REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0538.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: γ-aminobutyric acid; lactic acid bacteria; glutamate decarboxylase; fermented foods; GAD genes
Online: 27 October 2020 (08:38:21 CET)
Glutamate decarboxylase (L-glutamate-1-carboxylase, GAD; EC 22.214.171.124) is a pyridoxal 5-phosphate-dependent enzyme, which catalyzes the irreversible α-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and CO2. The enzyme is widely distributed in eukaryotes as well as prokaryotes, where it – together with its reaction product GABA - fulfils very different physiological functions. The occurrence of gad genes encoding GAD has been shown for many microorganisms, and GABA-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been a focus of research during recent years. A wide range of traditional foods produced by fermentation based on LAB offer the potential of providing new functional food products enriched with GABA that may offer certain health-benefits. Different GAD enzymes and genes from several strains of LAB have been isolated and characterized recently. GABA-producing LAB, biochemical properties of their GAD enzymes, and possible applications are reviewed here.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0576.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Lactic acid bacteria; Traditional fermented milk; Isolation; Identification. characterization
Online: 24 March 2021 (09:58:43 CET)
Fermented milk product "Laban" in Libya is one of the most a traditional fermented milk product consumed a refreshing drink, particularly in the warm season The average values of the physicochemical including titratable acidity, pH, total solids, and fat were 0.73%, 4.16, 8.12%, and 1.54% respectively. Coliform, yeast and mold counts were 21×10⁴, 39×10⁴, and 41 ×10³ cfu/ ml., respectively. Most strains of coliform bacteria were Serratia odorifera, Escherichia coli 1, E. coli 2. and Klebsiella oxytoca. The average Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Mesophilic Lactobacillus / Leuconostoc and Thermophilic Lactobacillus counts were 99 ×10⁷, 96 ×10⁷, 93 ×10⁷ and 15 ×10⁷ cfu / ml. respectively. A total of 142 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates were identified to the genus level as Lactobacillus (48.59%), Lactococcus (43.66%), Streptococcus (4.93%) and Leuconostoc (2.82%). Sugar fermentation tests revealed the most frequent Lactobacillus species found to be Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis (62.32%), followed by Lactobacillus plantarum (31.88%). Furthermore, other selected LAB isolates were identified by API 50 CH test as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactics, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus brevis, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris. Thus, our research documented the lactic acid bacteria strains and will provides fundamental basic and useful information for further studies of strain selection starter culture, with regard to the industrial production of fermented dairy milk products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0242.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: lactic acid bacteria; enterococcus faecalis; dispersion; viral infection; particle size; Peyer's patch
Online: 12 October 2020 (13:09:21 CEST)
We evaluated the change in water dispersibility of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, Enterococcus faecalis KH2) upon powderization and its influence on their efficacy. When cultured LAB are washed, heat-killed, and powdered, adhesion between LAB occurs and they form aggregation (non-treated LAB, n-LAB). However, a dispersed LAB (d-LAB) powder with less aggregates can be prepared by treating them with a high-pressure homogenizer and adding an excipient during powdering. n-LAB or d-LAB was administered to mice and the Peyer's patches in the small intestine were observed. n-LAB administration showed a high amount of aggregated LAB drifting in the intestinal mucosa, whereas d-LAB reached the Peyer's patches and was taken up into the Peyer's patches. Evaluation in a mouse influenza virus infection model showed that d-LAB was more effective than n-LAB in influenza yield of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs) on day 3 post-infection, neutralizing antibody titers of sera and influenza virus-specific IgA in the feces on day 14 post-infection. Thus, the physical properties of LAB affect their efficacy; controlling their water dispersibility can improve their effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0280.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Pozol; lactic acid bacteria; fermentation; starch; microbial dynamics
Online: 12 August 2021 (15:50:05 CEST)
Pozol is a Mexican beverage prepared from fermented nixtamalized maize dough. To contribute to understanding its complex microbial ecology, the effect of inoculating on MRS-starch pure and mixed cultures of amylolytic Sii-25124 and non-amylolytic W. confusa 17, isolated from pozol, were studied on their interactions and fermentation parameters. These were compared with L. plantarum A6, an amylolytic strain isolated from cassava. Microbial growth, kinetic parameters, amylolytic activity, lactic acid production, and hydrolysis products from starch fermentation were measured. The population dynamics were followed by qPCR. L. plantarum A6 showed higher enzymatic activity, lactic acid, biomass production, and kinetic parameters than pozol LAB in pure cultures. Mixed culture of each pozol LAB with L. plantarum A6 showed a significant decrease in amylolytic activity, lactic acid yield, specific growth rate, and specific rate of amylase production. The interaction between Sii-25124 and W. confusa 17 increased the global maximum specific growth rate (µ), the lactic acid yield from starch (Ylac/s), lactic acid yield from biomass (Ylac/x), and specific rate of lactic acid production (qlac) by 15, 30, 30, and 40%, respectively compared with the pure culture of Sii-25124. Interactions between the two strains are essential for this fermentation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0174.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: lactic acid bacteria; food-producing animals; dairy products; health benefits; One health; antimicrobial resistance; probiotics; starter cultures; adjunct cultures; protective cultures.
Online: 7 August 2021 (00:17:15 CEST)
Animal products, in particular dairy and fermented products, are natural, major sources of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Due to their antimicrobial properties, LAB are used in humans and in animals, with beneficial effects, as probiotics or in the treatment of a variety of diseases. In livestock production, LAB contribute to animal performance, health, and productivity. In the food industry, LAB are applied as bioprotective and biopreservation agents, contributing to improve food safety and quality. However, some studies have described resistance to relevant antibiotics in LAB, with the concomitant risks associated to the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes to foodborne pathogens, their potential dissemination throughout the food chain, and the environment. Here, we summarize the application of LAB in livestock and animal products, as well as the health impact of LAB in animal food products. In general, the beneficial effects of LAB on the human food chain seem to outweigh the potential risks associated with their consumption as part of animal and human diets. However, further studies and continuous monitorization efforts are needed to ensure their safe application in animal products and in the control of pathogenic microorganisms, preventing the possible risks associated with antibiotic resistance and, thus, protecting public health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0313.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Pecorino di Farindola cheese; lactic acid bacteria (LAB); molecular characterization; Lacticaseibacillus paracasei selected culture; cheese making trial
Online: 16 August 2021 (08:47:09 CEST)
This study focused on the characterization of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in a renowned traditional Italian cheese, Pecorino di Farindola, to select an autochthonous culture and investigate its po-tential for the improvement of safety and functional properties. Two hundred and six LAB isolated throughout production and maturation from nine cheese lots of three farms were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and tested for the presence of genes encoding virulence factors, vancomycin resistance (for enterococci), biogenic amines (BAs) and bacteriocin production, for antimicrobial activity, and for the capacity to survive in the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) based on tolerance to low pH and bile salts and adhesion to CaCo-2 cells. A Lacticaseibacillus paracasei isolate was used in cheese making and determined a decline of spiked Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157 faster than in control cheese. The autochthonous bacterial groups were numerically unaffected, apart from lactobacilli that were recovered in higher numbers in the cheese with added L. paracasei. Based on Repetitive Extragenic Palyndrome (Rep) PCR profiles, the added strain possibly dominated until day 88 in cheese. Results encourage further trials with autochthonous cultures to efficiently inhibit hazardous bacteria and enrich a functional microbiota in Pecorino di Farindola and similar cheeses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0075.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Algae; wet anaerobic storage; dry matter loss; organic acid; lactic acid bacteria
Online: 4 March 2022 (08:45:40 CET)
Wet anaerobic storage of algal biomass is a promising preservation approach which can ensure continuous supply of these feedstocks to biorefineries year-round. An effective solution to preservation must ensure minimal dry matter loss and change in biochemical composition during storage. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the preservation of Nannochloropsis gaditana biomass through wet anaerobic storage and its impact on biomass quality. Prior to storage, algae sample was inoculated with two different strains of lactic acid bacteria and thereafter stored for 30 and 180 days. Each inoculant limited dry matter loss to <10% (dry basis) after the storage durations. Final pH values (4.3 - 4.8) indicate that the biomass samples were properly ensiled, achieving the acidic conditions necessary for preservation. Compositional analysis of the biomass after storage showed a reduction in carbohydrate content, a relative increase in lipid content, and no significant change to the protein fraction. Glucose and galactose were the prevalent sugar monomers. The low dry matter loss and minimal compositional change indicates that wet anaerobic storage is an effective means of preserving algal biomass, ensuring a constant supply of algal biomass feedstock to a biorefinery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0726.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: oral administration; lactic acid bacteria metabolites; skin barrier function; water content; atopic dermatitis
Online: 30 October 2018 (14:18:16 CET)
The effects of orally administered lactic acid bacteria metabolites on the skin were studied using an atopic dermatitis-like murine model created by feeding mice with HR-AD. The lactic acid bacteria metabolites were obtained by inoculating 35 strains of 16 species of lactic acid bacteria into soy milk and culturing them. The atopic dermatitis-like murine model was created by feeding HR-1 mice HR-AD for 40 days. The skin condition of mice that were fed HR-AD worsened compared with normal mice, i.e., reduced water content in the stratum corneum, increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL), reduced ceramide AP content in the stratum corneum, and increased epidermis thickness. When mice that had been fed the HR-AD diet was administered a raw liquid of lactic acid bacteria metabolites orally, the measured values related to water content in the stratum corneum, TEWL, ceramide AP content in the stratum corneum, and epidermis thickness improved. To find out the active components for these effects, filtrate and residue from the raw liquid of lactic acid bacteria metabolites and lipid components extracted from the raw liquid were examined at the same time. Results showed that the water-soluble components or residue after filtration did not demonstrate effects but the raw liquid and the lipid fraction did. These findings suggest that lactic acid bacteria metabolites improve skin injury in an atopic dermatitis-like murine model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0361.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Poly (Lactic Acid) (PLA); wastes rubber; recycling; tensile properties
Online: 15 March 2021 (08:05:30 CET)
Poly (Lactic Acid) (PLA) / Ground Tire Rubber (GTR) blends using Dicumyl peroxide (DCP) as a crosslinking agent were prepared as a route to recycle wastes rubber from the automotive industry. The GTR were exposed to grinding and exhibited mechanical damage, traduced at the rubber network scale by chains scission and/or chemical cross-links breakage. Such damage is accompanied by a decrease of 80% of the rubber chains network density of the initial tire buffing but found independent on the type of grinding (cryogenic, dry ambient) or on the GTR size (from <400 µm to <63 µm). Moreover, the finest sieved GTR contain the largest the amount of reinforcing elements (carbon black, clay) that can be advantageously used in PLA/GTR blends. The melt-blending of these finest GTR particles obtained by cryo-grinding at an amount of 15 wt.% and in presence of the crosslinking agent (DCP), resulted in an optimum improvement of the ductility, energy at break and impact strength of the PLA/GTR blends as compared to neat PLA, while maintaining its stiffness. The results were attributed to (i) the good dispersion of the fine GTR particles into the PLA matrix, (ii) the partial re-crosslinking of the GTR particles and co-crosslinking at PLA/GTR interface and (iii) the presence of reinforcing carbon black into the GTR particles and clay particles dispersed into the PLA matrix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Poly (lactic acid); chitosan; calcium silicate; tissue engineering; osteogenesis
Online: 1 March 2017 (17:03:43 CET)
Electrospinning is the versatile technique to generate large quantities of micro- or nano-fibers from a wide variety of shapes and sizes of polymer. Natural bone is a hierarchically composites with the dispersion of inorganic ceramic along organic polymer. The aim of this study, the electrospun poly (lactic acid) (PLA) mats coated with chitosan (CH) and calcium silicate (CS) powder were fabricated. The morphology, chemical composition, and surface properties of CS/CH-PLA composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro, the CS/CH-coated PLA mats increased the formation of apatite on the surface when soaking in cell cultured medium. During culture, the adhesion and proliferation of the human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured on CS/CH-PLA were significantly promoted relative to those on PLA. Collagen I and fibronectin levels and promoted cell adhesion were observed upon an increase in CS content. Further, compared to PLA mats without CS/CH, CS10 and CS15 mats markedly enhanced the proliferation of hMSCs as well as their osteogenesis properties, which was characterized by bone-related gene expression. Our results demonstrated that the biodegradable and electroactive CS/CH-PLA mats had potential application as an ideal candidate for bone tissue engineering. Together, findings from this study clearly demonstrated that PLLA-C2S composite scaffold may function as an ideal candidate for bone tissue engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0220.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: bioplastics; seaweed; lactic acid; Life Cycle Assessment; Ulva spp.
Online: 13 June 2018 (16:28:59 CEST)
An exploratory Life Cycle Assessment was carried out to provide insight into the environmental impacts of using the green seaweed Ulva spp. as a feedstock for production of bioplastic. The study focused on the production of lactic acid as a precursor of polylactic acid. The studied production process consists of (1) the cultivation of Ulva spp. in Integrated Multitrophic Aquaculture, (2) the processing of the biomass for solubilisation of sugars, (3) the fermentation of the sugars to lactic acid and (4) isolation of lactic acid from the fermentation broth. The study identifies environmental hotspots and compares the experimental seaweed production chain with conventional feedstock. The main hotspot identified is electricity consumption during seaweed cultivation. This impact of electricity consumption can be lowered by reducing energy use and sourcing renewable energy, and by improving the material efficiency in the product chain. To improve understanding of the environmental impacts of the production process, future studies can broaden the system boundaries and broaden the scope of sustainability issues included in the environmental assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0528.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Poly Lactic Acid(PLA); TGA; FTIR; DSC; FESEM; EDX
Online: 23 September 2020 (03:39:47 CEST)
Poly lactic acid (PLA) has made inroads for commercial market segment with lot many unique characteristics such as tenacity, low flame rate, moisture regain percentage, loss of ignition percentage, heat of combustion, UV resistance, Elastic recovery and higher melting point allowed it to be the fastest moving material in today's commercial market. An attempt has been made to test the feasibility and biocompatibility aspect of PLA with cement mix. The basic strength and physical test results were carried out and published in an article, to the continuation of the work, micro-structural study was conducted to evaluate the elemental characteristics. Thermo gravimetric analysis revealed that PLA either in granular form or filament will hold good for the inclusion into construction applications, provided degradation aspects are to be looked out for improvisation. From DSC it was found that PLA in filament form is the best inclusion material for construction application, however the tenacity of fibers has to checked, as currently available filaments in market does not have high tenacity value. From EDX reports, 30% inclusion of PLA as replacement for fine aggregate has constituent members as Calcium carbonate(CaCO3), Silica(SiO2) and Wollastonite (CaK) resulted in best composition among the rest. FESEM images revealed that, proper gradation in size, rough surface of PLA granular form or filament form will definitely enhance the mechanical/physical or even chemical behavior of PLA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0026.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: GABA; Indonesian fermented foods; glutamate decarboxylase; lactic acid bacteria; L. plantarum.
Online: 1 December 2020 (13:26:09 CET)
In the present study, we isolated and screened thirty strains of GABA-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from Indonesian traditional fermented foods. Two strains were able to convert monosodium glutamate (MSG) to GABA after 24 h of cultivation at 37oC based on thin layer chromatography (TLC) screening. 16S rDNA sequencing and proteomic identification using MALDI-TOF MS identified these two strains as Lactobacillus plantarum designated as L. plantarum FNCC 260 and L. plantarum FNCC 343. The highest yield of GABA production obtained from the fermentation of L. plantarum FNCC 260 was 809.2 mg/l of culture medium after 60 h of cultivation. Supplementation of 0.6 mM pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (PLP) and 0.1 mM pyridoxine led to the increase in GABA production to 945.3 mg/l and 969.5 mg/l, respectively. The highest GABA production of 1226.5 mg/l of culture medium was obtained with 100 mM initial concentration of MSG added in the cultivation medium. The open reading frame (ORF) of 1410 bp of the gadB gene from L. plantarum FNCC 260 encodes 469 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 53.57 kDa. The production of GABA via enzymatic conversion of monosodium glutamate (MSG) using purified recombinant glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) from L. plantarum FNCC 260 expressed in Escherichia coli was found to be more efficient (5-fold higher within 6 h) than the production obtained from fermentation. L. plantarum FNCC 260 could be of interest for the synthesis of GABA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0541.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Bioremediation; gut microbiota; lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacterales; lead; cadmium; aluminum; Probiotics; ICP-MS
Online: 26 January 2021 (13:26:26 CET)
Hazardous toxic metals, such as lead and cadmium, and to a lesser extent aluminum, are extensively recognized as detrimental for health following ingestion within food and water, or following inhalation. Gut and food-derived microbes, by interacting with heavy metals, may actively or passively modulate their bioavailability inside the gut, either by adsorption or by sequestration. Such a bioremediation within the gut implies the selection of safe microbes, based on their specific capacities to immobilize metals. We investigated the metal removal ability of 225 bacteria toward the potential harmful trace elements lead, cadmium and aluminum in vitro, using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry analysis. Interspecies and intraspecies comparisons were addressed and discussed among bacteria from the phylum Firmicutes, which are mostly lactic acid bacteria, including Lactobacillus spp, with some Lactococcus, Pediococcus and Carnobacterium representatives, Actinobacteria as well as Proteobacteria. The effect on mixture of lead and cadmium was also investigated. Although the purpose of such a screening is so far not to elucidate each of the various strain specific- and metal dependent- mechanisms of heavy metal removal, we identified potential bacteria which are able to alleviate Pb(II) and Cd(II) concerns in order to propose performing candidate probiotics for metal xenobiotic bioremediation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0692.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: graphene; carbon nanotubes; poly(lactic) acid, degradation, combustion, fire, risk analysis
Online: 29 October 2018 (14:53:40 CET)
Nanoparticles of graphene and carbon nanotubes are attractive materials for improvement of mechanical and barrier properties and functionality of biodegradable polymers for food packaging applications. However, the increase of the manufacture and consumption increases the probability of exposure of human and environment to such nanomaterials, this rising questions about the risks of nanomaterials since they can be toxic. For a risk assessment, it is crucial to know whether airborne nanoparticles of graphene and carbon nanotubes can be released from nanocomposites into the environment at their end-life, or they remain embedded in the matrix. In this work the release of graphene and carbon nanotubes from the poly(lactic) acid nanocomposite films were studied for the scenarios of: (i) biodegradation of matrix polymer at the disposal of wastes; and (ii) combustion and fire of nanocomposite wastes. Thermogravimetric analysis in air atmosphere, TEM, AFM and SEM were used to verify the release of nanoparticles from nanocomposite films. The three factors model was applied for the quantitative and qualitative risk assessment to the release of graphene and carbon nanotubes from nanocomposite wastes for these scenarios. Safety concern is discussed in respect to the existing regulations for nanowastes stream.
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: Poly(l-lactic acid); PLLA; Optical Rotatory Dispersion; ORD; Polycondensation; Racemization; Thin solid film; Exciton coupling; Organic electronics.
Online: 24 November 2020 (09:37:58 CET)
Optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) is a beautiful analytical technique for the study of chiral molecules and polymers. In this study, ORD was applied successfully to follow the degree of polycondensation of l-(+)-lactic acid toward the formation of poly(lactic acid) oligomers (PLAO) and high molecular weight poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) in a simple esterification reaction equipment. PLLA is a biodegradable polymer obtainable from renewable raw materials. The racemization of the intrinsically isotactic PLLA through thermal treatment can be easily followed through the use of ORD spectroscopy. Organic or molecular electronics is a hot topic dealing with the combination of π-conjugated organic compounds and polymers with specific properties (e.g. chirality) which can be exploited to construct optoelectronic devices such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), organic photovoltaic (OPV) high efficiency cells, switchable chirality devices, organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), and so on. ORD spectroscopy was applied to study either the gigantic optical rotation of PLLA films as well as to detect successfully the excitonic coupling occurring in thin solid PLLA green film loaded with a combination of two dyes: SY96 (a pyrazolone dye) and PB16 (the metal-free phthalocyanine pigment). The latter compound PLLA loaded with SY96 and PB16 shows a really gigantic optical activity in addition to typical ORD signal due to exciton coupling and may be considered as a simple and easily accessible model composite of a chiral polymer matrix combined with π-conjugated dyes for molecular electronics studies.
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: feminine hygiene; feminine gel wash; lactic acid; vulvar skin pH; vulvar microbiome; skin microflora; vulvovaginal environment; bacterial 16S rRNA gene; fungal ITS
Online: 9 December 2019 (03:53:52 CET)
Background: While intimate feminine hygiene products are widely used by women as part of daily cleansing routines, little is known about how these products impact the vulvovaginal area and its microbiome stability. A novel gel wash containing lactic acid (pH 4.2) for external daily use was formulated to provide gentle cleansing, freshness, and antimicrobial protection to maintain a healthy balance of the vulvar skin area. This 4-week clinical study assessed tolerance of the gel wash when used on the external genital area and its effects on skin hydration, vulvar skin pH, and the vulvar microbiome. After a 7-day pre-study conditioning period, 36 healthy females in 3 balanced age groups (18-29, 30-44, and 45-55 years) used the gel wash to cleanse their external genital area (mons pubis and vulva) and entire body at least once per day for 28 days. The primary endpoint wasSkin tolerance of the gel wash was assessed by the gynecologist. Effects of the gel wash on vulvar skin microbiota were studied by performing bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal ITS microbial richness and diversity analysis. Results: Based on gynecologic assessment after 28 days of use, the gel wash showed acceptable tolerance, with no signs of increased dryness, redness, edema, itching, stinging, or burning. Use of the gel wash was associated with a significant increase in both short-term (single application) and longer-term (daily use for 28 days) skin moisturization. There was no significant change in vulvar skin pH over time with daily product use, and the gel wash did not significantly affect the natural vulvar microbiome species richness or diversity for bacteria or fungi. Conclusions: Results of the study showed that this new gel wash is a mild, moisturizing cleanser that does not harm and instead maintains the natural pH and microbial diversity of vulvar skin. To our knowledge, this was the first study to assess the effect of an antimicrobial feminine gel wash on the natural pH and vulvar microbiome habitat of the skin using bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal ITS genetic sequencing techniques, thereby providing a better understanding of the bacterial and fungal communities that inhabit the external vulvar area in healthy women.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0527.v1
Online: 26 January 2021 (08:25:13 CET)
Keywords: lactic acid; ceramide; folate; nicotinamide; Alzheimer’s disease
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0718.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: Sepsis, Septic shock, Lactic acid, Dynamic monitoring, Prognosis
Online: 30 July 2020 (11:23:48 CEST)
Objectives: To investigate the value of early lactate dynamic monitoring index in predicting prognosis of patients with sepsis and septic shock. Methods: We performed our test on 50 patients. Out of 50 patients, 28 are male, and 22 are female. Prospectively studied pediatric patients with septic shock were performed. Vital signs, Lactate clearance, were obtained at presentation 6 h, 12 h, 24 h over the first 48 h of hospitalization. The therapy received, outcome parameters of mortality and duration of hospitalization were recorded. Results: The statistical data and comparative analysis showed that an average of 16.88 days after admission, 5 patients have died, 17 patients are poorly prognosis leaves the hospital, and the remaining 28 are recovered and discharged. The primary outcome variable of mean 16 days hospitalization mortality rate was 10%. Poor prognosis 34% and fully recovery 56 % were observed. In this retrospective cohort study, a lactate level of more than 2.5mmol/L was the best threshold to predict 28-day mortality among severe sepsis and septic shock patients. In our research, we found mean LC 6 h 3.08mmol/L, and after 48 h mean it is 1.79mmol/L. Significant LC 6 h found, which is 8.08mmol/L in the death group patient where 48 h mmol/L shows significant high. Poor prognosis also presents a clinical increase of lactate level high in the LC 6 h analysis, which is 3.32mmol/L. Recovered patients showed a significant improvement after administering treatment depending on the patient organ involvement and good decrease of lactate reports achieved, which is 1.20mmol/L, where admission reports show it was 1.91mmol/L in LC 6 h. Mean Heart rate 94/51mmhg, pulse 119, temperature 39℃, respiratory rate 32.26, and urine output 456 ml recorded during our study. Death patient shows a remarkable detonation of those reports but has a significant clinical report with the recovered patients. Conclusion: The early lactate dynamic monitoring index has a high value in predicting sepsis and septic shock patients' prognosis, thus worth popularizing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0145.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: Dynamic crosslinking, poly(lactic acid), block copolymer, biocompatible
Online: 8 September 2018 (01:38:27 CEST)
Here, we present a series of novel block copolymers (BCP) from bio-derived monomers, poly(lactic acid)-block-poly(2,5-furandimethylene succinate) (PLA-b-PFS), in which the furan groups from PFS block can be crosslinked with bis(maleimido) triethylene glycol (M2) through a Diels-Alder reaction. This dynamic crosslinking reaction leads to a network structure for enhancing the mechanical properties compared to their linear BCP analogous. Decreasing the crosslinking density leads to a decrease of glass transition temperature of BCPs and a transition from glassy to rubbery-like behavior at room temperature. This allows a wide tunablity of both elastic moduli and yields of the materials. For the lowest crosslinking density. the material exhibits an over 50% self-healing efficiency at room temperature after five days, attributed to the low Tg (15.2 C) from the introduction of PFS block, allowing sufficient chain mobility for structure re-organization. Moreover, with the appropriate selection of crosslinking density (PLA-b-PFS/M2 (6/1)), it also shows an excellent shape memory property with a high recovery rate of 96.3% and a fixity rate of 97.3%. The permanent shape can be rewriteable due to the reversibility of Diels-Alder reaction. With these advanced functionalities and ease in large-scale fabrication, the PLA-b-PFS/M2 shows great promises for self-healing coatings or films with shape memory properties in a wide variety of applications such as packaging materials
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0102.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: dental caries; Streptococcus mutans; lactic acid bacteria; biofilm; glucosyltransferases
Online: 24 October 2016 (09:37:48 CEST)
Consumption of refined foods and beverages high in sugar make the teeth susceptible to the formation of biofilm, and lead to dental caries and diseases of the oral cavity such as periodontitis and periodontal disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the ability of selected probiotics to inhibit growth and biofilm formation by the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans in vitro. We screened strains of latic acid bacteria (LAB) (n=120) from the Bioresources Collection and Research Center (BCRC), saliva of healthy adults and infant stool. The antimicrobial activity of LAB in vitro was evaluated by agar spot culture and co-culture of the S. mutans strains. We determined the effect of heating and dilution factors (2- and 4-fold) on the antagonistic activity of LAB. Antagonistic substances in the spent culture suspensions (SCS) of LAB were precipitated by extraction with ammonium sulphate and chloroform to characterise the protein and lipophilic fractions. Results of co-culturing show that the SCS of the three LAB strains (Lactobacillus pentosus 13-1, 13-4 and Lactobacillus crispatus BCRC 14618) subjected to heat treatment showed significantly high antimicrobial activity. We found that substances produced by L. pentosus 13-4 which have the potential to exhibit antimicrobial properties might be lipophilic proteins. Additionally, we infer that the mechanism of reducing biofilm formation by Lactobacillus strains is associated with sucrose-dependent cell–cell adhesion and the gtfC level of glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) in the biofilm. Native LAB strains screened in our study may be used in chewing gums and other processed foods for preventing tooth decay.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0367.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: nanoparticles; poly lactic-co-glycolic acid; metformin; periodontal disease; inflammation
Online: 20 July 2018 (03:40:29 CEST)
The aim of this study was synthesize and evaluate the effects of Poly (D, L-Lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) Nanoparticles (NPs) of metformin (PLGA+ Met) on inflammation, and bone loss in a ligature-induced periodontitis rat model. The prepared NPs were characterized by mean diameter, size particle, polydispensity index and encapsulation efficiency by Atomic force microscopy (AFM). Male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of 20 rats in each group, and given the following treatments for 10 days to evaluate in vivo activity: (1) Sham: no ligature + water; (2) Positive control: ligature + water (with Periodontal disease and Diabetes); (3) ligature + PLGA+ 10 mg/kg Met (With Periodontal disease and Diabetes); and (4) ligature + PLGA+ 100 mg/kg Met (with Periodontal disease and Diabetes). Water or PLGA + Met was administered orally by gavage. Maxillae were fixed and scanned using Micro-computed Tomography (μCT) to quantify linear of bone loss. Histopathological characteristics were assessed through immunohistochemical staining for Osteocalcin, Cathepsyn K, RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway. IL-1β and TNF-α from gingival tissues were analysed by Elisa immunoassay. Quantitative RT-PCR reaction was used to evaluate gene expression of AMPK, NF-κB p-65, Hmgb1 and TAK-1 from gingival tissues. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA at 5% significance. The mean diameter of MET-loaded PLGA nanoparticles was in a range of 457.1 ± 48.9 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.285, zeta potential: 8.16 ± 1.1 mV and entrapment efficiency (EE) was 70%. The results suggest that the addition of MET in the core slightly affected the particle sizes. Treatment with PLGA+ 10 mg/kg Met showed low inflammatory cells, decreased bone loss and integrity cement and levels of IL-1β, and TNF-α (p < 0.05) were significantly reduced. Additionally, weak staining was shown by RANKL, Cathepsyn K, OPG, and osteocalcin. Radiographically, linear measurements showed a statistically significant reduction in bone loss after treatment with PLGA+ 10 mg/kg Met compared to the positive control (p < 0.05). RT-PCR showed increased AMPK expression (p < 0.05) and decreased expression of NF-κB P65, HMGB1 and TAK-1 after PLGA+ 10 mg/kg Met (p < 0.05). The PLGA nanoparticle + 10 mg/kg Met decreased glucose levels and also decreased the inflammatory response, and bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis in rats.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0452.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: lactate; lactic acid; glycolysis; carcinogenesis; malignant tumor; evolutionary oncology; Warburg effect
Online: 26 August 2022 (07:13:46 CEST)
The role of lactic acid (lactate) in cell metabolism has been significantly revised in recent dec-ades. Initially, lactic acid was attributed to the role of a toxic end product of metabolism, which accumulation in the cell and extracellular space leads to acidosis, muscle pain and other adverse effects. However, it has now become obvious that lactate is not only a universal fuel molecule and the main substrate for gluconeogenesis, but also one of the most ancient metabolites with signaling function, which has a wide range of regulatory activity. The Warburg effect described 100 years ago (that means intensification of glycolysis associated with high lactate production), which is characteristic of many malignant tumors, confirms the key role of lactate not only in physiological conditions, but also in pathologies. The study of lactate’s role in the malignant transformation becomes more relevant in the light of the “atavistic theory of carcinogenesis,” which suggests that tumor cells return to a more primitive hereditary phenotype during micro-evolution. In this review, we attempted to summarize the accumulated knowledges about the functions of lactate in cell metabolism and its role in the process of carcinogenesis, and to con-sider the possible evolutionary significance of the Warburg effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0430.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: lactic acid bacteria; probiotic; yeast; acrylamide; amidase; degradation; Response Surface Methodology
Online: 16 April 2021 (10:32:49 CEST)
Acrylamide (AA) present in food is considered a harmful compound for humans, but it exerts impact on microorganisms too. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of AA (at conc. 0-10 µg/mL) on the growth of bacteria (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5) and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces lactis var. lactis), which naturally occur in food products. Moreover, we decided to verify whether these microorganisms could decompose acrylamide. Our results proved that AA can stimulated the growth of L. acidophilus and K. lactis. We have also reported, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, that probiotic strain of bacteria L. acidophilus LA-5 is able to degrade AA by amidase production and hence can utilize AA as a source of carbon and nitrogen if they lack in the environment. The conducted Response Surface Methodology indicated that pH as well as incubation time and temperature significantly influenced the amount of ammonia released from acrylamide by the bacteria. Concluding, our studies suggest that some strains of bacteria present in milk fermented products can exert additional beneficial impact by acrylamide degradation and preventing against its harmful impact on human body and other members of intestinal microbiota.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0132.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Wine yeast; malic acid; pH; breeding; Malo Lactic Fermentation; Marker Assisted Selection
Online: 3 March 2021 (12:43:08 CET)
Background Natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains exhibit very large genotypic and phe-notypic diversity. Breeding programs taking advantage of this characteristic, are widely used for yeast selection in the wine industry, especially in the recent years when winemakers need to adapt their production to climate change. The aim of this work was to evaluate a Marker Assisted Se-lection (MAS) program to improve malic acid consumption capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in grape juice. Methods Optimal individuals of two unrelated F1-hybrids were crossed to get a new genetic background carrying many “malic consumer” loci. Then, eleven QTLs already identified were used for implementing the MAS breeding program. Results By this way, extreme individuals able to consume more than 70% of malic acid in grape juice were selected. These individuals were tested in different enological matrixes and compared to their original parental strains. They greatly reduced the malic acid content at the end of alcoholic fermentations, they appeared to be robust to the environment and accelerate the ongoing of malo-lactic fermentations by Oenococcus oeni. Conclusions This study illustrates how MAS can be efficiently used for selecting industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with outlier properties for winemaking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0613.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: tempeh; lactic acid bacteria; short chain fatty acids; metabolic syndrome; high fat diet; feces
Online: 31 July 2018 (09:37:51 CEST)
The increased consumption of high fat-containing foods has been linked to the prevalence of obesity and abnormal metabolic syndromes. Rhizopus oligosporus, a fungus in the family Mucoraceae, is widely used as a starter for homemade tempeh. Although R. oligosporus can prevent the growth of other microorganisms, it grows well with lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus plantarum can produce β-glucosidase, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of glucoside isoflavones into aglycones (with greater bioavailability). Therefore, the development of a soybean-based functional food by the co-inoculation of R. oligosporus and L. plantarum is a promising approach to increase the bioactivity of tempeh. In this study, the ameliorative effect of L. plantarum in soy tempeh on abnormal carbohydrate metabolism in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperglycemic rats was evaluated. The co-incubation of L. plantarum with R. oligosporus during soy tempeh fermentation reduced the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, HbA1c, serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, free fatty acid, insulin, and low-density lipoprotein contents and significantly increased the high-density lipoprotein content in HFD rats. It also increased the LAB counts as well as the bile acid, cholesterol, triglyceride, and short-chain fatty acid contents in the feces of HFD rats. Our results suggested that the modulation of serum glucose and lipid levels by LAB occurs via alterations in the internal microbiota, leading to the inhibition of cholesterol synthesis and promotion of lipolysis. Tempeh, produced with both L. plantarum and R. oligosporus, may be a beneficial dietary supplement for individuals with abnormal carbohydrate metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0514.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: corn starch; maleic anhydride; lactic acid; methyl acrylate; hydrophobically modified; in-situ solid phase polymerization
Online: 21 November 2018 (05:04:32 CET)
Three kinds of hydrophobic groups grafted starches of maleic anhydride grafted starch (MAH-g-starch), lactic acid grafted starch (LA-g-starch), and methyl acrylate grafted starch (MA-g-starch) were prepared by in-situ solid phase polymerization. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were confirmed successful grafting. The grafting ratios of MAH-g-starch, LA-g-starch and MA-g-starch were 6.50%, 12.45%, and 0.57%, respectively. Influenced by the grafting ratio, LA-g-starch had the best hydrophobic properties and the largest molecular weight, and those for MA-g-starch was the worst. The surfaces of grafted starches were covered with graft polymer, with obvious surface roughness and bond degree of MAH-g-starch and LA-g-starch. The crystalline structure of grafted starches showed some damage, with LA-g-starch exhibiting the greatest decrease in crystallinity, and less of a change for MA-g-starch. Overall, the grafting reaction improved thermoplasticity, with LA-g-starch the most improved, followed by MAH-g-starch, and then MA-g-starch.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0013.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: dextransucrases; GH70; lactic acid bacteria; sucrose-active enzymes; carbohydrate binding module; glucansucrase; cellulose binding domain; Leuconostoc
Online: 1 September 2021 (12:12:00 CEST)
The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have great potential to produce homoexopolysaccharides (HoPS), have been the subject of extensive research efforts, given their health benefits and physicochemical properties. The HoPS functional properties are determined by structural characteristics of varied molecular weights, types of glycosidic linkages, degrees of branching and chemical composition. The dextransucrases (DSases) are responsible of the synthesis of a kind of HoPS (dextran polymers), which are among the first biopolymers produced at industrial scale with applications in medicine and biotechnology. The concept of glycodiversification opens additional applications for DSases. In that sense the design and characterization of new DSases is of prime importance. Previously, we described the isolation and characterization of a novel extracellular dextransucrase (DSR-F) encoding gene. In this study, from DSR-F, we design a novel chimeric dextransucrase DSR-F-∆SP-∆GBD-CBM2a, where DSR-F-∆SP-∆GBD is fused to the carbohydrate-binding module (CBM2a) of the β-1-4 exoglucanase/xylanase Cex (Xyn10A) of Cellulomonas fimi ATCC 484. This dextransucrase variant is active and without alteration in its specificity. The DSR-F-∆SP-∆GBD-CBM2a is purified by cellulose affinity chromatography for the very first time. Our results indicate that new hybrids and chimeric DSases with novel binding capacity to cellulose can be designed to obtain glyco-biocatalysts from renewable lignocellulosic materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0312.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: raw milk stretched cheeses; lactic acid bacteria; coliform bacteria; Escherichia coli; Staphylococcus aureus; yeasts and moulds
Online: 12 February 2021 (15:26:35 CET)
To evaluate the behaviour of the relevant microbial populations during stretched cheese production, the quantitative microbiological analysis was performed during the critical steps of the preparation. The obtained data distributions proved statistically significant increases in all indicators, on average by 4.55 ± 0.64 log CFU/g of presumptive lactococci counts, 4.06 ±0.61 of lactobacilli, 1.53 ± 0.57 log CFU/g of coliforms, 2.42 ± 0.67 log CFU/g of Escherichia coli, 1.53 ± 0.75 log CFU/g of yeasts and moulds, and 0.99 ± 0.27 log CFU/g of presumptive Staphylococcus aureus, from the early stage of milk coagulation until curd ripening (0–24 h). The following steaming/stretching process caused reductions in viable counts with the most significant inactivation effect on coliform bacteria, including E. coli (-4.0 ± 1.0 log CFU/g). Total viable counts and yeasts and moulds showed 2 and almost 3 log reduction (-2.2 ± 1.1 log CFU/g and -2.6 ± 0.9 log CFU/g), respectively. The lowest decreases in presumptive S. aureus counts were estimated at the level of -1.50 ± 0.64 log CFU/g. The counts of yeasts and moulds showed the best indicatory function during the entire storage period of vacuum-packaged cheeses at 6 °C.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0170.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: cancer; DNA informational entropy; cell compartmentation; evolutionary Biology; lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); lactic acid; metabolism; thermodynamic entropy; Warburg effect
Online: 17 March 2022 (03:37:53 CET)
Attempts to find and quantify the supposed low entropy of organisms and its preservation are revised. Absolute entropy of the mixed components of non-living biomass (around -1.6 x 103 J K-1 L-1) is the reference to which other entropy decreases would be ascribed to life. Compartmentation of metabolites and departure from the equilibrium of metabolic reactions account for 1 and 40-50 J K-1 L-1, respectively, decreases of entropy and, though small, are distinctive features of living tissues. DNA and proteins do not supply significant decreases of thermodynamic entropy, but their low informational entropy is relevant for life and its evolution. No other living feature contributes significantly to the low entropy associated to life. The photosynthetic conversion of radiant energy to biomass energy accounts for the most of entropy (2.8 x 105 J K-1 carbon kg-1) produced by living beings. The comparative very low entropy produced in other processes (around 4.8 x102 J K-1 L-1 day-1 in human body) must be rapidly exported outside as heat to preserve the low entropy decreases due to compartmentation and non-equilibrium metabolism. Enzymes and genes are described whose control minimize the rate of production of entropy and could explain selective pressures in biological evolution and the rapid proliferation of cancer cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0541.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: 3D printing; biomimetic; poly (lactic acid); spheroids; bone repair; 3D printed scaffold; bone morphogenetic protein 2; biomimetic apatite.
Online: 21 December 2020 (16:48:39 CET)
This study aimed to assess the response of 3D printed PLA scaffolds biomimetically coated with apatite on human primary osteoblast spheroids and evaluate the biological response to its association with Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (rhBMP-2) in rat calvaria. PLA scaffolds were produced via 3D printing, soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution, and characterized by physical-chemical, morphological, and mechanical properties. The in vitro biological response was assessed with human primary osteoblast (HOb) spheroids. The in vivo analysis was conducted through the implantation of 3D printed PLA scaffolds either alone, covered by apatite (PLA-CaP) or PLA-CaP loaded with rhBMP-2 (PLA-CaP+rhBMP-2) on critical-sized defects (8 mm) of rat calvaria. Increased cell adhesion and in vitro release of growth factors (PDGF, bFGF, VEGF) was observed for PLA-CaP scaffolds when pre-treated with FBS. PLA-CaP+BMP2 presented higher values of newly formed bone (NFB) than other groups at all experimental periods (p<0.05), attaining 44.85% of NFB after 6 months. These findings indicate that functionalization of PLA scaffolds with biomimetic apatite can improve its biological properties in the presence of complex biological media. Its association with BMP2 may enhance bone repair, suggesting this strategy as a promising candidate for bone tissue engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0503.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Cytotoxicity; Glioblastoma multiform; Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); Poly D- L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA); U-87 MG glioma cell lines
Online: 21 July 2021 (16:37:21 CEST)
PHLNs (polymeric lipid hybrid nanoparticles) are core–shell nanoparticle structures made up of polymer cores and lipid shells that have properties similar to both polymeric nanoparticles and liposomes. Methotrexate (MTX) loaded PLHNPs containing tween 80, phosphatidylcholine, poly D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) & glyceryl tripalmitate prepared using solvent injection & homogenization method for glioblastoma treatment option. The MTX loaded PLHNPs optimized by Box–Behnken design to minimize particle size, higher entrapment efficacy, and maximize MTX concentration in the brain at 4h. The particle size, entrapment efficacy, concentration of drug in brain at 4h, zeta potential and AUC(Brain)/AUC(Plasma) ratio were in the range of 173.51-233.37nm, 70.56-86.34%, 6.38-12.38 μg/mL, 25.78-36.31mV & 1.02-5.32. in-vitro drug release studies, cellular internalization of optimized formulation against U-87 MG shows good anticancer effects.