Preprint Article Version 2 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Rethinking Climate, Climate Change, and Their Relationship With Water

Version 1 : Received: 6 February 2021 / Approved: 8 February 2021 / Online: 8 February 2021 (10:37:19 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 28 February 2021 / Approved: 3 March 2021 / Online: 3 March 2021 (10:12:40 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Koutsoyiannis, D. Rethinking Climate, Climate Change, and Their Relationship with Water. Water 2021, 13, 849. Koutsoyiannis, D. Rethinking Climate, Climate Change, and Their Relationship with Water. Water 2021, 13, 849.


We revisit the notion of climate, along with its historical evolution, tracing the origin of the modern concerns about climate. The notion (and the scientific term) of climate has been established during the Greek antiquity in a geographical context and it acquired its statistical content (average weather) in modern times, after meteorological measurements had become common. Yet the modern definitions of climate are seriously affected by the wrong perception of the previous two centuries that climate should regularly be constant, unless an external agent acted. Therefore, we attempt to give a more rigorous definition of climate, consistent with the modern body of stochastics. We illustrate the definition by real-world data, which also exemplify the large climatic variability. Given this variability, the term “climate change” turns out to be scientifically unjustified. Specifically, it is a pleonasm as climate, like weather, has been ever changing. Indeed, a historical investigation reveals that the aim in using that term is not scientific but political. Within the political aims, water issues have been greatly promoted by projecting future catastrophes while reversing the true roles and causality directions. For this reason, we provide arguments that water is the main element that drives climate and not the opposite.


climate; climate change; water; hydrology; climatology.


Environmental and Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science and Meteorology

Comments (2)

Comment 1
Received: 3 March 2021
Commenter: Demetris Koutsoyiannis
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: The changes were made in response to review comments and are included as separate pages in the bottom of the uploaded pdf file.
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Response 1 to Comment 1
Received: 5 March 2021
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: Unfortunately, the responses to reviewers have been removed from the file that appears here. The interested reader can find them at the following site, starting from page 37:

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