Darsouei, R.; Karimi, J.; Dunphy, G.B. Functional Characterization of Outer Membrane Proteins (OMPs) in Xenorhabdus nematophila and Photorhabdus luminescens through Insect Immune Defense Reactions. Insects2019, 10, 352.
Darsouei, R.; Karimi, J.; Dunphy, G.B. Functional Characterization of Outer Membrane Proteins (OMPs) in Xenorhabdus nematophila and Photorhabdus luminescens through Insect Immune Defense Reactions. Insects 2019, 10, 352.
Xenorhabdus nematophila and Photorhabdusluminescens are entomopathogenic symbionts that produce several toxic proteins that can interfere with the immune system of insects. Here, we showed that outer membrane proteins (OMPs) could be involved as virulence factors during bacterial symbiont pathogenesis. Purified OMPs from bacterial culture were injected fifth instar larvae of Spodopteraexigua Hübner. Larvae were surveyed for fluctuations in total haemocyte counts (THC), granulocyte percentage (cellular defence), protease, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and phenoloxidase (PO) activities (humoral defence) at specific time intervals. Changes in the expression of the three antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), cecropin, attacin, and spodoptericin, were also measured. Larvae treated with both types of OMPs had more haemocytes than did the negative controls. OMPs of X. nematophila caused more haemocyte destruction than did the OMPs of P. luminescens. The OMPs of both bacterial species initially activated insect defensive enzymes post-injection, their activating fluctuated in different ways. Attacin, cecropin and spodoptericin were up-regulated by OMP injections more than in normal larvae. The expression of these three AMPs was maximal at four hpi with P. luminescens OMPs treatment. Expression of the three AMPs in X. nematophila treatment was irregular and lower than in the P. luminescens OMPs treatment. These findings provide insights into the role of OMPs of entomopathogenic nematode bacterial symbionts in countering the physiological defenses of insects.
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