Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Release of Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes from Biodegradable Poly(Lactic Acid) Films during Degradation and Combustion: Risk Associated with the End-of-Life of Nanocomposite Food Packaging Materials

Version 1 : Received: 29 October 2018 / Approved: 29 October 2018 / Online: 29 October 2018 (14:53:40 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Kotsilkov, S.; Ivanov, E.; Vitanov, N.K. Release of Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes from Biodegradable Poly(Lactic Acid) Films during Degradation and Combustion: Risk Associated with the End-of-Life of Nanocomposite Food Packaging Materials. Materials 2018, 11, 2346. Kotsilkov, S.; Ivanov, E.; Vitanov, N.K. Release of Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes from Biodegradable Poly(Lactic Acid) Films during Degradation and Combustion: Risk Associated with the End-of-Life of Nanocomposite Food Packaging Materials. Materials 2018, 11, 2346.

Journal reference: Materials 2018, 11, 2346
DOI: 10.3390/ma11122346

Abstract

Nanoparticles of graphene and carbon nanotubes are attractive materials for improvement of mechanical and barrier properties and functionality of biodegradable polymers for food packaging applications. However, the increase of the manufacture and consumption increases the probability of exposure of human and environment to such nanomaterials, this rising questions about the risks of nanomaterials since they can be toxic. For a risk assessment, it is crucial to know whether airborne nanoparticles of graphene and carbon nanotubes can be released from nanocomposites into the environment at their end-life, or they remain embedded in the matrix. In this work the release of graphene and carbon nanotubes from the poly(lactic) acid nanocomposite films were studied for the scenarios of: (i) biodegradation of matrix polymer at the disposal of wastes; and (ii) combustion and fire of nanocomposite wastes. Thermogravimetric analysis in air atmosphere, TEM, AFM and SEM were used to verify the release of nanoparticles from nanocomposite films. The three factors model was applied for the quantitative and qualitative risk assessment to the release of graphene and carbon nanotubes from nanocomposite wastes for these scenarios. Safety concern is discussed in respect to the existing regulations for nanowastes stream.

Subject Areas

graphene; carbon nanotubes; poly(lactic) acid, degradation, combustion, fire, risk analysis

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