ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0083.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: genitalia; damage; instar; insect pest; dimorphism
Online: 3 December 2020 (11:31:35 CET)
The coffee leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville & Perrottet), is a key pest in coffee producing countries. During their development, the larvae feed on the palisade parenchyma of the leaves forming mines. As a result, the photosynthetic area of the plant decreases, affecting coffee production. Despite the severity of the damage caused by coffee leaf miner (CLM), morphological aspects of the larval development and the adult genitalia remain unknown. It is important to identify more susceptible targets to an efficient and narrow control by natural or synthetic approaches, relies on determining the larval instars. Equally important is the sexing of the adult, in experiments aiming efficient ways to control CLM, as the study of pheromone-based control methods. This work presents the first morphological description of the four larval instars and the adult genitalia of L. coffeella. In each larval instar, we measured the Mean ± SD (mm) of the cephalic capsules (1st 0,14±0,03; 2nd 0,25±0,04; 3rd 0,32±0,03; 4th 0,42±0,03) and observed the following morphological details: primary setae, prolegs, crochets and ecdysial line of the cephalic capsule. In the adults, we observed the sexual structures present in both genitalia: male - bulbus ejaculatorius, valva, anellus, gnathos and aedeagus and female - ovipositor, sclerite and corpus bursae. The dissection of the adult specimens confirmed that the external morphology corresponds to the correct sex attribution in CLM adults. These results may support innovative and improved control strategies for CLM Integrated Pest Management (IPM).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0516.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: machine learning; insect-damage; spectral data; theoretical model
Online: 23 February 2021 (14:12:28 CET)
In cotton cultivars, an insect that causes irreversible damage is the Spodoptera frugiperda, known as the fall armyworm. Since the visual detection of plants is a burdensome task for human inspection, the spectral information related to plant damage, registered on a spectral scale, can be useful. These measurements, associated with machine learning techniques, produce useful information for a rapid and non-invasive inspection method development. To contribute to this gap fulfillment, this paper proposes a machine learning framework to model the spectral response of cotton plants under the attack of the fall armyworm. Additionally, a theoretical model is presented, built from the results of the machine learning analysis, to infer this damage with up-to-date orbital sensors. The data was composed of the reflectance measurements collected at a cotton field with control plants and plants submitted to Spodoptera frugiperda damage. Their spectral response was recorded with a hand-held spectroradiometer ranging from 350 to 2,500 nm, for eight consecutive days. Different machine learning models were evaluated and the overall best model was defined by accuracies comparisons on a testing-set. A ranking approach was adopted based on the model accuracy, returning the most contributive wavelengths for the classification. Sequentially, an unsupervised neural network (Self-Organizing Map - SOM) was implemented to reduce data-dimensionality and assist in the definition of important spectral regions. The regions were associated with the spectral bands of the two sensors (OLI and MSI) and a theoretical model using a band simulation process with the overall best machine learning model was proposed. The results indicated that the Random Forest (RF) algorithm is the most suitable to predict cotton-plants damaged by insects and that the last day of analysis (8th day) was better to separate it, with F-measure equals 0.912. The ranking approach combined with the SOM method indicated the spectral regions at the red to near-infrared (650 to 1,350 nm) and shortwave infrared (1,570 to 1,640 nm) as the most important regions to the analysis. The proposed theoretical model simulated with the OLI and MSI sensor-bands returned an F-Measure of 0.865 and 0.886, respectively. In conclusion, this framework can be used to map cotton-plants under insect-attack. The theoretical model presents high accuracy to infer the insect-damaged on cotton plants based on multispectral bands from other sensors, being a useful tool for future research that intends to evaluate it in other areas and at different field scales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0662.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Aesculus hippocastanum; insect pest; fungal disease; invasive species; leaf damage; model; competition; urban environment
Online: 26 April 2021 (12:13:43 CEST)
The horse chestnut leaf miner Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) is an invasive pest of horse chestnut and has spread through Europe since 1985. The horse chestnut leaf blotch Guignardia aesculi (Botryosphaeriales: Botryosphaeriaceae) is a fungal disease that also seriously damages horse chestnut trees in Europe. The interaction between the leaf miner and the fungus has not yet been sufficiently described. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess leaf damage inflicted to horse chestnut by both C. ohridella and G. aesculi during the vegetation season and to model their interaction. The damage to leaf area was measured monthly from May to September 2013 in České Budějovice, the Czech Republic. A simple phenomenological model describing the expected dynamics of the two species was developed. The study revealed a significant effect of sampling site and sampling period on the damage caused by both the pest and the fungus. The mathematical model indicates that infestation by C. ohridella is more affected by G. aesculi than vice versa. The possible mechanisms affecting the relationship between G. aesculi and C. ohridella are discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0254.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Insect pest control; Insect Resistance Management; Crop protection
Online: 18 October 2022 (07:27:52 CEST)
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a spore-forming bacterium that produces insecticidal proteins and other virulence factors and is considered one of the most successful bioinsecticides available to control pests in agriculture. Bt strains have been reported as endophyte or rhizospheric bacteria, but little is known about the implications of this property of Bt in crop protection. Here, we review if Bt can establish as an endophyte/rhizobacterium and evaluate if Bt as an endophyte/rhizobacterium can simultaneously act against different phytopathogens (fungi, bacteria, insects and viruses) plus promote plant growth. The implications of the proposed review will broaden our understanding of Bt as a versatile entomopathogen by exhibiting differential behavior depending on context.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0019.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: broiler; chitin; immune response; insect meal; insect oil; microbiota
Online: 1 December 2023 (05:11:33 CET)
Insect meal as a protein source has been considered a sustainable way to feed animals. H. illucens and T. molitor larvae meal are considered high protein sources for poultry, also presenting considerable amounts of fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals. However, other potential components in insect meal and insect oil have been more studied nowadays. Chitin, lauric acid, and antimicrobial peptides can present antimicrobial and prebiotic functions, indicating that low inclusions of insect meal can beneficially affect broilers` health and immune responses. This systematic review was developed to study the impact of insect products on health parameters of broilers, and a metanalysis was conducted to evaluate the effects on performance. A database was obtained based on a selection of manuscripts from 2016 to January 2023, following the mentioned parameters. There were positive effects of both H. illucens and T. molitor meal or oil products on poultry health status, especially in microbiota population, immune responses, and antimicrobial properties. The average daily gain was greater in broilers fed T. molitor meal compared to H. illucens meal (p = 0.002). The results suggest that low levels of insect meal were suitable for broilers, without result in negative effects on performance, while the insect oil can totally replace soybean oil without negative impacts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0354.v1
Online: 4 August 2023 (03:15:26 CEST)
Notch signaling is a highly conserved pathway which occurs between adjacent cells to distinguish them. The Notch signaling cascade operates in a simple mechanism, yet Notch plays remarkably diverse roles in development to regulate cell fate determination, organ growth and tissue patterning. Originally isolated and characterized in the model insect Drosophila melanogaster, recent studies in various insect species have revealed that Notch signaling is broadly involved in the construction of insect tissues. This review focuses on providing a molecular mechanistic and developmental picture regarding the roles of Notch pathway in insects. The functions of Notch in the formation and patterning of insect embryo, wing, leg, ovary and several specific structures as well as in stress responses are summarized. These results are discussed in developmental context with an eye toward understanding the functionality of Notch signaling pathway in different insect species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1018.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: edible insects; insect-based food; market avilability; alternative protein; Poland; insect powders
Online: 17 July 2023 (07:28:08 CEST)
In Poland, there has recently been a lot of interest in the possible use of insects as a new food source. Since they have many nutritional and environmental advantages, insects are a promising and sustainable source of protein. Although, in many parts of the world insects are a highly valued food, in Poland the development of insect-based food has only recently started, and the availability of products on the market is constantly increasing. This study examines the market availability of food products with insect additives in Poland, considering both online and sta-tionary stores. The assortment of products was analyzed based on the country of origin, insect species, form of insects, and product category. Polish consumers have more access to in-sect-based food products than ever before, with whole insects, protein bars, and powdered ver-sions predominating the market's offers..
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0079.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: insect; RNAi; non-RNAi; defense systems; antiviral; insect pest control; bee health
Online: 12 March 2018 (05:18:25 CET)
RNAi is considered a major antiviral defense mechanism in insects but its relative importance compared to other antiviral pathways has not been evaluated comprehensively. Here, it is attempted to give an overview of the antiviral defense mechanisms in Drosophila that involve both RNAi and non-RNAi to acquire a sense of their relative importance. While RNAi is considered important in most viral infections, many other pathways can exist that confer antiviral resistance. It is noted that very few direct recognition mechanisms of virus infections have been identified in Drosophila and that the activation of immune pathways may be accomplished indirectly through cell damage incurred by viral replication. In several cases, protection against viral infection can be obtained in RNAi mutants by non-RNAi mechanisms, confirming the variability of the RNAi defense mechanism according to the type of infection and the physiological status of the host. This analysis invites to investigate more systematically the relative contribution of RNAi in the antiviral response and more specifically to ask whether RNAi efficiency is affected when other defense mechanisms predominate. While Drosophila can function as a useful model, this issue may be more critical for economically important insects that are either controlled (agricultural pests and vectors of diseases) or protected from parasite infection (beneficial insects as bees) by RNAi products.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0133.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Acacia; cultivation; diseases; insect pest
Online: 11 June 2020 (11:53:18 CEST)
Tree members of the genus Acacia have benefits that are obvious for enhancing soil fertility in farming, forestry and agroforestry in regions with nutrient-poor soils, and for restoring degraded ecosystems and lands. Nevertheless, the species of the genus Acacia have got the potential to bring about significant adverse impacts on biodiversity or ecosystem functioning when it gets invasive. The ecology of the species in nearly all areas of its created range remains poorly understood. Here we have compiled the information regarding the importance, cultivation and the production of important species of genus Acacia. We hope this information will be useful to get awareness about the crucial trees in the genus Acacia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0236.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Insect Biotechnology; molecular entomology; pest management; Sterile Insect Technique; sperm storage; transgenesis; Tribolium castaneum
Online: 16 September 2022 (03:02:52 CEST)
Sperm marking represents a valuable monitoring tool for genetic pest control strategies such as the Sterile Insect Technique, but also provides a key tool for reproductive biology studies. Sperm-marked lines can be generated by introducing transgenes that mediate the expression of fluorescent proteins during spermatogenesis. Homozygous lines established by transgenesis approaches are going through a genetic bottleneck that can lead to reduced fitness. Transgenic SIT approaches have mostly focused on Dipteran and Lepidopteran pests so far. With this study, we provide sperm-marked lines for the Coleopteran pest model organism, the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, based on the β2-tubulin promoter/enhancer driving red (DsRed) or green (EGFP) fluorescence. The obtained lines are reasonably competitive and were thus used for studies on reproductive biology confriming the phenomenon of ‘last male sperm precedence’ and that the spermathecae are deployed for long term sperm storage enabling the use of sperm from first matings even after secondary matings for a long period of time. The homozygosity and competiveness of the lines will enable future studies to analyze the controlled process of sperm movement into the long time storage organ as part of a post-mating cryptic female choice mechanism of this extremely promiscuous species.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0149.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: damage detection; machine learning; principal component analysis; composites; micromechanics of damage; continuum damage mechanics
Online: 11 December 2019 (04:50:48 CET)
The loss of integrity and adverse effect on mechanical properties can be concluded as attributing miro/macro-mechanics damage in structures, especially in composite structures. Damage as a progressive degradation of material continuity in engineering predictions for any aspects of initiation and propagation requires to be identified by a trustworthy mechanism to guarantee the safety of structures. Besides the materials design, structural integrity and health are usually prone to be monitored clearly. One of the most powerful methods for the detection of damage is machine learning (ML). This paper presents the state of the art of ML methods and their applications in structural damage and prediction. Popular ML methods are identified and the performance and future trends are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0156.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: edge computing; e-traps; insect monitoring
Online: 8 March 2023 (10:19:45 CET)
This study describes the development of an image-based insect trap diverging from the plug-in camera insect trap paradigm. In short, a) it does not require manual annotation of images to learn how to count targeted pests and, b) it self-disposes the captured insects, and therefore is suitable for long-term deployment. The device consists of an imaging sensor integrated with Raspberry Pi microcontroller units with embedded deep learning algorithms that count agricultural pests inside a pheromone-based funnel trap. The device also receives commands from the server which configures its operation while an embedded servomotor can automatically rotate the detached bottom of the bucket to dispose of hydrated insects as they begin to pile up. Therefore, it completely overcomes a major limitation of camera-based insect traps: the inevitable overlap and occlusion caused by the decay and layering of insects during long-term operation, thus extending the autonomous operational capability. We study cases that are underrepresented in literature such as counting in situations of congestion and significant debris using crowd counting algorithms encountered in human surveillance. Finally, we perform comparative analysis of the results from different deep-learning approaches (YOLO7/8, crowd counting, deep learning regression) and we open-source the code and a large database of Lepidopteran plant pests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0443.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: plastic; mealworms; insect; bacteria; gut microbiome
Online: 23 November 2022 (09:46:44 CET)
Polyurethane (PU) is a polymer widely used by humans whose recycling is highly complex due his chemical structure, being limited to incineration or accumulation in landfills. Biodegradation by enzymes and microorganisms has been studied for decades as an effective method of biological decomposition. In this study, Tenebrio molitor larvae (T. molitor) were fed with polyurethane foams, which gut enzymes and microorganisms were capable of degrading the polymer by 35% in 17 days of treatment, producing a weight loss of 14% in the mealworm. Changes in T. molitor gut bacterial community and diversity were observed, which may be due to colonization of species associated with PU degradation. Physical and structural biodegradation in PU by T. molitor compared to virgin PU, was demonstrated by Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microphotography (SEM).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0375.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: electron insect traps; smart city; IoT
Online: 25 June 2018 (08:35:40 CEST)
We introduce a device for automatic detection and reporting of crawling insects in urban environments. It is a monitoring device for urban pests that complies with the context of smart homes, smart cities and is compatible with the emerging discipline of the Internet of Things (IoT). We believe it can find its place to every room of a hotel, hospital, military camp and residence. This box-shaped device attracts targeted insect pests, senses the entering insect and takes automatically a picture of the internal space of the box. The picture is communicated through the Wi-Fi commonly found in such establishments to an authorized person/stakeholder receiving the picture to take proper action. The e-trap includes strong attractants (pheromone and/or food) to increase capture efficiency. The insect is trapped on the sticky floor of the device. The device carries the necessary optoelectronic sensors to guard all entrances of the trap. As the insect enters it interrupts the infrared light source. This triggers a detection event; a picture is taken, and a time-stamp is set before reporting the event through the Wi-Fi. The device can be integrated seamlessly in urban environments and operates unobtrusively to human activities. We report results on various insect pests and depending on the insect species, can reach a detection accuracy ranging from 96-99%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0305.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Insect; cockroach; locomotor activity; insecticide; neonicotinoid; acetamiprid
Online: 6 November 2023 (07:54:11 CET)
Toxicological studies have shown that the cockroach Periplaneta americana is a classical model for studying the mode of action of commonly used insecticides. In a previous study, we demonstrated that thiamethoxam and clothianidin decreased locomotor activity and decreased the locomotor activity in an open-field-like apparatus. Here, we tested the effect of the neonicotinoid acetamiprid when applied orally, topically, or injected into the haemolymph. We found that acetamiprid decreased locomotor activity in the open-field-like apparatus. When treated with acetamiprid, a strong alteration in locomotor activity was observed 1 h, 24 h and 48 h after haemolymph and topical applications. Oral application of acetamiprid demonstrated that it impaired locomotor activity at 24 h and 48 h. A comparison of the present data with our previously published results showed that neonicotinoids were more active when injected into the haemolymph compared to oral and topical applications. These findings increased our understanding of the effect of neonicotinoid insecticides on insect locomotor activity, and demonstrated that the cyano-substituted neonicotinoid, acetamiprid, was able to alter cockroach locomotor activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0136.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Paleontology Keywords: Insecta; Polyneoptera; Gzhelian; new insect locality; Pennsylvanian
Online: 8 November 2022 (02:12:32 CET)
Glaphyrophlebia victoriensis sp. nov. (Paoliida: Blattinopsidae) is the third Gzhelian representative of the genus and is described based on a beautiful forewing from the Var department in Southern France. Together with the description of another forewing fragment of a Glaphyrophlebia sp. from the Province of León in NW Spain, they improve our knowledge of fossil insects from French and Spanish late Carboniferous deposits. The specimen of Glaphyrophlebia sp. is the first mention of the family in the Carboniferous of Spain and extends the geographical distribution of the genus. These descriptions suggest that the genus Glaphyrophlebia was speciose during the Upper Pennsylvanian, while otherwise, very diverse in the early and middle Permian strata of the Russian Federation. We proposed the first hypothesis to explain the diversification of family and of its most speciose genera, and argue their diversity dynamics were likely linked with the major environmental changes that followed the collapse of the Carboniferous rainforest notably the extension of arid biomes during the Permian period. The exquisite preservation and the fineness of the sediment from Tante Victoire, in which the new species was found, suggests that the locality is suitable for preserving other fossil insects and will require additional investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0236.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: RFID; social insects; Apis; Melipona; insect behaviour
Online: 17 May 2018 (06:33:55 CEST)
This paper introduces both a hardware and a software system designed to allow low-cost electronic monitoring of social insects using RFID tags. Data formats for individual insect identification and their associated experiment are proposed to facilitate data sharing from experiments conducted with this system. The antenna's configuration and their duty cycle ensure a high degree of detection rates. Other advantages and limitations of this system are discussed in detail in the paper.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Energy consumption monitoring system; Building energy conservation management; Insect Intelligent Building technology; Computing process node; Insect intelligent algorithm
Online: 4 September 2019 (14:27:48 CEST)
In this paper, the methodology using Insect Intelligent Building (I^2B) technology for establishing energy consumption monitoring system of public buildings is prevailed. The computing process node and distributed algorithm are utilized to implement the energy consumption collection and data transmission and data pre-processing. Taking a commercial building as a case study, CPNs are applied to set up the building energy consumption monitoring system, with the Spanning Tree Algorithm for generating network topology，and BPNN method for solving abnormal data and recovering missing data. The research results demonstrate the proposed method can effectively improve the performance of plug-and-play and self-identified and self-configuration of energy consumption monitoring system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0151.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: climate change; adaptation; loss & damage; damage function; return period; tropical cyclone
Online: 13 May 2019 (10:07:41 CEST)
This paper constructs a model of climate-related damage for small island developing states (SIDS). We focus on the loss of private productive capital stocks through extreme climate events. In contrast to most economic analyses of climate impacts, which assume temperature-dependent damage functions, we draw on the engineering literature to allow for a greater or lesser degree of anticipation of climate change when designing capital stocks and balancing current adaptation expenditure against future loss & damage. We apply the model to tropical storm damage in the small island developing state of Barbados and show how anticipatory behavior changes the damage to infrastructure for the same degree of climate change. Thus, in the model, damage depends on behavior as well as climate variables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0816.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Fall armyworm; focus group discussion; insect pest management
Online: 13 November 2023 (11:29:56 CET)
The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, arrived during the 2016/2017 cropping season in Limpopo, South Africa and it continues to cause devastating damage on maize in this region. The present study investigated knowledge, perception and management of S. frugiperda by smallholder farmers at Dzindi and Tshiombo irrigation schemes in this region. The study was conducted in 16 focus group discussion interviews, 12 at Dzindi and four at Tshiombo irrigation scheme. Although farmers failed to identify S. frugiperda eggs and pupal stages, they positively identified the pest by its larval stage and refer to it by several local names. All farmers relied extensively on insecticides for S. frugiperda control. With the exception of the Dzindi irrigation scheme farmers, who have adopted Bt maize, very few farmers have adopted alternative methods to chemical control such as mechanical control, physical control (crushing egg and handpicking of larvae), biological control, cultural practices (such as Push-Pull Technology), possible indigenous knowledge, or the use of monitoring tools, for the management of S. frugiperda. The study provided valuable information for designing sustainable management practices to control S. frugiperda on maize in smallholder farming communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2074.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: phytohormone; auxin; insect gall; aromatic aldehyde synthase; inhibitor
Online: 30 May 2023 (07:58:03 CEST)
Gall-inducing insects often contain high concentrations of phytohormones, such as auxin and cytokinin, which are suggested to be involved in gall induction, but no conclusive evidence has been obtained. There are two possible approaches to investigating the importance of phytohormones in gall induction: demonstrating either that high phytohormone productivity can induce gall-inducing ability in non-gall-inducing insects, or that gall-inducing ability is inhibited when phytohormone productivity in galling insects is suppressed. In this study, we show that the overexpression of PonAAS2, which encodes an aromatic aldehyde synthase (AAS) responsible for the rate-limiting step in indoleacetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis in a galling sawfly (Pontania sp.) that contains high levels of endogenous IAA, conferred high IAA productivity on Caenorhabditis elegans, as the model system. This result strongly suggests that PonAAS2 can also confer high IAA productivity on low-IAA-producing insects. We also successfully identified an inhibitor of PonAAS2 in a chemical library. This highly selective inhibitor showed stronger inhibitory activity against AAS than against aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, which belongs to the same superfamily as AAS. We also confirm that this inhibitor clearly inhibited IAA productivity in the high-IAA-producing C. elegans engineered here.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0034.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: insect; genome; biopesticide; silencing; topical; gene target; validation
Online: 5 October 2022 (10:57:47 CEST)
Global crop yields are estimated to be reduced by 30–40% per year on account of plant pests and pathogens. Agricultural insect pests raise concerns about constraining global food security and climate changes contributing to the rise of infestation. The current management relies on plant breeding, associated or not with transgenes and chemical pesticides. Both approaches face serious technology obsolescence on the field due to resistance breakdown or development of insecticide resistance. The need for new Modes of Action (MoA) approaches in managing crop health grows each year, driven by market demands to reduce economic losses and phytosanitary requirements to meet the consumer perception. Disabling pest genes by sequence-specific expression silencing is considered a promising tool in the development of environment and health respectful biopesticides. The specificity conferred by long dsRNA-base solutions give support to minimizing effects on off-targeted genes in the insect pest genome and the target gene in non-target organisms (NTOs). In this review, we summarize the current status of gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) for agricultural control. More specifically, we focus on the engineering, development and application of gene silencing to control Lepidoptera by the employment of non-transforming dsRNA technologies. Despite some delivery and stability drawbacks of topical applications, we reviewed works showing convincing proof-of-concept results that point to imminent innovative solutions. Considerations about the regulamentation of the ongoing research on dsRNA-based pesticides to produce commercialized products for exogenous application are discussed. Academic and industry initiatives reveal a worthy effort to accomplish controlling Lepidoptera pests with this new mode of action to provide more sustainable and reliable technologies to field management. New data on genomics of this taxon encourage the increment of a customized target genes portfolio. As a case of study, we illustrate how dsRNA and associated methodologies could be applied to control an important Lepidopteran coffee pest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0465.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: insect; leaf miner; Coffea; pest control; biopesticide; silencing
Online: 29 August 2022 (04:27:45 CEST)
Background, Leucoptera coffeella (Guerin-Meneville, 1842) is a moth species (Lyonetiidae, Lepidoptera) pest that causes severe losses to coffee crops. Further information about its genomic data is required to allow molecular strategies for the development of sustainable pesticides and to gain in-depth knowledge on phylogenetics. However, the closest complete genome available is within the superfamily level (Yponomeutoidea). Here we report the generation of the first long-read genome, transcriptome and proteome results of L. coffeella and the in silico analysis performed in these molecular levels to investigate genes involved in the siRNA processing. Results, PACBio and paired-end Illumina combined DNA sequencing from pupae samples resulted in more than 436 Gb subreads and 31Mb reads with N50 read length of 15,512 nt, mean read length 13.8 Kb and max read length 420.7 Kb. Additionally, 20Gb data of short DNA sequencing was combined to produce 1,984 contigs comprising 397 Mb in total. The longest and shortest scaffold sizes are 10,809,567 nt and 15,247 nt, respectively (mean size 200,178 nt). The N50 scaffold was 275,598 nt and the GC content was 36.10%. Predicted coding DNA sequences counted 39.930 gene models. Searching of 5286 BUSCO groups revealed 91.7 percent of completeness (single and duplicated genes combined) compared to lepidoptera genomes (lepidoptera_odb10). Flow cytometry showed the 1C DNA content is approximately 295 Mb. RNA-Seq from seven development stages resulted in 28294 identified transcripts. Additionally, proteomics from immature stages resulted in 2045 proteins matching the gene models. Conclusions, This first nuclear genome of the Lyonetiidae family brings valuable molecular resources to study Lepidoptera genomes. Genome, transcriptome and proteome sequencing to raise genome annotation precision may resolve uncovered taxonomic issues. In addition, these combined approaches provide insights into plant-insect interaction players, as horizontally transferred genes (HGT) and endosymbionts. Put together, the generated data enables the development of molecular tools towards sustainable biotechnology solutions for lepidopteran pest control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0204.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Lipidome; High Five insect cells; Membrane proteins; Biomembranes
Online: 8 February 2021 (12:23:09 CET)
The lipid composition of biomembranes influence the properties of the lipid bilayer as well as that of the proteins. In this study, the lipidome and the lipid/protein ratio of membranes from High FiveTM insect cells overexpressing mouse P-glycoprotein was characterized. This provides a better understanding of the lipid environment in which P-glycoprotein is embedded, and thus of its functional and structural properties. The relative abundance of the distinct phospholipid classes and their acyl chain composition was characterized. A mass ratio of 0.57 +/- 0.11 phospholipids to protein was obtained. Phosphatidylethanolamines are the most abundant phospholipids, followed by phosphatidylcholines. Membranes are also enriched in negatively charged lipids (phosphatidylserines, phosphatidylinositols and phosphatidylglycerols), and contain small amounts of sphingomyelins, ceramides and monoglycosilatedceramides. The most abundant acyl chains are monounsaturated, with significant amounts of saturated chains. The characterization of the phospholipids by HPLC-MS allowed identification of the combination of acyl chains, with palmitoyl-oleoyl being the most representative for all major phospholipid classes except for phosphatidylserines, which are mostly saturated. A mixture of POPE:POPC:POPS in the ratio 45:35:20 is proposed for the preparation of simple representative model membranes. The adequacy of the model membranes was further evaluated by characterizing their surface potential and fluidity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0384.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Arachnida; insect; phylogenomics methods; target enrichment; ultraconserved elements
Online: 4 August 2019 (16:54:42 CEST)
Targeted enrichment of ultraconserved elements (UCE) has emerged as a promising tool for inferring evolutionary history in many taxa, with utility ranging from phylogenetic and phylogeographic questions at deep time scales to population level studies at shallow time scales. However, the methodology can be daunting for beginners. Our goal is to introduce UCE phylogenomics to a wider audience by summarizing recent advances in arthropod research, and to familiarize readers with background theory and steps involved. We define terminology used in association with the UCE approach, evaluate current laboratory and bioinformatic methods and limitations, and, finally, provide a roadmap of steps in the UCE pipeline to assist phylogeneticists in making informed decisions as they employ this powerful tool. By facilitating increased adoption of UCE in phylogenomics studies that deepen our comprehension of the function of these markers across widely divergent taxa, we aim to ultimately improve understanding of the arthropod tree of life.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: venom; Hymenoptera; social insect; envenomation; toxins; peptides; pharmacology
Online: 27 May 2019 (12:47:52 CEST)
Pain is a natural bioassay for detecting and quantifying biological activities of venoms. The painfulness of stings delivered by ants, wasps, and bees can be easily measured in the field or lab using the stinging insect pain scale that rates the pain intensity from 1 to 4, with 1 being minor pain, and 4 being extreme, debilitating, excruciating pain. The painfulness of stings of 96 species of stinging insects and the lethalities of the venoms of 90 species was determined and utilized for pinpointing future promising directions for investigating venoms having pharmaceutically active principles that could benefit humanity. The findings suggest several under- or unexplored insect venoms worthy of future investigations, including: those that have exceedingly painful venoms, yet with extremely low lethality – tarantula hawk wasps (Pepsis) and velvet ants (Mutillidae); those that have extremely lethal venoms, yet induce very little pain – the ants, Daceton and Tetraponera; and those that have venomous stings and are both painful and lethal – the ants Pogonomyrmex, Paraponera, Myrmecia, Neoponera, and the social wasps Synoeca, Agelaia, and Brachygastra. Taken together, and separately, sting pain and venom lethality point to promising directions for mining of pharmaceutically active components derived from insect venoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0195.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: precision agriculture, electronic insect traps, internet of things
Online: 29 May 2017 (10:02:26 CEST)
Τhe concept of remote insect surveillance at large spatial scales for a number of serious insect pests of agricultural and medical importance is introduced in a series of our papers. We augment typical, low-cost plastic traps for many insect pests with the necessary optoelectronic sensors to guard the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and –in relevant cases- identify the species of the incoming insect from their wingbeat. For every important crop pest there are monitoring protocols to be followed in order to decide when to initiate a treatment procedure before a serious infestation occurs. Monitoring protocols are mainly based on specifically designed insect traps. Traditional insect monitoring suffers in that the scope of such monitoring: is curtailed by its cost, requires intensive labor, is time consuming, an expert is often needed for sufficient accuracy and can sometimes raise safety issues for humans. These disadvantages reduce the extent to which manual insect monitoring is applied and therefore its accuracy, which finally results in significant crop loss due to damage caused by pests. With the term ‘surveillance’ we intend to push the monitoring idea to unprecedented levels of information extraction regarding the presence, time-stamping detection events, species identification and population density of targeted insect pests. Insect counts as well as environmental parameters that correlate with insect’s population development are wirelessly transmitted to the central monitoring agency in real time, are visualized and streamed to statistical methods to assist enforcement of security control to insect pests. In this work we emphasize on how the traps can be self-organized in networks that collectively report data at local, regional, country, continental, and global scales using the emerging technology of the Internet of Things (IoT). This research is necessarily interdisciplinary and falls at the intersection of entomology, optoelectronic engineering, data-science and crop science and encompasses the design and implementation of low-cost, low-power technology to help reduce the extent of quantitative and qualitative crop losses by many the most significant agricultural pests. We argue that smart traps communicating through IoT to report in real-time the level of the pest population from the field straight to a human controlled agency can, in the very near future, have a profound impact on the decision making process in crop protection and will be disruptive of existing manual practices. In the present study, three cases are investigated : monitoring Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) using a) Picusan and b) Lindgren trap, and c) monitoring various stored grain beetle pests using the pitfall trap.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0500.v1
Online: 28 April 2020 (14:24:57 CEST)
A rehabilitation technique for asphalt pavements with geosynthetic is the application of impregnated nonwoven geotextiles between deteriorated and new asphalt overlays. The performance investigation of impregnated geotextiles proves that they are enhancing in mechanical and hydraulic properties. Although, the installation process may cause severe impacts on these materials’ performance. During the installation, the geotextile suffers damage due to the traffic of high load vehicles, as compactors and pavers, and the friction with granular materials found under its layer or poured above it. This paper aims to investigate how the damage caused by granular materials on nonwoven geotextiles impregnated with different asphalt emulsions effect on their strength resistance and permittivity. From two types of nonwoven geotextiles: polypropylene and polyethylene terephthalate, the comparison uses geotextiles in three conditions: not impregnated, impregnated with asphalt emulsion of rapid setting, and impregnated with asphalt emulsion changed by an elastomeric polymer. Part of the samples followed the damage according to ISO 10722 procedure, placed between three different scenarios of granular materials, applying gravel, sand, and clay. After the damage process, the samples were submitted to mechanical and hydraulic properties evaluations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0191.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: gradual damage behaviour; damage propagation; modal properties; composite rotor; structural dynamic behaviour
Online: 8 November 2018 (08:57:15 CET)
Fibre-reinforced composite structures under complex loads exhibit gradual damage behaviour with a degradation of effective mechanical properties and change of their structural dynamic behaviour. Damage manifests itself as spatial increase of inter-fibre failure and delamination-growth, resulting in local changes of stiffness. These changes affect not only the residual strengths but more importantly the structural dynamic behaviour. In case of composite rotors, this can lead to catastrophic failure if an eigenfrequency coincides with the rotational speed. The description and analysis of the gradual damage behaviour of composite rotors therefore provides the fundamentals for a better understanding of unpredicted structural phenomena. The gradual damage behaviour on the example of composite rotors and the resulting damage-dependent dynamic behaviour is experimentally investigated under propagating damage for combined out-of-plane and in-plane loads. A novel observation is reported, where monotonic increase of damage results in non-monotonic frequency shift of significant amount of eigenfrequencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1750.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Ceramics And Composites Keywords: PRAMCs; TiB2 particles; Numerical simulation; Damage factor; Linear damage evolution law; 3D RVE
Online: 25 May 2023 (07:17:02 CEST)
In order to study the effect of TiB2 particles on the mechanical properties of TiB2/6061Al composites, a series of TiB2/6061Al 3D representative volume element (RVE) were established based on SEM photos. This model took into account the ductile damage of the matrix and the traction separation behavior of the interface, and the linear damage evolution law was introduced to characterize the stiffness degradation behavior of the matrix elements. The mixed boundary conditions were used for RVE tensile experiments, and the accuracy of the predicted result was verified by the agreement of the experimental stress-strain curve. Results show that the addition of TiB2 particles can effectively promote the load-bearing capacity of the composite, but elongation is reduced. With the weight fraction of TiB2 increasing from 2.5% to 12.5%, the elastic modulus, yield strength, and tensile strength are increased by 8%, 10.37%, and 11.55% respectively, while the elongation decreased by 10%. The clustering rate of the TiB2 particles is also an important factor affecting the toughness of the composites. With the increase in the clustering rate of TiB2 particles from 20% to 80%, the load-bearing capacity of the composites is not improved, and the elongation of the composites is reduced by 8%. Moreover, the high strain region provides a fast expansion path for crack propagation and the particle spacing is a crucial factor that affects the stress field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0154.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: microcracking; concrete; feature detection; damage detection; structural health monitoring; CNN based damage classification
Online: 6 July 2021 (13:34:21 CEST)
High costs for the repair of concrete structures can be prevented if damage at an early stage of degradation is detected and precautionary maintenance measures are applied. To this end, we use numerical wave propagation simulations to identify simulated damage in concrete using convolutional neural networks (CNN). Damage in concrete subjected to compression is modeled at the mesoscale using the discrete element method. Ultrasonic wave propagation simulation on the damaged concrete specimens are performed using the rotated staggered finite-difference grid method. The simulated ultrasonic signals are used to train a CNN based classifier capable of classifying three different damage stages (microcrack initiation, microcrack growth and microcrack coalescence leading to macrocracks). The performance of the classifier is improved by refining the dataset via an analysis of the averaged envelope of the signal. The classifier using the refined dataset has an overall accuracy of 90%.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0538.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Wolbachia, Aedes, population replacement, population suppression, incompatible insect technique
Online: 20 April 2021 (11:51:55 CEST)
Mosquitoes carrying endosymbiotic bacteria called Wolbachia are being released in mosquito and arbovirus control programs around the world. Open field releases of Wolbachia-infected male mosquitoes have achieved over 95% population suppression, while the replacement of populations with Wolbachia-infected females is self-sustaining and can greatly reduce local dengue transmission. Despite many successful interventions, significant questions and challenges lie ahead. Wolbachia, viruses and their mosquito hosts can evolve, leading to uncertainty around the long-term effectiveness of a given Wolbachia strain, while few ecological impacts of Wolbachia releases have been explored. Wolbachia strains are diverse and the choice of strain to release should be made carefully, taking environmental conditions and the release objective into account. Mosquito quality control, thoughtful community awareness programs and long-term monitoring of populations are essential for all types of Wolbachia intervention. Releases of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes show great promise, but existing control measures remain an important way to reduce the burden of mosquito-borne disease.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0518.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: insect neuropeptides; pyrokinins; trans peptide bond; imidazoline ring; SPOS;
Online: 19 April 2021 (21:18:57 CEST)
A facile solid-phase synthetic method for incorporating the imidazoline ring motif, a surrogate for a trans peptide bond, into bioactive peptides is reported. The example described is the synthesis of an imidazoline peptidomimetic analog of an insect pyrokinin neuropeptide via a cyclization reaction of an iminium salt generated from the preceding amino acid and 2,4-diaminopropanoic acid (Dap).
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0140.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Insect decline; Tracheal system; Tracheole; Fine dust; Ultrafine particles
Online: 5 September 2020 (11:59:33 CEST)
Is the extensive decline of insects partially due to an insect-specific feature of their functional organization that is disadvantageous for living in an industrialized environment? The unique way in which gases are supplied in insect tissues is such a special trait. It exposes cells directly to the gas phase, via tracheae that end in micro-tubes, the tracheoles, which have diameters in the same range as particles of ultra-fine dust transported by air of industrialized countries. Number and volume of these particles – calculated to be inhaled by honeybees, e.g., – are indicative to locally impede O2-uptake and CO2-release and thus to restrain physiological activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0271.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: genome assembly; monoxenous trypanosomatids; insect trypanosomatids; trypanosomatidae; whole genome
Online: 24 October 2019 (05:20:52 CEST)
We presented here the first draft genome sequence of the trypanosomatid Herpetomonas muscarum ingenoplastis. This parasite was isolated repeatedly in the black blowfly, Phormia regina. This is the first draft genome of a flagellate from the phylogenetically distinct clade of Trypanosomatidae.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: mosquito; Aedes aegypti; Diptera; Culicidae; insect growth regulator; pyriproxyfen
Online: 22 May 2019 (09:45:59 CEST)
Abstract: Aedes aegypti were exposed to water treated with mosquitocidal chips containing the insecticide pyriproxyfen in a polymer formulation. Chips were tested under different conditions; different water volumes, in containers made of different material, and in water with different levels of organic matter. Treated chips caused 100% mortality of Ae. aegypti during their pupal stage independent of conditions chips were exposed to in water. When tested for longevity, the chips containing 840 µg of pyriproxyfen killed 100% of Ae. aegypti for 4 sequential months of the chips being reused in water. Chips containing 8.4 µg of pyriproxyfen ceased to work after the first week of treatment. When mosquitocidal chips were used in > 25% of the oviposition containers within their cages, there was a significant control of the mosquito populations. Mosquitocidal chips worked in different environments, lasted for extended periods of time, caused significant mosquito population decreases, and were effective in controlling Ae. Aegypti.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0033.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: bedrock; building; damage; earthquake; planning
Online: 2 December 2022 (02:22:20 CET)
Recently on the November 4, 2022 at 03:00 PM, a Mww 5.6 earthquake struck Cianjur district of West Java province, Indonesia. To our best knowledge, an earthquake will cause a massive damage to the manmade infrastructure and this responsible for a massive casualty. A building damage is affected by various determinant factors. One of important factors is the geological bedrock variations. Here this research aiming to elaborate the associations of geological bedrocks in Cianjur district with residential building damages caused by recent earthquakes. The results confirm that majority of building damages account for 54.67% of the total building was associated with quaternary volcanic bedrocks. The second massive building damages were observed for Andesitic Dacitic volcanic rocks accounted for 32.07%. To conclude, elaborations of geological bedrock-building damage will contribute to the better planning in the future that can reduce the damages in the urban settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0278.v1
Online: 10 March 2021 (13:01:45 CET)
Samarinda City is one of the most attractive cities in Borneo Island (Indonesia) and also as a capital city of EastBorneo Province. The expansion of urban areas becomes essential due to rapid population and housing demand. Base on the statistical report, the annual population growth rate is 0.018% from the year 2016-2017 with a total population of 843446 inhabitants. Many natural disasters occur in some areas in this city, especially flooding. This natural disaster occurs almost every year, many people suffered and forced to evacuate. In 2018 there is 3 flood event with 28311 people was suffered and evacuated, and 5170 houses were flooded . During the flood event, it was very possible to gain damages to their property and make traffic stuck. One common way to reducing the damages is using Early Warning Systems (EWS). Early warning is a major element for disaster risk reduction, including damages. To prevent and mitigate the impact of a disaster, many countries had taken action to build various methods of a public warning system. An effective early warning system focused on people-centered and comprises the following element, such as risk knowledge, technical monitoring and service, communication and dissemination of warnings, and community response capability . Related to the existing condition which Samarinda is a Muslim-dominated city and obviously has a lot of a number of mosques. This is a good potency to develop an early warning system because every mosque has a loudspeaker for echoing Adzan (Muslim prayer-calling). With this existing condition, the loudspeaker can be utilized as a flood outdoor-voice warning announcer. The aim of this study is to briefly introduce the strategy of dissemination early warning by utilizing mosques. The hope of early warning dissemination is giving enough time to the people to evacuate their property to reduce damages and possibly to giving information to avoiding traffic stuck (in a certain location)due to flooding. The results of this study can be used as input for decision-makers to develop effective flood management strategies and policies, especially in the case of an early warning system where not well-developed in Samarinda.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0157.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: historic sites; spatial damage degree; K-means clustering; K nearest neighbor classification; Damage factors
Online: 3 November 2023 (04:04:34 CET)
Historic sites are important components of every city's cultural history because they preserve rich historical knowledge and distinctive values passed down from previous generations to the present. Due to the progress of urbanization and modernization, many historic sites face pressure from damage and transformation. In this paper, a method for assessing cultural heritage damage was developed to measure the extent of spatial damage in historic sites. Using sample data obtained in Xiyang, Qixian, and Xiaoyi, all historic cities in Shanxi Province, Mainland China, and combined weights were estimated using the Delphi technique and the CRITIC weight method. Following this, the Spatial Damage Degree Model (SDDM) based on K-means cluster analysis and K-nearest neighbor (KNN) classification was developed. The findings show that the model efficiently solves the problem of assessing spatial damage levels in historic sites. Through multiple linear regression analysis, it was shown that the damage to historic sites was predominantly caused by three factors: natural erosion, construction damage, and planning and policy. SDDM was used to calculate the spatial damage levels of historic sites, allowing conservators to fully comprehend the features and concerns related to historic sites. As a result, more scientific and rational preservation approaches may be developed, improving the efficiency of historic site restoration and conservation and encouraging the sustainable development of urban and rural heritage.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1089.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: insect vector; host plant; plant virus; virus detection; virus transmission
Online: 22 September 2023 (05:18:27 CEST)
The phytophagous insect pests were vectors and could transmit the majority of the phytoviruses to their host plants. The orders of Hemiptera and Thysanoptera were the most common vectors of phytoviruses. The orders Orthoptera, Dermaptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Thysanoptera, and Hemiptera were also the vectors of phytoviruses. Furthermore, aphids, whiteflies, cicadas, spittlebugs, leafhoppers, planthoppers, assassin bugs, plant bugs, stink bugs, lygaeid bugs, and thrips were among the most phytophagous insects that vector and transmit phytoviruses to healthy plants. The occurrence of a single species of these phytophagous insects resulted in one or more phytoviruses in general, and the Hemipteran order, in particular, vectored a lot of phytoviruses species. This review manuscript is focused on vectors of phytoviruses, techniques for their detection, and future directions. It will play a vital role in exploring scientific information concerning the interactions of phytoviruses and vector insects, the effect of phytoviruses on host behavior, mediators of phytoviruses transmission, persistent phytoviruses, some other insect vectors of the phytopathogen, mechanisms of host plant resistance against phytoviruses, and techniques of phytoviruses detection, as well as some important points to be considered in the future sustainably.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0127.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: ant community; disturbance ecology; forest ecology; insect outbreaks; natural disturbances
Online: 3 May 2023 (10:04:06 CEST)
Insect outbreaks are major drivers of natural disturbances in forest ecosystems. Outbreaks can have both direct and indirect effects on the composition of soil arthropod communities, through canopy opening, nutrient addition and predator-prey interactions. In this study, we aim to understand the effects of forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria; FTC) outbreaks on ant communities in both temperate and boreal forests in Canada. Using pitfall traps and Berlese funnels, we compared the ant communities as well as the surrounding arthropod communities between control and outbreak sites in boreal andboreal and temperate forests (in Québec, Canada). Using the Sørensen dissimilarity index, we determined the alpha and beta diversity of the ant community. Other arthropods collected in the traps were counted to evaluate the richness and abundance of potential prey for the ants and other potential predators of the FTC. We used an indicator species analysis to examine the species associated with sites defoliated by the outbreak. In the boreal forest, we found that FTC outbreaks caused decreases in species richness and increases in the evenness of ant communities in defoliated sites. In the boreal forest sites, species composition varied significantly between control and outbreak sites. This pattern was driven by the presence of other predators. We also saw no changes in beta diversity in the boreal forest but did see a significant decrease in the temperate forest between the outbreak sites and the control sites. A similar, but weaker pattern was observed in the temperate forest. Ant species in the boreal forest tended to exhibit a more marked preference for either control or previously defoliated sites than species in the temperate forest. Our study showed that disturbances like insect outbreaks can drive changes in the ant community. While we saw small effects of outbreaks, manipulation experiments using resource addition could help us validate the mechanisms behind these relationships.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0454.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: CRISPR-Cas technology; pest management; plant stress resistance; insect resistance
Online: 29 September 2022 (07:08:41 CEST)
Global crop yield and food security are being threatened by phytophagous insects. Innovative methods are required to increase agricultural output while reducing reliance on hazardous synthetic insecticides. It appears to be quite effective at reducing production costs and boosting farm profitability to use the ground-breaking CRISPR-Cas technology to create plants that are insect resistant. In contrast, this new technique can modify an insect's genome to either produce gene drive or get beyond an insect's tolerance to various insecticides. This paper reviews and critically discusses the use of CRISPR-Cas genome editing technology in long-term insect pest management. The emphasis of this review is on the prospective uses of the CRISPR-Cas system for insect stress management in crop production by creating genome-edited crops and insects. The potential and difficulties of using CRISPR-Cas technology to reduce pest stress in crop plants are critically examined and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0182.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: sterile insect technique; Aedes aegypti; suppression study; irradiation; vector control
Online: 6 April 2021 (15:27:55 CEST)
Dengue virus infections are a serious public health problem worldwide. Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of dengue in Cuba. Since there is no vaccine or specific treatment, the control efforts are directed to reduce mosquito populations. The indiscriminate use of pesticides can lead to increase insecticide resistance as well as adverse effects on human health. The sterile insect technique is a species-specific and environmental friendly method of insect control based on the release of large numbers of sterile males. The success of this technique in sustainable control of agricultural pests has encouraged its evaluation for mosquito control. Here, we describe an open field trial to evaluate the effect of the release of irradiated males on a wild population of Aedes aegypti. The case-control study was performed in a suburb of Havana, and compared the mosquito population before and after the intervention, in both control and treated areas. The wild population was monitored by an ovitrap network, recording frequency and density of eggs as well as their hatch rate. A significant induced sterility was observed in the field population, compared to the control. The ovitrap index and the mean eggs/ trap declined dramatically after an expected lag period of twelve and five weeks, respectively. For the last three weeks, no egg was collected in the treated area, evidencing a significant suppression of the wild population. We conclude that the sterile males released competed successfully, and induced enough sterility to suppress the local Aedes aegypti population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0166.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: antimicrobial peptides; cellular defense; insect pathology; phenoloxidae; phospholipase A2; protease
Online: 15 April 2019 (11:45:11 CEST)
Xenorhabdus nematophila and Photorhabdus luminescens are entomopathogenic symbionts that produce several toxic proteins that can interfere with the immune system of insects. Here, we showed that outer membrane proteins (OMPs) could be involved as virulence factors during bacterial symbiont pathogenesis. Purified OMPs from bacterial culture were injected fifth instar larvae of Spodoptera exigua Hübner. Larvae were surveyed for fluctuations in total haemocyte counts (THC), granulocyte percentage (cellular defence), protease, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and phenoloxidase (PO) activities (humoral defence) at specific time intervals. Changes in the expression of the three antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), cecropin, attacin, and spodoptericin, were also measured. Larvae treated with both types of OMPs had more haemocytes than did the negative controls. OMPs of X. nematophila caused more haemocyte destruction than did the OMPs of P. luminescens. The OMPs of both bacterial species initially activated insect defensive enzymes post-injection, their activating fluctuated in different ways. Attacin, cecropin and spodoptericin were up-regulated by OMP injections more than in normal larvae. The expression of these three AMPs was maximal at four hpi with P. luminescens OMPs treatment. Expression of the three AMPs in X. nematophila treatment was irregular and lower than in the P. luminescens OMPs treatment. These findings provide insights into the role of OMPs of entomopathogenic nematode bacterial symbionts in countering the physiological defenses of insects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0263.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Tenebrio molitor; suppressor of cytokine signaling; insect immunity; gene expression
Online: 26 January 2019 (02:51:45 CET)
Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) influence cytokine and growth factor signaling by negatively regulating the JAK-STAT pathway. This maintains homeostasis during host immune response. However, functional characterization of SOCS family members in invertebrates is limited. In this study, we discovered the Type-I subfamily of the SOCS genes in the mealworm beetle, T. molitor. The full-length ORFs of TmSOCS5, TmSOCS6, and TmSOCS7 consisted of 1,389, 897 and 1,458 nucleotides, encoding polypeptides of 462, 297 and 485 amino acids, respectively, The C-terminal region of TmSOCS was highly conserved in the SH2 and SOCS box domains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the three SOCS genes clustered within the same sub-family and the highest amino acid identity was with the Tribolium castaneum SOCS genes (TcSOCS). While the expression of TmSOCS5 and TmSOCS6 was low in larval, pupal, and adult stages of the insect, TmSOCS7 showed higher expression. The expression of TmSOCS5 and TmSOCS6 was higher in larval hemocytes and adult ovary. The microbes expressed the three TmSOCS genes to varying degrees. C. albicans elicited the strongest response in the host with highest 15-fold expression in TmSOCS7 3 h post-inoculation. Collectively, these data suggest that the Type I TmSOCS could play a role in eliciting host immunity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2053.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electronic, Optical And Magnetic Materials Keywords: µLED; GaN; KOH treatment; sidewall damage
Online: 31 October 2023 (09:54:40 CET)
InGaN-based red micro light-emitting diodes (µLEDs) of different sizes prepared in this work. The red GaN epilayers were grown on a 4-inch sapphire substrate through metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Etching, sidewall treatment, and p- and n- contact deposition was involved in the fabrication process. Initially, the etching process would cause undesirable damages to the GaN sidewalls, which leads to an increase in leakage current. Hence, we employed KOH wet treatment to rectify the defects on the sidewalls and conducted a comparative and systematic analysis on electrical as well as optical properties. We observed that the µLEDs with a size of 5µm exhibited substantial leakage current, which was effectively mitigated by the application of KOH wet treatment. In terms of optical performance, the arrays with KOH demonstrated improved Light Output Power (LOP). Additionally, while photoelectric performance exhibited a decline with increasing current density, the devices treated with KOH consistently outperformed their counterparts in terms of optoelectronic efficiency. It is noteworthy that the optimized devices displayed enhanced photoelectric characteristics without significantly altering their original peak wavelength and FWHM. Our findings point to the elimination of surface non-radiative recombination by KOH wet treatment, thereby enhancing the performance of small-sized red µLEDs which has significant potential in realizing full-color micro-displays in near-eye projection applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1860.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: : Cisplatin; cilostazol; tadalafil; pentoxifylline; testicular damage
Online: 26 May 2023 (05:22:12 CEST)
Despite being extremely potent against malignancies, cisplatin (CIS) has limited practical applicability due to its adverse effects such as testicular damage. Consequently, it becomes necessary to reduce its toxicity. In this study, cilostazol, a selective phosphodiesterase-3 inhibitor that is frequently used in the treatment of intermittent claudication, was examined for its ability to abrogate CIS-induces testicular toxicity and its ameliorative effect was compared with two phosphodiesterase inhibitors, tadalafil and pentoxifylline. The study also focused on the possible mechanisms involved in the proposed protective effect. Ten groups of rats were included; Group (1): control, Groups (2-4): 5 mg/kg tadalafil or 75 mg/kg pentoxifylline or 20 mg/kg cilostazol respectively), Group (5):7 mg/kg CIS, Group (6&7): CIS + 5 mg/kg tadalafil or 75 mg/kg pentoxifylline, Group (8-10) CIS+ 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg cilostazol respectively. CIS treated rats showed a significant decrease in testicular function, serum testosterone and reduced glutathione levels, and significant elevation in malondialdehyde, total nitrite levels, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and nuclear factor-kappa β alongside caspase-3. These outcomes were confirmed by marked testicular architecture deterioration. Contrary, Cilostazol in a dose-dependent manner showed potential protection against testicular toxicity, reversion of the disrupted testicular function and improvement of the histological alterations through rebalancing of oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic biomarkers. In addition, cilostazol exerted more pronounced protective effect in comparison to tadalafil and pentoxifylline. In conclusion, administrations of cilostazol might ameliorate cisplatin-induced testicular impairment through alteration of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptotic pathway, offering a promising treatment for cisplatin -intoxication in the testes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0370.v1
Online: 5 May 2023 (14:09:00 CEST)
Free-edge effect is one of the factors affecting the mechanical properties of three-dimensional woven composites under tensile load. However, current research is relatively poorly understood regarding the effect of free-edge on the stiffness and strength of the material. This paper aims at examining the influence of free-edge effect on the mechanical properties of 3D woven composites under tension through experimental and simulation mathods. The three-dimensional DIC technique is used to collect the full-field strains on the specimen surface during the test, and the stress-strain differences in different regions in the width direction are analyzed, and the overlap of the curves in each region is found to be high. Experimental studies are conducted on specimens of different widths (within the range of 15-20 mm), and the results indicate that the differences in mechanical properties of 3D woven composites under tension loading in this width range are not significant. A progressive damage finite element model is developed for calculation and compared with experimental results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0118.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: bond; concrete; reinforcement; damage-plasticity; failure
Online: 25 August 2017 (08:01:21 CEST)
The structural performance of reinforced concrete relies heavily on the bond between reinforcement and concrete. In nonlinear finite element analyses, bond is either modelled by merged, also called perfect bond, or coincident with slip, also called bond-slip, approaches. Here, the performance of these two approaches for the modelling of failure of reinforced concrete was investigated using a damage-plasticity constitutive model in LS-DYNA. Firstly, the influence of element size on the response of tension-stiffening analyses with the two modelling approaches was investigated. Then, the results of the two approaches were compared for plain and fibre reinforced tension stiffening and a drop weight impact test. It was shown that only the coincident with slip approach provided mesh insensitive results. However, both approaches were capable of reproducing the overall response of the experiments in the form of load and displacements satisfactorily for the meshes used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1279.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: wolfberry-forage; intercropping pattern; yield; diseases and insect pests; fruit quality
Online: 21 November 2023 (07:15:04 CET)
Forest-grass intercropping patterns of protected cultivation has been widely used to increase productivity and sustainability in modern agriculture. However, there have been few studies of wolfberry (L. barbarum) intercropping and it is cultivated mostly by clean tillage. This paper takes 10 kinds of wolfberry-forage intercropping patterns, compares the effects of different planting modes on the growth, yield, photosynthetic characteristics, nutritional quality, and the degree of occurrence of diseases and pests, which aims to make clear the effects of wolfberry-forage intercropping patterns on wolfberry. The results showed that different intercropping combinations had different effects on wolfberry. The overall effect of Wolfberry-forage intercropping patterns on the growth of wolfberry were promote the photosynthetic characteristics. Ryegrass could increase the branch number, Lvyuan 5 and mangel increase branch length; Mangel, clover, sweet sorghum, ryegrass and stipas could reduce the damage of powdery mildew by 69%, and alfalfa, stipa and ryegrass could reduce the occurrence of aphids by 67% (P<0.05). Intercropping could increase carotenoids, flavonoids and ascorbic acid contents to improve wolfberry quality by 21%, 53% and 127%, respectively (P<0.05). Among all the performances, wolfberry-mangel intercropping has absolute advantages in promoting wolfberry yield and quality increase. Therefore the best patterns of wolfberry-mangel, wolfberry-ryegrass, wolfberry-alfalfa and wolfberry-clover were chosen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0306.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Whitefly; photosynthetic parameters; gas exchange; insect pest; plants resistance; Glycine max.
Online: 6 October 2023 (05:06:57 CEST)
The whitefly leads extensive damage to plants through direct feeding, honeydew secretion, plant physiological disorders, and vectoring plant viruses. This study aimed to evaluate the physiological characteristics of susceptible and resistant soybean cultivars to B. tabaci. The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse. Eleven soybean cultivars were selected and infested with 100 adults of B. tabaci at the V3 stage. The evaluation of photosynthetic parameters, such as photosynthetic rate, leaf transpiration, stomatal conductance, and internal CO2 concentration, revealed that B. tabaci infestation influenced gas exchange in soybean plants. The photosynthetic rate was higher in cultivars AS3810 and M8349 during the V6 stage. Infestations led to alterations in photosynthetic parameters, suggesting increased energy demand to maintain photosynthetic activity. However, the response to infestation varied among different cultivars, indicating varying levels of resistance and tolerance to the whitefly's damage. Additionally, the impact of infestation was more significant during the vegetative phenological. In conclusion, B. tabaci infestation affects soybean plants' physiology, leading to changes in gas exchange parameters and water use efficiency. The response to infestation varied among soybean cultivars, suggesting potential differences in resistance to the pest. The study highlights the importance of evaluating the physiological impact of whitefly infestations on soybean.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1828.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: genetically modified; Cre/loxP; site-specific excision; transgenic maize; insect-resistance
Online: 28 August 2023 (08:48:49 CEST)
Genetic engineering technology offers opportunities to improve many important agronomic traits in crops, including insect-resistance. However, genetically modified (GM) exogenous proteins in edible tissues of transgenic crops has become an issue of intense public concern. To advance the application of GM techniques in maize, a Cre/loxP-based strategy was developed for manipulating the transgenes in green tissues while locking it in non-green tissues. In the strategy, the site-specific excision can be used to switch on or off the expression of transgenes at specific tissues. In this work, two basic transgenic maize named KEY carrying the Cre gene and LOCK containing the Vip3A gene with a blocked element, were obtained based on their separate fusion gene cassettes. The expression level and concentration of Vip3A were observed with high specific accumulation in green tissues (leaf and stem), and only a small amount in root and kernel tissues in the KEY × LOCK hybrids. The insect-resistance of transgenic maize against two common lepidopteran pests, Ostrinia furnacalis and Spodoptera frugiperda, was assessed in the laboratory and field. The results indicated that the hybrids possessed high resistance levels against the two pests, with mortality rates above 73.6% and damage scales below 2.4 compared with the control group. Our results suggested that the Cre/loxP-mediated genetic engineering approach has a competitive advantage in GM maize. Overall, findings from this study are significant for providing a feasible strategy for transgenes avoiding expression in edible parts and exploring novel techniques toward the biosafety of GM plants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1158.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: insect vector; somatic polyploidy; chromocenters; Malpighian tubules; epigenetics; valproic acid; valproate
Online: 18 July 2023 (08:47:50 CEST)
Triatoma infestans (Klug) is an insect recognized as not only an important vector of South-American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease) but also a model of specific cellular morphofunctional organization and epigenetic characteristics. The purpose of the present review is to highlight certain cellular processes that are particularly unveiled in T. infestans, such as 1) somatic polyploidy involving nuclear and cell fusions that generate giant nuclei; 2) diversification of nuclear phenotypes in the Malpighian tubules during insect development; 3) heterochromatin compartmentalization into large bodies with specific spatial distribution and presumed mobility in the cell nuclei; 4) chromatin remodeling and co-occurrence of necrosis and apoptosis in the Malpighian tubules under stress conditions; 5) epigenetic markers; 6) unexplained response of heterochromatin to valproic acid, an epidrug that inhibits histone deacetylases and induces DNA demethylation in other cell systems. These cellular processes and epigenetic characteristics emphasize the role of T. infestans as an attractive model for cellular research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0482.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Fall army worm; insect biology; life table; nutritional indices; host suitability
Online: 28 March 2023 (10:11:21 CEST)
Spodoptera frugiperda is a new invasive and highly polyphagous pest that attacks corn in Indonesia. The availability of abundant plant species allows pests to switch to other host plants to maintain their population. This research aims to examine the development, reproduction, nutritional indices, and life table of S. frugiperda in several plant species. The plants tested were corn, rice, broccoli, oil palm, and baby corn as controls. Ten individual insects were used and repeated five times for each plant species. The test results show that different types of plant feed affect the development time, imago life span, fecundity, and fertility of S. frugiperda. The types of plant feed, that were baby corn fruit and broccoli had higher net reproduction value (R0), intrinsic growth rate (r), gross reproduction rate (GRR), shorter mean generation period (T), and population doubling time (DT) than in corn and rice leaves. On oil palm leaf feed no population parameters can be determined because no larvae developed into adults and had the lowest nutritional indices parameters, so that could not be exploited as a host plant. Also, the nutritional indices of several feed plant species tested provided information that broccoli could be a suitable host when there was no corn in the field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0483.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Hymenoptera; insect; bee; wasp; hornet; epidemiology; fatalities; venomous animals; public health
Online: 30 December 2021 (12:17:52 CET)
Epidemiology of Hymenopteran-related deaths in Europe due to bee, wasp and hornet stings (Cause Code of Death: X23) based on official registers from WHO Mortality Database is described. Over a 23-year period (1994-2016), a total of 1,691 fatalities were officially recorded, mostly occurring in Western (42.8%) and Eastern (31.9%) Europe. The victims tended to concentrate in: Germany (n=327; 1998-2015), France (n=211; 2000-2014) and Romania (n=149; 1999-2016). The majority of deaths occurred in males (78.1%), within the age group of 25-64 years (66.7%), and in an “unspecified place” (44.2%). The X23 gender ratio (X23GR) of mortality varied from a minimum of 1.4 for Norway to a maximum of 20 for Slovenia. The highest X23MR, expressed in terms of annual rates and per million inhabitants, were recorded in countries from Eastern Europe (0.35) followed by Western (0.28), Northern (0.23) and Southern Europe (0.2). The countries with the highest and lowest mean X23MR were Estonia (0.61), Austria (0.6) and Slovenia (0.55); and Ireland (0.05), United Kingdom (0.06) and the Netherlands (0.06), respectively. Country-by-country data show that the incidence of insect-sting mortality is statistically low, but not negligible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0215.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Insect-specific flavivirus; CpG; Dinucleotides; Innate immunity; Zinc-finger antiviral protein
Online: 8 February 2021 (15:46:14 CET)
The genus Flavivirus contains pathogenic vertebrate-infecting flaviviruses (VIFs) and in-sect-specific flaviviruses (ISF). ISF transmission to vertebrates is inhibited at multiple stages of the cellular infection cycle, via yet to be elucidated specific antiviral responses. The Zinc-finger an-tiviral protein (ZAP) in vertebrate cells can bind CpG dinucleotides in viral RNA, limiting virus replication. Interestingly, the genomes of ISFs contain more CpG dinucleotides compared to VIFs. In this study, we investigated whether ZAP prevents two recently discovered lineage II ISFs, Binjari (BinJV) and Hidden Valley viruses (HVV) from replicating in vertebrate cells. BinJV protein and dsRNA replication intermediates were readily observed in human ZAP knockout cells when cultured at 34 ˚C. In ZAP expressing cells, inhibition of the interferon response via interferon response factors 3/7 did not improve BinJV protein expression, whereas treatment with kinase inhibitor C16, known to reduce ZAP’s antiviral function, did. Importantly, at 34 ˚C both BinJV and HVV successfully completed the infection cycle in human ZAP knockout cells evident from infectious progeny virus in the cell culture supernatant. Therefore, we identify vertebrate ZAP as an important barrier that protects vertebrate cells from ISF infection This provides new insights into flavivirus evolution and the mechanisms associated with host switching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0099.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: genetically modified insects; symbiosis; microbiome; transgenic; self-limiting; insect rearing; mutualism
Online: 7 March 2019 (14:00:12 CET)
Mass insect rearing can have a range of applications, for example in biological control of insects. Since the performance of released biological control agents determines efficacy, the competitive fitness of insects post release is a key variable. Here, we tested whether inoculation with a gut symbiont, Enterobacter cloacae, and gnotobiotic rearing of larvae could improve insect growth and male competitive fitness of a transgenic diamondback moth, which has shown variation in fitness when reared in different insectaries. All larvae were readily infected with the focal symbiont. Under gnotobiotic rearing pupal weights were reduced and there was a marginal reduction in larval survival. However, gnotobiotic rearing substantially improved the fitness of transgenic males. In addition, in gnotobiotic conditions, inoculation with the gut symbiont increased pupal weights and male fitness, increasing the proportion of transgenic progeny from 20 to 30% relative to symbiont-free insects. Gnotobiotic conditions may improve the fitness of transgenic males by excluding microbial contaminants, while symbiont inoculation could further improve fitness by providing additional protection against infections, or by normalizing insect physiology. The simple innovation of incorporating antibiotic into diet, and inoculating insects with symbiotic bacteria that are resistant to that antibiotic, could provide a readily transferable tool for other insect rearing systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0412.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: laser for mosquito control; deep learning for mosquito control; insect detection; mosquito neutralization; pest detection; insect recognition; Raspberry Pi3; Raspberry Pi4; OpenCV for small object detect
Online: 2 August 2021 (16:44:07 CEST)
More than 700 thousand human deaths from mosquito bites are observed annually in the world. It is more than 2 times the number of annual murders in the world. In this regard, the invention of new more effective methods of protection against mosquitoes is necessary. In this article for the first time, comprehensive studies of mosquito neutralization using machine vision and a 1 W power laser are considered. Developed laser installation with Raspberry Pi that changing the direction of the laser with a galvanometer. We developed a program for mosquito tracking in real. The possibility of using deep neural networks, Haar cascades, machine learning for mosquito recognition was considered. We considered in detail the classification problems of mosquitoes in images. A recommendation is given for the implementation of this device based on a microcontroller for subsequent use as part of an unmanned aerial vehicle. Any harmful insects in the fields can be used as objects for control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1939.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: TAVI; Cardiac damage; conduction disorders; risk stratification
Online: 30 November 2023 (04:15:25 CET)
To evaluate whether the extent of cardiac damage in severe aortic stenosis (AS) might be associated with the occurrence of conduction system disorders after TAVI. A total of 153 symptomatic patients with severe AS who had a TAVI were categorized before the procedure according to the extent of cardiac damage: stage 1 (13.5%): no or LV damage; stage 2 (58.8%): left atrial/mitral valve damage, atrial fibrillation (AF); stage 3 (27.7%): low-flow state, pulmonary vasculature/tricuspid valve/RV damage. After TAVI, 34% of patients exhibited LBBB and 10% high-degree atrioventricular block (HD-AVB). No patient in group 1 developed HD-AVD whereas new LBBB was frequent in groups 2 and 3. Twenty-one patients presented with resolutive paroxysmal AF with a higher rate for each group increment (group 1: n=0, 0%; group 2: n=11,15.7%; group 3: n=10, 30.3%) (p = 0.012). Patients in group 3 had the higher rate of permanent pacemaker implantation (PPMI) (group 1: n=1, 6.3%; group 2: n=7,10%; group 3: n=9, 27.3%) (p=0.012). No patient in group 1 died during the hospital stay. In conclusion, cardiac damage staging of AS might help identify patients at higher risk of conduction disorders and PPMI requirement after TAVI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1373.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: Fatigue; Residual strength; Stress ratio; Damage rule
Online: 20 October 2023 (16:22:09 CEST)
This paper discusses the theoretical and experimental correlations between fatigue and static strength statistical distributions. We use a two-parameter residual strength model that obeys the qualitative Strenght-Life Equal-Rank (SLERA) assumption for guidance. The modeling approach consists of recovering the model's parameters by best fitting the constant amplitude (CA) fatigue data at a given stress ratio, R, and the experimental Weibull parameters of the static strength distribution function. Once the model's parameters are fixed, its capabilities, potential, and limits are discussed by comparing its predictions with residual strength and fatigue data obtained at different stress ratios, R. Moreover, from a preliminary analysis, the theoretical extension of the model's capabilities to variable amplitude loadings is conceptualized. The application of Miner's rule is also discussed and compared with a new damage rule to analyze the fatigue responses under variable amplitude loadings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0578.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: infrastructure damage; transportation vulnerability; roadway; risk; hazard
Online: 10 October 2023 (12:21:08 CEST)
Wildfires can be destructive to highway infrastructure. Despite the substantial number of wildfires experienced every year, research on the physical impacts of wildfire on highways has been understudied. This research examines historical and potential future highway physical damage from wildfires. To accomplish our research objectives, we examined three major areas related to physical harm to highways and the consequences of that damage – physical characteristics, roadway impacts, and traffic impacts. These categories were subsequently broken into additional metrics, the first being physical characteristics, which includes length of highway affected and reduced average daily traffic (RADT) impacts during the event. Roadway impacts were broken into the number of trees requiring removal (those that present a danger either standing or fallen), pavement damage (burning asphalt concrete), slope/rock scaling (loose hazard rocks/vegetation), and structural damage (guardrail, signs, and delineators). Traffic impacts included the need for traffic control, road closures required, and reduced annual average daily traffic (RAADT) impacts for the year. The physical characteristics on the three highways researched during the 2020 Oregon Labor Day wildfires (Beachie Creek, Archie Creek, and Holiday Farm) indicated less than 61% of the highways were affected. The highway impacts, which included damage from hazard trees, damage to various structures – guardrail, signs, and delineators as well as bridges, slope/rock scaling damage and pavement destruction – averaged 34% for the three highways, while the three of eight arterial highway routes studied in the Oregon Cascades saw a 21% reduction in AADT. Results from this study can be used not only to assess physical damage to highways from wildfires, but as a baseline for measuring and assessing potential future wildfire highway impacts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2197.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: damage identification; modal curvature; beamforming algorithms; MVDR
Online: 1 September 2023 (03:34:57 CEST)
This paper presents an approach to damage identification in beams by modal curvatures based on the use of beamforming algorithms. These processors have been successfully used in acoustics for the last thirty years to solve the inverse problems encountered in source recognition and image reconstruction, based on ultrasonic waves. In addition, beamformers apply to a broader range of problems in which the forward solutions are computable and measurable, especially regarding the field of structural vibrations, where the use of such estimators has not received attention to date. In this paper, modal curvatures will play the role of the replica vectors of the imaging field. By means of numerical studies and experimental tests on a steel beam, we motivate the choice of modal curvatures as observed quantities. Furthermore, we compare the performance of the Bartlett and minimum variance distortionless beamformers (MVDR) with an estimator based on the simple minimization of the difference between model and measured data. The results suggest that the application of the MVDR beamformer is highly effective, especially in cases of slight damage between two sensors. MVDR enabled both damage localization, and quantification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0630.v1
Online: 9 May 2023 (09:52:46 CEST)
The paper explores the potential of a low-cost advanced video-based technique for the assessment of structural damage induced to buildings by seismic loading. A low-cost high-speed video camera was utilized for motion magnification (MM) processing of footages of a two-story reinforced concrete frame building subjected to shaking table tests. The damage after seismic loading was estimated by analyzing the dynamic behavior (i.e. in terms of modal parameters) and the structural deformations of the building in the MM videos. The results by MM were compared for method validation to damage assessment obtained by the analyses of conventional accelerometers and high-precision optical markers tracked by a passive 3D motion capture system. Also, 3D laser scanning to obtain an accurate survey of the building geometry before and after the seismic tests was carried out. In particular, accelerometers were also processed and analyzed by using several stationary and non-stationary techniques with the aim to analyze the linear behavior of the undamaged structure and the nonlinear structural behavior during damaging shaking table tests. The proposed MM-based procedure provided accurate estimate of the main modal frequency and the damage location through the analysis of modal shapes, which were confirmed by advanced analyses of accelerometric data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0605.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: acute fluorosis; tetramethylpyrazine; liver; oxidative damage; Nrf2
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:34:59 CEST)
Excessive intake of fluoride, one of the trace elements to maintain health, leads to liver injury. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine monomer with good antioxidant and hepatoprotective function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TMP on liver injury induced by acute fluorosis. A total of 60 1-month-old male Institute of Cancer Research mice without carriage of pathogenic bacteria were selected. All mice were fed adaptively for one week, and then randomly divided into 5 groups: control (K) group, model (F) group, low-dose (LT) group, medium-dose (MT) group and high-dose (HT) group. The control and model group were given distilled water, while 40 mg/kg (LT), 80 mg/kg (MT) and 160 mg/kg (HT) TMP were fed by gavage for two weeks with the maximum gavage volume of mice is 0.2ml/10g/d. Except for the control group, all groups were given fluoride (35 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection on the last day of the experiment. The results of this study showed that compared with the model group, TMP alleviated the pathological changes of liver induced by fluoride and improved the ultrastructure of liver cells; TMP significantly decreased the levels of ALT, AST and MDA (P <0.05), and increased the levels of T-AOC, T-SOD and GSH (P <0.05). The results of mRNA detection showed that TMP significantly increased the mRNA expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1, CAT, GSH-Px and SOD in liver compared with model group (P <0.05). In conclusion, TMP can inhibit oxidative stress by activating Nrf2 pathway and alleviate liver injury induced by fluoride.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0376.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: flood damage methodology; hydraulic infrastructure; resilience; indicators
Online: 25 January 2022 (10:27:21 CET)
Critical infrastructures are those that are essential. For this type of infrastructure, it is necessary to implement analytical methodologies that will allow us to quickly obtain the susceptibility or resilience and possible damage generated in extreme precipitation episodes, through a holistic perspective in which the factors linked to hydrological risk intervene. In particular, urban hydraulic infrastructures are analyzed considering the degree of criticality, defined as the number of interactions on the different activities of the population. For this purpose, a hydrological risk analysis methodology is required. This methodology is focused on an integral approach of the system indicators to be analyzed and linked to the hydrological threat. This work proposes to delimit and analyze those factors that involve risk using an analytical expression. This model will estimate the damage to these infrastructures breaking down the factors involved in the risk equation and analyzing their variability according to the intrinsic characteristics linked to them as well as the interaction with external factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0563.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Laser induces damage threshold; ZnGeP2; Magnetorheological polish
Online: 30 November 2021 (11:50:44 CET)
Magnetorheological processing was applied to polish the working surfaces of the ZnGeP2 single crystal, in which a non-aqueous liquid with magnetic particles of carbonyl iron with the addition of nanodiamonds was used. Samples of a single crystal ZnGeP2 with an angstrom level of surface roughness were received. the use of MRP has allowed more accurately characterizing possible structural defects that have emerged on the surface of a single crystal and have a size of ~ 0.5-1.5 μm. the LIDT value at the indicated or-ders of magnitude of the surface roughness parameters is determined not by the quality of polishing, but by the number of point depressions caused by physical limitations of the structural configuration of the crystal volume. These results are in good agreement with the assumption made about a significant effect of the concentration of dislocations in a ZnGeP2 crystal on LIDT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0411.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: HDV; mouse model; AAV; HDAg; Liver damage
Online: 16 March 2021 (10:14:06 CET)
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection causes the most severe form of viral hepatitis but little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved. The recently developed HDV mouse model based on the delivery of HDV replication-competent genomes using adeno-associated vectors (AAV) develop a liver pathology very similar to the human disease, and allowed us to perform mechanistic studies. We have generated different AAV-HDV mutants to eliminate the expression HDV antigens (HDAgs), characterized them both in vitro and in vivo. We confirmed that S-HDAg is essential for HDV replication and cannot be replaced by L-HDAg or host cellular proteins, and the L-HDAg is essential for HDV infectious particle production. We have also found that the lack of L-HDAg resulted in the increase of of S-HDAg expression levels and the exacerbation of liver damage which is T cell independent but is associated with an increment in liver inflammation. Interestingly, early expression of L-HDAg significantly ameliorated the liver damage induced by the mutant expressing only the S-HDAg. In summary, the use of AAV-HDV represents a very attractive platform to interrogate in vivo the role of viral components in the HDV life cycle and to better understand the mechanism of HDV-induced liver pathology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0201.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: piezoceramic sensor; reinforced concrete; force; earthquake; damage.
Online: 16 June 2020 (08:34:24 CEST)
To quantify damage to reinforced concrete (RC) column members after an earthquake, an engineer needs to know the maximum applied force that was generated by the earthquake. Therefore, in this work, piezoceramic transducers are used to detect the applied force on an RC column member under dynamic loading. To investigate the use of post-embedded piezoceramic sensors in detecting the force that is applied to RC columns, eight full-size RC column specimens with various failure modes are tested under specific earthquake loadings. Post-embedded piezoceramic sensors are installed at a range of depths (70-80 mm) beneath the surface of a column specimen to examine the relationship between the signals that are obtained from them and the force applied by the dynamic actuator. The signals that are generated by the post-embedded piezoceramic sensors, which correlate with the applied force, are presented. These results indicate that the post-embedded piezoceramic sensors have great potential as tools for measuring the maximum applied force on an RC column in an earthquake. Restated, signals that are obtained from post-embedded piezoceramic sensors on an RC column in an earthquake can be used to determine the applied force and corresponding damage or residual seismic capacity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0117.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: radioresistance; DNA-damage recognition; CRISPRa; multiplex overexpression
Online: 11 December 2018 (09:27:42 CET)
Current understanding of mechanisms of cellular resistance to genotoxic stress is incomplete but is critical for a variety of medical applications. Recent developments in the CRISPR/Cas technologies open new opportunities for targeted interrogation of resistance genes and pathways. In the present work, we used nuclease dead Cas9 constructs to achieve targeted overexpression of endogenous genes encoding two essential subunits of DNA damage sensor complex, XPC and HR23B, in HEK293T cells. Both individual and simultaneous overexpression of the two genes was achieved and the effects on cellular resistance to ionizing radiation and paraquat was examined. Using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay, we showed that simultaneous, but not separate overexpression of the two genes lead to a 30% increase in survivability. Irradiated cells that overexpressed both XPC and HR23B genes showed higher clonogenic capacity and proliferation rate compared to the irradiated transfection control as revealed by the clonogenic survival assay. Modulation of the gene expression did not affect cell resistance to paraquat. In summary, our results demonstrate a high potential of CRISPR/dCas9-enabled multiplex overexpression of stress-response genes in functionally justified combinations, exemplified here by the XPC-HR23B complex, for achieving an enhanced cellular radioresistance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0481.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: fluoride; fluorosis; fluoride systemic damage; human health
Online: 22 October 2018 (08:25:40 CEST)
The use of fluoride (F-) for decreasing the prevalence and incidence of tooth decay was the greatest worldwide preventive public health measure of the 20th century. There have been controversial reports about the benefits of the use of F-, because in small amounts it helps prevent dental caries, but in high concentrations it can be potentially toxic and harmful to dental and systemic health. Since the mid-20th century, F- has been studied by toxicologists, looking at its deleterious effects in human populations. During the last decade, the interest on the undesirable effects has resurfaced because of the knowledge that it interacts with the cellular system, even in low doses, with a very small safety margin. Acute ingestion of toxic amounts of fluoride can cause corrosive gastric mucosa injury. Also respiratory effects such as bleeding, pulmonary edema, tracheostomy and shortness of breath, have been observed in individuals who inhale hydrogen fluoride. Some researchers had shown that F- is an oxidizing agent and a well-known reversible enzymatic inhibitor that interferes with the enzyme activity of at least 80 proteins, can altered the intracellular redox equilibrium, lipid peroxidation, as well as, alteration in the gene expression and apoptosis induction. The primary purpose of this review is to examine findings of the action of inorganic F-, and an overview of hard and soft tissue disturbances, known as fluorosis. The goal of this review is to enhance understanding of the mechanisms by which F- affects cells with an emphasis on human tissue-specific events.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0303.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: pine bark extract; oxidative stress; muscle damage
Online: 17 August 2018 (12:07:49 CEST)
The purpose of the present study was to examine if 14 days of supplementation with a pine bark extract leading up to and following an exercise test would increase performance and reduce biomarkers associated with muscle damage, inflammation and oxidative stress. The study used a double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over design. Participants ingested either 800mg pine bark extract or placebo for 14 days prior to the first exercise trial and for 2 days post-exercise. On the exercise day, participants submitted a pre-exercise blood sample, then completed a VO2 peak test until volitional failure. A post-blood sample was collected 1 hour after completion of exercise. Participants returned at 24 & 48 hours after the exercise testing for measures of muscle pain in the lower body using an algometer. Participants then had a 7-day washout period before beginning to crossing over to the alternate treatment. Analysis via ordinal regression demonstrated a significant difference in oxidative stress in the pine bark extract group compared to placebo (ChiSq = 2.63; p = 0.05). The pine bark extract was effective at affording protection from oxidative stress post exercise. Further work should be undertaken to evaluate the findings with other exercise modes or in participants with known metabolic syndrome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0094.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: laser wavelength; polysilicon; laser damage; thermal shock
Online: 27 February 2017 (06:56:01 CET)
Based on PVDF (piezoelectric sensing techniques), this paper attempts to study the propagation law of shock waves in brittle materials during the process of three-wavelength laser irradiation of polysilicon, and discusses the formation mechanism of thermal shock failure. The experimental results show that the vapor pressure effect and the plasma pressure effect in the process of pulsed laser irradiation lead to the splashing of high temperature and high density melt. With the decrease of the laser wavelength, the laser breakdown threshold decreases and the shock wave is weakened. Because of pressure effect of the laser shock, the brittle fracture zone is at the edge of the irradiated area. The surface tension gradient and surface shear wave caused by the surface wave are the result of coherent coupling between optical and thermodynamics. The average propagation velocity of laser shock wave in polysilicon is 8.47×103m/s, and the experiment has reached the conclusion that the laser shock wave pressure peak exponentially distributes attenuation in the polysilicon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1807.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: organic broiler; protein feed; insect meal; lauric acid; meat quality; nutritional indices
Online: 28 November 2023 (10:23:35 CET)
: Organic poultry need high-quality proteins in their diet. The EU’s organic regulation forbids synthetic amino acids; therefore, soybean, with its balanced essential amino acid content, has become the most used protein source, though much of it is imported from non-EU countries. Soybean, however, has some important problems related to sustainability and crop competition; therefore, it must be substituted with a high-protein-value alternative such as insect meal. In this study, 900 Aviagen Savanna broilers were reared using three different organic diets. The diets used the following as protein feed material: soybean only (S100), 50% black soldier fly larvae meal (BSL) and 50% soybean (BSL50), and 100% BSL only (BSL100). Broiler performance, welfare, and fatty acids (FA) in the thigh and breast were analyzed. BSL50 and BSL100 negatively affected growth performance, while BSL100 worsened all of the market-related measures of performance. Meat quality was worse in BSL50 and BSL100, with a significant increase in saturated FA (SFA) and a corresponding decrease in polyunsaturated FA (PUFA). Among SFA, lauric acid (C12:0) more notably increased. The increase in SFA represents a negative aspect of BSL meal inclusion, namely the production of lauric acid; however, this trend could have a beneficial effect, which will be more deeply explored with regard to its impact on animal and human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1500.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: evolutionary adaptation; insect production, low-quality diets; single-sourced waste streams; tradeoffs
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:34:46 CEST)
Genetic adaptation of Hermetia illucens (BSF) to suboptimal single sourced wastes can open new perspectives for insect production. Here, four replicate BSF lines were maintained on a single sourced, low-quality wheat bran diet (WB) or on a high-quality chicken feed diet (CF) for 13 generations. We continuously evaluated evolutionary responses in several performance traits to rearing at the two diets. Subsequently, we tested responses to interchanged diets, i.e. of larvae that had been adapted to low-quality feed and to high quality feed and vice versa to evaluate costs associated with diet adaptation. BSF were found to experience rapid adaptation to the diet composition. While performances on WB diet were always inferior to CF diet, the adaptive re-sponses were stronger to the former diet. This stronger response was likely due to stronger se-lection pressure experienced by BSF fed on the low-quality single sourced diet. The interchanged diet experiment found no costs associated with diet adaptation but confirmed diet adaptation for the larval biomass and insect frass traits for the WB diet treatment. Our results revealed that BSF can rapidly adapt to diet through evolutionary responses, which has potential to be utilized to produce lines tailored to specific diets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0358.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: botanical extracts; sustainable management of pests; insecticide activity; insectistatic activity; insect pests
Online: 6 July 2023 (03:03:43 CEST)
The use of botanical extracts of the plant Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) represents a valuable alternative to control insect pests and avoid the detrimental effects on the environment and health that arise due to synthetic chemical insecticides. Thus, we conducted a systematic review to summarize the published evidence on the bioactivity of J. curcas against insect pests. Electronic databases were searched to identify studies that assessed J. curcas extracts against insect pests in various types of crops. We included 39 articles that reported the insecticidal and insectistatic activity of several botanical extracts from J. curcas against insects of eight different taxonomic orders. The evidence demonstrates that aqueous and methanolic extracts from seeds and leaves, seed oil, and petroleum ether seed extracts were effective against insect pests of stored grains, aphids of cabbage, sorghum, fruit flies, and desert locusts. The extracts caused high mortality, controlled the populations, reduced oviposition, diminished hatchability, and increased the antifeedant effect. However, the type of solvent used to obtain the botanical extract and the method of application (contact or food) are fundamental to increase its bioactivity. Therefore, botanical extracts from seeds and leaves of J. curcas should be considered as an alternative against insect pests and may be incorporated into integrative and sustainable management for insect control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0337.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: combined insect-resistance; QTNs; functional prioritization; fall armyworm; maize weevil; stem borers
Online: 1 June 2020 (02:19:01 CEST)
Several herbivores feed on maize in field and storage setups making the development of multiple-insect resistance a critical breeding target. In this study, an association mapping panel of 341 tropical maize lines was evaluated in three field environments for resistance to FAW (fall armyworm) whilst bulked grains were subjected to MW (maize weevil) bioassay, genotyped with Diversity Array Technologies single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers. A multi-locus genome-wide association study (GWAS) revealed 62 quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) associated with FAW and MW resistance traits on all 10 maize chromosomes, of which, 47 and 31 were discovered at stringent Bonferroni genome-wide significance level of 0.05 and 0.01, respectively, and located within or close to multiple-insect resistance genomic regions (MIRGRs) concerning FAW, SB, and MW. Sixteen QTNs influenced multiple-traits of which six were associated with resistance to both FAW and MW suggesting a pleiotropic genetic control. Functional prioritization of candidate genes (CGs) located within 10-30kb of the QTNs revealed 64 putative GWAS-based CGs (GbCGs) showing evidence of involvement in plant defense mechanisms. Only one GbCG was associated with each of five of the six combined-resistance QTNs, thus, reinforcing the pleiotropy hypothesis. In addition, through In-silico co-functional network inferences, an additional 107 Network-based CGs (NbCGs), biologically connected to the 64 GbCGs, differentially expressed under biotic or abiotic stress were revealed within MIRGRs. The provided multiple-insect resistance physical map should contribute to the development of combined-insect resistance in maize.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0190.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: built environment; health equity; insect vectors; public health; social determinants of health
Online: 29 February 2020 (11:01:03 CET)
Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are primary vectors of dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika viruses. Ae. aegypti is highly anthropophilic and relies nearly exclusively on human blood meals and habitats for reproduction. Socioeconomic factors may influence the spread of Ae. aegypti due to its close relationship with humans. This paper describes and summarizes the published literature on how socioeconomic variables influence the distribution of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in the mainland United States. A comprehensive search of PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and EBSCO Academic Search Complete through June 12, 2019 was used to retrieve all articles published in English on the association of socioeconomic factors and the distribution of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Additionally, a hand search of mosquito control association websites was conducted in an attempt to identify relevant grey literature. Articles were screened for eligibility using the process described in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Initially, 3,493 articles were identified through the database searches and previously known literature. After checking for duplicates, 2,145 articles remained. 570 additional records were identified through the grey literature search for a total of 2,715 articles. These articles were screened for eligibility using their titles and abstracts, and 2,677 articles were excluded for not meeting the eligibility criteria. Finally, the full text for each of the remaining articles (n = 38) was read to determine eligibility. Through this screening process, 11 articles were identified for inclusion in this review. The findings for these 11 studies revealed inconsistent relationships between the studied socioeconomic factors and the distribution and abundance of Ae. aegypti. The findings of this review suggest a gap in the literature and understanding of the influence of anthropogenic factors on the distribution of Ae. aegypti that could hinder efforts to implement effective public health prevention and control strategies should a disease outbreak occur.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0300.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: artificial selection; biological control; genetics; genome assembly; genomics; insect breeding; microbiome; modelling
Online: 24 November 2019 (17:10:31 CET)
Biological control is widely successful for controlling pests, but effective biocontrol agents are now more difficult to obtain due to more restrictive international trade laws. Coupled with increasing demand, the efficacy of existing and new biocontrol agents needs to be improved with genetic and genomic approaches. Although they have been underutilised in the past, applying genetic and genomic techniques is becoming more feasible from both technological and economic perspectives. We review current methods and provide a framework for using them, incorporating evolutionary and ecological principles. First, it is necessary to identify which biocontrol trait to select and in what direction. Next, the genes or markers linked to these traits need be determined to better target their selection, followed by how to implement this information into a breeding program. Choosing a trait can be assisted by modelling to account for the proper agro-ecological context, and by knowing which traits have sufficiently high heritability values. We provide guidelines for designing genomic strategies in biocontrol programs, which depends on the organism, budget, and desired objective. Genomic approaches start with genome sequencing and assembly. We provide a guide for deciding the most successful sequencing strategy for biocontrol agents. Gene discovery involves quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses, transcriptomic and proteomic studies, and gene editing. Improving biocontrol practices include marker-assisted selection, genomic selection and microbiome manipulation of biocontrol agents, and monitoring for genetic variation during rearing and post-release. We conclude by identifying the most promising applications of genetic and genomic methods to improve biological control efficacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0188.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Seismic Sequence; Machine Learning Algorithms; Repeated Earthquakes; Structural Damage Prediction; Intensity Measures; Damage Accumulation; Machine Learning; Artificial Neural Network
Online: 14 March 2022 (11:57:51 CET)
Advanced machine learning algorithms, have the potential to be successfully applied to many areas of system modelling. In the present study the capability of ten machine learning algorithms in predicting the structural damage of an 8-storey reinforced concrete frame building subjected to single and successive ground motions is examined. From this point of view, the initial damage state of the structural system, as well as 16 well known ground motion intensity measures are adopted as the features of the machine-learning algorithms that aim to predict the structural damage after each seismic event. The structural analyses are performed considering both real and artificial mainshock–aftershock sequences, while the structural damage is expressed in terms of two overall damage indices. The comparative study results in the most efficient damage index, as well as the most promising machine learning algorithm in predicting the structural response of a reinforced concrete building under single or multiple seismic events. Finally, the configured methodology deployed in a user-friendly web-application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1981.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Mitochondria; ROS; drug repurposing; oxidative phosphorylation; DNA damage
Online: 30 November 2023 (11:26:10 CET)
Breast cancer is a serious disease and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among women in the U.S. New treatments for this aggressive disease are urgently needed. Repurposing FDA-approved drugs for cancer treatment is an alternative that saves time and lowers the costs needed for drug development. In this study, we investigated the effects of proguanil, an anti-malarial drug, in breast cancer cells. Proguanil exhibited a significant cytotoxic effect on breast cancer cell lines including patient derived cell lines. Proguanil caused apoptosis through increased production of ROS and consequent decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial respiration, and ATP production rates. ROS generation by proguanil was up to 3-fold higher when compared to the control. Proguanil treatment increased the expression of Bax, p-H2AX, cleaved-caspase 9, cleaved PARP, and down-regulated bcl-2 and survivin in breast cancer cell lines. The enlargement of 4T1 breast tumors in female Balb/c mice was suppressed by 55% through daily oral administration of 20mg/kg of proguanil. Western blot analyses of proguanil- treated tumors showed increased levels of p-H2AX, Bax, c-PARP, and c-caspase3 compared to control. Proguanil proved to be an efficient in vitro and in-vivo inhibitor of breast cancer cells, hence should be considered further for clinical investigation against breast cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2187.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Krüppel-like factors; myocardial damage; cardiovascular diseases; hypertrophy.
Online: 13 November 2023 (10:02:18 CET)
Cardiac hypertrophy typically follows myocardial damage, a process known to involve members of the Krüppel-Like Factors (KLFs) which have pro-hypertrophic and anti-hypertrophic roles. Our study delved into the molecular mechanisms underlying KLFs-cardiac hypertrophy interplay post myocardial infraction. We induced myocardial dam-age in rats using isoproterenol. Total RNA was extracted from the left ventricle and Quantitative Real Time RT-PCR was conducted to assess the expression of KLFs, cardiac commitment genes, inflammatory markers, and certain conduction-related genes. We devel-oped a computational approach to construct a proteomic network centered on KLFs. Initial results revealed early expression (2-3 days post-induction) of KLF3, KLF4 and KLF6, followed by the subsequent expression of KLF11 and KLF15 (5-8 days after induction). In the maturation stage, KLF12 and KLF13 regulators were found upregulated. IL-6 was gradually found to be upregulated through. Interaction analysis revealed KLF3, KLF8 and KLF12 interacted with cardiac electrical functions. RT-PCR confirmed up-regulation in cardiac genes linked to electrical function and scar maturation. Our findings underscore the central role of KLFs during the modulation of the cardiac hypertrophic response. Dysregulation of KLF expression resulted in damaged myocardium, participating in the progression of abnormal hypertrophy, highlighting their potential as therapeutic targets for heart diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1421.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: potato; cultivars; weeding control methods; herbicides; phytotoxic damage
Online: 23 October 2023 (12:36:46 CEST)
(Background) Phytotoxicity refers to the capacity of chemical substances or environmental factors to have a negative impact on plants. This is a crucial issue in both the context of crop cultivation and environmental protection. (Material and Methods) The research results were based on a 3-year field experiment conducted at the experimental station in Jadwisin (52°28′ N, 21°02′ E) on loamy soil. The experiment was set up using a randomized sub-block design in a split-split-plot arrangement, with three replications. The first-order factor consisted of potato cultivars, while the second-order factors were weed control methods: 1) Control – without protection; 2) mechanical weed control, extensive mechanical treatments to close rows; 3) Sencor 70 WG – pre-emergence (PRE) of potatoes; 4) Sencor 70 WG + Titus 25 WG + Trend 90 EC – PRE of potatoes; 5) Sencor 70 WG – post-emergence (POST) of potatoes; 6) Sencor 70 WG + Titus 25 WG + Trend 90 EC – POST of potatoes; 7) Sencor 70 WG + Fusilade Forte 150 EC – POST of potatoes; 8) Sencor 70 WG + Apyros 75 WG + Atpolan 80 SC – POST of potatoes. The phytotoxic effects of herbicides on potato plants and weeds were assessed every 7 days, starting from the date when the first signs of damage appeared, until they stabilized or disappeared. (Results:) Phytotoxic damage to potato and weed plants were caused by the chemical weed control methods used. The response of potato plants to herbicides was significantly related to the genetic traits of the cultivars and meteorological conditions in the years of research. (Conclusion:) Phytotoxicity is an important aspect in both agriculture and environmental protection. Research on its mechanisms and impact will enable the development of effective plant protection strategies and the preservation of ecosystem balance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1876.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: keto-enol insecticides; DNA damage response; Drosophila germarium.
Online: 27 July 2023 (08:58:21 CEST)
DNA damage response (DDR) pathways in keto-enol genotoxicity have not been characterized, and few studies have reported genotoxic effects in non-target organisms. The present study shows that concentrations of 11.2, 22.4, 37.3 mg/L of Movento® 240SC and 12.3, 24.6, 41.1 mg/L of Envidor® 240SC for 72 h oral exposure induced DSBs by significantly increasing the percentage of γH2AV expression in regions 2b and 3 from the germarium of wildtype females of Drosophila melanogaster Oregon R, compared to the control group (0.0 mg/L of insecticides), by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. The comparison between both insecticides’ revels that only the Envidor® 240SC induces concentration-dependent DNA damage, as well as structural changes in the germarium. We determined that the DDR induced by Movento® 240SC depends on the activation of the ATMtefu, Chk1grp and Chk2lok kinases by significantly increasing the percentage of expression of γH2AX in regions 2b and 3 of the germarium, and that ATRmei-29D and p53dp53 kinases only respond at the highest concentration of 37.3 mg/L of Movento® 240SC. With the Envidor® 240SC insecticide, we determined that the DDR depends on the activation of the ATRmei-29D/Chk1grp and ATMtefu/Chk2lok kinases, and p53dp53 by significantly increasing the percentage of expression of γH2AX in the germarium.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0124.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: damage detection; sparsity-based approach; finite element; FISTA
Online: 4 July 2023 (03:31:02 CEST)
Model-based approaches form the basis of the majority of damage detection and localization studies; however, built-in online detection technique can offer an alternative for future structural health monitoring technologies. Thus, in this paper, we present a dynamic localization algorithm for damage localization in functionally graded plates. The method depends on the creation of a grid matrix that contains the dynamic response of the structure over time. Subsequently, an optimization process is carried out via a linear equation representing the information contained within the grid to achieve accurate localization of damage. Due to the inherent sparsity of the localization nature, the FISTA algorithm has been employed as a problem solver. The approach is tested in the case of the functionally graded plate under clamped free boundary conditions. Several, damage scenarios were investigated for the case of damage signals on and off the grid. The results show that the proposed approach is capable of accurately predicting damage position and can be suitable for use in low size data systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0006.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Parvoviruses; DNA damage response; Minute Virus of Mice
Online: 3 April 2023 (04:21:03 CEST)
Minute Virus of Mice (MVM) is an autonomous parvovirus of the Parvovirus family that replicates in mouse cells and transformed human cells. MVM genomes localize to cellular sites of DNA damage with the help of their essential non-structural phosphoprotein NS1 to establish viral replication centers. MVM replication induces a cellular DNA damage response that is mediated by signaling through the ATM kinase pathway, while inhibiting induction of the ATR kinase signaling pathway. However, the cellular signals regulating virus localization to cellular DNA damage response sites has remained unknown. Using chemical inhibitors to DNA damage response proteins, we have discovered that NS1 locallization to cellular DDR sites is independent of ATM or DNA-PK signaling, but is dependent on ATR signaling. Pulsing cells with an ATR inhibitor after S-phase entry leads to attenuated MVM replication. These observations suggest that the initial localization of MVM to cellular DDR sites depends on ATR signaling before it is inactivated by vigorous virus replication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0240.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: damage detection; multi-cracked beam; eigenfrequency; deflection; superposition
Online: 12 July 2021 (11:13:05 CEST)
Identifying cracks in the incipient state is essential to prevent the failure of engineering structures. Detection methods relying on the analysis of the changes in modal parameters are widely used because of the advantages they present. In our previous research, we have found that eigenfrequencies were capable of indicating the position and depth of damage when sufficient vibration modes were considered. The damage indicator we developed was based on the relative frequency shifts (RFS). To calculate the RFSs for various positions and depths of a crack, we established a mathematical relation that involved the squared modal curvatures in the healthy state and the deflection of the healthy and damaged beam under dead mass, respectively. In this study, we propose to calculate the RFS for beams with several cracks by applying the superposition principle. We demonstrate that this is possible if the cracks are far enough from each other. In fact, if the cracks are close to each other, the superposition method does not work and we distinguish two cases: (i) when the cracks affect the same beam face, the frequency drop is less than the sum of the individual frequency drops, and (ii) on the contrary, cracks on opposite sides cause a decrease in frequency, which is greater than the sum of the frequency drop due to individual damage. When the RFS curves are known, crack assessment becomes an optimization problem, the cost function being the distance between the measured RFSs and all possible RFSs for several vibration modes. Thus, the RFS constitutes a benchmark that characterizes damage using only the eigenfrequencies. We can accurately locate multiple cracks and estimate their severity trough experiments and thus prove the reliability of the proposed method.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: chronic intermittent hypoxia; autophagy; apoptosis; cardiomyocyte damage; calcineurin
Online: 24 June 2021 (14:58:22 CEST)
Calcineurin plays a key role in cardiovascular pathogenesis by exerting pro-apoptotic effects in cardiomyocytes; however, its involvement in the regulation of cardiomyocyte autophagy under chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) remains largely unknown. Here we showed that CIH induced calcineurin activity in H9C2 cells, resulting in the attenuation of adenosine monophos-phate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and inhibition of H9C2 cell autophagy. Au-tophagy, LC3-II levels, and AMPK phosphorylation were significantly elevated in response to CIH in H9C2 cells by day 3; however, these effects were reversed, and calcineurin activity and apoptosis were significantly increased by day 5. The calcineurin inhibitor, FK506, restored AMPK activation and LC3 protein levels, and reduced CIH-induced H9C2 cell apoptosis, while calcineurin overexpression significantly attenuated the increase in LC3 levels and enhanced H9C2 cell apop-tosis. Calcineurin inhibition failed to induce autophagy or alleviate apoptosis in H9C2 cells ex-pressing a dominant negative K45R AMPK mutant. Autophagy downregulation abrogated the protective effects of FK506-mediated calcineurin inhibition. These results indicated that calcineurin suppressed adaptive autophagy during CIH by downregulating AMPK activation. Our findings showed the underlying mechanisms of calcineurin and autophagy regulation during H9C2 cell survival in response to CIH, and suggested a new strategy for preventing CIH-induced cardiomyocyte damage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0534.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Digital Image Correlation; damage; self-heating; EPDM; fillers
Online: 20 November 2020 (10:32:54 CET)
The effect of the strain rate on damage in carbon black filled EPDM stretched during single and multiple uniaxial loading is investigated. This has been performed by analysing the stress-strain response, the evolution of damage by Digital Image Correlation (DIC), the associated dissipative heat source by InfraRed thermography (IR), and the chains network damage by swelling. The strain rates were selected to cover the transition from quasi-static to medium strain rate conditions. In single loading conditions, the increase of the strain rate yields in a preferential damage of the filler network while rubber network is preserved. Such damage is accompanied by a stress softening and an adiabatic heat source rise. Conversely, increasing the strain rate in cyclic loading conditions yields in a filler network accommodation and a high self-heating whose combined effect is proposed as a possible cause of the ability of filled EPDM to limit damage, by reducing cavities opening during loading and favoring cavities closing upon unloading.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0357.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Striga infestation; Striga damage; yield loss; nitrogen application
Online: 17 August 2020 (10:08:51 CEST)
Low soil nitrogen status of savanna soils in Nigeria contributes to the persistent Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. infestation that limits maize production. The application of nitrogen fertilizer to Striga-resistant hybrids may reduce Striga infection and increase grain yields. This study assessed the performance of maize hybrids at low (30 kg ha-1) and high (120 kg ha-1) nitrogen application under natural infestation with Striga at Kafin Madaki and Tudun Wada in 2014 and 2015. Results showed that the application of nitrogen at 120 kg ha-1 reduced number of Striga plants by 59% compared to application at 30 kg N ha-1 in Kafin Madaki and by 21% in Tudun Wada. Compared to 30 kg N ha-1, the 120 kg N ha-1 rate also reduced Striga damage rating by 22% in Kafin Madaki and by 33% in Tudun Wada across the hybrids. Hybrids 8338-1 (5.3) and OBASUPER 1 (4.3) were the only entries with Striga damage rating greater than 4.5 (SDR > 4.5) when averaged across the nitrogen levels at both locations. Grain yield was 86 and 98% higher in Kafin Madaki and Tudun Wada, respectively when N was applied at 120 kg N ha-1 than at 30 kg N ha-1. The hybrids M1124-3 and M1227-14 produced grain yields that were significantly higher than those of the other hybrids in all locations. The hybrid 8338-1 produced the lowest grain yield across locations. Our results showed that, the application of 120 kg N ha-1 to Striga resistant maize hybrids will reduce Striga infection and increase grain yield.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0343.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: protein; exercise; muscle damage; creatine kinase; myoglobin; inflammation
Online: 16 July 2020 (06:33:18 CEST)
This randomized trial compared pea protein, whey protein, and water-only supplementation on muscle damage, inflammation, delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), and physical fitness test performance during a 5-day period after a 90-minute eccentric exercise bout in non-athletic, non-obese males (n=92, ages 18-55 years). The two protein sources (0.9 g protein/kg divided into three doses/day) were administered under double blind procedures. The eccentric exercise protocol induced significant muscle damage and soreness, and reduced bench press and 30-second Wingate performance. Whey protein supplementation significantly attenuated post-exercise blood levels for biomarkers of muscle damage compared to water-only, with large effect sizes for creatine kinase and myoglobin during the 4th and 5th days of recovery (Cohen's d >0.80); pea protein versus water supplementation had an intermediate, non-significant effect (Cohen's d <0.50); and no significant differences between whey and pea protein were found. Whey and pea protein compared to water supplementation had no significant effects on post-exercise DOMS and the fitness tests. In conclusion, high intake of whey protein for 5 days after intensive eccentric exercise mitigated efflux of muscle damage biomarkers, with intake of pea protein having an intermediate effect in part due to the 24% lower leucine amino acid content.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0217.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: antioxidant; Nigella sativa; secondary metabolites; thymoquinone; DNA damage
Online: 19 January 2020 (14:33:58 CET)
Nigella sativa (NS) is an effective medicinal plant possessing noteworthy antioxidant property. In NS, there are more than hundred phyto-chemicals reported, out of which thymoquinone is the utmost active phyto-constituent having sturdy antioxidative property. Thymoquinone is a cyclicdione, when reacts with sodium azide, converts into α-azido ketones i.e its analogs which are handy with extensive range of reactions. Sodium azide induces stress in plants thereby, modulating the antioxidant system. The present investigation was planned to elucidate the effect of sodium azide at different concentrations (5µM, 10µM, 20µM, 50µM, 100µM and 200µM) on its secondary metabolites (mainly thymoquinone) in NS callus culture extract (NSE). The results showed sodium azide effect on thymoquinone content and a concentration dependent boost in antioxidant property. It was also observed that thymoquinone content and percent yield (analyzed by RP-HPLC; Reverse Phase- High Performance Liquid Chromatography) were minimum (0.033±0.006% and 0.420±0.045%, respectively) at 200 µM sodium azide used. Whereas, antioxidant activity (analyzed by DPPH; 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) was found to be maximum (3.873±0.402%) at same dose. Further, analysis was done for inhibition of oxidative DNA damage at different concentrations of sodium azide on NSE, maximum inhibition of DNA damage (0.243±0.017%) was found at 200 µM concentration of sodium azide. When correlated, strong positive correlation was observed between percent yield and percent thymoquinone, antioxidant property and inhibition of DNA damage. Whereas, strong negative correlation was observed between percent yield and antioxidant property, percent thymoquinone and antioxidant property, percent thymoquinone and inhibition of DNA damage. The findings evidently point out that the content of thymoquinone, antioxidant property and inhibition of DNA damage was affected by sodium azide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0234.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Steel; Tensile Test; XRCT; Damage Evolution; Gurson Model
Online: 19 December 2018 (12:14:27 CET)
This paper analyses the evolution of the internal damage in two types of steel that show different fracture behaviours, with one of them being the initial material used for manufacturing prestressing steel wires, which shows a flat fracture surface perpendicular to the loading direction, and the other one being a standard steel used in reinforced concrete structures, which shows the typical cup-cone surface. 3mm-diameter cylindrical specimens are tested with a tensile test carried out in several loading stages and, after each of them, unloaded and analysed with X-ray tomography, which allows detection of internal damage throughout the tensile test. In the steel used for reinforcement, damage is developed progressively in the whole specimen, as predicted by Gurson-type models, while in the steel used for manufacturing prestressing steel-wire damage is developed only in the very last part of the test. In addition to the experimental study, a numerical analysis is carried out by means of the finite element method by using a Gurson model to reproduce the material behaviour.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0422.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: LDL-oxidation; DNA-damage; antioxidant vitamins; oxidative stress
Online: 20 September 2018 (16:53:42 CEST)
Radical oxygen species formed in human tissue cells by many endogenous and exogenous pathways, cause extensive oxidative damage, which has been linked to various human diseases. This review paper provides an overview of lipid peroxidation and focuses on the free-radicals initiated processes of LDL oxidative modification and DNA oxidative damage, which are widely associated to the initiation and development of atherosclerosis and carcinogenesis, respectively. The article subsequently provides an overview of the recent human trials or even in vitro investigations on the potential of natural antioxidant compounds (such as carotenoids, vitamins C and E) to monitor LDL and DNA oxidative changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0584.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: salt rock; creep; damage; fractional derivative; acoustic emission
Online: 30 July 2018 (11:15:31 CEST)
The use of salt rock for underground radioactive waste disposal facilities requires a comprehensive analysis of creep-damage process in salt rock. A computer-controlled creep setup is employed to carry out a creep test of salt rock lasted as long as 359 days under a constant uniaxial stress. The AE space-time evolution and energy releasing characteristics during creep test are studied in the meantime. A new creep-damage model is proposed on the basis of fractional derivative by combining the AE statistical regularity. It indicates that the AE data in non-decay creep process of salt rock can be divided into three stages. Furthermore, the parameters of new creep-damage model are determined by Quasi-Newton method. The fitting analysis suggests that the creep-damage model based on fractional derivative in this paper provides a precise description of full creep regions in salt rock.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: curcumin; furazolidone; oxidative stress; DNA damage; mitochondrial pathway
Online: 2 August 2016 (05:59:38 CEST)
Furazolidone (FZD) is a synthetic nitrofuran with the antiprotozoal and antibacterial activity. The proper mechanism of FZD induced toxicity is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of curcumin on FZD induced oxidative stress, DNA injury and apoptosis in human hepatocyte L02 cells. The results showed that curcumin treatment significantly ameliorated FZD induced cytotoxicity, characterized by decreasing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde, as well as increasing superoxide dismutase, catalase activities and glutathione contents. Moreover, curcumin pretreatment significantly inhibited FZD induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the activation caspase-9 and -3 and apoptosis. Comet assay showed that curcumin attenuated FZD induced DNA injury in a dose-dependent manner. Correspondingly, curcumin markedly reversed the up-regulation of p53, Bax, caspase-9 and -3 mRNA expressions and the down-regulation of Bcl-2 mRNA (all p<0.05 or 0.01). These results reveal that curcumin protects against FZD induced oxidative stress, DNA injury and cell apoptosis via inhibiting oxidative stress and mitochondrial pathway, which may be attributed to ROS scavenging and anti-oxidative ability of curcumin. Importantly, our study highlights that curcumin may be a potential way to prevent FZD-mediated oxidative DNA injury and apoptosis in human or animals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0177.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: 3D Food printing; Guar gum; Insect protein; Mealworm; Printability; Rheological properties; Space food
Online: 4 October 2023 (08:01:19 CEST)
Increasing the availability of alternative protein from insects is important to solving food shortages. Not only are insects a rich source of protein, the use of insect ingredi-ents can reduce food waste. Insects are thus a potentially valuable ingredient for food industries and even food eaten on deep-space missions. The three-dimensional produc-tion of food on space missions has gained attention owing to its potential to reduce au-tonomous food production and produce sustainable food for long-duration space mis-sions. This study investigated the printability and rheological properties of a high-protein food system derived from mealworms and guar gum used as a stabilizer to im-prove printability. Stability and rheological properties were analyzed for various print-ing parameters. The results indicate that as the guar gum concentration was increased from 0 to 1.75%, the yield stress of the mealworm paste increased from 39 to 1096 Pa. Increasing the guar gum concentration thus resulted in a mealworm paste that was more viscous, exhibited shear thinning behavior, could support itself and was thus more stable. In summary, introducing guar gum resulted in a mealworm paste with rheological properties more suitable for printing in terms of printability and stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0489.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria); insect outbreak; defoliation event; MicroResp; soil microbial activity
Online: 28 February 2023 (02:30:32 CET)
With climate change projected to increase the frequency and severity of episodic insect outbreak events, assessing potential consequences for soil microbial communities and nutrient dynamics is of importance for understanding forest resilience. The forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) is an important defoliator of deciduous tree species in temperate and mixed forests of eastern North America with an invasion cycle every 10-12 years and outbreak events that can last 3-6 years. Following a defoliation episode on trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) from 2015 to 2017 in Abitibi-Témiscamingue, QC, Canada, we sought to test if defoliation resulted in changes to soil bacterial and fungal communities. We hypothesized an increase in soil microbial biomass due to increased caterpillar frass inputs and potential changes in community structure following the event. Soils were sampled in July 2018, May 2019 and July 2019 from sites that had been subject to defoliation during the outbreak and from sites where no defoliation had been recorded. We assessed soil microbial biomass and fungal to total microbial activity ratio on all sampling dates, and Community Level Physiological Profiles (CLPPs) for 2018 only using a substrate induced respiration method. Contrary to our hypothesis, we observed a significant 50% decrease in microbial biomass (g biomass-C g-1 soil hour-1) in defoliated stands suggesting tree carbon normally allocated towards root exudates was reallocated towards foliage regeneration. We noted a differentiated carbon-based substrate usage following defoliation, but no change in the fungal to total microbial activity ratio. The observed changes in the two years following the defoliation event suggest that defoliation episodes aboveground could trigger changes in soil chemistry belowground with effects on soil microbial communities that may, in turn, feedback to influence forest plant dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0474.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: CRISPR/Cas9; knockout; rescue; desiccation tolerance; anhydrobiosis; Polypedilum vanderplanki; HSF1; insect cell; Pv11
Online: 19 April 2021 (12:17:34 CEST)
Pv11, an insect cell line established from the midge Polypedilum vanderplanki, is capable of ametabolic desiccation tolerance, so-called anhydrobiosis. We previously discovered that heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) contributes to the acquisition of desiccation tolerance by Pv11 cells, but the mechanistic details have yet to be elucidated. Here, by analyzing the gene expression profiles of newly established HSF1-knockout and -rescue cell lines, we show that HSF1 has a genome-wide effect on gene regulation in Pv11. HSF1-knockout cells exhibit a reduced desiccation survival rate, but this is completely restored in HSF1-rescue cells. By comparing mRNA profiles of the two cell lines, we reveal that HSF1 induces anhydrobiosis-related genes, especially genes encoding late embryogenesis abundant proteins and thioredoxins, but represses a group of genes involved in basal cellular processes, thus promoting an ametabolic state in the cell. In addition, HSF1 binding motifs are enriched in the promoters of anhydrobiosis-related genes and we demonstrate binding of HSF1 to these promoters by ChIP-qPCR. Thus, HSF1 directly regulates the transcription of anhydrobiosis-related genes and consequently plays a pivotal role in the induction of anhydrobiotic ability in Pv11 cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0276.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Citral; essential oil; integrated pest management; insect-repellent; lemongrass; MEP pathway; mevalonate pathway
Online: 13 September 2020 (11:30:41 CEST)
Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) is an aromatic perennial grass grown extensively for its essential oil. Lemongrass oil is chiefly a mixture of various cyclic and acyclic bioactive monoterpenes. We reviewed lemongrass oil and its biosynthesis in the present chapter along with its biochemical composition. Furthermore, we attempted to explore both the possible routes for essential oil biosynthesis in lemongrass, i.e. mevalonate and non-mevalonate pathways and how these pathways interwind with each other. Lemongrass oil has high commercial potential in medicinal, cosmetic, food and energy industries. Regarding the pharmacological properties, a wide array of biological activities has been observed in lemongrass oil such as antimicrobial, insecticidal, analgesic and anti-cancer properties as well as its efficacy as insect-repellent. The later sections were dedicated for the analysis of insecticidal property of the lemongrass oil and the mechanism working behind this phenomenon where it was observed that in addition to synergistic effects, various components of lemongrass oil can also induce specific neurotoxic and cytotoxic responses in the insects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0422.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Biological control; fitness attributes; glyphosate; Herbicide; insect; integrated weed management; Parthenium; Zygogramma bicolorata; weed
Online: 24 January 2023 (03:31:54 CET)
The ecotoxic effect of glyphosate, a commonly used Parthenium control herbicide, was evaluated in laboratory on biological and fitness attributes of Zygogramma bicolorata. Bioassay of glyphosate was carried within a minimum range of field recommended dose. Indirect exposure experiment reveals that glyphosate caused maximum mortality of 3rd larval instars, extends the development stages of larvae, pre pupation and pupation. Significant negative effect was observed on sex ratio, fecundity, egg viability and on other fitness attributes. The study demonstrated the non-compatibility of glyphosate and unsafe with Zygogramma bicolorata. The study concludes that owing to acute toxicity of glyphosate at recommended field dose may be used in combination with Z. bicolorata for successful control of Parthenium weed, but needs to be evaluated under natural field conditions.