. These results suggest that the deficit in spatial sensory preconditioning caused by frontal cortical damage may be mediated by inattention to the location of cues during the latent encoding phase, while deficits following hippocampal damage must be related to other mechanisms such as generation of neural plasticity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0078.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: calibration; validation; optical; instrument; processing; imagery; spatial; operational
Online: 19 October 2016 (10:59:29 CEST)
As part of the Copernicus programme of the European Union (EU), the European Space Agency (ESA) has developed and is currently operating the Sentinel-2 mission that is acquiring high spatial resolution optical imagery. This paper provides a description of the calibration activities and the current status of the mission products validation activities. Measured performances, from the validation activities, cover both Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) and Bottom-Of-Atmosphere (BOA) products. Results presented in this paper show the good quality of the mission products both in terms of radiometry and geometry and provide an overview on next mission steps related to data quality aspects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1571.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: Land-use spatial conflict; Productional-living-ecological space; Multiscenario simulation; Grey multiobjective optimization; Yimengshan Geopark
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:49:47 CEST)
The foundation for accurately understanding regional land-use structures and pursuing the coordination of human–land relations is the scientific identification and simulation of temporal and spatial evolution patterns of land-use spatial conflict (LUSC). Taking the Yimengshan Geopark (YG) as an example, based on the productional–living–ecological space (PLES) perspective, which constructs a land-use spatial conflict identification and intensity diagnosis model (LUCSII) using the landscape ecology index. We apply geographic information system (GIS) and other methods to achieve the spatial pattern of LUSC over the last 20 years, and we use the GMOP–Markov–PLUS model to simulate the evolution of LUSC in the future under various scenarios. From 2000 to 2020, the LUSC values in the YG were mainly stable and controllable, with mild conflict, while the areas of severe conflict were mainly concentrated in the central urban area of Mengyin County and in low and flat terrain areas such as southern Bailin Town. The LUSC in the YG showed a significant positive spatial correlation, and spatial agglomeration is gradually strengthening. The high–high clusters are found in contiguous areas at the junction of Changlu Town, Gaodu Town, and Mengyin Street, as well as in the southern hilly areas. The low–low clusters were concentrated in Yedian Town, Daigu Town inarea north of the study, and areas surrounding Yunmeng Lake Wetland Park. In the next ten years, the ecological priority scenario (EPD) and sustainable development scenario (ESD) will both be reasonable options for easing and controlling LUSC in YG. Local governments and park management bureaus should determine the three lines and three zones based on the needs of social and economic development, particularly the boundary red line for construction land growth, and plan production and living spaces to alleviate land-use conflicts and stabilize the land-use system. Regional ecological security can be maintained, and future deterioration of the park’s ecological environment avoided, by performing well in terms of ecological isolation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1087.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: vacant house; spatial autocorrelation; fact-finding survey
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:02:54 CEST)
After industrialization and the baby boom, many houses have been left vacant in many cities worldwide due to changes in the economy, socie-ty, and urban composition. The increase in vacant houses causes social problems, like the collapse of village communities, damage to urban aes-thetics, risk of crime due to vacant houses, and decrease in the value of real estate. Accordingly, policy attempts and studies to reduce and utilize vacant houses are in progress in various countries. In South Korea, the ratio of vacant houses was 6.4% of all houses as of 2021, and in Jeolla-buk-do, it was 11.6%, which is higher than the national average. Jeollabuk-do conducted a fact-finding survey on countermeasures against va-cant houses; 17,732 vacant houses (2.4%) were surveyed. The urbanization, population, and terrain of Jeollabuk-do, consisting of 14 cities and counties, were considered. The ratios, types, grades, and spatial autocorrelations of vacant houses were analyzed after classification into city (fo-cus, small, and medium) and county (plains and mountains) areas. There were significant differences in the averages of the ratios, grades, and spatial autocorrelations between city and county areas. Therefore, policy establishment for vacant house management and countermeasures re-quires consideration of the areas and types of vacant houses.Keywords: : vacant house; spatial autocorrelation; fact-finding survey
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0671.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Cross-Boundary Spatial Planning Systems and Practices
Online: 28 June 2021 (14:51:05 CEST)
This research has critically argued that a vigilant combination of flexibility and certainty in spatial planning can bring about the most optimum planning outcomes. Therefore, to reproachfully evaluate the core argument, this research has tried to empirically respond to the research question of which balance of government intervention and market freedom produces the optimal economic, social and spatial outcomes. This research question has been further translated into an associated central hypothesis i.e., a hybrid planning system with an optimal balance between discretionary and regulatory planning approach can bring about the desired economic, social, and spatial outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0115.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: COVID-19; Mobility; Spatial Epidemics; Exit Strategy
Online: 7 May 2020 (09:40:34 CEST)
Prior to lockdown the spread of COVID-19 in UK is found to be exponential, with an exponent α=0.207 In case of COVID-19 this spreading patterns is quantitatively better described with mobility-driven SIR-SEIR model  rather than the homogenous mixing models Lockdown has dramatically slowed down the spread of COVID-19 in UK, and even more significantly has changed the growth in the total number of infected from exponential to quadratic. This significant change is due a transition from a mobility-driven epidemic spreading to a spatial epidemic which is dominated by slow growth of spatially isolated clusters of infected population. Our results strongly indicated that, to avoid a return to exponential growth of COVID-19 (also known as “second wave”) mobility restrictions should not be prematurely lifted. Instead mobility should be kept restricted while new measures, such as wearing mask and contact tracing, get implemented in order to allow a safe exit from lockdown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0053.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: visualization; terrain rendering; geo-spatial data; uncertainty; prioritization
Online: 9 December 2016 (10:11:12 CET)
Visualizing geo-spatial data embedded into a three-dimensional terrain is challenging. The problem becomes even more complex when uncertainty information needs to be presented as well. This paper addresses the question of how to visually communicate all three aspects: the 3D terrain, the geo-spatial data, and the data-associated uncertainty. We argue that visualizing all aspects with a high degree of detail will likely exceed the visual budget. Therefore, we propose a visualization strategy based on prioritizing a selected aspect and presenting the remaining two with less detail. We discuss various design options that allow us to obtain differently prioritized visual representations. Our approach has been implemented as a tool for rapid visualization prototyping in the context of avionics applications. Practical solutions are described for a use case related to the visualization of 3D terrain and uncertain weather data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0067.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Intermarriage; migration; local markets; Poisson model; Probit model; spatial autocorrelation; spatial heterogeneity; Spain
Online: 4 March 2022 (08:43:08 CET)
We utilized all Spanish marriage records available at the municipality level from 2005-2007 to model spatial variations in intermarriage. We constructed a spatial regime zero inflated Poisson model and grouped-data probit model, with spatially lagged regressors, to predict the absolute and relative presence of intermarriage between Spaniards and migrants based on structural characteristics of the local marriage markets and their neighboring areas (i.e., relative group size, homogeneity of national origins, and sex ratio indicators). Our models do not assume collapsibility of the marriage market. Instead, they incorporate the local dimension of the marriage market and examine the association between intermarriage and structural variables at the spatial local level. The model also investigates intermarriage variation by size of place. The local characteristics of the marriage markets are robust indicators of both the absolute and relative importance of intermarriage, but their impact varies by size of municipality. The relative size of the migrant community positively impacts intermarriage. The homogeneity of the origins of migrants is negatively related to it. The impact of sex ratios in the migrant and native communities on intermarriage is not uniform across all municipalities and is not always related to more intermarriage.