ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0037.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: climate change; evapotranspiration; IHACRES model; rainfall; runoff; quantile mapping
Online: 7 December 2016 (11:14:14 CET)
Climate simulations in West Africa have been attributed with large uncertainties. Global climate projections are not consistent with changes in observations at the regional or local level of the Niger basin, making management of hydrological projects in the basin uncertain. This study evaluates the potential of using the quantile mapping bias correction to improve the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) outputs for use in hydrology impact studies. Rainfall and temperature projections from 8 CMIP5 Global Climate Models (GCM) were bias corrected using the quantile mapping approach. Impacts of climate change was evaluated with bias corrected rainfall, temperature and potential evapotranspiration (PET). The IHACRES hydrological model was adapted to the Niger basin and used to simulate impacts of climate change on discharge under present and future conditions. Bias correction significantly improved the accuracy of rainfall and temperature simulations compared to observations. Nash coefficient (NSE) for monthly rainfall comparisons of 8 GCMs to the observed was improved by bias correction from 0.69 to 0.84. The standard deviations among the 8 GCM rainfall data were significantly reduced from 0.13 to 0.03. Increasing rainfall, temperature, PET and river discharge were projected for all GCMs used in this study under the RCP8.5 scenario. These results will help improving projections and contribute to the development of sustainable climate change adaptation strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0023.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: climate change; water cycle; downscaling; hydrological model; Yangtze River; Yellow River; Tibetan Plateau
Online: 8 October 2016 (11:29:05 CEST)
Climate change is a global issue that draws widespread attention from the international society. As an important component of the climate system, the water cycle is directly affected by climate change. Thus, it is very important to study the influences of climate change on the basin water cycle with respect to maintenance of healthy rivers, sustainable use of water resources, and sustainable socioeconomic development in the basin. In this study, by assessing the suitability of multiple General Circulation Models (GCMs) recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) and Automated Statistical Downscaling model (ASD) were used to generate future climate change scenarios. These were then used to drive distributed hydrologic models (Variable Infiltration Capacity, Soil and Water Assessment Tool) for hydrological simulation of the Yangtze River and Yellow River basins, thereby quantifying the effects of climate change on the basin water cycle. The results showed that suitability assessment adopted in this study could effectively reduce the uncertainty of GCMs, and that statistical downscaling was able to greatly improve precipitation and temperature outputs in global climate mode. Compared to a baseline period (1961–1990), projected future periods (2046–2065 and 2081–2100) had a slightly decreasing tendency of runoff in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin. In particular, a significant increase in runoff was observed during flood seasons in the southeast part. However, runoff of the upper Yellow River basin decreased continuously. The results provide a reference for studying climate change in major river basins of China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0021.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: children; climate change; climate literacy; education; sustainable development
Online: 1 November 2022 (06:59:44 CET)
Despite the impact that climate change is having on our planet and considering its consequences for future generations, much of the academic literature focuses on adolescent and adult percep-tions, giving little relevance to children's perceptions. Children's voices have the potential to in-fluence public opinion, which may in turn determine the direction of a new policy on the cli-mate crisis. In this context, it is urgent that we understand how children perceive this problem. This quantitative study was based on the application of 245 questionnaires to children aged be-tween 9 and 13 years old from five schools in north-eastern Portugal, more specifically in the region of Trás-os-Montes. To collect the data, we used a questionnaire with 26 questions, being 24 of closed response, Likert type, one of them open response, and one multiple choices. The da-ta were statistically treated using SPSS software. The results show that most of the children ex-press concern about the study's potential problem. However, they show some doubts and a lack of knowledge about some of the themes. We found differences between the two study cycles, with children in the 6th grade having a higher average in the understanding of the phenomenon, as well as the level of education of the parents being positively correlated with a more ecocen-tric posture. The female students also showed a slightly more ecological posture, i.e., an eco-friendlier posture. From the results obtained, we can open new paths for future research and contribute to the definition of policies and educational practices since the school has the respon-sibility to cooperate in the production of values, attitudes, and pro-environmental behaviours.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0008.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: migrations; climate change; Colombia
Online: 1 November 2022 (01:52:52 CET)
The international literature shows a polarised debate on the impacts of climate change on migration. Some studies find a positive linkage, whereas others find a negative one. It is, without a doubt, a complex process better considered case-specific. There is no available information on the relationship between climate change and migration in Colombia, despite past research exploring each of these subjects independently. This study intends explicitly to investigate this linkage gap. Consequently, this paper's essential contribution is that it builds a bridge between climate change scenarios and migratory science for the first time in Colombia. Despite their limitations, the theoretical and methodological framework suggested by IOM (2009b pp. 86, Section B, Chapter II) is demonstrated in this study to be very valid since it provides a methodology to predict where future flows will occur (based on past evidence). The methodological approaches of SLA and NELM explained in section A in the IV Chapter are also valuable for analysing and approaching this study's conclusions. The primary conclusions of this study indicate that the "Coffee Region," Valle, and Atlantic (or Caribbean Coast) provinces that mainly send emigrants to Spain and the US are the key internal regions responsible for most of the international migration from Colombians. The same areas are especially vulnerable to the impacts of upcoming climate change in the A1B scenario produced by the IDEAM (2010) for 2040 and 2100. Thus, future flows of migrants are expected from these regions (2040-2100). However, issues such as visa requirements or the costs associated with migration constitute international barriers to this flow. The sensitivity of these regions can also be associated with internal migration flows, more armed conflict, and forced displacement in a cyclical process. Theoretically, a resurgence of Colombia's armed conflict and displacement due to climate change can be expected. However, the need for empirical studies in Colombia to support this analysis is imperative and is the most crucial recommendation arising from this study.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1246.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Climate change; Butterfly; Thimphu; Bhutan
Online: 30 April 2023 (03:18:31 CEST)
The study aims to investigate the impacts of climate change on butterfly populations Thimphu district of Bhutan. Butterflies are indicators of environmental factors and can act as an early warning of impending changes in local flora and fauna. The study will involve citizen science with participants using iNaturalist and Seek applications to capture butterfly data in various habitat areas in the Thimphu district. The data collected will be analyzed using Statistics Kit for Social Sciences (SPSS), Nvivo, and Geographical Information System (GIS) programs. The results of the research will be disseminated through awareness campaigns to increase public understanding of the value of butterfly protection in the conservation of healthy environments. The study's findings will be used to develop conservation initiatives to maintain biodiversity and assess the impacts of climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0301.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: students’ awareness; climate change; climate information; mitigation activities; Democratic Re-public of Congo
Online: 16 November 2022 (08:58:25 CET)
Students are often portrayed as future leaders. Their participation in climate change mitigation would improve when they access climate information and gain a high level of climate change awareness. This study was initiated to assess the Congolese students’ awareness of climate change by focusing on their sources of information on climate change, knowledge about the causes and impacts of climate change and activities that can raise awareness on climate change. Using a convenience sampling technique, we collected data through individual interviews conducted among 1,278 students from 13 universities across the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The interview results showed that all students irrespective of their disciplines were concerned about climate change, a phenomenon strongly driven by human activities, such as deforestation (78%), urbanisation (30%), agriculture activities (30%) and transport services (26%). The students’ perceptions of climate change impacts included increase in temperature (82%), decrease in the number of rainy days (66%), proliferation of pests (60%) and increase in the number of malaria patients (39%). The primary sources of information that significantly affected students’ awareness of climate change included environment-related university courses and television broadcasts. The awareness-raising and mitigation actions related to climate change recommended by the students included educating people about good waste management (56%), planting trees (65%) and using the taxes paid by mining companies for the restoration of degraded ecosystems. The students believed that in DRC, all layers of the society (educational institutions, civil society organisations, community members and businesses) are important in building resilience to climate change. This study can guide teachers to focus their educational efforts on shaping pro-environmental behaviour in students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0180.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: climate; climate change; water; hydrology; climatology.
Online: 3 March 2021 (10:12:40 CET)
We revisit the notion of climate, along with its historical evolution, tracing the origin of the modern concerns about climate. The notion (and the scientific term) of climate has been established during the Greek antiquity in a geographical context and it acquired its statistical content (average weather) in modern times, after meteorological measurements had become common. Yet the modern definitions of climate are seriously affected by the wrong perception of the previous two centuries that climate should regularly be constant, unless an external agent acted. Therefore, we attempt to give a more rigorous definition of climate, consistent with the modern body of stochastics. We illustrate the definition by real-world data, which also exemplify the large climatic variability. Given this variability, the term “climate change” turns out to be scientifically unjustified. Specifically, it is a pleonasm as climate, like weather, has been ever changing. Indeed, a historical investigation reveals that the aim in using that term is not scientific but political. Within the political aims, water issues have been greatly promoted by projecting future catastrophes while reversing the true roles and causality directions. For this reason, we provide arguments that water is the main element that drives climate and not the opposite.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0579.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: Sustainability; Transportation; Climate Change; Carbon Emissions
Online: 19 April 2023 (08:59:55 CEST)
The build-up of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is causing warmness in the Earth’s atmosphere, resulting in climate change. The transport sector is one of the active members of GHG emissions and it is imperative to use sustainable transport sources to control climate change. The measure aims to encourage citizens to stop using their private vehicles as their choice of transport and instead opt for joint sustainable mobility during traveling. In this study, a quantitative research method was used and data were collected from a sample of 410 respondents through questionnaire. On the other hand, study also took a simulation-based (N=10000) sample size of private vehicle data. The data were analyzed using structural equation modelling. The results revealed that sustainable transportation, climate change technologies and electric rail vehicles reduce climate change in the ecoregions of China. We conclude that sustainable transportation policies could be formulated and implemented to reduce climate change. In response to the research results, it is recommended that, since climate change is a multi-level governance issue and the outdated pyramidal transport industry models must be shifted to a sustainable transportation system model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0171.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: adaptation; climate change; green economy; agriculture
Online: 15 April 2019 (12:30:46 CEST)
An opinion dependent cross sectional survey was conducted among charland peoples of Noakhali, Bangladesh with a view to identify the factors that affect green economy. Nijhumdwip Island and Tamaruddi union are highly affected by cyclone and soil salinity. Unpredictable rainfall is the most acute in Nijhumdwip. Lack of information the main problem in Nijhumdwip Island. Farmers are found less interest in integrated farming and crop diversification. Few farmers from Sonadia Union are involved in homestead gardening. Regression analysis have shown a negative relationship (p<0.001) between education of stockholders and decrease of crop production. On the other hand education level of stockholders is to be found positively (p<0.05) varied with decrease of food insecurity. So it can be said that educated farmers are more adaptive against climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0029.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Climate change; HBV; climate projection; Ethiopian highland
Online: 5 October 2017 (13:50:02 CEST)
This study assessed the impact of climate change on water availability and variability in two subbasins in the Upper Blue Nile Basin of Ethiopia. Downscaled future climate data from HadCM3 of A2 (medium-high) and B2 (medium-low) emission scenarios were compared to the observed climate data for a baseline period (1961 to 1990). The emission scenario representing the baseline period was used to predict future climate and as input to a hydrologic model to estimate the impact of future climate on the streamflow at three future time horizons 2020 - 2045, 2045 - 2070 and 2070 - 2100. Results suggest that medium-high emission scenario best represents the local rainfall and temperature pattern. With A2 scenario, daily maximum/minimum temperature will increase throughout the future time horizons. The minimum and maximum temperature will increase by 3.6oC and 2.4oC, respectively, towards the end of the 21st century. Consequently, potential evapotranspiration is expected to increase by 7.8%, though trends in annual rainfall do not show statistically meaningful trends between years. A notable seasonality was found in the rainfall pattern such that dry season rainfall amounts are likely to increase and wet season rainfall to decrease. The hydrological model indicated that the local hydrology of the study watersheds will be significantly influenced by climate change. Overall, at the end of the century, streamflow will increase in both rivers by up to 64% in dry seasons and decrease by 19% in wet seasons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0881.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Climate change; livestock farmers; rural livelihoods; climate education.
Online: 12 May 2023 (04:33:58 CEST)
Climate change mainly affects production and consumption systems, such as: food, livelihoods, production (e.g., reduced milk production), water, and land use. The role of local knowledge has been recognized as important for decision-making under changing circumstances. This study was conducted in the northern part of the Ecuadorian Andes using a sample of 170 dairy-cattle-producing households. The objectives were: i) to characterize the rural livelihoods of dairy cattle farmers, ii) to evaluate access to climate information and perceptions of climate change, and iii) to determine the relationship between livelihoods and perceptions of climate change. Significant differences were identified between the groups evaluated in relation to the dairy farmers’ livelihoods. In addition, 85.29% of the respondents mentioned that climate information is important, but 67.83% do not trust the sources of information. It was found that there is a significant relationship between the level of education and age with the variables of climate change perceptions. This combined knowledge allows people to promote agri-environmental and educational policies to achieve climate literacy at a rural level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0006.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: adaptation; Brazil; climate change policy; mitigation; risks
Online: 7 July 2016 (10:54:49 CEST)
Subnational governments play a key role responding to climate change risks in terms of policy strategies and instruments. This article analyzes how Brazilian municipal and state governments have developed and implemented public policies to mitigate and to adapt to climate change risks. We surveyed all cities’ and states’ climate policies within the country. The methodological approach includes five main points of analysis: 1. mitigation targets and intentions; 2. adaptation actions; 3. stakeholders’ participation; 4. policy implementation; 5. participation in networks related to climate change. Our results suggest that even though subnational climate policies in Brazil are isolated initiatives within the national context, they play an important role responding to climate change risks in different scales and levels. The strongest Brazilian policies with both mitigation and adaptation actions counted on previous mobilization for the climate issue involving different stakeholders from several segments of the society. These governments have also participated in transnational cooperation networks related to climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0945.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Climate change; Ecuador; energy; hydroelectric; pathways; renewable; scenarios
Online: 26 April 2023 (03:36:09 CEST)
Nowadays, hydropower is the principal renewable; however, climate change increases extreme events such as floods, droughts, erosion, and sedimentation of rivers that produce uncertainty in hydroelectric generation. Thus, this document aims to analyze the climate change projections in the hydropower systems of Ecuador based on data from 14 projects studying the scenarios ac-cording to the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The study period starts from 2010 to 2020 with historical data, collects the tendency, defines a database year, and then projects the scenarios to 2050. The quantitative methodology uses a statistic on Ecuador's hydropower obtained inflow time series to calculate the deviation over the last years and develop a model to simulate future generation. The results show that the hydropower in Ecuador is expected to decrease considerably through 2050 due to meteorological changes. In this calculation of the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways, the selected scenarios show a reduction in SSP5 of 11.5%, SP2 of 16.2%, and SSP4 of 18.2% to 2050, concluding that the oppor-tunities for hydroelectric production facing climate change are variable, but the challenges are broad. In Ecuador, the projections of hydropower plants represent a sensitive issue of their re-ductions, especially knowing that the country had an energy grid in 2020 that depended on 87% of hydroelectric production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0047.v1
Online: 2 August 2022 (08:04:43 CEST)
The paper will analyze the pressures and vulnerabilities of the consolidated city from two perspectives: technical and social. Some design and pragmatic experiences conducted by the author in his teaching and research experience first at the Department of Urbanism of TUDelft in the Netherlands and currently at the PDTA Department of La Sapienza University of Rome will be introduced and analyzed. In the first research activity, whose case study is Rotterdam, all urban vulnerabilities related to climate change will be analyzed while in the second one, conducted in Viterbo, the vulnerability related to the hull of social inclusion, poor accessibility and psycho-social stress that plague our established cities will be treated. The two areas of study, different in size and spatial governance tools, are comparable because they allow deciphering the city's risks through lines of intervention that could serve as best practices and serve the urban planning disciplinary update also allowing to define a reflection on morphology and fabrics and on the shape of the city itself. Both teaching and research activities in which the author is involved allow the topic of urban vulnerability to be addressed with a broad exploratory scope that, in the final stage, hypothesizes design intervention on the neighborhood scale, identified as the most appropriate to provide plausible climate and social adaptation and mitigation responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1031.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Agroforestry; Climate-Smart Agriculture; Climate Change Adaptation; Australia; Pacific Island Countries; Climate Variables; Crop Production; Sustainability
Online: 17 October 2023 (09:37:21 CEST)
This academic paper explores the synergistic potential of Agroforestry systems and Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) in enhancing climate change adaptation strategies. Focusing on Australia and Pacific Island Countries, the study delves into the pivotal role of these approaches in mitigating the impacts of changing climate variables on agricultural production. By analysing important climate variables, their potential alterations, and their subsequent effects on crop production, the paper advocates for a holistic and forward-thinking approach to sustainable agriculture in the face of climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0091.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: E-tourism; Climate; Climate Change; Tourism Industry
Online: 5 July 2020 (17:04:13 CEST)
In the recent century, the tourism industry and within it the tourism economy are one of the most important and fundamental sectors of engaged business. E-tourism can be used as a dynamic tool in up to date areas of informative information and tourism marketing will be considered as a suitable field for the tourism industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between climate change and the amount of revenues from the tourism industry relying on a tool called e-tourism, and informing and providing services through this way so that Iran can achieve a greater share of export of a single-product oil economy combined with economic growth and sustainable development goals. The method of this research is descriptive-analytical.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0394.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: isoprene; climate change; SEA; WRF; MEGAN; temperature; PAR
Online: 22 March 2023 (09:43:52 CET)
Biogenic emission can have significant impact on atmospheric chemistry. Isoprene (C5H8) is known as the most predominant volatile organic compound and its emission is highly dependent on temperature and light (solar radiation). This study aims to investigate future changes of isoprene emission under climate change scenario. The Southeast Asia (SEA) region is home to 15% of the world’s tropical forest, and the biogenic emission from this region can have significant effect on the global climate chemistry. Three climate change scenarios (RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5) were used to drive climate change simulation in 2013 (baseline), 2030 (near-future), 2050 (mid-century), 2070 (post-mid) and 2100 (end of century) using the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF v3.9.1) model. The Model Emission of Gases and Aerosol from Nature (MEGAN v2.1) was then used to simulate isoprene fluxes using climate output datasets from the WRF model. This study highlights that the projected mean surface temperature and PAR (photosynthetic active radiation) were higher in July than in January. Towards the end of the century, the overall surface temperature and PAR over the SEA region is expected to increase by 0.9℃ - 2.1℃, and 7.6 W m-2 – 12 W m-2 under all RCPs. The all-time high isoprene emitters are Borneo and Papua Island. Meanwhile, the projected increment of isoprene emission over this region is between 10 – 14%, 15-30% and 29 – 53% for RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5, respectively. Our result concludes that the total isoprene emission was higher during July, consistent with the high surface temperature and PAR. The results also agreed with the hypothesis of high isoprene emission over the region that has oil palm plantation. Thus, challenges in dealing with future emissions of isoprene in SEA are closely tied to future climate policies to limit the warming of the atmosphere over this region and the land-use conversion of palm oil plantations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0224.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Climate change; contract farming; coping; adaptation strategies; Zimbabwe
Online: 15 September 2022 (08:27:58 CEST)
The literature on contract farming and climate change in Zimbabwe has blind spots in relation to the study of contract farming as a climate change response. While the literature on contract farming and climate change abounds, such literature is lacking when it comes to the exploration of how contract farming can facilitate climate change coping and adaptation strategies by smallholder farmers. This paper fills this gap. It draws on in-depth interviews with 10 contracted and 10 non-contract farmers who were engaged through face-to-face in-depth interviews in the Chipinge South Constituency. It found that contract farming does not only boost productivity, but it also enables farmers to positively respond to the ravages of climate change, and therefore, it should be supported and encouraged. Future research should explore more viable and sustainable way through which the state, instead of private sector actors, should be at the centre of contract farming.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0059.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: climate shocks; temperature change; inflation; monetary policy
Online: 1 August 2023 (10:50:25 CEST)
In the era of persistent globalization, climate governance has emerged as a prominent concern within both the theoretical community and government departments of diverse nations. Of particular interest in academic research is the adverse effect of climate shocks on the global economy. This paper employs average temperature as a surrogate indicator for climate shocks and examines the influence of temperature fluctuations on inflation levels using a balanced panel dataset from 1995 to 2021. The findings indicate a positive association between temperature change and inflation within the country, which remains consistent even after subjecting the analysis to multiple robustness tests. Furthermore, accounting for heterogeneity reveals variations in the magnitude of response of inflation levels to temperature fluctuations. Regarding the analysis of underlying mechanisms, the study underscores the significance of energy demand as a pivotal pathway influencing inflationary pressures at the national level. Lastly, by incorporating GDP per capita as a threshold, the research reveals a nonlinear relationship between temperature change and inflation levels.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0329.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Climate Change; Agriculture; Myanmar; Adaptation Measures; Resilience
Online: 20 March 2023 (01:18:37 CET)
The agricultural sector provides employment and income to the majority of Myanmar's population. The sector, however, is extremely susceptible to severe weather, rising temperatures, and changes in precipitation. This paper aims to analyze how vulnerable Myanmar's agricultural sector is to climate change and highlights the key sectors that are most at risk. This report also examines historical climate information, and the anticipated effects of climate change on Myanmar's agricultural sectors. In-depth literature reviews and summaries of Myanmar's climate change adaptation efforts are included in the report, along with recom-mendations for targeted, locally appropriate actions to strengthen the country's agricultural sector's resilience. Additionally, the study reviews Myanmar's in-stitutional framework for climate action and government priorities for adaptation measures, emphasizes the urgent need for climate action in Myanmar's agricul-ture sectors and calls for more research and development efforts on the effects of climate change on rural livelihoods and agriculture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0536.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Aridity indices; Climate change; Projections; EURO-CORDEX
Online: 22 June 2021 (09:24:26 CEST)
The assessment of aridity conditions is a key factor for water management and the implementation of mitigation and adaptation policies in agroforestry systems. Towards this aim three aridity indices were computed for the Iberian Peninsula (IP): the De Martonne Index (DMI), the Pinna Combinative Index (PCI), and the Erinç Aridity Index (EAI). These three indices were first computed for the baseline period 1961‒1990, using a gridded observational data (E-OBS), and, subsequently, for the periods 2011‒2040 (short-range) and 2041‒2070 (medium-range) using an ensemble of six Regional Climate Models (RCMs) experiments generated by the EURO-CORDEX project. Two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) were analyzed, an intermediate anthropogenic radiative forcing scenario (RCP4.5) and a fossil-intensive emission scenario (RCP8.5). Overall, the three indices disclose a strengthening of aridity and dry conditions in central and southern Iberia until 2070, mainly under RCP8.5. Strong(weak) statistically significant correlations were found between these indices and the total mean precipitation (mean temperature) along with projected significant decreasing(increasing) trends for precipitation(temperature). The prevalence of years with arid conditions (above 70% for 2041‒2070 under both RCPs) are projected to have major impacts in some regions, such as southern Portugal, Extremadura, Castilla-La Mancha, Comunidad de Madrid, Andalucía, Región de Murcia, Comunidad Valenciana, and certain regions within the Aragón province. The projected increase in both the intensity and persistence of aridity conditions in a broader southern half of Iberia will exacerbate the exposure and vulnerability of this region to climate change, while the risk of multi-level desertification should be thoroughly integrated into regional and national water management and planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0621.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: climate change; stream flow; SWAT; Gumara watershed; Blue Nile
Online: 26 September 2020 (08:26:24 CEST)
Climate change plays a pivotal role in the hydrology of tributaries in the upper Blue Nile basin. This study was designed to reveal the extent to which climate change impacts on stream flow of the Gumara watershed under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) climate change scenario. The study considered the RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios using the second generation Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM2). The Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) was used for calibration and projection of future climatic data of the study area. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used for simulation of the future stream flow of the watershed. Result showed that the average temperature will be increasing by 0.84oC, 2.6oC and 4.1oC in the end of this century under RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios respectively. The change in monthly rainfall amount showed a fluctuating trend in all scenarios but the overall annual rainfall amount is projected to increase by 8.6%, 5.2% and 7.3% in RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 8.5 respectively. Overall, this study revealed that, due to climate change, the stream flow of the watershed is found to be increasing by 4.06%, 3.26%, and 3.67% under RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2031.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: climate change anxiety; climate change despair; climate change hope; climate change perception; pro-environment behavior; political orientation
Online: 31 October 2023 (09:09:13 CET)
The main objective of this paper is to assess pro-environmental behavior, climate change perception, anxiety, hope and despair in different political orientations. Specific aims included to validate all the instruments; to assess whether the factor structure of the scales were valid across political orientations; to evaluate their reliability; to assess differences concerning age, gender and political orientation; to know the variables that explain pro-environment behavior; and to evaluate the moderating role of climate change perception, despair and hope in the relationship between climate change anxiety and pro-environmental behavior. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFAs), multi-group CFAs (to measurement invariance), multiple linear regressions and moderations were performed. Results showed that pro-environment behavior and climate change hope achieved the four levels of invariance across different political orientations; climate change anxiety achieved the three first levels of invariance; climate change perception and climate change despair achieved configural invariance. Climate change anxiety personal experience, climate change perception total, reality and consequences present higher values in left political orientation that in right or center. Climate change anxiety variables contribute most to explaining pro-environmental behaviors. Hope, despair and climate change perception consequences moderate de relationship between climate change anxiety and pro-environment behavior. These results open up new avenues of investigation, namely, to understand why high levels of anxiety lead to more pro-environment al behaviors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0144.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: density altitude; Chinese airports; climate change
Online: 4 September 2023 (08:03:15 CEST)
This study examines the projected impact of climate change on the Density Altitude (DA) at Chinese airports during the summer by the end of the 21st century. Findings indicate that climate change is expected to significantly increase the DA at all Chinese airports, with an estimated rise between 300 and 800 feet. The analysis suggests temperature increases will universally contribute to a rise in DA. Pressure changes, however, are more variable. Most airports are predicted to see an increase in pressure, which could offset some temperature effects on the DA. Airports in eastern China are expected to see a decrease in pressure, amplifying the effects on DA and creating operational challenges.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0297.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Climate change; stress factors; Vitis spp.; extreme climate events; sustainable agriculture
Online: 5 October 2023 (14:04:08 CEST)
Keywords: Climate change, stress factors, Vitis spp., extreme climate events, sustainable agriculture
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0353.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: adaptation; climate change; southern Mali; Heckman probit; vegetable production
Online: 12 March 2021 (20:27:55 CET)
This study aims to determine the impact of climate change on market garden production in the extreme south of Mali through the perception and adaptation of market gardeners to climatic phenomena. The study used two models, namely the probit selection and Heckman results models and multinomial logistic regression, based on data collected from producers. A total of 194 producers were surveyed. The results of Heckman's probit model indicate that experience in agriculture and the educational level of the producers are the two main determinants of producers' perception and simultaneous adaptation to climate change. Among these variables agricultural experience is both positively and negatively correlated with perception.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0479.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: climate change; adaptation options; raking system; applicability level
Online: 23 October 2020 (10:26:10 CEST)
Failure to adapt to climate change is currently considered one of the major threats affecting humanity. Hence, much effort is being put into discussing adaptation approaches. While many adaptation options have been identified, the academic literature does not present a simple process that local councils and community members can use to rank adaptation options. In this context, community members participating on planning processes are presented with many adaptation options, but with no objective approach for selection, which adds challenge to the planning process. With the objective of addressing this issue, this work proposes a simple equation that allows calculating the applicability level of adaptation options. Results can then be plotted into graphs that allow correlating adaptation options and applicability level, which can be easily understood by community members. To develop such equation, this work built on existing sophisticated models from where the indicators used on the equation were identified, as well as the relationship between them. A scale was proposed to help on identifying adaptation options that should be implemented on the short, medium and long term, and options that should only be implemented if the circumstance change.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1653.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Climate; livelihood; crop production; collective action; public good
Online: 23 June 2023 (10:18:59 CEST)
Climate change is a large and challenging collective action problem facing the world today. This seminar review impacts of climate change on r yield of major cereal crops. Literatures have indicated that climate change would likely have positive impact in the highland agro-ecology in the short run. However, in the long run climate change will have negative impact in all agro-ecology. Negative impacts will be high in low land agro-ecology. Failure to prepare for climate variability can seriously affect the livelihood of smallholder farmers. Ethiopia by enacting Climate-Resilient Green Economy strategy and National Adaptation Plan aims to minimize the impacts of CC. Despite the existing adaptation and mitigation strategies negative impacts of climate change on agriculture especially on cereal crop production is continued. Thus, both private and public investment on adaptation strategies should be expanded more. Studies regarding the impacts of climate change on labour productivity, labour market, its distributional (which section society mostly by climate change?) and why the existing adaptation strategies are not successful? are not well studied, as most literature are focused on impact of climate change on yield, its adaptation and mitigation strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0100.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: biodiversity; climate change; climate refugia; forest conservation policies; forest conversion
Online: 3 August 2017 (06:11:35 CEST)
A scenario-based approach to the impacts of land use and climate change can help in identifying future policy directions. This study models the impacts of different land use and climate change scenarios on the forest ecosystems of South Korea to identify national-scale forest policy options. Climatically suitable forest areas for 1,031 climate vulnerable plant species were identified for current time and for 2050. We calculated change in species richness under four climate projections. We built forest conversion models and created four 2050 forest scenarios: (1) forest loss continues at current rates; (2) similar loss, but with conservation in areas with suitable future climates; (3) a reduction of loss by 50%; and (4) a combination of preservation and overall reduction of loss by 50%. We then crossed the forest conversion models with the climate-driven change in species richness, and categorized current forest areas into four classes to offer forest policy alternatives. By deploying the scenarios which preserve climatically suitable forests, the average species richness where forests converting to other land uses reduced significantly. We suggest conserving forests with suitable climates for biodiversity conservation and the establishment of forest plantations targeted to areas where species richness will decline based on our results.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Bibliometric Analysis; Scientometrics; Human Influence on Climate; Natural Control of Climate; Climatic and Non-climatic Effects on Living Organisms; Improving Climate Monitoring; Climate Variability; Climate Models; CO2
Online: 3 May 2021 (17:01:28 CEST)
This article presents and discusses analytical data on the scientific publication record from 1910 to 2020 on two topics: "climate" and "climate change/global warming/climate emergency". The goal is to visualize how the publication record on these two topics has evolved over time, from different classification perspectives (year, country, source and organization). Three hypotheses are tested using data collected from Web of Science and various graphical representations of the data. It is found that research output related to the Earth’s contemporary changing climate overtook that of general climate research in 2011, and the publication ratio has been expanding in the last decade. There are significant differences in the publication countries and sources between the two topics, and conversely less significant differences in terms of organizations publishing these works. Differentiation factors that affect the level of research output and engagement on the climate challenge include: island versus landlocked nations, specialized versus general scientific journals, academic versus institutional organizations. The future of the publication records is discussed, such as the emergence of new terms to refer to the climate challenge, such as “climate emergency”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0143.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: perceived-impact of climate change; climate change adaptation; ordered probit regression; determinants of climate change impact
Online: 13 March 2019 (09:31:37 CET)
This paper identifies the characteristics of the farmer that affect the degree of farmer’s perceived-impact of climate change (CC). We use data from the Indonesian Rice Farm Household survey consisting of 87,330 farmers. An ordered probit regression model was used to estimate the effect of each variable on the degree of perceived-impact of CC. The results of this study confirm the previous empirical studies. Several variables that have been identified as having a positive effect on farmer adaptation practices such as farmer education, land tenure, irrigation infrastructure, cropping system, chemical fertilizer application, access to extension services and participation in farmer group affect the degree of CC perceived-impact negatively. However, a different result was found in the estimation of the gender variable. We found that female farmer has a higher resilience toward CC than the male farmer does. Furthermore, the female farmer has a more positive perception about future farming conditions than the male does. Finally, we suggest that the implementation of national adaptation policy should prioritize more to the farmer with insecure land tenure and utilize and expand the channel of agricultural extension services to deliver the planned adaptation policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0088.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Climate change; Female farmers; Rural; Ghana
Online: 2 June 2021 (15:25:00 CEST)
Climate change poses a major threat to development in most low and middle-income countries, especially the sub – Saharan Africa. Wurompo is a small farming community in the Wenchi Municipality of the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana that depends on rain-fed agriculture activities for livelihood. In recent years, droughts, unpredictable rainfall pattern and crop failure have become common in the area. The study assessed knowledge and awareness, effects of climate change on female farmers, and their adaptation strategies. A case study in design, qualitative methods were used to collect data from 50 purposefully selected participants. Data were analyzed using themes and sub-themes generated from the research questions. Findings showed lack of adequate information and knowledge on climate change and its effects. Climate change has impacted negatively on these farmers stemming from decline in crop production and unavailability of adequate water supply in due season. Challenges to climate change adaptation are poverty, poor basic infrastructure, and modern farming practices. Farmers must be educated on climate change and its effects, with training on the necessary adaptation strategies to build their resilience. Policies that target rural farmers to adapt to climate change, and device modern agricultural techniques and practices are also necessary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0180.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: local climate change; nitrification; monochloramine; temperature
Online: 11 September 2018 (04:18:59 CEST)
In this study, air temperatures were collected between 1985 and 2016 and compared to water temperatures in four locations in the distribution system of Pasadena Water & Power (PWP) that received imported surface water between 2001 and 2016 and from the purveyor of imported water. The concentration of chloramine residual and nitrite concentrations were collected between 2001 and 2016 these five locations. The results indicate that the median nighttime temperature of the period 2009 - 2016 was 1.6 oC warmer than the period of 1985 - 2000 and 0.5 oC warmer than the period 2001 - 2008. The median water temperature in the four distribution system samples increased by 0.8 oC to 1.4 oC depending on the location over the study period (p<0.001). The median chloramine concentration fell significantly (p<0.001) at three distribution system locations and the nitrite concentrations increased significantly at all four distribution system locations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0476.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Climate Variability; Climate Change; Food Security; Zero Hunger; System GMM; PCSE
Online: 31 August 2022 (03:22:49 CEST)
According to the World Food Programme (WFP), the projected increase in the human population stands at 2 billion people by 2050. At the same time, world food production is witnessing a declining trend over recent years, and 690 million (8.9%) of the world's population are already in severe starvation. Climate variability and climate change impacts on food security are very eminent today. For this reason, this study explored the real effects of climate variability and change on food security in Africa by applying the system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) and the Panel Corrected Standard Errors (PCSEs) estimators on data from 2001–2018 for 38 selected African countries. The findings reveal that higher amounts of precipitation positively influence food security along two dimensions (food availability and utilization). Hotter temperatures negatively impact food availability and utilization. However, it aids food accessibility in Africa. Similarly, carbon dioxide emissions improve food availability and are harmful to food accessibility and food utilization in Africa. Consequently, the effects of climate variability and change on food security in Africa are undesirable, thereby putting the continent at risk of food insecurity over the long run. Given these findings, the study made appropriate recommendations for policy change to address the negative effects of climate variability and change on food security in Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0321.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: Sundarbans; Fisheries; Natural disasters; Occupational changes; Climate change
Online: 16 February 2021 (13:20:45 CET)
The climate of Bangladesh has changed drastically which may put considerable adverse impacts on mangrove fishers but very few studies focused on this professional group. An attempt was made to perceive the impact and adaptation measures of the Sundarbans mangrove resource users, employing interviews and focus group discussions. A total of 150 respondents were randomly selected from the Sundarbans west under Shyamnagar Upazila of Satkhira District. It was revealed that the abundance of fishes, fuel woods, honey, golpata (Nypa fruticans), and shrimp post-larvae (PL) was reduced considerably. The resource users have adapted themselves by changing their occupation and becoming jobless and depending on the other family members. PL collection, honey collection, shrimp culture, and wood collection were found professional adapting strategies to adopt cyclone, flood, salinity intrusion, river erosion, and drought. Several recommendations are elicited, the implementation of which is important to ensure livelihood sustainability of the mangrove communities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2033.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: Climate change; salmonids; Salmo; rivers; freshwater; migration
Online: 30 May 2023 (04:05:33 CEST)
The migratory life history of anadromous salmonids requires successful migration between nursery, feeding and spawning habitats. Smoltification is the major transformation anadromous salmonids undergo before migration to feeding areas and prepares juvenile fish for downstream migration and entry to seawater. We reviewed the effects of climate change on smolt ecology from growth of juveniles in freshwater to early post-smolts in sea. Shift in the suitable thermal conditions by climate change is causing Atlantic salmon to expand their range northwards, while in the southern edge of their distribution populations struggle with high temperatures and occasional droughts. Climatic conditions, particularly warmer temperatures, are affecting growth during freshwater phase in the river. Better growth in the northern latitudes leads to earlier smoltification. Thermal refuges, the areas of cooler water in the river, are especially important for salmonids impacted by climate change. Restoring and maintaining connectivity and suitable diverse mosaic habitat in rivers are important for survival and growth throughout the range. The start of the smolt migration has shifted earlier as a response to increasing water temperatures, which has led to concerns of mismatch with optimal conditions for post-smolts in the sea decreasing their survival. A wide smolt window allowing all migrating phenotypes from early to late migrant’s safe access to sea is important in changing environmental conditions. This is true also for regulated rivers, where flow regulation practices cause selection pressures on migrating salmonid phenotypes. Life history in freshwater affects also marine survival, and there is a need for better collaboration across life stages and habitats among researchers and managers to boost the smolt production in rivers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1092.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Antarctica; High Arctic; fungi; climate change
Online: 17 July 2023 (09:48:48 CEST)
The Antarctica and High Arctic regions are extreme environments, with average maximum temperatures below 0 °C for most days of the year. Interestingly, fungi inhabit these regions. This review describes the history of fungal surveys near the Syowa Station and the fungal diversity in this region. In the High Arctic region, I summarized the changes in fungal communities in glacial retreat areas of Ny-Ålesund, Norway and Ellesmere Island, Canada in response to climate change. In addition, growth and enzyme secretion ability of Antarctic and Arctic fungi at sub-zero temperatures are presented. Finally, I have also provided the future directions of Antarctic and Arctic fungal research.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Climate Change; Policy; Migration; Health; Governance
Online: 12 November 2020 (11:39:36 CET)
Changing mobility patterns combined with changes in the climate present challenges and opportunities for global health, requiring effective, relevant and humane policy responses. This study used data from a systematic literature review that examined the intersection between climate change, migration and health. The aim of the present study was to synthesize policy recommendations in the peer-reviewed literature, regarding this type of environmental migration with respect to health, to strengthen the evidence-base. Systematic searches were conducted in four academic databases (PubMed, Ovid Medline, Global Health and Scopus) and Google Scholar for empirical studies published between 1990 – 2020 that used any study design to investigate migration and health in the context of climate change. Studies underwent a two-stage protocol-based screening process and eligible studies were appraised for quality using a standardized mixed-methods tool. From the initial 2,425 hits, 68 articles were appraised for quality and included in the synthesis. Among the policy recommendations, six themes were discernible: (1) avoid the universal promotion of migration as an adaptive response to climate risk; (2) preserve cultural and social ties of mobile populations; (3) enable the participation of migrants in decision-making in sites of relocation and resettlement; (4) strengthen health systems and reduce barriers for migrant access to health care; (5) support and promote optimization of social determinants of migrant health; (6) integrate health into loss and damage assessments related to climate change. The results call for transformative policies that support the health and wellbeing of people engaging in, or affected by mobility responses, including those whose migration decisions and experiences are influenced by climate change, and to establish and develop inclusive migrant healthcare.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0095.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Pakistan; Climate change; Rice production; ARDL
Online: 7 December 2018 (17:26:03 CET)
This research paper aims to examine the relationship between CO2, temperature, area, fertilizers and rice production in Pakistan. This study used Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) and Phillips Perron (PP) unit root tests to check the order of integration of each variable. The cointegration analysis with ARDL bounds testing approach is used to examine the impact of climate change on rice production in Pakistan over time series data from the period 1968 to 2014. The parameter stability test of the model is also checked at the end. The results of estimation show that the important variables of the study are cointegrated demonstrating the presence of long-run association among them. Furthermore, climate change factors, e.g. CO2 and temperature have a long-run and short-run positive effect on the production of rice in Pakistan. This present work is original and it is first time empirically tested the impact of climate change on rice production in Pakistan. The annual time series data of 47 years enhances the validity of the empirical findings. The most fruitful finding of this research is that rice production in Pakistan is positively influenced by emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) at 5 percent significance level in both long-run and short-run.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0628.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: climate change; climate equity; energy equity; energy reductions; fossil fuels; global sustainability; policy changes; renewable energy; technological optimism.
Online: 10 July 2023 (11:50:49 CEST)
Conventional methods of climate change (CC) mitigation have not ‘bent the curve’ of steadily rising annual anthropic CO2 emissions or atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. This study reviews the present position and likely future of such methods, using recently published literature with a global context. It particularly looks at how fast they could be implemented, given that the limited time available for avoiding catastrophic CC (CCC). The study then examines solar geoengineering, an approach often viewed as complementary to conventional mitigation. The review next introduces equity considerations, and shows how this will shorten even further the time available for effective action for CC mitigation. The main findings are as follows. Conventional mitigation approaches will be implemented too slowly to be of much help in avoiding CCC, partly because some suggested technologies are infeasible, while others are either of limited technical potential, or, like wind and solar energy, cannot be introduced fast enough. Because of these problems, solar geoengineering is increasingly advocated as a quick-acting and effective solution. However, it could have serious side effects, and given that there will be winners and losers at the international as well as the more regional level, political opposition may make it difficult to implement. The conclusion is that global energy consumption itself must be rapidly reduced to avoid catastrophic climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0698.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Building energy retrofitting; Double Skin Façades; climate change; regional climate model; dynamic energy modelling; MM5; CORDEX.
Online: 9 June 2023 (10:12:04 CEST)
In recent years, the need to make the built environment more resilient and adaptable to climate change has become increasingly evident. In Europe, this aspect concerns the vast majority of existing buildings, which present several deficiencies from the energy-efficiency point of view, considering they were designed before the introduction of modern energy codes. Nowadays, it is possible to retrofit existing buildings using advanced and high-efficient technologies such as Double Skin Façades (DSFs). The research aims to evaluate the use of properly designed DSFs for the energy restoration of existing buildings. In detail, various DSF configurations are applied to a residential building located in central Italy and investigated under present and future climate conditions, estimated through regional climate models. The results underline that all the analysed Double Skin Façades confirm to be a useful option, and, in particular, the Multi-Storey typology allows drastic energy needs decrement. Moreover, the general increase in temperatures and solar radiations could affect the building energy performance, and the insertion of DSF can mitigate the climate change effects, reducing the predicted energy consumption and ensuring better behaviours than the building in its original state.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0332.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: climate change; host-parasite; bioindicators
Online: 6 September 2023 (04:56:59 CEST)
Climate changes caused by anthropogenic actions can directly and indirectly affect living beings, including parasites and their hosts. Changes such as water temperature, pH, distribution of nutrients in the aquatic environment are some examples that can interfere with the fish community, whether in open water or in production systems. In this review, we will show how climate change can affect the adaptation of hosts and parasites in the aquatic environment and how these parasites can be used for environmental monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0220.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: climate change; adaptation; WaSH; policy; sustainability; development
Online: 31 May 2017 (11:44:04 CEST)
Climate change threatens water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) facilities and services, as these are intimately linked to the water cycle and are vulnerable to changes in the quantity and quality of available water resources. Floods and droughts, which pollute and reduce water delivery respectively, have now become a perennial issue to deal with in the northern regions of the country, including the Bolgatanga Municipality. This study aimed to assess the degree to which climate change adaptation measures are mainstreamed into the WaSH development planning process in Ghana. Stakeholders from government and non-government agencies were interviewed to gain perspectives on the threat of climate change, the inclusion of climate change in WaSH planning and the barriers preventing mainstreaming. In general, despite awareness and concern about climate change, adaptation measures have been regarded to be far away from the immediate concerns of WaSH development planning. Most of the current measures are reactive and respond to environmental issues rather than to climate change stressors. In essence, stakeholders expressed the view that the adaptive capacity of the Municipality was low and that mainstreaming has not yet occurred. Despite the lack of progress, there are great opportunities for mainstreaming climate change adaptation into planning through increasing awareness and capacity, legislative and institutional changes and the development of participatory systems to provide early warning systems and disaster risk analyses that will inform future planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0192.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: local climate change; spring drying; rainfall pattern changes
Online: 22 March 2018 (03:59:30 CET)
The City of Pasadena is located in southern California; a region which has a Mediterranean climate and where the vast majority of rainfall occurs between October and April with the period between January and March being the most intense. A significant amount of the local water supply comes from regional rainfall, therefore any changes in precipitation patterns in the area has considerable significance. HYPOTHESIS: Local climate change has been occurring in the Pasadena area over the last 100 years resulting in changes in air temperature and rainfall. AIR TEMPERATURES: Between 1886 and 2016 the air temperature in Pasadena, California has increased significantly, from a minimum of 23.8°C in the daytime and 8.1°C at night between 1911 and 1920 to 27.2°C and 13.3°C between 2011 and 2016. The increase in nighttime temperature was uniform throughout the year, however daytime temperatures showed more seasonal variation. There was little change in the daytime temperatures May through July but more change the rest of the year. For example, the median daytime temperature for June between 1911 and 1920 was 27.9°C but was 28.7°C between 2011 and 2016, a difference of 0.8°C. In contrast, for October for the same periods the median daytime temperatures were 25.6°C and 28.9°C, a difference of 3.3°C. RAINFALL: There has been a change in local rainfall pattern over the same period. In comparing rainfall between 1883 – 1949 and 1950 – 2016, there appeared to be less rainfall in the months of October, December, and April while other months seemed to show no change in rainfall. For example, between the two periods mentioned above, the median rainfall in October was 12.4 mm and 8.9 mm respectively while for December they were 68.6 mm and 40.4 mm. There was comparatively a smaller change in the median volume of rainfall in April (18.8 mm vs. 17.5 mm). However, between 1883 and 2016 there were 13 with less than 1 mm of rain, 12 of which occurred after 1961. In the same line of logic, no measureable amount of rain occurred for 23 Octobers, 15 of those occurred after 1961. CONCLUSION: As air temperatures increased over the last 100 years in the Pasadena area, rainfall may have decreased in October, December, and April.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0213.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: GIS; Himalayan region; SRM model; simulation; snowmelt runoff; climate change
Online: 13 December 2021 (16:06:43 CET)
The current study was planned to simulate runoff due to the snowmelt in the Lidder River catchment of Himalayan region under climate change scenarios. A basic degree-day model, Snowmelt-Runoff Model (SRM) was utilized to assess the hydrological consequences of change in climate. The SRM model performance during the calibration and validation was assessed using volume difference (Dv) and coefficient of determination (R2). The Dv was found as 11.7, -10.1, -11.8, 1.96, and 8.6 during 2009-2014, respectively, while the R2 is 0.96, 0.92, 0.95, 0.90, and 0.94, respectively. The Dv and R2 values indicating that the simulated snowmelt runoff has a close agreement with the observed value. The simulated findings were also assessed under the different scenarios of climate change: a) increases in precipitation by +20 %, b) temperature rise of +2 °C, and c) temperature rise of +2 °C with a 20 % increase in snow cover. In scenario "b", the simulated results showed that runoff increased by 53 % in summer (April–September). In contrast, the projected increased discharge for scenarios "a" and "c" was 37 % and 67 %, respectively. In high elevation data-scarce mountain environments, the SRM is efficient in forecasting future water supplies due to the snowmelt runoff.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0164.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Agricultural impacts, climate change impacts, integrated assessment model, CGE model
Online: 10 September 2018 (10:04:25 CEST)
Changes in agricultural yields due to climate change will affect land use, agricultural production volume, and food prices as well as macroeconomic indicators, such as GDP which is important as it enables one to compare the climate change impacts across multiple sectors. This study considered five key uncertainty factors and estimated macroeconomic impacts due to crop yield changes using a novel integrated assessment framework. The five factors are 1) land-use change (or yield aggregation method based on spatially-explicit information), 2) the amplitude of the CO2 fertilization effect, 3) the use of different climate models, 4) socioeconomic assumptions and 5) the level of mitigation stringency. We found that their global impacts on the macroeconomic indicator value were 0.02 - 0.06% of GDP in 2100. However, the impacts on the agricultural sector varied greatly by socioeconomic assumption. The relative contributions of these factors to the total uncertainty in the projected macroeconomic indicator value were greater in a pessimistic world scenario characterized by a large population increase and low income (0.6%) than in an optimistic scenario (0.00%).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0536.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Argan biosphere reserve; Climate change; Rainfall; Temperature; Woodland regression
Online: 24 May 2021 (07:44:25 CEST)
This paper explores the effect of climate change on the regression of the Argan tree (Argania spinosa L. Skeels) woodland, focusing on the Argan Biosphere Reserve and especially in the Souss plain (Western Morocco). Rainfall and temperature data of four sites within the Argan Biosphere Reserve were analyzed over the last 60 years to assess any climatic change. Regression curves applied to the dataset showed an important decrease in rainfall (18 to 26 %) in the four locations as well as an increase in temperature (1 to 2 °C). These changes may have a detrimental effect on the Argan woodland although human factors have been reported to be the main factor of its regression. It can therefore be concluded that the reduction in rainfall and the increase in temperature should now be considered as factors of Argan woodland regression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0150.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: mental health services; climate change; disasters; trauma; prevention treatment
Online: 7 October 2020 (09:22:41 CEST)
This review examines from a services perspective strategies for preparedness and response to mental health impacts of three types of climate-related events: 1) acute climate-related events such as hurricanes, floods and wildfires, 2) sub-acute or long-term changes in the environment such as drought and heat stress; and 3) the existential threat of long-lasting changes, including higher temperatures, rising sea levels and a permanently altered and potentially uninhabitable physical environment. Strategies for acute events include development and implementation of guidelines and interventions for monitoring and treating adverse mental health outcomes and strengthening individual and community resilience, training of non-mental health professionals for services delivery, and the mapping of available resources and locations of at-risk populations. Additional strategies for sub-acute changes include advocacy for mitigation policies and programs and adaptation of guidelines and interventions to address the secondary impacts of sub-acute events such as economic loss, threats to livelihood, health and well-being, population and family displacement, environmental degradation and collective violence. Strategies for long-lasting changes include implementation of evidence-based risk communication interventions that address the existential threat of climate change, promoting the mental health benefits of environmental conservation, and promoting positive mental health impacts of climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0127.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: vulnerability index; Maasai pastoralists; principal component analysis; climate change
Online: 18 December 2017 (17:21:00 CET)
Human adaptive responses to climate change occur at the local level, where climatic variability is experienced. Therefore analyzing vulnerability at the local level is important in planning effective adaptation options in a semi-arid environment. This study was conducted to assess vulnerability of Maasai pastoralist communities in Kajiado County, Kenya to climate change by generating vulnerability index for the communities. Data was collected using questionnaires that were administered to 305 households in the five different administrative wards (Oloosirkon/Sholinke, Kitengela, Kapetui North, Kenyawa-Poka and Ilmaroro) in Kajiado East. Vulnerability was measured as the net effect of adaptive capacity, sensitivity and exposure to climate change. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to assign weights to the vulnerability indicators used for the study and also to calculate the household vulnerability index. A vulnerability map was produced using the GIS software package ArcGIS 10.2. Results showed that gender of household head, age of household head, educational level, access to extension agents, herd size, livestock diversity and access to credit facility influenced vulnerability of the Maasai pastoralists to climate change in Kajiado East. The result showed that the most vulnerable communities with the highest negative vulnerability index value are Ilpolosat (-2.31), Oloosirikon (-2.22), Lenihani (-2.05), Konza (-1.81) and Oloshaiki (-1.53). The communities with the highest positive vulnerability index values were Kekayaya (4.02), Kepiro (3.47), Omoyi (2.81), Esilanke (2.23), Kisaju (2.16) and Olmerui (2.15). We conclude that provision of basic amenities such as good roads and electricity; access to extension agents, access to credit facilities and herd mobility will reduce vulnerability of Maasai pastoralists in Kajiado east to climate change and variability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1311.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: green podiatry; health; climate emergency; climate change; healthcare; greenhouse gases; sustainability; environment
Online: 20 September 2023 (04:48:03 CEST)
Introduction The climate crisis is essentially a public health crisis. Response is imperative to prevent economic and social crises associated with the growing burden of climate impacts on human health and the health care sector. Green Podiatry Pillars By adopting the three pillars of Exercise, Evidence, and Everyday changes, podiatrists can contribute to more sustainable health and health care. Discussion Educating our patients to use their feet for low carbon active transport, eliminating interventions not supported by evidence, and reducing fossil fuel driven supply chains and energy use, are three impactful measures that all podiatrists, and indeed, all health and medical personnel, need to adopt. The avoidable suffering, enormous and costly use of resources for diabetic foot disease, is a scourge that must realise its preventable potential. It is too late, too costly, too polluting, and too sad, to continue to direct health care and research efforts and budgets, to an expensive modifiable diabetes disease process, potentiated by poor food and physical inactivity. Affected patients require skilled support, to avert such chronic disease processes, often not of their making. Conclusions Healthcare contributes 5 to 8% of green house gases (GHG), and non-communicable diseases (NCD) are increasing, so healthcare must lead on primary health. As citizens and health professionals, we must advocate for better community health, and educate our patients. Future Directions All health and medical personnel need to consider planetary health and sustainable healthcare within their daily work. Healthcare must act to address climate change, and realise benefits for people and planet.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0606.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: virology; emerging viruses; vector-borne diseases; climate change
Online: 29 October 2020 (09:49:40 CET)
Three decades have now passed since the first papers linking climate change to issues in human disease and healthcare. One of the most active topics in this area has been the implication of climate change events, particularly temperature and humidity fluctuations, in the northward spread of vector-borne viruses from more tropical regions into Europe and North America. However, some detailed studies of one such emerging disease, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEv), have called the connection into question, concentrating the debate on the investigation of precise mechanisms for the spread of viral disease. More recently, firmer statistical correlations have been made between climate variables, the presence of insect vectors and the prevalence of viral disease, particularly for West Nile Virus (WNV). These insights suggest avenues for mechanistic confirmation of the involvement of climate change in other diseases where the connection remains conjectural.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1396.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: wooden houses; habitability and climate change; climate change adaptation; safe housing; sustainable housing
Online: 21 September 2023 (05:45:50 CEST)
The prefabricated houses supply in Chile was analyzed from web platforms, public market, social media, and Internal Revenue Service, using indicators according to regulatory compliance, complexity, and sustainability attributes, which are essential in advancing to industrialization, and climate change adaptability. The 80% is concentrated in construction, and manufacturing companies, 83% of them are legally registered,with the capacity of meeting technical requirements. To delve deeper into this, 54% has low level, 35% medium level, and 11% high level. The sustainability was measured in 5 levels: 2.7% (1), 37,5% (2), 58,6% (3), 1,1% (4) and 0% (5), which is the highest one. This attribute was determined as the weakest one. The proposed evaluation, based on indicators by attribute, is objective and relevant to consideration since there is still a lack of capacity to supply the housing deficit, and there is not attributes associated to security in habitability to address the climate change, and environment threats, with a lack of action by the state to promote this productive sector, therefore focusing more in provide products, than taking responsibility of the site, not advancing to become a real state agency, which could be improved if management, and regulation were incorporated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0320.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: water; agriculture; migration; caribbean sids; climate change
Online: 29 September 2019 (02:54:00 CEST)
Caribbean SIDS are among the most vulnerable to climate change which will have a disproportionate impact on local environments and economies. Whilst there is a growing literature on how Caribbean SIDS can adapt to become more resilient a question that has received little attention is with regard to migration as an unplanned response. It is recognised that events such as hurricanes and flooding can lead to internal relocation in the short term but societal responses to droughts through migration have not generally been investigated. This paper seeks to address this by considering the case of the island of Carriacou, part of the state of Grenada. Carriacou with its small population, limited land area and local economy, historically based on agriculture has had a high degree of migration. This is in part a response to limited economic opportunities. Environmental stress manifest through limited water availability, inappropriate land management and social conditions is likely to be exacerbated by climate change and variability. Resultant increases in the frequency and intensity of droughts, in the absence of proactive interventions, are likely to result in non-linear migration, both to Grenada itself and beyond.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1030057
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: adaptation; perception; climate change; Nepal; multivariate probit
Online: 20 September 2019 (00:00:00 CEST)
This study assessed farmers’ perception of climate change, estimated the determinants of, and evaluated the relationship among adaptation practices using the multivariate probit model. A survey in 300 agricultural households was carried out covering 10 sample districts considering five agro-ecological zones and a vulnerability index. Four adaptation choices (change in planting date, crop variety, crop type and investment in irrigation) were deemed as outcome variables and socioeconomic, demographic, institutional, farm-level and perceptions variables were deployed as explanatory variables. Their marginal effects were determined for three climatic variables—temperature, precipitation and drought. Age, gender and education of head of household, credit access, farm area, rain-fed farming and tenure, are found to be more influential compared to other factors. All four adaptation-options are found to be complimentary to each other. Importantly, the intensity of impact of dependent variables in different models, and for available adaptation-options, are found to be unequal. Therefore, policy options and support facilities should be devised according to climatic variables and adaptation options to achieve superior results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0045.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: endorheic; lake; Central Asia; evaporation; semi-arid; Kazakhstan; climate change; Landsat; regional climate model; Burabay
Online: 7 December 2017 (14:56:58 CET)
Both climate change and anthropogenic activities contribute to the deterioration of terrestrial water resources and ecosystems worldwide. Central Asian endorheic basins are among the most affected regions through both climate and human impacts. Here, we used a digital elevation model, digitized bathymetry maps and Landsat images to estimate the areal water cover extent and volumetric storage changes in small terminal lakes in Burabay National Nature Park (BNNP), located in Northern Central Asia (CA), for the period of 1986 to 2016. Based on the analysis of long-term climatic data from meteorological stations, short-term hydrometeorological network observations, gridded climate datasets (CRU) and global atmospheric reanalysis (ERA Interim), we have evaluated the impacts of historical climatic conditions on the water balance of BNNP lake catchments. We also discuss the future based on regional climate model projections. We attribute the overall decline of BNNP lakes to long-term deficit of water balance with lake evaporation loss exceeding precipitation inputs. Direct anthropogenic water abstraction has a minor importance in water balance. However, the changes in watersheds caused by the expansion of human settlements and roads disrupting water drainage may play a more significant role in lake water storage decline. More precise water resources assessment at the local scale will be facilitated by further development of freely available higher spatial resolution remote sensing products. In addition, the results of this work can be used for the development of lake/reservoir evaporation models driven by remote sensing and atmospheric reanalysis data without the direct use of ground observations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0210.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Climate Change; SSPs scenarios; Water Management; Mining; Kazakhstan
Online: 4 July 2023 (11:40:39 CEST)
Climate change is a threat to mining and other industries, especially those involving water supply and management by inducing or amplifying some climatic parameters such as changes in precipitation regimes and temperature extremes. Using the latest NASA NEX-GDDP-CMIP6 datasets, this study quantifies the level of climate change that may affect the development of two mine sites (Site1 and Site2) in northeast Kazakhstan. The study analyses the daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperature a of a number of global circulation models (GCM) over three future time periods, 2040s, 2060s and 2080s, under two shared socioeconomic pathway (SSP) scenarios, SSP245 and SSP585, against the baseline period 1981- 2014. The analyses revealed that: (1) Both maximum and minimum temperature will increase under both SSP in those time periods, with the rate of change for minimum temperature being higher than maximum temperature. (2) The mean annual precipitation will increase by an average rate of 7% and 10.5% in 2040s for SSP245 and 17.5% and 7.5% for SSP585 in 2080s at Site1 and Site2, respectively. It is also observed that summer months will experience drier condition whilst all other months will increase in precipitation. (3) The values of 24-hour precipitation with 10-year return period will also increase under both SSP scenarios and future time periods for most of the studied GCM and at both mine sites. These predicted changes should be considered as design criteria adjustments for project water supply and water management structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1228.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Rainfall; Temperature; Potential evapotranspiration; Soil water content; Climate Projection
Online: 19 October 2023 (07:02:24 CEST)
In Ethiopia, climate change risks are anticipated to have significant consequences for agriculture and food security. This study investigated the past (1981-2010) and the future (2041-2070) climate change trends and their influence on crop length of growing seasons in North-Western (NW) Ethiopian highlands. Climate data were obtained from National Meteorological Agency of Ethiopia and the most valid and high resolution CMIP5 rcp6 (Coupled models Intercomparison Project representative concentration path six) model data were extracted and applied for the analysis purpose. Standard statistical methods are then applied to compute soil water content as well as to evaluate climate variability and trends and their impact on crop Length of Growing Season (LGS). Maximum temperature (tasmax) and minimum temperature (tasmin) inter-annual variability anomalies show the region has experienced coolest years than hottest years during the past. However, in the future the coolest years will highly decrease by -1.2oC while the hottest years increase by +1.3oC. During the major rainfall season (JJAS), the area has received an adequate amount of rainfall in the past and is very likely to get similar rainfall in the future. Whereas the February to May (FMAM) season assists only for early planting and October to January (ONDJ) season for lengthen growing season of JJAS if properly utilized. Otherwise, the season will have the possibility to destroy crops before and during the harvesting time. The soil water content change in the future remains close to past condition, The length of growing seasons has less variable onset and cessation dates while the projected length of growing period (LGP) 174 to 177 days will be suitable for short, long cycle crops and double cropping that could benefit crop production yield of NW-Ethiopian highlands in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0154.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Access, availability, climate change, deforestation, drought, food security, SSA
Online: 18 February 2019 (10:16:03 CET)
Like the rest of the globe, Forests in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) continue to play a vital role when it comes to food security from the perspective of forest function of climate regulation, water provision, and soil protection. Nevertheless, most of the recent deforestation practices in various countries indicate that the region could face severe food insecurity in the near future since there are already signs of shortage in food production. This study, therefore, examines deforestation, climate change, and food security nexus in SSA while exploring a wide range of examples of food insecurity in the region. Content analysis and a synthetic literature study were conducted using data from scientific data banks. The study links deforestation, climate change to food security while citing examples from various SSA countries such as Cameroon, Nigeria, Kenya to mention but a few. More so, the study investigates how deforestation contributes to climate change, and how such change directly affects agricultural output and hence food security. Lastly, the study discusses the various implication of deforestation in relation to food security.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0528.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: GCM; RCM; CMIP5; CORDEX; climate change; climate model selection; upper Indus basin
Online: 27 September 2018 (04:01:11 CEST)
This study focusses on identifying a set of representative future climate projections for the Upper Indus Basin (UIB). Although a large number of GCM’s predictor sets are nowadays available in the CMIP5 archive, the issue of their reliability for specific regions must still be confronted. This situation makes it imperative to sort out the most appropriate, single or small-ensemble set of GCMs for the assessment of climate change impacts in a region. Here a set of different approaches is adopted and applied for a step-wise shortlist and selection of appropriate climate models for the UIB under two RCPs: RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, based on, a) range of projected mean changes, b) range of projected extreme changes, and c) skill in reproducing the past climate. Furthermore, because of higher uncertainties in climate projection for high mountainous regions like the UIB, a wider range of future GCM climate projections is considered by using all possible future extreme scenarios (wet-warm, wet-cold, dry-warm, dry-cold). Based on this two-fold procedure, a limited number of climate models is pre-selected, out of which the final selection is done by assigning ranks to the weighted score for each of the mentioned selection criteria. The dynamically downscaled climate projections from the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) available for the top-ranked GCMs are further statistically downscaled (bias-corrected) over the UIB. The downscaled projections up to year 2100 indicate temperature increases ranging between 2.3 °C and 9.0 °C and precipitation changes that range, from a slight annual increase of 2.2% under the drier scenarios, to as high as 15.9% for the wet scenarios. Moreover, for all scenarios, the future precipitation will be more extreme, as the probability of wet days will decrease, while, at the same time, the precipitation intensities will increase. The spatial distribution of the downscaled predictors across the UIB also shows similar patterns for all scenarios, with a distinct precipitation decrease over the south-eastern parts of the basin, but an increase in the northeastern parts. These two features are particularly intense for the “Dry-Warm” and the “Median” scenarios over the late 21st century.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0068.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: cultural heritage; preventative conservation; climate change; mitigation; adaptation; climate modelling
Online: 4 July 2018 (10:36:51 CEST)
There is a range of local weather and climate-related factors that contribute to the degradation of cultural heritage buildings, structures and sites over time. Some of these factors are influenced by changes in climate and some of these changes manifest themselves though a speeding up of the rate of degradation. It is the intention of this paper to review this situation with special reference to the Nordic Countries, where typical trends resulting from climate change are shorter winters and increased precipitation all year round. An attempt is made to initially draw up a classification of materials and structures relevant to cultural heritage that are affected, with a proposed numeric scale for the urgency to act. The intention is to provide information on where best to concentrate cultural heritage site preservation resources in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1844.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: climate change; public spending; agriculture sector; GMM
Online: 30 October 2023 (06:06:16 CET)
Climate change not only affects weather conditions, patterns, and the frequency and severity of extreme weather events but also changes how governments spend money. Agriculture is an important sector of the European Union (EU), and it is projected to decrease by 16% by 2050, therefore a third of the EU budget has been spent on agricultural funding, adaptation, and climate action. The effect of climate change on agriculture is mixed and dependent on the country and its location. The southern EU is adversely affected while the northern EU is positively affected by the changes in weather patterns. The main goal of this paper is to gain insight regarding the effect that climate change has on public spending in relation to the agricultural sector of the EU, by using the pooled OLS and GMM methods. The study concluded that agriculture has a significant impact on public spending in the southern countries of the EU, where it represents a significant portion of the GDP. Inflation influences public spending in the whole EU region, the northern and southern countries of the EU. Rain has a moderately significant impact on public spending in the whole EU region. It is advised that governments maintain a controllable level of inflation using fiscal and monetary policy that will implicitly control public spending.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0460.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Climate Change; Ecosystem Services; Impact; adaptation; Nepal
Online: 27 August 2018 (12:55:03 CEST)
Ecosystem services (ES) are increasingly recognized as a means to adapt to the ongoing impact of climate change and associated impacts. However, these ES itself are facing adverse impact of climate change especially in developing countries where most of the people are dependent on these services for their livelihood. Very little is known about the relationship between the climate change and ES. Here we assess the impact of climate change on ecosystem services in ES rich landscape of Panchase Mountain Ecological Region of western Nepal. The study area was divided into three ecoregions from lowland through midland to the upland region. Focus group discussion, and key informant interview were used to elicit the required data for the study, which was further supported by transect walk, field observation and secondary source of information. Major impacts of climate change were observed are, reduced availability of water, reduced food production, forest ecosystem, shifting species composition in forest ecosystem, farmland abandonment, and their associated ecosystem services. We recommend to initiate the management actions to help ES adapt to climate change, and which in return could support the ecosystem itself and people dependent on the ES in adaptation to climate change by providing various goods and services.
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: Environmentalism; Climate change; Jellyfish metaphor; Humanity; Philosophical analysis.
Online: 11 July 2023 (10:31:29 CEST)
This treatise offers a philosophical odyssey into the exigency of conservation within the broader context of an increasingly interconnected world, beset by the perils of globalization, climate change, and the looming specter of global warming. Employing the evocative metaphor of a jellyfish, it endeavors to shed light on the paramount role of humanity as the principal protagonist in the saga of environmental predicaments, thereby accentuating our profound moral responsibility to navigate the labyrinthine pathways toward viable solutions. While this discourse abstains from presenting empirical or case-specific inquiries, it unfurls an incisive analytical vantage point that enriches our cognitive grasp of the intricate interplay between human societies and the pristine realms of the natural order. By expounding upon poignant exemplars of environmental degradation and unveiling the resplendent tapestry of statistical observations, the profound ethical imperatives that undergird the imperative to confront predicaments such as climate change are thrust into the limelight of intellectual inquiry. Consequently, by delving deep into these philosophical bedrocks, this magnum opus augments our erudition concerning the multifaceted nexus that binds humankind to their surroundings, thus affording us a glimpse into the subtle tapestry of a complex relationship that must be diligently nurtured and preserved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0266.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: climate change impact; ecosystem functionality; freshwater ecosystems; UKCP09; hydroecological impact; river health
Online: 24 December 2018 (04:37:17 CET)
Climate change represents a major threat to lotic freshwater ecosystems and their ability to support the provision of ecosystem services. England’s chalk streams are in a poor state of health, with significant concerns regarding their resilience, the ability to adapt, under a changing climate. This paper aims to quantify the effect of climate change on hydroecological response, the health of the river, for the River Nar, a SSSI in the south-east of England. To this end, we apply a coupled hydrological and hydroecological modelling framework, with the UKCP09 probabilistic climate projections serving as input (A1B high emissions scenario). Results show that, from 2021 to the end of the century, hydroecological response becomes more heterogeneous. Despite the limited range of the functional feeding groups on the baseline, the River Nar has been able to adapt to extreme events due to inter-annual variation. In the future, this variation is greatly reduced, raising real concerns over the resilience of the river ecosystem under climate change. These new insights into the health of the River Nar, and chalk streams more generally, highlights the necessity of further study and the real need to for changed river management practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0123.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: climate change; temperature; precipitation; anomaly; trends; Zacatecas; Mexico
Online: 7 March 2020 (15:56:50 CET)
Sufficient evidence is currently available to demonstrate the reality of the warming of our planet's climate system. Global warming has different effects on climate at the regional and local levels. The detection of changes in extreme events using instrumental data provides further evidence of such warming and allows for the characterization of its local manifestations. The present study analyzes changes in temperature and precipitation extremes in the Mexican state of Zacatecas using climate change indices developed by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection, Monitoring and Indices (ETCCDI). We studied a 40-year period (1976-2015) using annual and seasonal time scales. Maximum and minimum temperature data were used, as well as precipitation statistics from the Mexican climatology database (CLICOM) provided by the Mexican meteorological service. Weather stations with at least 80% of data availability for the selected study period were selected; these databases were subjected to quality control, homogenization, and data filling using Climatol, which runs in the R programming language. These homogenized series were used to obtain daily grides of the three variables at a resolution of 1.3 km. Results reveal important changes in temperature-related indices, such as the increase in maximum temperature and the decrease in minimum temperature. Irregular variability was observed in the case of precipitation, which could be associated with low-frequency oscillations such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. The possible impact of these changes in temperature and the increased irregularity of precipitation could have a negative impact on the agricultural sector, especially given that the state of Zacatecas is the largest national bean producer. The most important problems in the short term will be related to the difficulty of adapting to these rapid changes and the new climate scenario, which will pose new challenges in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0089.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: climate change; rainfall indices; uncertainty; LARS-WG; Hamedan province
Online: 30 October 2017 (04:01:48 CET)
Future projections from climate models and recent studies shows impact of climate change on rainfall indices estimation. This study assesses the simulations of rainfall indices based on the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project CMIP5 and CMIP3 in the some of subbasin Hamedan Province West of Iran. The analysis of the rainfall indices are: simple rainfall intensity, very heavy rainfall days, maximum one-day rainfall and rainfall frequency has been carried out in this study to evaluating the impact of climate change on rainfall indices events. Relative change in three rainfall indices is investigated by GCMs under various greenhouse gas emission scenarious A1B and B1 and RCP8.5, RCP8.5 scenarios for the future periods 2020–2045 and 2045-2065. The ﬁnal results show that each of rainfall indices differs in stations under the three GCMs model (GIAOM, MIHR, MPEH5) and emission scenarios A1B and B1, and RCP2.5, RCP8.5 scenarios. Relative change of daily intensity index varies from -9.93% - 25%, very heavy rainfall days 20.71% - 25.9% and yearly rainfall depth -15.71% - 13% can be observed at study area in 50y for future periods (2046–2065). Rainfall indices of sum wet days, nday >1mm and maximum one-day rainfall are projected to decrease under the senariuos B1,A1B and sum wet days, simple daily intensity and heavy Rainfall days>10 projected to decrease under the RCP2.6.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0325.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: big data; architecture; agriculture; climate change; systematic literature review
Online: 24 May 2022 (07:42:55 CEST)
Climate change is currently one of the main problems facing agriculture to achieve sustainability. It causes situations such as drought, increased rainfall, and increased diseases, causing a decrease in food production. In order to combat these problems, Agricultural Big Data contributes with tools that allow improving the understanding of complex, multivariate, and unpredictable agricultural ecosystems through the collection, storage, processing, and analysis of vast amounts of data from diverse heterogeneous sources. This research aims to discuss the advancement of technologies used in Agricultural Big Data architectures in the context of climate change. The study aims to highlight the tools used to process, analyze, and visualize the data and discuss the use of the architectures in the crop, water, climate, and soil management, especially to analyze the context, whether it is in Resilience Mitigation or Adaptation. The PRISMA protocol guided the study, finding 33 relevant papers. Despite the advances in this line of research, few papers were found that mention the components of the architectures, in addition to the lack of standards and the use of reference architectures, which allow the proper development of Agricultural Big Data in the context of climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0304.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: climate change; econometric analysis; insurance; resilience; risk; tropical cyclones
Online: 30 January 2019 (07:10:54 CET)
Having sustained, over the course of more than two decades, record-breaking natural catastrophe losses, American insurers and reinsurers are justifiably questioning the potential linkage between anthropogenic climate change and extreme weather. Here, we explore issues pertaining to this linkage, looking at both the likely short-term implications for the insurance industry, as well as potential longer-term impacts on financial performance and corporate resilience. We begin our discussion with an overview of the implications that climate change is likely to have on the industry, especially as it relates to how catastrophic risks are construed, assessed, and managed. We then present the rudiments of an econometric analysis that explores the financial resilience of the property/casualty (P/C) industry in the face of both natural and man-made catastrophes. In this analysis, we explore the profitability consequences of several illustrative scenarios involving large-scale losses from extreme weather—specifically, a sequence of storms like those striking the U.S. in 2004—and a scenario that explores the prospect of a Katrina-scale storm in combination with a mass terror attack on the scale of 9/11. At systemic levels of aggregation, our analysis suggests a high degree of macro-resilience for the insurance industry. Moreover, we find that insurer resilience is higher for larger impacts, considering both the speed of recovery, as well as the inverse of the area under the unaffected system profile. We conclude with a summary of our findings and a closing commentary that explores the potential implications of these results for P/C insurers moving forward.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0077.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: biodiversity; climate change; forests; nature-based solutions; policy; resilience
Online: 6 December 2018 (07:39:13 CET)
The current focus on afforestation in climate policy runs the risk of compromising both longterm carbon storage and human adaptation. It also works against efforts to stem the tide of biodiversity loss. We outline why an emphasis on diverse, intact natural ecosystems—as opposed to tree plantations with fast-growing exotic species—will help nations deliver the goals of the Paris Agreement and much more.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1714.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: climate change perception; farmers' agency; mountain area; resilience; rural development
Online: 24 August 2023 (07:17:13 CEST)
Mountains can be described as socio-ecological systems (SESs), a complex set of relations that involve natural aspects and human communities. Mountains provide indispensable ecosystem services, but they are affected by climate change. For this, stakeholders’ initiatives to face global warming, particularly farmers, are essential and participatory strategy are largely considered as a best solution to involve them in adopting resilience actions. Despite that, farmers are considered passive actors and their epistemology weak. Investigating mountain actors' vulnerability to climate change in the North of Molise (an Italian region), called «Alto Molise», we suggest considering farmers agency as a result of interconnections among heterogeneous elements present in the SES and their “lay” knowledge and epistemology equally relevant that experts one. Farmers’ perception of climate change impact is appropriate, although they lack a clear understanding of it. Their resilience actions or suggestions are coherent with their resources endowment (financial and knowledge) and their position in the economic system but not necessarily effective. The work contributes to the debate on climate resilience in mountain areas stressing the significance of local actors' agency, the presence of different epistemologies (lay and expert one) and the need to actively involve them in designed effective and suitable initiatives to face climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0284.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Climate change; Scientific uncertainty; Moral uncertainty; Deep uncertainty; Risk; IPCC; Storylines; Probability; Expected utility
Online: 13 August 2021 (08:26:29 CEST)
While the foundations of climate science and ethics are well established, fine-grained climate predictions, as well as policy-decisions, are beset with uncertainties. This chapter maps climate uncertainties and classifies them as to their ground, extent and location. A typology of uncertainty is presented, centered along the axes of scientific and moral uncertainty. This typology is illustrated with paradigmatic examples of uncertainty in climate science, climate ethics and climate economics. Subsequently, the chapter discusses the IPCC’s preferred way of representing uncertainties and evaluates its strengths and weaknesses from a risk management perspective. Three general strategies for decision-makers to cope with climate uncertainty are outlined, the usefulness of which largely depends on whether or not decision-makers find themselves in a context of deep uncertainty. The chapter concludes by offering two recommendations to ease the work of policymakers, faced with the various uncertainties engrained in climate discourse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1518.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: planting structure; evapotranspiration; remote sensing; climate change
Online: 21 June 2023 (09:58:04 CEST)
Evapotranspiration (ET) is an essential part of energy flow between the surface of the earth and the atmosphere, simultaneously involving the water, carbon, and energy cycles. It is mainly determined by climate change, land use, and land cover changes. Climate change is expected to intensify the hydrological cycle and alter ET. Land use affects ET within regional ecosystems mainly through vegetation changes and agricultural activities such as farmland reclamation, crop cultivation, and agricultural management. However, there is still a need for quantitative characterization of the impacts of climate change and human activities on ET and regional water resource efficiency in arid and semiarid regions. Based on Landsat-8 remote sensing imagery and land use data, the planting structure in the Liangzhou District of the middle reaches of the Shiyang River Basin was identified using a multiband and multitemporal approach in this study. Subsequently, the ET of major cash crops was inverted using the three-temperature model. This research quantitatively describes the responses of wheat and corn to the climate and human activities over a two-year period. Furthermore, the impact of planting structure and climatic factors on ET was elucidated. The results indicate that a combination of multitemporal green and shortwave infrared 1 bands is the optimal spectral combination to extract the planting structure. Compared to 2019, the wheat area decreased by 23.27% in 2020, while the corn area increased by 5.96%. Both crops exhibited significant spatial heterogeneity in ET during the growing season. The typical daily range of ET for wheat was 0.4–7.2 mm/day, and for corn, it was 1.5–4.0 mm/day. Among the climatic factors, temperature showed the highest correlation with ET (R = 0.80, p ≤ 0.05). Our research findings provide valuable insights for the fine identification of planting structures and a better understanding of the response of ET to climatic factors and human activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0172.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Climate Change; Coastal Disasters; Vulnerability; Disaster Risk.
Online: 21 March 2017 (16:41:53 CET)
This study integrated coastal-watershed models and combined a risk assessment method to develop a methodology to investigate the impact resulting from coastal disasters under climate change. The mid-western coast of Taiwan suffering from land subsidence was selected as the demonstrative area for the vulnerability analysis based on prediction of sea level rise (SLR), wave run-up, overtopping, and coastal flooding under the scenarios of 2020 to 2039. Database from tidal gauges and satellite images were used to analyze sea level rise using EEMD (Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition). Extreme wave condition and storm surge were estimated by numerical simulation using WWM (Wind Wave Model) and POM (Princeton Ocean Model). Coastal inundation was then simulated via WASH123D watershed model. The risk map of study areas based on the analyses of vulnerability and disaster were established using the AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) technique. Predictions of sea level rise, the maximum wave condition and storm surge under the scenarios of 2020 to 2039 are presented. The results indicate that the sea level at the mid-western coast of Taiwan will rise in an average of 5.8 cm, equivalent to a rising velocity of 2.8 mm/year. The analysis indicates that Wuqi, Lukang, Mailiao, and Taixi townships are susceptive, low resistant and low resilient, and reaches the high risk level. The assessment provides that important information for making adaption policy in the mid-western coast of Taiwan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1720.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: climate change; positive and negative affect; pro-environmental behavioural intentions; climate anxiety
Online: 28 November 2023 (08:15:55 CET)
The study aimed to investigate the effect of climate change exposure on affect and pro-environmental behavioural intentions in a randomised controlled trial. An online survey was completed by 100 adult participants and included measures of affect and pro-environmental behavioural intentions pre- and post-exposure. Participants were randomly allocated to a group that saw a climate change video (n=55) or a group that saw a non-climate change video (n=45). The findings showed were that participants in the climate change group showed a significant increase in negative affect and pro-environmental behavioural intention scores post-video exposure compared to the non-climate change video group. This suggests that climate change video exposure negatively influences affect but also potentially increases the intention to act pro-environmentally. These findings have the potential to support policies and societal change, however further investigation into the type of contents, actual behaviour change, and impacts on diverse populations (e.g., minority groups) is needed that influences pro-environmental behaviours is required. Furthermore, to achieve a greater impact, future research should be conducted measuring actual pro-environmental behaviour change, including with those from diverse populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0134.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: rice; water requirement; climate change; Penman-Monteith; CROPWAT
Online: 31 October 2016 (03:21:42 CET)
In this paper, Rice water requirement and irrigation water requirement in Amol agro meteorological Station in 2016-2045 are forecasted based on the projected meteorological data of Hadcm3 under A2 scenario. Rice water requirements are estimated by using crop coefficient approach. Reference evapotranspiration are calculated by FAO Penman-Monteith method. Moreover, the irrigation water requirements are simulated by calibrated CROPWAT model using the meteorological parameters. The results show that both crop water requirement and irrigation water requirement present downward trend in the future. In 2016-2045, the rice water requirement and irrigation water requirement decrease by more than 9.9% under A2 scenario, respectively. Furthermore, the precipitation rise may be the main reason for the decrease in crop water requirement, while significant decrease of irrigation water requirement should be attributed to combined action of rising precipitation and a slight increase in temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0091.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: reanalysis climate data; hydrologic modeling; comparative analysis
Online: 3 February 2017 (03:50:07 CET)
Large-scale hydrological modeling in China is challenging given the sparse meteorological stations and large uncertainties associated with atmospheric forcing data.Here we introduce the development and use of the China Meteorological Assimilation Driving Datasets for the SWAT model (CMADS) in the Heihe River Basin(HRB) for improving hydrologic modeling, by leveraging the datasets from the China Meteorological Administration Land Data Assimilation System (CLDAS)(including climate data from nearly 40000 area encryption stations, 2700 national automatic weather stations, FengYun (FY) 2 satellite and radar stations). CMADS uses the Space Time Multiscale Analysis System (STMAS) to fuse data based on ECWMF ambient field and ensure data accuracy. In addition, compared with CLDAS, CMADS includes relative humidity and climate data of varied resolutions to drive hydrological models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. Here, we compared climate data from CMADS, Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) and traditional weather station (TWS) climate forcing data and evaluatedtheir applicability for driving large scale hydrologic modeling with SWAT. In general, CMADS has higher accuracy than CFRS when evaluated against observations at TWS; CMADS also provides spatially continuous climate field to drive distributed hydrologic models, which is an important advantage over TWS climate data, particular in regions with sparse weather stations. Therefore, SWAT model simulations driven with CMADS and TWS achieved similar performances in terms of monthly and daily stream flow simulations, and both of them outperformed CFRS. For example, for the three hydrological stations (Ying Luoxia, Qilian Mountain, and ZhaMasheke) in the HRB at the monthly and daily Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency ranges of 0.75-0.95 and 0.58-0.78, respectively, which are much higher than corresponding efficiency statistics achieved with CFSR (monthly: 0.32-0.49 and daily: 0.26 – 0.45). The CMADS dataset is available free of charge and is expected to a valuable addition to the existing climate reanalysis datasets for deriving distributed hydrologic modeling in China and other countries in East Asia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0577.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: WASP-Index; Climate change; Projections; Extreme precipitation; Iberian Peninsula
Online: 21 April 2021 (12:17:36 CEST)
The WASP-Index is computed over Iberia for three monthly timescales in 1961-2020, based on an observational gridded precipitation dataset (E-OBS), and in 2021-2070, based on bias-corrected precipitation generated by a six-member climate model ensemble from EURO-CORDEX, under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. The WASP performance in identifying extremely dry or wet events, reported by the EM-DAT disaster database, is assessed for 1961–2020. An overall good agreement between the WASP spatial patterns and the EM-DAT records is found. The areolar mean values revealed an upward trend in the frequency of occurrence of intermediate-to-severe dry events over Iberia, which will be strengthened in the future, particularly for the 12m-WASP intermediate dry events under RCP8.5. Besides, the number of 3m-WASP intermediate-to-severe wet events is projected to increase, mostly the severest events under RCP4.5, but no evidence was found for an increase in the number of more persistent (12m-WASP) wet events under both RCPs. Despite important spatial heterogeneities, an increase(decrease) of the intensity, duration, and frequency of occurrence of the 12m-WASP intermediate-to-severe dry(wet) events is found under both scenarios, mainly in the southernmost regions of Iberia, thus becoming more exposed to prolonged and severe droughts in the future, corroborating the results from previous studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0542.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: climate change； vegetables； crop wild relatives； nitrogen use efficiency
Online: 23 September 2020 (07:51:18 CEST)
Climate variation and change are an unavoidable phenomenon faced by the natural habitat of this planet. For getting potential yield from vegetable crops under the changing climate conditions, the practical strategies at field level can serve as a guideline for the farmers. Moreover, there are several strategies available for mitigating the harmful effects of climate change. In this manuscript, efforts have been made for reviewing the mitigating strategies against the impact of climate change in vegetable crops via conventional approaches. Considering the situation, the information reviewed revealed that significant result of conventional approaches with climate-smart adoptions strategies has a direct bearing on vegetable production for the increasing population in frenziedly changing climate scenario.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0353.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: cooling water shortage; thermal power; economic consequence; climate change
Online: 18 September 2018 (14:10:25 CEST)
Abstract: Currently, thermal power is the largest source of power in the world. Although the impacts of climate change on cooling water sufficiency in thermal power plants have been extensively assessed globally and regionally, their economic consequences have seldom been evaluated. In this study, the Asia-Pacific Integrated Model Computable General Equilibrium model (AIM/CGE) was used to evaluate the economic consequences of projected future cooling water insufficiency on a global basis, which was simulated using the H08 global hydrological model. This approach enabled us to investigate how the physical impacts of climate change on thermal power generation influence economic activities in regions and industrial sectors. To account for the uncertainty of climate change projections, five global climate models and two representative concentration pathways (RCPs 2.6 and 8.5) were used. The ensemble-mean results showed that the global gross domestic product (GDP) loss in 2070–2095 due to cooling water insufficiency in the thermal power sector was −0.21% (−0.12%) in RCP8.5 (RCP2.6). Among the five regions, the largest GDP loss of −0.57% (−0.27%) was observed in the Middle East and Africa. Medium-scale losses of −0.18% (−0.12%) and −0.14% (−0.12%) were found in OECD90 (the member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development as of 1990) and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union, respectively. The smallest losses of −0.05% (−0.06%) and −0.09% (−0.08%) were found in Latin America and Asia, respectively. The economic impact of cooling water insufficiency was non-negligible and should be considered as one of the threats induced by climate change.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Climate change; crop production; maize; beans; Just and Pope model; Zambia
Online: 21 November 2019 (10:39:38 CET)
Farming systems prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa are exposed and vulnerable to climate change due to their high dependence on rainfall. However, most studies have only estimated the impacts of climate change on agricultural productivity at a regional or national level. We add to this literature by focussing on the sub-national impacts. This study uses 30 years (1981–2011) of yield and weather data in Zambia and applies the Just and Pope model to determine how rainfall and temperature affect yield and yield variability of maize and beans at the national and subnational levels. Results show a negative impact of temperature rise on yield and a positive impact of rainfall rise on yield, above the current mean levels. These results differ by agro-ecological region. Worst-case-scenario predicted impacts using HadGEM-ES2 global circulation model show that major yield decreases (25% for maize and 34% for beans) by 2050 will be in region II and will be driven mainly by temperature increase offsetting the positive gains from rainfall increase. The model mainly under-predicts yield for maize and overpredicts yield for beans. These findings call for agro-ecological region-specific adaptation strategies and well-planned policy interventions to make agriculture more resilient to climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0163.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: urbanization; climate variability; streamflow; baseflow; SWAT model; Little Eagle Creek
Online: 12 July 2019 (05:15:07 CEST)
The change in both streamflow and baseflow in urban catchments has received significant attention in the latest decades as a result of their drastic variability. In this research, effects of climate variation and dynamics of land use are measured separately and in combination on streamflow and baseflow in the Little Eagle Creek (LEC) watershed (Indianapolis, Indiana). These effects are examined using land use maps, statistical tests, and hydrological modeling. Transition matrix analysis was used to investigate the change in land use between 1992 and 2011. Temporal trends and changes in meteorological data were evaluated from 1980-2017 using the Mann-Kendall test. Changes in streamflow and baseflow were assessed using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model using multiple scenarios that varied in land use and climate change. Evaluation of the model outputs showed streamflow and baseflow in LEC are well represented using SWAT; however, comparing the calibration and validation period showed SWAT performs better for the calibration. During 1992-2011, roughly 30% of the watershed experienced change, typically cultivated agricultural areas became urbanized. Baseflow is significantly affected by the observed urbanization; however, the combination of land and climate variability has a larger effect on the baseflow in LEC. Generally, the variability in the baseflow and streamflow appears to be heavily driven by the response to climate change in comparison to variability due to altered land use. The results reported herein expand the current understanding of variation in hydrological components, and provides useful information for management planning regarding water resources, as well as water and soil conservation in urban watersheds in Indiana and beyond.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0197.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: water-energy nexus; MENA region; climate change; mitigation/adaptation strategies
Online: 10 October 2018 (03:59:07 CEST)
The present paper aims to elucidate the impact of climate change on the availability and security of water and energy in the Middle East and North Africa Region (MENA Region). The region is particularly challenged by a number of factors including a large variability of bio-geographical characteristics, extreme population growth over the last few decades and substantial societal and economical transitions as well as armed conflicts in some of the countries of the region. Anticipated changes in climate conditions will exacerbate the challenges with regard to providing sufficient amounts of water and energy to the communities in the region. Impacts of climate change will materialize as an increasing number of heat waves, primarily in urban structures and the decline in water availability as a result of enhanced droughts and a growing numbers of dry spells. The interrelationships between energy and water and their mutual dependencies are addressed by the Water-Energy-Nexus concept. With regard to the challenges addressed here, Cyprus and the Eastern Mediterranean are a particular point in case. Mitigation and adaptation strategies include enhanced efficiency of energy and water use, integrated technology assessments regarding electricity generation and the production of potable water and electricity through concentrated solar power.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0741.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Risk attitude, farmers, multiple price list, climate change.
Online: 31 October 2018 (08:24:07 CET)
Risk attitudes are relevant factors affecting the production and investment decisions at farm level. They are key factors that are related to farmers’ attitudes towards environment and climate change. Several methodological approaches are available to measure the level of stated risk of an economic agent. The Multiple Price List (MPL) method is one of the methods that is gaining relevance. In this study we apply the MPL and relate the risk outcomes with farmers’ characteristics and their perception towards environment and climate change. Data was collected using a face to face survey carried out for a group of 370 agricultural producers of the irrigation district located in northwest of Mexico. Results showed an average risk of about 0.32, locating the agricultural producers of the region in a group with risk aversion, according to the MPL scale. The heterogeneity analysis showed that the socioeconomic factors and the perceptions towards climate change are related to the farmers´ stated risk level. Farmers who are young women with propensity to use public support to invest were shown to be greater risk lovers. Farmers in the region have perceived climate change to a greater extent like floods, hail, diseases and pests, and changing vegetation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0403.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Nature-based solutions; climate change adaptation; climate change vulnerability; social-ecological systems
Online: 20 September 2022 (12:35:06 CEST)
Nature-based solutions (NbS) - working with and enhancing nature to address societal challenges - are increasingly being featured in climate change adaptation policy and plans. While there is growing evidence that NbS can reduce vulnerability to climate change impacts in general, there is a lack of understanding on the mechanisms through which this can be achieved, particularly in the Global South. To address this, we analyse 85 nature-based interventions in rural areas across the Global South, and factors mediating their effectiveness, based on a systematic map of peer-reviewed studies encompassing a wide diversity of ecosystems, climate impacts, and intervention types. We develop and apply an analytical framework of people’s social-ecological vulnerability to climate change, in terms of six pathways of vulnerability reduction: social and ecological exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. Most cases (95%) report a reduction in vulnerability, primarily by lowering ecosystem sensitivity to climate impacts (73% of interventions), followed by reducing social sensitivity (52%), reducing ecological exposure (36%), increasing social adaptive capacity (31%), increasing ecological adaptive capacity (19%) and/or reducing social exposure (14%). An analysis of mediating factors shows that social dimensions are equally important as technical factors in NbS to achieving equitable and effective outcomes. Attention to the distinct social and ecological pathways through which vulnerability is reduced helps to harness the multiple benefits of working with nature in a warming world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0847.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Impacts; climate change; risk perception; health system; Greater Lomé
Online: 13 September 2023 (16:22:05 CEST)
The perception of the impacts of climate risks on health systems in the Grand Lomé region of Togo is diverse. This study was carried out based on information collected in the field. The investigation was based on a questionnaire, individual interviews and field observations. Data collection was carried out in a purposive manner in twenty-four (24) health facilities with a total of 112 health service people and 13 resource people affected. This article presents the results on the perception of the impacts of climate change on health personnel, the environment and buildings. The results show that 92.31% of respondents attest that climate change has impacts on health personnel; 84.62% on the environment and 84.62% on buildings and other health infrastructure. This study shows that climate change has real consequences on human health. It is therefore urgent that those responsible for health systems in the Grand Lomé region, which is home to the capital of Togo, can focus on finding adaptation measures in relation to each health structure and according to its intervention platform.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0467.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Climate Change; Ethiopia; Hagenia abyssinica; MaxEnt; Species Distribution Model
Online: 22 October 2020 (21:38:10 CEST)
Research Highlights: Hagenia abyssinica is geographically localized, poor regenerated and endangered species in Ethiopia. Ethiopia has been experiencing variability of rainfall and rise in temperature due to the climate change. This study has hypothesized that the suitable areas for the species will be narrowed by the year 2070. Background and Objective The prediction of species distribution models help to implement appropriate conservation actions. The aim of this research was to identify the current and likely future distribution range and suitable areas for the species, and to determine the presence of H. absyssinica in risk in a short-term future. Material and method: To this end, occurrence data, bioclim variables, soil, elevation, and land cover map of Ethiopia were used. MaxEnt was used to predict distribution. Climate change impacts on the distribution of the species was performed using bioclimatic variables of the future climate data, 2070 (average for 2061-2080) was obtained from IPPC5 (CMIP5) at 30 seconds (1km) spatial resolution. The climate data was projected from GCMs, downscaled and calibrated using rcp4.5. Results: Both current and likely future distribution models were excellent and significantly better than random performance. This study has computed 59987 km2 to be the low impact area for the species under current conditions and will remain habitat under future climates and 39025 km2 area has been identified as the possible high impact areas or declining habitat. The model has also determined that 1238724 km2 of the areas are unsuitable at present and for future climates. The current study found that 15751 km2 of the area will be modified as a new suitable area for H. abyssinica due to climate change. Conclusion: Species distribution modeling is essential for the implementation of conservation actions that are compatible with the inevitable changing climatic conditions of the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0053.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Climate Change; Adaptative Practice; Paddy Production; Rural Hilly Nepal
Online: 4 October 2019 (11:59:07 CEST)
Climate change is a buzzword in the world. Scientist has approved it as global warming with its projection of undesired and unpredicted frequent extreme events and their vulnerabilities not only at present but also at future. There is an assumption of occurrence of adaptive capacity and behavior of farmers in agriculture production activity at some extent to neutralize climate change vulnerabilities of flood and landslides on paddy production. This paper empirically examines the effects of climate change in paddy production and farmer’s adaptive behaviors to neutralize such climatic shocks and events in paddy production by employing CD production function based econometric model. The study employed primary data collected through 642 household surveys. The study finds that climatic shocks and events have huge loss (60%) in paddy production and revenue income in such plot where farmers have not indigenous knowledge and practices. But both small and larger farmers who have adaptive capacity and behavior with their indigenous knowledge have less loss in paddy production and revenue income, although they have heterogeneity in their socio-economic characteristics (income, asset holding, literacy, experience, land holding and age). The farmers who have used adaptive behavior have indigenous knowledge and experiences including bamboo wall construction to control flood and landslides and seed change to resist climatic shocks and events. In hilly region, the farmers have not sufficient alternative measures, except both adaptive measures because of their poverty, illiteracy and remote locations. The study finds their higher effective level to minimize vulnerabilities to paddy production and revenue per farm plot, although these adaptive behaviors are cost effective and local entity. Comparatively, bamboo wall construction is more effective measure in the paddy production than others are (seed switch) to minimize the flooding materials from the flood and the landslides. Thus, low cost indigenous adaption behavior of farmers is effective measure to climate change and climate change induced disasters and events vulnerability in paddy production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1750.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: climate change; buildings; energy efficiency; energy use; sustainability
Online: 26 July 2023 (13:22:06 CEST)
Energy keeps the global economy alive, whereas it is extensively exposed to various climate change impacts. In this context, severe business competition (e.g., the building sector) and the unwise use of natural resources and ecosystem services (e.g., fossil fuel energy sources) seem to sharpen the relevant effects of climate change. Indicatively, contemporary issues at the interface of building energy performance and environmental quality levels include consequences from global warming, increasing releases of carbon dioxide to peak electrical loads, power grid and building planning, and energy demand and supply issues. In light of such concerns, the present review paper attempts to disclose the multifaceted and multidisciplinary character of building energy use at the interface of the economy, the environment, and society against climate change. This review highlights energy efficiency concepts, production, distribution, consumption patterns, and relevant technological improvements. Interestingly, the reviewed contributions in relevant literature reveal the need and necessity to alter the energy mix used and relevant energy use issues. These include developments in climate-proof and effective systems regarding climate change impacts and shocks. Practical implications indicate that the sustainable development goals for clean energy and climate action should be followed if we wish to bring a sustainable future closer and faster to our reality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0267.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Acmac; climate change mitigation; crisis to opportunity; local community engagement; post-pandemic
Online: 6 November 2023 (09:33:30 CET)
This paper delves into the essential role of local communities in mitigating climate change in the post-pandemic landscape, with a specific focus on Barangay Acmac, Iligan City, Philippines. Employing a qualitative research approach, the study integrates in-depth literature reviews, informal interviews with participants (B-Part 1 to B-Part 20), meticulous observations, and thematic analysis. The research has uncovered crucial insights, including variations in community climate change awareness that emphasize the necessity of comprehensive education and awareness campaigns. It highlights the significance of community-driven initiatives, adaptation, and resilience as key elements in addressing climate change. Collaborative efforts between local government officials and the community are showcased as effective instruments of climate change mitigation, yet challenges persist, including addressing the perceived powerlessness of some community members. The methodology, participants, and theoretical framework offer a robust foundation for exploring community responses to climate change. Drawing from a diverse theoretical framework, this study presents a comprehensive understanding of the climate change and pandemic intersection. The findings firmly establish that local communities are pivotal players in the global endeavor to mitigate climate change, underscoring the need for collective action, extensive education, and shared responsibility. The post-pandemic era presents a unique opportunity for local communities, policymakers, barangay officials, and residents to champion climate education, foster community-driven initiatives, and empower individuals to enact change at the grassroots level. The collaborative spirit observed in Barangay Acmac in 2022 serves as a model for communities worldwide, offering a blueprint for addressing similar challenges. Overall, this paper concludes with a resounding call to action, advocating for the recognition of local communities as the driving force in climate change mitigation, stressing that the power to combat climate change resides within these communities. The time for action is now, and local communities are the catalysts of this essential mission.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0233.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: water; climate change; territorial context; sustainable development goals; Agenda 2030; university students; climate literacy; social representation
Online: 20 November 2019 (03:38:43 CET)
The relationship between Climate Change and Water is an obvious and key issue within the Sustainable Development Goals. This study aims to investigate the social representation created around this relationship in three different territorial contexts in order to evaluate the influence of the territory on the perception of the risk of Climate Change and its relationship with water. By means of a questionnaire completed by 1709 university students, the climatic literacy of the individual was evaluated in order to relate it to other dimensions on the relationship between Climate Change and Water (information, training previous on climate change and pro-environmental attitudes) in their different dimensions in three different territorial contexts. The results show that the socio-cultural context influences the social representation of Climate Change, but not from the climatological condition, so that it is reasonable to think that the social representation of this relationship is favoured by a common culture around this relationship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1070.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: thunderstorms; convective available potential energy (CAPE); climate change; alaro model; numerical weather prediction models; stenvs; shear; Belgium
Online: 17 July 2023 (11:26:18 CEST)
Strong convective storms can be a serious threat to modern society, influencing both the economy and human life. Thunderstorms can bring much-needed rain after a dry spell, but the nature of thunderstorm mostly causes damage due to high wind associated with it and heavy intensity rain that mostly causes quick overlandflow and flashfloods. The paper focused on the 2011 Pukkelpop event in Belgium where due to heavy thunderstorm a lot of financial damage occurred, and five casualties. In this paper we look into the basic elements that enforces the creation of a thunderstorm like CAPE and windshear. A representative grid has been taken from the Alaro-0 model of 12.5 km resolution for the analysis of the thunderstorm over Belgium which is detailed out in the methodology. The model runs of Alaro-0 from Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (RMI) is used for historical and future years for CAPE and Shear. We look into STEnv which is a composite number that can provide some insight on occurrence of thunderstorm, and STEnv is when CAPE*Shear exceeds certain threshold. In this study the threshold has been chosen as 97%. Only summer months have been taken into account into this study as summer(s) has the most thunderstorm in Belgium. The analysis of CAPE and STEnv over historical period (1977-2005), near future (2041-2069) and far future (2071-2099) shows significant increase in occurrence of thunderstorm in the 2071-2099s, specially in extreme cases such as 97% and 99% quantile. CAPE (J/Kg) increases in all future scenarios compared to the historical period. In 2071-2099s, CAPE increases from 2100 J/Kg to 2300 J/Kg (90% quantile) and from 3500 J/Kg to 3900 J/Kg (99% quantile) compared to the historical period. The number of STEnv increases from 300 to 378 in top 10% storm case (90% quantile), 158 to 218 in top 5% storm (95% quantile), 97 to 153 in top 3% storm (97% quantile) and 33 to 66 in top 1% storm (99% quantile) with a 90% confidence interval overall. Shear mostly remains unchanged. The study also shows spatial variation of CAPE, shear and STEnv over Belgium for present and future scenarios in different extremities (90%, 95%, 97% and 99% quantiles). There is a good indication that increase in CAPE translates to increase in STEnv, which is an accepted measure to predict occurrence of thunderstorm. Future climate change also amplifies the occurrence of thunderstorm, which is coherent with relevant studies. The uncertainty related to the study can be reduced with more detailed dataset and involvement of numerical weather prediction models beyond data statistics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0151.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: climate change; GR2M; hydrologic modeling; transboundary river; West Africa
Online: 17 January 2018 (11:09:07 CET)
In the context of climate change in West Africa characterized by a reduction of precipitation, this study was conducted to evaluate the impact of climate change on water resources from now to the end of the 21st century in the transboundary watershed of the Sassandra River shared by Guinea and Côte d’Ivoire. Historical and future climate (Representative Concentration Pathways or RCPs 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios) data were projected with the model. The Abdus Salam ICTP RegCM4 was used. The hydrological modeling of the river basin was carried out with the conceptual hydrological model, GR2M. This model is a monthly time steps model that allows the assessment of the discharge of the Sassandra River for each climate scenario according to the 2030 (2021–2040), 2050 (2041–2060), 2070 (2061–2080), and 2090 (2081–2100) horizons. The results showed a reduction of the annual discharge when compared to the baseline (1961–1980). For the RCP 4.5, the observed values went from –1.2% in 2030 to –2.3% in 2070 and rose to –2.1% in 2090. Concerning the RCP 8.5, we saw a variation from –4.2% to –7.9% in the 2030 and 2090 horizons, respectively. With the general decrease of rainfall in West Africa, it is appropriate to assess the impact on water resources on the largest rivers (Niger, Gambia, and Senegal) that irrigate the Sahelo-Saharian zone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0329.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: climate change; integrated hydrological model; semi-arid; impacts
Online: 25 December 2019 (03:16:28 CET)
This study evaluated the impact of climate change on water resources in a large semi-arid urban watershed located in Niamey Republic of Niger, West Africa. The watershed was modeled using the fully integrated surface-subsurface HydroGeoSpheremodel at a high spatial resolution. Historical (1980-2005) and projected (2020-2050) climate scenario derived from the outputs of three Regional Climate Models (RCM) under the RCP 4.5 scenario were statistically downscaled using the multiscale quantile mapping bias correction method. Results show that the bias correction method is optimum at daily and monthly scales, and increased RCM resolution does not improve the performance of the model. The three RCMs predict increases of up to 1.6% in annual rainfall and of 1.58°C for mean annual temperatures between the historical and projected periods. The durations of the Minimum Environmental Flow (MEF) conditions, required to supply drinking and agriculture water, were found to be sensitive to changes in runoff resulting from climate change. MEF occurrences and durations are likely to be greater for (2020-2030), and then they will be reduced for (2030-2050). All three RCMs consistently project a rise in groundwater table of more than 10 meters in topographically high zones where the groundwater table is deep and an increase of 2 meters in the shallow groundwater table.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0339.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: climate change; natural hazard; urban poverty; early warning; information; Tanzania
Online: 14 December 2020 (13:32:46 CET)
Climate information can help vulnerable populations anticipate disasters before they happen and enable communities prepare for and cope with them. A complementary log-log regression model based on quantitative study in coastal communities in Tanzania was used to assess the likelihood of the rural poor, rural non poor, urban poor, and urban non poor to receive early warning information about flood, drought and other disasters. Individuals in the urban poor category were 35% less likely to receive early warning information about flood, drought and other disasters whereas urban non-poor residents were 49% more likely to receive same. This disadvantage to the urban poor persists even when adaptive capacity, geographical location and socio-environmental factors are accounted. Nuclear households consisting of a male head and female partner who have children or not had higher likelihood of receiving early warning information on flood, drought and other disasters (OR = 1.47, p < 0.001) compared with their counterparts in female-centred households (no husband or male partner). Residents with tertiary education were more likely (OR = 1.91, p < 0.001) to report that they had received early warning information about flood, drought and other disasters compared with their counterparts without any formal education. This zero-order relationship was completed mediated by geographical location and socio-environmental factors in the multivariate model. The results underline the key role access to climate- and disaster-related information play in enhancing adaptive capacity to reduce vulnerability to natural hazards, as well as the importance of targeting the most vulnerable households in policy interventions to improve resilience in the face of a changing climate.
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: innovative leadership; climate change; sustainable futures; ecosystems; well-being; food security; water resources; public health; sustainable practices; technologies; policies for climate change; mitigation; adaptation; innovation; complex challenges; temperature; extreme weather events; sea-level rise; biodiversity
Online: 7 October 2023 (09:47:40 CEST)
This article explores the intersection of innovative leadership and climate change, aiming to provide outstanding contributions to the existing body of knowledge in this field. The article identifies the critical role of innovative leadership in driving sustainable solutions and strategies for addressing climate change. It examines the defining characteristics and behaviors of innovative leaders and explores how their transformative leadership approaches can create a positive impact on climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts. The article also highlights the importance of fostering innovation within organizations and societies to tackle the complex challenges posed by climate change. Through a comprehensive review of relevant literature and case studies, this article presents novel insights, theoretical frameworks, and practical implications for policymakers, organizations, and individuals involved in climate change leadership.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1352.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: climate change, mitigation strategies, crops, biochar, biostimulants, soil
Online: 19 July 2023 (12:01:13 CEST)
In recent days, the adverse effect of climate change on soil properties in the agriculture sector is a dreadful reality worldwide. Climate change-induced abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought and temperature fluctuations are devastating the crops’ physiological responses, productivity and overall yield which is ultimately posing a serious threat to global food security and agroecosystems. The applications of chemical fertilizers and pesticides contribute towards further deterioration and rapid change in climate. Therefore, more careful, eco-friendly and sustainable strategies are required to mitigate the impact of climate-induced damage on agriculture sector. This paper reviews the recently reported damaging impacts of abiotic stresses on various crops along with two emerging mitigation strategies; biochar and biostimulants, in light of recent studies for combating the worsening impact of deteriorated environment and climate change on crops physiological responses, yields, soil properties, and environment. Here we highlighted the impact of climate change on agriculture and soil properties along with recently emerging mitigation strategies applying biochar and biostimulants, towards protecting the soil, agriculture and environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0740.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: coastal resilience; climate change; indicators; social-ecological system
Online: 28 April 2021 (10:18:36 CEST)
Accompanied by increasing population growth and urban sprawl, most coastal cities are unprecedentedly vulnerable to climate change and its impacts, such as sea level rise, increasing extreme storm events, and coastal flooding. Coastal resilience and sustainable development are antidotes to vulnerability; they aim to enhance the adaptive capability of absorbing disturbances and resisting uncertainty. This study explores building a quantitative assessment framework to measure resilience and provide an objective and comparable method to understand the strengths and weaknesses in a given region. The proposed 25 resilience indicators incorporate the aspects of essential livelihood protection, infrastructure and natural resource maintenance, emergency facilities and institutions, floodplain management regulations, and adaptive planning process. Each indicator is assigned the resilience quality that includes robustness, resourcefulness, redundancy, and rapidity. The aggregated resilience quality scoring reflects the systematic performance of the city to cope with the coastal hazards. The innovative part of this framework is combining hazard mitigation measures, climate adaptation strategies, and sustainable development goals together to achieve a comprehensive assessment method. In the case of New Haven, the resilience assessment is taken as a practical monitoring tool and decision-making support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0897.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: water management; climate history; humans-nature cooperation; conflict resolution; dialectics
Online: 13 June 2023 (08:26:41 CEST)
The way humans use natural resources and especially freshwater, reflects their relationship with nature. It also influences the conceptual Water Resources Management (WRM) model. A historical review shows that the interplay between Humans and Nature is diachronically in constant change between two opposites: conflict and cooperation. Lessons from the past 20.000 years indicate that the WRM model is a function of two main parameters: (1) socio-economics, and (2) climate conditions. Three different Eras of the Humans-Nature relationship have been distinguished: (1) Naturalistic: Nature dominating Humans during the Last Glacial Period (100-10) kyr BC, (2) Dualistic: Nature-Humans cooperation and competition from 10 kyr BC to 1800 AD, and (3) Anthropocentric: Humans dominating Nature from 1800 AD to now. Since 2000, the Integrated WRM (IWRM) model is promoted as state-of-the-art and remains anthropocentric producing huge externalities. Its assessment during the last 20 years has given mixed results and needs to be reformulated. The new model we suggest is based on the dialectical tool for conflict resolution. It unifies Humans and Nature and enhances the social dimension of WRM. After identifying conflicts between stakeholders and the natural laws (eristic part), opposite objectives are unified to harmonize Humans with Nature (dialectical resolution). A case study of flood mitigation illustrates the eristic-dialectical methodology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0338.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Climate change; Pavement; Airport Runway; Frost depth; Freeze/Thaw, Permafrost
Online: 5 May 2023 (09:43:08 CEST)
Rising temperatures due to the climate change can significantly impact the frost/thaw condition of airport pavements in cold regions. This case study investigates the implications of the the warming temperatures on frost/thaw penetration and frost-heave of pavements for critical airports across Canada. To this end, different methods were used in the quantification process through climate change simulations considering the emission scenario RCP8.5 in a 20- and 40-year time horizon. The results show that climate change would have different design implications for airport pavements depending on their location. The predictions suggest a shallower frost penetration depth and possibly less frost-heave for the airports not underlain by permafrost, while airports over permafrost areas might experience an increase in thickness of the active layer ranging from 41 to 57 percent by 2061. Among the different methods used in this study, it was observed that some methods performed the best in predicting frost depth of fine soils, while others worked better with the frost depth prediction of coarse soils. The results indicate the need for more mechanistic models to provide a more realistic prediction of frost/thaw penetration as compared to the existing empirical models.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0726.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: Climate change; integrated water research management; water resources; nature based solutions; groundwater management
Online: 9 June 2023 (13:17:32 CEST)
Climate change affects water resources through the decrease of rainfall and the increase in temperatures and evapotranspiration. An indirect impact of climate change is also the increase of water uses by human activities. In this review, 320 papers were retrieved, of which 134 spanning five continents impacts and solutions to be used to better understand the effects of climate change on water resources, ecosystems, human health, security and socio-economic aspects were selected. Here, suggestions and proposals by scientists from around the world towards solutions, tips and ideas to deal with climate change and the best solutions for future water management were presented. The main solutions highlighted concern integrated water resources management, political direction, policies, increase in knowledge and new technologies. Furthermore, most of the papers analyzed underline that water resources management needs to incorporate protection and restoration of ecosystems and their services. Nature-based solutions need to be the starting point of new scientific and innovative ways to deal with climate change and towards future climate adaptation. In this complex evolution of the water resource, where is the management of the water resource in Italy going?