ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0032.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: cancer chemotherapy; chemotherapy regimen checks; pharmacist intervention; hospital pharmacist
Online: 1 November 2023 (07:34:56 CET)
The aim of this prospective study was to examine the issues of these items to evaluate the possibility of their application to clinical practice. This prospective survey was performed on pharmacists of 14 hospitals. The number of confirmation items was 345 and 375 items in the control group and recommended item group, respectively. The mean time required for completing a regimen check (±standard deviation) was 4 minutes and 14 seconds (±1 minute and 50 seconds) and 6 minutes and 18 seconds (±1 minute and 7 seconds) in the control group and recommended item group, respectively. Among the recommended items, the mean number of items that pharmacists confirmed was 12.4 and 18.6 in the control and recommended items, respectively. The number of doubt inquiries was higher in the recommended item group than in the control group (41 vs. 27 cases). The number of doubt inquiries related to dosage, premedication, urinalysis, and a history of hepatitis B virus was higher in the recommended item group than in the control group. In the present study, we created 19 items that should be confirmed in regimen checks and examined the possibility of their application to clinical practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2044.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: relapsed germ cell tumors; salvage chemotherapy; conventional dose chemotherapy; high dose chemotherapy; autologous stem cell transplant
Online: 30 May 2023 (04:48:08 CEST)
Background: Although metastatic GCT is highly curable with initial cisplatin-based chemotherapy (CT), 20-30% of patients relapse. Salvage CT options include conventional (CDCT) and high dose chemotherapy (HDCT), however definitive comparative data remains lacking. We aimed to characterize the contemporary practice patterns of salvage CT across Canada. Methods: We conducted a 30-question online survey for Canadian medical and hematological oncologists with experience in treating GCT, assessing treatment availability, patient selection, and management strategies used for relapsed GCT patients. Results: Respondents included 30 staff; from 18 cancer centers across provinces. The most common CDCT regimens used were TIP (64%) and VIP (25%). HDCT was available for (70%) in 13 centers. HDCT regimen used included carboplatin and etoposide for 2 cycles (76% in 7 centers), 3 cycles (6% in two centers), and the TICE protocol (11%, in 2 centers). “Bridging” CDCT was used by 65% respondents. Post HDCT treatments considered include surgical resection for residual disease (87.5%), maintenance etoposide (6.3%) and sur-veillance only (6.3%). Conclusions: HDCT is the most commonly used GCT salvage strategy in Canada. Significant differences exist in the treatment availability, selection and delivery of HDCT, highlighting the need for standardization of care for patients with relapsed testicular GCT.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1957.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: chemotherapy; repurposed drugs; rhabdomyosarcoma
Online: 28 September 2023 (07:39:00 CEST)
Rhabdomyosarcoma is a cancer arising from arrested myogenic differentiation, seen mainly in children or adolescents. Metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma is often fatal even with aggressive cytotoxic chemotherapies, surgery, and irradiation. SALIQ is an acronym for a multidrug augmentation regimen designed as an adjunct to current rhabdomyosarcoma chemotherapies. SALIQ uses five common non-oncology drugs, repurposed from general medicine use, to promote malignant clone maturation and inhibit rhabdomyosarcoma growth. The five drugs are: the cholesterol lowering drug simvastatin, the acne medicine tretinoin (ATRA), the psychiatric drug lithium carbonate, the antifungal drug itraconazole, and the food supplement quercetin. All five drugs are in common use for non-cancer conditions, are cheap, have an eminently safe side effect profile, and all five have preclinical evidence and good rationale for inhibiting rhabdomyosarcoma growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0593.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: chemotherapy; radiotherapy; sex-specificity
Online: 24 June 2021 (08:47:39 CEST)
The impact of sex in the development of long-term toxicities affecting the quality of life of cancer survivors has not been investigated experimentally. To address this issue, a series of neurologic and cardiologic endpoints were used to investigate sex-based differences triggered by paclitaxel treatment and radiotherapy exposure. Male and female WT mice were treated with Paclitaxel (150 and 300 mg/kg) administered weekly over 6 weeks or exposed to 19 Gy cardiac irradiation. Cohorts were analyzed for behavioral and neurobiologic endpoints to assess systemic toxicity of paclitaxel or cardiovascular endpoints to assess radiotherapy toxicity. Interestingly, female WT mice exhibited enhanced tolerance compared to male WT mice regardless of the treatment regimen. To provide insight into the possible sex-specific protective mechanisms, rhoB deficient animals and elderly mice (22 months) were used with a focus on the possible contribution of sex hormones including estrogen. RhoB deficiency and advanced age had no impact on neurocognitive impairment induced by Paclitaxel but reversed the cardioprotection was observed in females after radiotherapy. Conversely, rhoB deficiency protected males from radiation toxicity. In sum, rhoB was identified as a molecular determinant driving estrogen dependent cardioprotection in female mice, whereas neuroprotection was not sex-hormone dependent. To our knowledge, this study revealed for the first time sex- and organ-specific responses to paclitaxel and radiotherapy.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0347.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: lymphoma; follicular; ovary; chemotherapy
Online: 14 December 2020 (14:51:41 CET)
Ovarian lymphoma is an infrequent disease, accounting for less than 1% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosis. Symptoms include abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge, abdominal pain, and urinary obstruction due to the large mass. In our case, a 60-year-old woman, underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, as she presented with low-grade follicular lymphoma (FL) in both the ovaries, and the left ovary was observed to be enlarged. The tumor is categorized as lymphoma based upon immunohistochemical markers. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis and bone marrow biopsy are important for the staging of primary lymphoma of the ovary. The first-line chemotherapy regimen includes rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin hydrochloride (hydroxydaunorubicin), vincristine sulfate (Oncovin), and prednisone (R-CHOP) for rapidly proliferative non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Lymphomas with slower growth patterns can be treated with Bendamustine-Rituximab and don’t need aggressive R-CHOP treatment.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: chemotherapy; cognitive impairment; cancer
Online: 14 October 2020 (10:24:48 CEST)
Background: Oncology patients experience a large number of symptoms and, those referring to cognitive performance has an ever-increasing importance in clinical practice due to the increase in survival rates and interest in the patient's quality of life. The studies reviewed show that chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment may occur in 15 and 50% of oncology patients. The main objective of this research was to study the impact of chemotherapy on the cognitive function of patients with locoregional breast cancer.Method: Analytical, prospective, longitudinal study using three measures, unifactorial intrasubject design, non-probability and random selection sampling. The sample comprised women newly diagnosed with locoregional breast cancer in stages I, II, IIIA who received chemotherapy at the University Hospital of Salamanca (Complejo Asistencial Universitario de Salamanca) randomly selected for three years. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, HAD); quality of life (QLQ-BR23 scale) and the following cognitive variables were assessed: processing speed, attention, memory and executive functions (subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale and the Trail Making Test). Results: The final sample size included 151 participants; 23 were excluded. A decline in cognitive performance was observed in patients which was not completely recovered two months after chemotherapy had been completed. Also, worse cognitive performance was observed in patients with anxious or depressive symptoms. There is a negative impact on the quality of life. Conclusion: Chemotherapy has an impact on the cognitive performance of oncology patients in most of the cognitive domains studied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1286.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Transplantation Keywords: Graft rejection; survival; mortality; chemotherapy
Online: 19 September 2023 (10:22:28 CEST)
Background: Systemic treatment options for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after liver transplantation (LT) are limited in patients in whom sorafenib treatment was failed. The purpose of our study was to compare outcomes among sorafenib, regorafenib, and nivolumab treatment groups in patients with recurrent HCC after LT. Methods: This study retrospectively evaluated patients who received sorafenib for recurrent HCC treatment after LT at a single center from March 2007 to December 2018. Some patients received regorafenib or nivolumab after sorafenib treatment failure. Results: Fifty-six patients were treated with sorafenib due to HCC recurrence. Among these, 38 patients (67.9%) continued treatment with sorafenib only; the other 18 patients (32.1%) were converted to regorafenib treatment. Ten patients (17.9%) of these 18 were converted to nivolumab after sorafenib and regorafenib therapy failed. The disease-free survival and overall survival (OS) from LT were not different among the three groups. In addition, OS from HCC recurrence, sorafenib usage, and usage of each systemic therapeutic agent were not different among the three groups. Three cases in the nivolumab group developed acute rejection; one of these led to graft failure and death due to antibody-mediated rejection. Conclusion: Sequential regorafenib or nivolumab treatment in recurrent HCC LT patients does not improve OS compared sorafenib treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1398.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Pulmonary embolism; asymptomatic; cancer; chemotherapy
Online: 19 May 2023 (07:51:33 CEST)
Abstract: Cancer patients are explored by CT-scans more than others. The study reports the local prevalence of these embolisms, the oncological profile of the cases as well as the therapeutic management. Patients and methods: The work was based on the Analysis of the CT-examinations performed on patients of the Radiology department, for reasons other than the search for pulmonary embolism. The examinations are interpreted by 2 radiologist doctors. Results: In 389 patients, 12 cases of asymptomatic pulmonary embolism were detected, representing a prevalence of the order of 3%. The mean age of onset is 67 years. 11 patients had metastatic cancer at the time of diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. 4 PE patients are proximal, while 8 others had segmental and / or sub-segmental PE. 10 patients are treated for carcinomas, the rest for melanoma and splenic lymphoma. After analysis of clinical records, 3 of the 4 proximal pulmonary embolisms were manifested by a discrete clinical symptom attributed to diagnoses other than pulmonary embolism. 10 patients are undergoing chemotherapy alone or combined with radiotherapy, surgery or hormone therapy. At the time of the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, 3 patients were hospitalized, while 9 were followed up on an outpatient basis. Conclusion: Asymptomatic pulmonary embolism in cancer patients is becoming more frequent. Asymptomatic pulmonary embolisms are mainly peripheral, segmental or sub-segmental. As for symptomatic VTE, asymptomatic pulmonary embolism is diagnosed in patients with metastatic cancer, especially carcinoma type, and treated with chemotherapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0370.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: retinoblastoma; eye surgery; chemotherapy; radiotherapy
Online: 14 June 2021 (15:00:47 CEST)
Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular paediatric eye cancer. It accounts for approximately 11% of primary cancers occurring in the first age of life, with 95% of diagnoses before 5 years of age [1-3]. Since retinoblastoma is very aggressive, early diagnosis and prompt treatment are vital for children to preserve their sight and life. In western countries in Europe and North America, retinoblastoma is diagnosed early so the chances of saving the patient’s life and preserving vision are good. However, in large regions of Africa and Asia, where the diagnosis of retinoblastoma is delayed, the deadly effect is observed [2-5]. In these regions, socioeconomic factors and poor recognition of the seriousness of the disease result in a high mortality rate of up to 70%. At the same time, the mortality rate in Europe and North America is 3-5 % . Besides, the incidence of retinoblastoma also varies by race and region, from 40 to 60 per million live births, which corresponds to 1 per 16,000 - 24,000 live births, with the greatest disease burden recorded in the countries of Asia and Africa where the highest birth rates are recorded [2,3 However, the nationwide studies of the retinoblastoma epidemiology have been conducted in many countries, such as Sweden, Finland, Netherlands, Singapore, Great Britain, United States of America, Korea and Taiwan, there is a lack of data from Eastern European countries like Poland [1,3-11]. The management of retinoblastoma may also differ between developed and developing countries. The current strategy of retinoblastoma treatment aims to save the life, eye, vision and cosmetics of the child, in order of priority. Medical management of retinoblastoma includes surgical treatment (enucleation), external beam radiotherapy, systemic chemotherapy with or without focal therapies such as cryotherapy, laser photocoagulation and plaque radiotherapy. Recently, intra-arterial and intravitreal chemotherapies have been used to treat retinoblastoma with the ability to save globes that otherwise would have been enucleated [2,3]. The present study aimed to investigate the incidence and characteristics of retinoblastoma in the overall population of Poland in the years 2010-2017 and to report the changes that occurred during that period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0619.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: acute lymphoblastic leukemia; imatinib; dasatinib: nilotinib; ponatinib; blinatumomab; reducedintensity chemotherapy; chemotherapy-free; progression-free
Online: 11 September 2023 (04:05:57 CEST)
In Philadelphia chromosome positive B-cell (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (LLA), growing evidence has ac-cumulated about the efficacy of low-intensity and chemo-free regimens. Our objective was to analyze all recent trials evaluating these treatments and to compare them in terms of efficacy. We applied the Shiny method, an artificial intelligence technique, to analyze Kaplan-Meier curves and reconstruct patient-level data. Reconstructed patient data were then evaluated through standard survival statistics and subjected to indirect head-to-head treatment comparisons. The endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Based on 848 reconstructed patients, 9 trials were analyzed. The survival data from these trials were pooled into three types of treatments: i) treatments based on ty-rosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) combined with reduced-intensity chemotherapy (denoted as TKICHE); ii) TKIs as-sociated to steroids with no chemotherapy (TKISTE); iii) chemotherapy-free combinations of blinatumomab plus TKIs (TKIBLI). According to the Shiny method, the three PFS curves were reported in a single Kaplan-Meier graph and subjected to survival statistics. In terms of PFS, TKIBLI ranked first, TKICHE second, and TKISTE third; the differences between these three regimens were statistically significant. This multi-treatment Kaplan-Meier graph, generated through the Shiny method, summarized the current evidence on these treatments in both qualitative and quantitative terms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0060.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: acute lymphoblastic leukemia; imatinib; ponatinib; dasatinib; nilotinib; blinatumomab; reduced-intensity chemotherapy; chemotherapy-free; progression-free
Online: 7 July 2023 (14:32:15 CEST)
: In Philadelphia chromosome positive B-cell (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (LLA), growing evidence has accumulated about the efficacy of low-intensity and chemo-free regimens. Our objective was to analyse all recent trials evaluating these treatments and to compare them in terms of efficacy. We applied the Shiny method, an artificial intelligence technique, to analyse Kaplan-Meier curves and reconstruct patient-level data. Reconstructed patient data were then evaluated through standard survival statistics and subjected to indirect head-to-head treatment comparisons. The endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Based on 562 reconstructed patients, 8 trials were analyzed. The survival data from these trials were pooled into three types of treatment: i) treatments based on tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) combined with reduced-intensity chemotherapy (denoted as TKICHE); ii) TKIs associated to steroids with no chemotherapy (TKISTE); iii) chemotherapy-free combinations of blinatumomab plus TKIs (TKIBLI). According to the Shiny method, the three PFS curves were reported in a single Kaplan-Meier graph and subjected to survival statistics. In terms of PFS, TKIBLI ranked first, TKICHE second, and TKISTE third; the differences between these three regimens were statistically significant. In conclusion, the multi-treatment Kaplan-Meier graph generated in this study has effectively summarized the current evidence on these treatments in comparative terms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0088.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: ovarian cancer; heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC); intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IP); cytoreductive surgery; secondary cytoreduction; interval cytoreduction
Online: 6 June 2018 (11:56:33 CEST)
Heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has several potential benefits. Higher doses of chemotherapy can be used with HIPEC because the plasma-peritoneal barrier results in little absorption into the blood stream. HIPEC offers higher peritoneal penetration in comparison to an intravenous (IV) regimen and does not have the traditional normothermic intraperitoneal (IP) regimen limitation of post-operative adhesions. Hyperthermia itself has cytotoxic effects and can potentiate antineoplastic effects of chemotherapy in part by increasing the depth of tumor penetration by up to 3 mm. For the treatment of ovarian cancer, HIPEC has been evaluated in the recurrent setting with secondary cytoreduction. Recent studies, including a prospective trial, have evaluated its role in primary management of ovarian cancer. This review summarizes previous and ongoing studies regarding the use of HIPEC in the management of ovarian cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1512.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Precision medicine; pharmacogenomics; cytokines; chemotherapy; radiotherapy
Online: 23 November 2023 (11:09:09 CET)
Precision cancer medicine primarily aims to identify individual patient genomic variations and exploit vulnerabilities in cancer cells to select suitable patients for specific drugs. These genomic features are commonly determined by gene sequencing prior to therapy, to identify individuals who would be most responsive. This precision approach in cancer therapeutics remains a powerful tool that benefits a smaller pool of patients, sparing others from unnecessary treatments. A limitation of this approach is that proteins, not genes, are the ultimate effectors of biological functions, and therefore the targets of therapeutics. An additional dimension in precision medicine that considers an individual’s cytokine response to cancer therapeutics is proposed. Cytokine responses to therapy are multifactorial and vary among individuals. Thus, precision is dictated by the nature and magnitude of cytokine responses in the tumor microenvironment exposed to therapy. This review highlights cytokine responses as modules for precision medicine in cancer therapy, including potential challenges. For solid tumors, both detectability of cytokines in tissue fluids and their being amenable to routine sensitive analyses could address the difficulty of specimen collection for diagnosis and monitoring. Therefore, in precision cancer medicine, cytokines offer rational targets that can be utilized to enhance the efficacy of cancer therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0567.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: hyperthermia; ovarian cancer; immunity; chemotherapy; HIPEC
Online: 31 January 2023 (02:41:11 CET)
Epithelial ovarian cancer is an aggressive disease of the female reproductive system and a leading cause of cancer death in women. Standard of care includes surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy yet patients continue to experience a high rate of recurrence and metastasis. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) treatment in highly selective patients extends overall survival by nearly 12 months. The clinical studies are highly supportive of the use of HIPEC in the treatment of ovarian cancer though the therapeutic approach is limited to academic medical centers. The mechanism underlying HIPEC benefit remains unknown. The efficacy of HIPEC therapy is impacted by several procedural and patient/tumor factors including the timing of surgery, platinum sensitivity, and molecular profiling such as homologous recombination deficiency. The present review aims to provide insight into the mechanistic benefit of HIPEC treatment with a focus on how hyperthermia activates the immune response, induces DNA damage and impairs DNA damage repair pathways, and has a synergistic effect with chemotherapy, with the ultimate outcome of increasing chemosensitivity. Identifying the points of fragility unmasked by HIPEC may provide the key pathways that could be the basis of new therapeutic strategies for ovarian cancer patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0052.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: mucositis; radiotherapy; chemotherapy; pathophysiology; management; melatonin
Online: 9 March 2017 (04:46:30 CET)
The current treatment for cervico-facial cancer involves radio and/or chemotherapy. Unfortunately, cancer therapies can lead to local and systemic complications such as mucositis, which is the most common dose-dependent complication in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. Mucositis can cause a considerably reduced quality of life in cancer patients already suffering from physical and psychological exhaustion. However, melatonin, whose role in the treatment of mucositis has recently been investigated, offers an effective alternative therapy in the prevention and/or management of radio and/or chemotherapy-induced mucositis. This review focuses on the pathobiology and management of mucositis in order to improve the quality of cancer patients’ lives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0216.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Planckian Distribution Equation; breast cancer; mRNA; chemotherapy
Online: 8 February 2021 (16:00:22 CET)
Chemotherapy-related deaths, the result of treatment with faulty medications, account for nearly 10% of all breast cancer deaths (Rashbass, 2016). Patient-specific, personalized medicine is evidently required to administer optimized therapeutics and prevent treatment-related mortality. In order to develop a predictive model for breast cancer therapy, the following study analyzed the mRNA data of 4,704 genes derived from 20 breast cancer patients before and after doxorubicin treatment for 16 weeks (O’brien et al., 2006; Perou et al., 2000). The genomic data of each patient was first stratified into 9 groups (corresponding to the 9 Mechanisms defined in Figure 4) based on mRNA expression in response to the tumor and to the doxorubicin treatment. The study then employed the Planckian Distribution Equation (PDE) discovered at Rutgers University to model the stratified samples by transforming each mechanism into a single long-tailed histogram fitted by the PDE. Our PDE model is based on 3 parameters - A, B, and C - of which 2 were extracted from each model to generate the plots seen in figures 5e and 5f. The drug-induced slopes of the A vs C plots were then determined for all 9 mechanisms of each patient. The study observed an increase in post-treatment mRNA levels for longer surviving patients in 6 mechanisms. Further analysis displayed how the drug treatment uniquely altered each of the mechanisms based on the length of patient survival. These results indicate that the PDE-based procedures described herein may provide a novel tool for discovering potential anti-breast cancer pharmaceuticals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0225.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: cancer; chemotherapy; nausea; vomiting; progressive muscle relaxation
Online: 19 October 2019 (16:11:44 CEST)
(1) Background: Previous systematic review suggested a beneficial effect of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. However, poor quality of eligible studies impaired the reliability and validity of findings. Moreover, additional potential studies with good quality published in Chinese language have been published recently. The aim of the present systematic review was to investigate the value of PMR training in preventing and alleviating nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy among cancer patients. (2) Methods: We assigned two independent investigators to search all potential studies in PubMed, Cochrane Controlled Register of Trial (CENTRAL), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), China Biomedical Literature database (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang data. We used data extraction sheet extracted all essential information, and used the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool to appraise the quality of eligible studies. Finally, we qualitatively summarized the results of all included studies. (3) Results: Six studies enrolling 288 patients were considered to meet our selection criteria finally. Of these 6 studies, three were labeled as moderate quality, and the remaining studies were low quality. All included studies consistently suggested that PMR has a positive impact on nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy among cancer patients especially alleviating the incidence, frequency and degree of delayed nausea and vomiting. (4) Conclusions: Independent studies indicated that PMR was a beneficial approach to prevent and alleviate nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy among cancer patients. However, further studies considering other types of primary tumors should be designed in order to increase the generality of PMR because studies included in the present systematic review mainly enrolled lung cancer and breast cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0256.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: immunocheckpoint inhibitors; chemotherapy; tirosin kinase inhibitors; angiogenesis
Online: 28 March 2019 (06:48:37 CET)
Despite the impact of immune checkpoint inhibitors on malignancies treatment is unprecedented, a lack of response to these molecules is observed in several cases. Differently from melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer, where the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors results in a high efficacy, the response rate in other tumors, such as gastrointestinal cancers, breast cancer, sarcomas, and part of genitor-urinary cancers remains low. The first strategy evaluated to improve the response rate to immune checkpoint inhibitors is the use of predictive factors for the response as PD-L1 expression, tumor mutational burden, and clinical features. In addition to the identification of the patients with a high sensibility to immune checkpoint inhibitors, another approach currently under intensive investigation is the use of therapeutics in a combinatory manner with immune checkpoint inhibitors to obtain an enhancement of efficacy through the modification of the tumor immune microenvironment. In addition to the abscopal effect induced by radiotherapy, a lot of studies are evaluating several drugs able to improve response rate to immune checkpoint inhibitors, including microbiota modifiers, drugs targeting co-inhibitors receptors, anti-angiogenic therapeutics, small molecules, and oncolytic viruses. In view of the rapid and extensive development of this research field, we conducted a systematic review of the literature identifying which of these drugs are closer to achieving validation in the clinical practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0004.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: breast cancer; optimal control; ketogenic diet; chemotherapy
Online: 1 February 2018 (04:45:40 CET)
In this paper, a mathematical model of breast cancer governed by a system of ordinary differential equations in the presence of chemotherapy treatment and ketogenic diet is discussed. Several comprehensive mathematical analysis was carried out using varieties of analytical methods to study the stability of the breast cancer model. Also, sufficient conditions on parameter values to ensure cancer persistence in the absence of anti-cancer drugs ketogenic diet and cancer emission when anti-cancer drugs, immune-booster, ketogenic diet are included were established. Furthermore, optimal control theory is applied to find out the optimal drug adjustment as an input control of the system therapies to minimize the number of cancerous cells by considering different controlled combinations of administering the chemotherapy agent and ketogenic diet using the popular Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle. Numerical simulations were presented to validate our theoretical results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0190.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: breast cancer; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; vimentin; vascular invasion; prognosis
Online: 4 October 2023 (11:22:07 CEST)
To clarify whether changes in biological features of breast tumor cells and intra-tumor immunity after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) may correlate with pathological responses and prognosis in breast cancer patients treated with NAC, we investigated various biomarkers using both pre- and post-NAC tumor samples. The study subjects were 24 primary breast cancer patients, who were treated with NAC at the Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Kawasaki Medical School Hospital between 2010 and 2011. All of them had a non-pathological complete response (pCR) to NAC and their pre- and post-NAC tumor samples were available for biomarker assays. Ki67 labeling index, apoptosis, factors related to cancer stem cells and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), and expression levels of CD-8, CD-4, FoxP3, PD-L1, and PD-1 were studied using the paired samples. Biological characteristics of residual tumors such as nuclear grade (NG) and vascular invasion (v) were also investigated. The median age was 53 years-old and 14 patients had stage III tumors, while 10 had stage II tumors. A higher expression level of CD8, CD4, or PD-1 in pre-NAC samples and of CD8, CD4 or PD-L1 in post-NAC samples was significantly correlated with a better pathological response to NAC. Positivity of ZEB1, vimentin, and v or NG 3 in post-NAC samples was significantly correlated with either worse disease-free survival (DFS) or worse overall survival (OS) by univariate analyses. Multivariate analyses for DFS and OS revealed that positivity for v and vimentin expression in residual tumors were independent prognostic factors in this study. These findings indicate that activated intra-tumor immune microenvironments may play significant roles in pathological responses to NAC, and that the up-regulation of vimentin and v-positivity in residual tumors may be pivotal prognostic factors in non-pCR cases to NAC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0961.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: breast cancer; chemotherapy; lipids; triglycerides; HDL; LDL; cholesterol
Online: 14 September 2023 (07:25:14 CEST)
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Cardiovascular diseases are common complications after chemotherapy due to the effect of the drug on lipid levels. This study aimed to explore the changes in lipid profiles in patients with breast cancer under chemotherapy. Methods: In this prospective study, 50 patients with breast cancer participated. Three biochemical-lipid hematological tests were performed: total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL-C), and Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL-C) before initiation (pre-chemotherapy), at the start (1st follow-up), and at the completion (2nd follow-up) of the first cycle of chemotherapy. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Analyses were conducted using SPSS Statistical Software (version 22.0). Results: Mean TC values increased significantly at 2nd follow-up. TG values decreased significantly from 1st to 2nd follow-up. HDL-C was significantly lower at 1st follow-up compared to pre-chemotherapy and 2nd follow-up reaching similar to the initial levels. LDL-C values were significantly higher at 2nd follow-up compared to pre-chemotherapy measurement. Significantly positive correlations of BMI with pre-chemotherapy LDL-C, 1st follow-up TC, 1st follow-up LDL-C, 2nd follow-up TC, and 2nd follow-up LDL-C were found. Conclusions: There is a statistically significant increase in the levels of TC and LDL-C in breast cancer patients during chemotherapy. This study was not registered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0004.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Esophageal cancer; Caenorhabditis elegans; N-NOSE; Preoperative chemotherapy
Online: 3 July 2023 (09:31:24 CEST)
Background The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) possesses a sophisticated sense of smell and is used for a novel cancer screening test that utilizes the chemotaxis index. We designed a single-institution, prospective study to confirm the ability of Nematode Nose (N-NOSE) to determine preoperative chemotherapy's efficacy for esophageal cancer patients. Patients and Methods We investigated the predictability of N-NOSE screening for the clinical effects of preoperative chemotherapy for esophageal cancer patients receiving radical surgery. The index reduction score (IRS) was calculated by chemotaxis of C. elegans at three points: before treatment, before surgery, and after surgery, and its clinical relevance was examined. Result Thirty-nine patients with esophageal cancer were enrolled from August 2020 to December 2021 and 30 patients receiving radical surgery were examined. Complete response or partial response was achieved in 23 cases (76.7%). When the target of the treatment effect was complete response only, the prediction accuracies of the IRS calculated by area under the curve was 0.85 (95% Confidence interval: 0.62-1) in clinically achieving complete response group, and the sensitivity and specificity were 1 and 0.63, respectively. Conclusion Index reduction score using N-NOSE screening may reflect the efficacy of chemotherapy for esophageal cancer patients. A large-scale prospective study at multiple centers is desired in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0929.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: chemotherapy; anthracyclines; cyclophosphamide; muscle strength; quality of life
Online: 13 June 2023 (10:56:52 CEST)
Background: Evidences on the effects of chemotherapy treatment cycles on measures of muscle, mental state, social and cognitive performance are scarce. Objective: To analyze the effects of chemotherapy cycles on muscle strength and activation, functional capacity, quality of life, fatigue and anxiety of women with breast cancer. Methods: Twenty-two women divided into a treatment group (n = 10; 46.6 ± 9.6 years) and control group (n = 12; 51.6 ± 7.0 years) participated in the study. Analysis of muscle performance, quality of life, fatigue and anxiety after the 2nd and 4th cycle of chemotherapy with anthracyclines and cyclophosphamide were performed in women with breast cancer (TRA) and compared to healthy women (CTR). Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the variance of the means and the significance level was set as p≤0.05. Results: Differences were found in the muscular activation of the vastus medialis between the groups at post time (p = 0.038), as well as in the sit and stand test in the baseline (p<0.001) and post moment (p<0.001). Functional capacity performance was different between baseline (p<0.001) and post-time (p<0.001) groups. Additionally, the TRA group worsened the quality of life in the domains of functional capacity (p<0.001) and limitation of physical aspects (p=0.002), besides presenting negative changes in fatigue. Conclusion: Anthracycline and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy cycles reduce muscular performance and affect biopsychosocial variables in women with breast cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0074.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Triple negative breast cancer; chemotherapy; immunotherapy; limitations; nanotechnology
Online: 1 June 2023 (08:58:25 CEST)
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) has a negative expression of estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), or human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER2). The survival rate for TNBC is generally worse than other breast cancer subtypes. TNBC treatment has made significant advances, but certain limitations remain. Treatment for TNBC can be challenging since the disease has various subtypes. Individualized therapy is recommended rather than generalized therapy, given the genetic variations among these TNBC subtypes. A precise and effective treatment for TNBC requires identifying prognostic markers. Depending on the type and stage of TNBC, patients are treated with various therapeutic interventions. A variety of treatment options are available, such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Chemotherapy is the most common of these options. TNBC is generally treated with systemic chemotherapy using drugs such as anthracyclines and taxanes in the neoadjuvant or adjuvant settings. Developing resistance to anticancer drugs and off target toxicity are the primary hindrances to chemotherapeutic solutions for cancer. It is imperative that researchers, clinicians, and pharmaceutical companies work together to develop effective treatment options for TNBC. Several studies have suggested nanotechnology as a potential solution to the problem of suboptimal TNBC treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0126.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: liposome; tumor-targeted; radiation; tumor; drug delivery; chemotherapy
Online: 8 September 2022 (14:06:26 CEST)
Targeted delivery of drugs or other therapeutic agents through internal or external triggers has been used to control and accelerate the release from liposomal carriers in a number of studies, but relatively few utilize energy of therapeutic X-rays as a trigger. We have synthesized liposomes that are triggered by ionizing radiation (RTLs) to release their therapeutic payload. These liposomes are composed of natural egg PE, DSPC, cholesterol, and DSPE-PEG-2000, and the mean size of the RTL was in the range of 114 to 133 nm, as measured by NTA. The trigger mechanism is the organic halogen, chloral hydrate, which is known to generate free protons upon exposure to ionizing radiation. Once protons are liberated, a drop in internal pH of the liposome promotes destabilization of the lipid bilayer and escape of the liposomal contents. In proof of principle studies, we assessed RTL radiation-release of fluorescent tracers upon exposure to a low pH extracellular environment or exposure to X-ray irradiation. Biodistribution imaging before and after irradiation demonstrated a preferential uptake and release of the liposomes and their cargo at the site of local tumor irradiation. Finally, a potent metabolite of the commonly used chemotherapy irinotecan, SN-38, was loaded into RTL along with near infrared (NIR) fluorescent dyes for imaging studies and measuring tumor cell cytotoxicity alone or combined with radiation exposure, in vitro and in vivo. Fully loaded RTLs were found to increase tumor cell killing with radiation in vitro and enhance tumor growth delay in vivo after three i.v. injections combined with three, 5 Gy local tumor radiation exposures compared to either treatment modality alone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0225.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: chemotherapy; muscle atrophy; Doxorubicin; mitochondria; reactive oxygen species
Online: 16 March 2022 (08:22:57 CET)
Doxorubicin (Dox) is a commonly used chemotherapeutic that can adversely affect skeletal muscle, including causing muscle atrophy. Dox is known to induce an event known as mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) in cardiac muscle and this plays an important role in Dox-mediated cardiac toxicity. Further to this, recent evidence identifies MPT as a mechanism of atrophy in skeletal muscle, suggesting that MPT may underlie some of the Dox-related toxicity in skeletal muscle. To test this hypothesis, we used cultured human primary myotubes, C2C12 myotubes, and single adult mouse flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle fibers in experiments involving Dox treatment with or without inhibitors of MPT. Dox treatment of myotubes caused myonuclear translocation of the mitochondrial protein apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) and increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS), consistent with the known consequences of MPT. Furthermore, Dox caused atrophy in C2C12 myotubes grown on patterned plates, human primary myotubes, and single muscle fibers from adult mice. Notably, Dox-induced atrophy could be prevented by a wide variety of agents that inhibit MPT, as well as by inhibiting mROS or Caspase 3. In conclusion, our results indicate that MPT plays an important role in driving Dox-mediated skeletal muscle atrophy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0716.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Malaria elimination; Mathematical model; Human mobility; Intervention chemotherapy
Online: 29 September 2020 (14:42:16 CEST)
In central Senegal malaria incidences have declined from 2000 to 2010 in response to scaling-up of control measures and then remained stable, making elimination improbable. Additional control measures are needed to reduce transmission. We simulated chemoprophylaxis interventions targeting malaria hotspots, using a meta-population mathematical model based on differential equation framework and incorporating human mobility. The model was fitted to weekly malaria incidences from 45 villages. Three approaches for selecting intervention targets were compared: a) villages with malaria cases during the low transmission season of the previous year; b) villages with highest incidences during the high transmission season of the previous year; c) villages with highest connectivity with adjacent populations. Our modeling, considering human mobility, showed that the intervention strategies targeting hotspots would be effective in reducing malaria incidence in both targeted and untargeted areas. But whatever the intervention, pre-elimination stage (1-5 cases per 1,000 per year) would not be reached without simultaneously increasing vector control by more than 10%. Targeted interventions allow increasing overall malaria control and elimination potential.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Mathematical models; tumor growth; chemotherapy; diffusion; optimal control
Online: 5 July 2020 (16:39:32 CEST)
In the last few decades, the dynamics of tumor cells and their growths are presented via clinical, experimental, and theoretical approaches, which leads to the development of the new idea of multiple cancer therapies to control and reduce the death rate for earlier detection. In this paper, we discussed the dynamics of tumor cell growth and its treatment process. We analyzed some simple mathematical models and generalized the study to understand the growth of tumor cells. The main proposed model is a system of ordinary differential equations which combines interactions among natural killer cells, dendritic cells and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. The model is solved numerically to explain how the tumor cells spread and become more dangerous as well as the treatment process of cancer. It is also studied that how the cell behaves in the presence of different therapy and drugs. The optimal control of chemotherapy has been discussed. It has also been explained how much the model is effective in reducing tumor cells over time. Finally, a couple of spatially distributed models are discussed for tumor cell growth.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: neuroendocrine neoplasms; chemotherapy; temozolomide; metronomic treatment; second-line
Online: 26 July 2019 (16:56:08 CEST)
Background: The front-line treatment of advanced NeuroEndocrine Neoplasms (NENs) depends on clinical and pathological factors but there are no standard second-line therapies. Methods: Metastatic NENs patients were treated at the ENETS (European NeuroEndocrine Tumor Society) center of excellence of Naples (Italy), from 2014 to 2017 with second-line metronomic temozolomide, 75 mg/m2 per os “one week on/one week off”. Toxicity was graded with NCI-CTC criteria v4.0; objective responses with RECIST v1.1 and performance status (PS) according to ECOG. Results: Twenty-six consecutive patients were treated. Median age was 65.5 years. The predominant primary organs were pancreas and lung. Grading was G2 in 11 patients, G3 in 15. Eleven patients presented with PS 1 and 15 with PS 2. The median time-on-temozolomide therapy was 12.2 months (95% CI: 11.4-19.6). No G3/G4 toxicities were registered. Complete response was obtained in 1 patient, partial response in 4, stable disease in 19 (disease control rate: 92.3%), and progressive disease in 2. The median overall survival from temozolomide start was 28.3 months. PS improved in 73% of patients. Conclusions: Metronomic temozolomide is a safe and active treatment for G2 and G3 NENs. Prospective and larger trials are needed to confirm these results.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0318.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: S100A10; annexin A2; plasmin; ovarian cancer; chemotherapy resistance
Online: 15 October 2018 (14:02:03 CEST)
S100A10, which is also known as p11 is located in the plasma membrane and forms a heterotetramer with annexin A2. The heterotetramer, comprising of 2 subunits of annexin A2 and S100A10, activates the plasminogen activation pathway which is involved in cellular repair of normal tissues. Increased expression of annexin A2 and S100A10 in cancer cells leads to increased levels of plasmin which promote degradation of the extracellular matrix, increased angiogenesis and invasion of the surrounding organs. Although many studies have investigated the functional role of annexin A2 in cancer cells including ovarian cancer, S100A10 has been less studied. We recently demonstrated that high stromal annexin A2 and high cytoplasmic S100A10 expression is associated with a 3.4 fold increased risk of progression and 7.9 fold risk of death in ovarian cancer patients. Other studies have linked S100A10 with multidrug resistance in ovarian cancer, however, no functional studies to date have been performed in ovarian cancer cells. This article reviews the current understanding on S100A10 function in cancer with a particular focus on ovarian cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0099.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: premature ovarian failure (POF); PBMC, chemotherapy; cancer; ovary
Online: 6 August 2018 (07:56:50 CEST)
Cancer treatment with specific chemotherapeutic agents has been well documented to have an adverse impact on female fertility leading to premature ovarian failure (POF). The objective of this study was to investigate if chemotherapeutic induced POF can be reversed with an infusion of autologous nucleated peripheral blood cells (PBMC). To reach our goal, mice were treated with a single intraperitoneal injections of busulfan and cyclophosphamide to induce POF. This was followed by transfusion of PBMC. The ovarian morphology and functional parameters were monitored by radioimmunoassay, real-time PCR, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry analysis. Our study showed that chemotherapy (CTX) protracted estrous cycle period and repressed E2 production. CTX decreased the expressions of steroidogenesis markers- CYP-17 synthesis, StAR and Connexin-43 protein expression from the ovarian follicles. We also observed reduced numbers and sizes of the primordial and primary follicles in CTX-treated mice compared to untreated controls (P < 0.05). When both CTX and untreated –control groups were stimulated with gonadotrophin, the control group produced ten times more ova than the CTX group. Finally, the treatment of premature ovarian failure induced by CTX with autologous PBMC transfusion resulted in over-expression and a statistically significant increase in several stem cell markers and restoration of fertility. Infusion with PBMC in CTX further decreased the estrous cycle length by 2.5 times (P < 0.01). We found that transfusion of autologous PBMC to mice with chemotherapy induced POF was very effective at restoring fertility. These results are similar to other studies using bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0897.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: lung cancer; platinum-based chemotherapy; ERCC5; Genetic polymorphism; prognosis
Online: 13 October 2023 (11:34:21 CEST)
Background: Lung cancer is still the most lethal malignancy in the world from the report of Cancer Statistics in 2021. Platinum-based chemotherapy combined immunotherapy is the first-line treatment in lung cancer patients. However, the 5-year survival rate always affected by the adverse reaction and drug resistance caused by platinum-based chemotherapy. DNA damage and repair system is one of the important mechanisms which can affect the response to chemotherapy and clinical outcome in lung cancer patients. Objective: The objective of this study is to find the relationship between the polymorphisms of DNA repair genes with the prognosis in platinum-based chemotherapy in lung cancer patients. Patients and Methods: We performed genotyping in 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Excision Repair Cross-Complementation group (ERCC) genes and X-ray Repair Cross-Complementing (XRCC) genes of 345 lung cancer patients by Sequenom MassARRAY. We used Cox proportional hazard models, state and plink to analyze the associations between SNPs and the prognosis of lung cancer patients. Results: We found that the ERCC5 rs873601 was associated with the overall survival time in lung cancer patients treat by platinum-based chemotherapy (p=0.031*). We also discovered that the polymorphisms in rs873601 was significantly associated with the prognosis in age more than 55 years, Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) and smoking patients, Long Intergenic Non-protein Coding RNA (PNKY) rs2444933 in age less than 55 years, SCLC, metastasis and stage III/IV/ED patients, Short Tau Inversion Recovery (STIR1) rs3740051 in SCLC and metastasis patients, PNKY rs1869641 in SCLC patients, XRCC5 rs1051685 in non-metastasis patients, respectively. Conclusion: The ERCC5 rs873601(G>A) maybe a valuable biomarker for predicting the prognosis in lung cancer patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Statements and Declarations: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1527.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Other Keywords: high grade serous ovarian cancer; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; prognostic index
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:31:01 CEST)
Background: A prognostic index validated for the outcomes of advanced high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) patients with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is still lacking. We therefore developed an ovarian neoadjuvant chemotherapy prognostic index (ONCPI) to enhance predictive accuracy. Methods: We analyzed clinicopathologic feature of advanced HGSOC patients receiving platinum-based NACT. Blood inflammatory composite markers were calculated and binary-transformed by optimal cutoffs. The omental hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides were selected for the assessment of chemotherapy response score (CRS). Logistic regression analyses and Cox proportional hazard regression model were utilized to develop a prognostic index. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that CRS and neutrophils-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) are independent risk factors for platinum-chemotherapy response. Meanwhile, Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression analysis revealed that CRS score was significantly correlated with PFS and OS, and NLR-high patients was associated with poor OS. We further developed an ONCPI model based on the CRS score and NLR level. Survival analysis suggested that patients with score 0 and 1 of ONCPI were significantly associated with improved PFS and OS. Conclusions: The ONCPI score emerges as a significant prognostic marker for predicting NACT outcomes in advanced HGSOC patients. Its integration into clinical practice and risk-stratified trial design is conceivable.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0121.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: low grade chondrosarcoma; head and neck cancers; radiotherapy; chemotherapy
Online: 2 June 2023 (03:51:38 CEST)
Chondrosarcoma, represents approximately 0.1% of all neoplasms of the head and neck, being considered a rare disease, but with a relatively good prognosis. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate is estimated at 70-80%, being considered a disease with a low growth rate. About 13% of all cases of chondrosarcoma, are located in the region of the head and neck. We present the case of a young patient treated multimodally, lost from the oncological records less than two years after the diagnosis, without evidence of disease progression. The early loss from the oncological follow-up programs of patients with a lower risk of early repalpse, without evidence of a recurrence or metastasis could be the consequence of a major complication among which we could assume an aspiration pneumonia secondary to a dysphagia, associated with an aggressive multidisciplinary treatment. Large tumor size and positive resection margins (R1 resection) are risk factors that support an intensive adjuvant approach in order to reduce the risk of recurrence, but the low grade of tumor, associating a lower risk of recurrence as well as the adverse events (AE) of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy justifies a more reserved therapeutic approach. Taking into account the longer life expectancy of these patients, it is recommended to use a more conformal irradiation technique in order to reduce doses to radiosensitive structures as well as to omit elective neck irradiation, taking into account the lower risk of lymph node involvement. The lack of guidelines that include very rare tumors including low grade chondrosarcoma of head and neck make a unified approach difficult, but the data presented even in case reports could contribute to choosing the regimen that offers the best therapeutic ratio.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0001.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ovarian cancer; ALDH1A1; cancer stem cells; senescence; chemotherapy resistance
Online: 2 May 2022 (09:39:22 CEST)
Ovarian cancer is a deadly disease attributed to late-stage detection as well as recurrence and development of chemoresistance. Ovarian cancer stem cells (OCSCs) are hypothesized to be largely responsible for emergence of chemoresistant tumors. Although chemotherapy may initially succeed at decreasing the size and number of tumors, it leaves behind residual malignant OCSCs. In this study, we demonstrate that Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) is essential for the survival of OCSCs. We identified a novel ALDH1A1 inhibitor, compound 974, and used 974 as a tool to decipher the mechanism of stemness regulation by ALDH1A1. Treatment of OCSCs with 974 significantly inhibited ALDH activity, expression of stemness genes, spheroid, and colony formation. In vivo limiting dilution assay demonstrated that 974 significantly inhibited CSC frequency. Transcriptomic sequencing of cells treated with 974 revealed significant downregulation of genes related to stemness and chemoresistance as well as senescence and senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP). We confirmed that 974 inhibited senescence and stemness induced by platinum-based chemotherapy in functional assays. Overall, these data establish that ALDH1A1 is essential for OCSCs survival and ALDH1A1 inhibition sup-presses chemotherapy induced senescence and stemness. Targeting ALDH1A1 using small molecule inhibitors in combination with chemotherapy therefore presents a promising strategy to pre-vent ovarian cancer recurrence and has potential for clinical translation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0478.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: advanced lung cancer; network-meta analysis; combination therapy; chemotherapy
Online: 31 May 2020 (16:11:51 CEST)
Background: At present, the treatments for patients with advanced lung cancer focus on chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, or a combination of multiple treatments. Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to compare the various chemotherapy-based combination therapies and find the best one for patients with advanced lung cancer. Methods: Based on database (PubMed, EMBASE and Medline) for randomized controlled trials of advanced lung cancer with combination therapy from 2008 to 2020, we searched literatures with overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR) and adverse as outcome indicators and established a Bayesian mesh meta-analysis for multiple treatment strategies. Then, we combined the results of four outcome indicators to find out the best chemotherapy-based combination therapy strategy for patients with advanced lung cancer, further, we tried to screen out the best drugs of which were commonly used now. Results: It contained a total of 51 studies, including five combination therapies: Chemotherapy/Chemotherapy plus placebo (CT), chemotherapy plus one targeted therapy drug (CT+T), chemotherapy plus two targeted therapy drugs (CT+T+T), chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy (CT+I) or chemotherapy combined with biotherapy (CT+B). In terms of four outcome indicators, CT+I showed the best therapeutic benefits. In the comparison of immunotherapy drugs, pembrolizumab showed the best effect. Conclusion: Our results showed that, among the multiple chemotherapy-based combination therapy strategies, chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy is the best choice for patients with advanced lung cancer, and pembrolizumab combined with chemotherapy has the best effect.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: glioblastoma; miRNA; MGMT; survival; radiotherapy; chemotherapy; temozolomide; translational medicine
Online: 9 April 2020 (08:27:12 CEST)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common high-grade intracranial tumor in adults. It is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation, diffuse infiltration due to high invasive and migratory capacities, as well as intense resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. With a five-year survival of less than 3% and an average survival rate of 12 months after diagnosis, GBM has become a focus of current research to urgently develop new therapeutic approaches in order to prolong survival of GBM patients. The methylation status of the promoter region of the O6-methylguanine–DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is nowadays routinely analyzed, since a methylated promoter region is beneficial for an effective response to temozolomide-based chemotherapy. Furthermore, several miRNAs were identified regulating MGMT expression, apart from promoter methylation, by degrading MGMT mRNA before protein translation. These miRNAs could be a promising innovative treatment approach to enhance Temozolomide (TMZ) sensitivity in MGMT unmethylated patients and to increase progression-free survival as well as long-term survival. In this review, the relevant miRNAs are systematically reviewed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0395.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Oncotype; Recurrence Score; breast cancer; genomic risk; chemotherapy; genomic assay; Exact Sciences; Oncotype RS; Oncotype DX; clinical risk; chnages in chemotherapy; TAILORx
Online: 7 November 2023 (10:35:34 CET)
Published in July 2018, TAILORx aimed to establish non-inferiority of endocrine therapy (ET) compared to addition of chemotherapy (CHT-ET) in hormone receptor positive, human epidermal receptor 2 negative (HR+/HER2-) breast cancer (BC) patients with a 21-gene intermediate (11-25) recurrence score (RS). While this hypothesis proved correct, the study did show benefit of addition of chemotherapy (CHT) in a subgroup of women under 50 years of age, and particularly in the RS 16-25. The aim of this present study was to look at how TAILORx findings, including changes in RS categories, impacted CHT implementation at one oncologic center in Basel, Switzerland, and to identify main factors leading to these changes. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study on HR+/HER2-, BC patients who underwent 21-gene genomic testing between 2010-2021, at our center. Patients with metastatic disease were not included. We identified 326 eligible patients, of which 165 had a BC diagnosis before TAILORx (cohort A) and 161 after TAILORx publication (cohort B). Results: Demographic and tumor characteristics were similar in the two cohorts, although cohort B included significantly more women under the age of 50 when compared to A (34% vs. 24%, p<0.001). Median age and mean RS results were comparable 59 (IQR 16) in A and 58 (IQR 19) years in B and 17.72 (SD9.59) in A and 17.89 (SD9.53) in B, respectively. Patients in cohort A were slightly more overweight when compared to B (55% vs. 40% respectively, p<0.001). Most patients had stage II tumors of NST histologic type. Tumors in cohort B had higher Ki-67 than cohort A (39% vs. 32%, p=0.010). When compared based on manufacturer’s and based on TAILORx thresholds there were no significant differences in RS distribution. However, changes in score category led to shifts in patient population distribution, leading to a 40% drop in the low RS (from 60% to 20%), a doubling in the intermediate RS (from 30% to 60%) and an increase of 5% in the high RS (from 8-10% to 15%). Most patients had conservative surgery, adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) and ET. Overall CHT recommendation and application did not differ significantly in B vs. A. There was a reduction of 1% in the intermediate RS (11-25) and an increase of 13% CHT-ET application in the high RS (>26) category. In cohort B we noticed an increase in CHT-ET application among women <50 years old (by 12.5%), in lobular carcinomas (by 10%), grade 3 tumors (by 2%), node positive BC (by 3%) and node negative (by 2%). Tumor board recommendation for CHT dropped by 1% in the post TAILORx era, with a notable reduction of 5% in the intermediate RS (11-25) category. However, overall CHT administration rate was 19% in cohort A and 22% in B (p=0.763). Tumor Board recommended CHT for 90% of the BC patients that would have otherwise been assigned to CHT according to new RS guidelines in A and for 85% in B, showing a trend for undertreatment. Logistic regression analysis showed significance of age in both cohort A (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.11, p=0.03) and cohort B (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.84-0.94), p<0.001), and of nodal status in both cohort A (=R 3.32 95% CI 1.09-10-06, p=0.034) and cohort B (OR 3.31, 95% CI 1.29-8.53, p=0.013), while intermediate and high RS seem to be more relevant in cohort A (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.03-0.43, p=0.01 and OR 0.04, 95% CI 0.01-0.21, p<0.01). Overall logistic regression analysis showed relevance of age (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.08-0.97, p=0.001), pN (OR 4.77, 95% CI 2.03-11.22, p<0.001) and RS categories (RS 11-25: OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.01-0.07, p<0.001; RS>26: OR 617.93, 95% CI 57.97-6587.16, p<0.001). Conclusion: Our findings are similar to those reported across several studies: while tumor board recommendation for CHT decreases in the intermediate RS category, there is an increase being reported in the high RS category, leading to overall minor changes in CHT application. Administration of CHT-ET seems to be increasing among younger women, with unfavorable histo-pathological factors, such as lobular carcinoma and G3 histologic grade. Before TAILORx there is a tendency for undertreatment (-10%), especially among older BC patients, which seems to be maintained and even deepened (-15%) in the post TAILORx era, pointing to a personalized decision-making approach among Swiss oncologists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1806.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Biobran; biological response modifier; polysaccharide; immunomodulator; MGN-3; immunotherapy; chemotherapy
Online: 30 October 2023 (07:58:17 CET)
Background: The effect of rice bran arabinoxylan compound (RBAC), a plant-based immunomodulator, on the quality of life (QoL) in cancer patients and underlying physiological pathways remains unclear. Trial design: The RBAC-QoL study is a double-blind, randomised, controlled pilot feasibility study. The aim is to determine RBAC’s effects on QoL and the associated action mechanisms. Primary outcomes are the EORTC QLQ-C30 functional, symptom, and global QoL scores with inflammatory, nutritional, and cytokine parameters as secondary and exploratory outcomes. Methods: Recruitment targets adults diagnosed with solid organ tumours (≥ stage II) undergoing active treatment in several outpatient centres in New South Wales, Australia. Interventions are RBAC or matched placebo at 3g/day for 24 weeks allocated through stratified randomisation with participants, oncologists, and data collectors blinded. Data is collected from five study visits six weeks apart. The trial is ongoing. An interim intention-to-treat analysis was performed using repeated measure ANOVA with pairwise comparisons where statistical significance is observed and adjusted with covariates. Results: Global QoL scores from currently available data (n = 16; RBAC = 7, placebo = 9) were statistically different between groups (F[1,8] = 8.6, p = 0.019, eta2[g] = 0.267). Pairwise comparisons found significant differences at week 6 (p = 0.032, Cohen’s d = 1.454) and marginally at week 12 (p = 0.069, d = 1.427). Age-adjusted analysis showed a continuous upward trend in QoL improvement over time with RBAC, while the placebo group did not deviate from baseline QoL. Significant elevations of serum white blood cell count (week 18) and total protein (weeks 12 and 18) were detected in the RBAC group compared to placebo. The total protein levels correlated highly with white blood cell count (Pearson’s r = 0.539, p < 0.001) and moderately with the global QoL scores (r = 0.338, p = 0.01). No intervention-related adverse events were reported in both groups. Conclusions: RBAC improves QoL beyond placebo during active cancer treatment, possibly through the immuno-nutritional pathway. These findings are preliminary but valuable for future research. Funding and registration: Daiwa Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Japan; BioMedica Nutraceuticals Pty Ltd., Australia. ANZCTR Reg No: ACTRN12619000562178p.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0649.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: taste disorders; dysgeusia; neoplasm; chemotherapy; Synsepalum ducificum; miracle fruit; malnutrition
Online: 11 October 2023 (08:50:38 CEST)
Taste disorders are common among cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, with a prevalence ranging from 20% to 86%, persisting throughout treatment. This condition leads to reduced food consumption, increasing the risk of malnutrition. Malnutrition is associated not only with worse treatment efficacy and poor disease prognosis but also with reduced functional status and quality of life. The fruit of Synsepalum dulcificum (Daniell), commonly known as miracle berry or miracle fruit, contains miraculin, a taste-modifying protein with profound effects on taste perception. The CLINMIR Protocol is a triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to evaluate the regular consumption of a food supplement containing a miraculin-based novel food, dried miracle berry (DMB), on the taste perception (measured through electrogustometry) and nutritional status (evaluated through the GLIM Criteria) of malnourished cancer patients under active antineoplastic treatment. To this end, a pilot study was designed with 30 randomized patients divided into three study arms (150 mg DMB + 150 mg freeze-dried strawberries, 300 mg DMB or placebo) for three months. Throughout the five main visits, an exhaustive assessment of different affected parameters susceptible to improvement through regular consumption of the miraculin-based food supplement will be conducted, including electrical and chemical taste perception, smell perception, nutritional and morphofunctional assessment, diet, quality of life, fatty acid profile of erythrocytes, levels of inflammatory and cancer-associated cytokines, oxidative stress, antioxidant defense system, plasma metabolomics, and saliva and stool microbiota. The primary anticipated result is that malnourished cancer patients with taste distortion who consume the miraculin-based food supplement will report an improvement in food taste perception. This improvement translates into increased food intake, thereby ameliorating their nutritional status and mitigating associated risks. Additionally, the study aims to pinpoint the optimal dosage that provides maximal benefits. The protocol adheres to the SPIRIT 2013 Statement, which provides evidence-based recommendations and is widely endorsed as an international standard for trial protocols (https://www.spirit-statement.org/spirit-statement/). The clinical trial protocol has been registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov (NCT05486260).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2153.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: Hydrogel gatekeeper; mesoporous silica nanoparticles; stimuli-sensitive delivery; chemotherapy; doxorubicin
Online: 31 August 2023 (12:35:42 CEST)
Hydrogels can offer many opportunities for drug delivery strategies. They can be used on their own or their benefits can be further exploited in combination with other nanocarriers. Intelligent hydrogels that react to changes in the surrounding environment can be utilized as gatekeepers and provide sustained on demand drug release. In this study, a hybrid nanosystem for tempera-ture and pH sensitive delivery was prepared from MCM-41 nanoparticles grafted with newly synthesized thermosensitive hydrogel (MCM-41/AA-g-PnVCL). The initial particles were chemi-cally modified by carboxyl groups attachment. Later, they were grafted with agar (AA) and vi-nylcaprolactam (VCL) by free radical polymerization. Doxorubicin was applied as a model hy-drophilic chemotherapeutic drug. The successful formulation was confirmed by FT-IR and TGA. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis showed small particles with negative zeta potential. Their release behaviour was investigated in vitro in different pH media and at different temperatures. At tumor simulating conditions (40ºC and pH 4.0) doxoru-bicin was almost completely released within 72 hours. The biocompatibility of the proposed na-noparticles was demonstrated by in vitro haemolysis assay. These results suggest the possible parenteral application of the newly prepared hydrogel-functionalized mesoporous silica nanopar-ticles for temperature-sensitive and pH-triggered drug delivery at the tumor site.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0937.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Endometrial cancer; microsatellite instability; mismatch repair deficiency; platinum-based chemotherapy
Online: 13 June 2023 (12:27:39 CEST)
Background: There is poor evidence about sensitivity to chemotherapy according to microsatellite instability (MSI)/mismatch repair (MMR) status in endometrial cancer (EC). Methodology: The RAME study is a retrospective analysis aiming to assess response to chemotherapy in MSI-high (h) /deficient (d) MMR and MSI- low (l)/proficient (p)MMR EC patients. Primary endpoints were recurrence-free survival (RFS) for patients with localized disease and progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced/recurrent disease. Results: 312 patients treated between 2010-2022 in 4 high volume Multicenter Italian Trial in Ovarian cancer and gynecological malignancies (MITO) centers were selected. 239 patients had endometrioid EC (76.6%), 151 had FIGO stage I at diagnosis (48.9%) and 71 were MSI-h/dMMR (22.8%). Median age was 65 (range 31–91) years. Among patients with localized disease, median RFS was 100.0 months (95%CI 59.4–140.7) for MSI-l/pMMR and 120.9 months (60.0-181.8) for MSI-h/dMMR (p=0.39). Seventy-seven patients received first-line chemotherapy for advanced/recurrent disease. Patients with MSI-h/dMMR ECs had a significantly worse OS (p=0.039). In patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy, no statistically significant difference in PFS (p=0.21) and OS (p=0.057) were detected, although PFS and OS were numerically longer in the MSI-l/pMMR population. Conclusion: Patients with metastatic MSI-h/dMMR EC receiving first-line chemotherapy had a significantly worse OS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0695.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Autophagy; Cancer; Chemotherapy; Homeostasis; Hydroxychloroquine; Mitochondria; Oxidative Stress; Rapamycin; Therapeutics
Online: 9 June 2023 (09:31:12 CEST)
Neuroblastoma is the most common tumour in children under 1 year old, accounting for approximately 50% of infant cancer cases. Although current treatments are relatively efficacious against this cancer, associated adverse effects could be detrimental to growth and development. In contrast, glioblastoma accounts for 52% of brain tumours and has an extremely poor prognosis. Current chemotherapeutics include temozolomide, which has numerous negative side-effects and a low-effective rate. Previous studies have shown the manipulation of autophagy to be a promising method for targeting cancers, including glioblastoma. We sought to determine the effects of autophagic alterations in combination with current chemotherapies in both neuroblastoma and glioblastoma. Supplementing cisplatin or temozolomide with autophagy activator rapamycin stabilized cancer cell mitochondria, despite having little effect on apoptosis or oxidative stress. Autophagy inhibition via 3-methyladenine or hydroxychloroquine alongside standard chemotherapies enhanced apoptosis and oxidative stress, with 3-methyladenine also disrupting mitochondrial health. Importantly, combining hydroxychloroquine with 0.5 µM cisplatin or 50 µg/mL temozolomide was as or more effective than 2 µM cisplatin or 100 µg/mL temozolomide alone. Analyzing these interesting results, a combined treatment of autophagy inhibitor with a standard chemotherapeutic agent could help to improve patient prognosis and reduce chemotherapy doses and their associated side-effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0178.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Colo-rectal cancer; liver metastasis; simultaneous approach; surgical treatment; chemotherapy
Online: 9 November 2022 (15:36:13 CET)
Management of synchronous colorectal cancer with liver metastases (SCLM) is still on debate, regarding timing, indications and complications of the 3 strategies: classic approach (first tumor resection), simultaneous resection and reverse approach (liver first). A retrospective single-centre evaluation of synchronous approach was accomplished, focusing on surgical technique, indications and perioperative complications. Between 2017 and 2020, 31 SCLM patients benefited from synchronously colorectal and hepatic approach: segmental colectomies/rectal resections, simultaneously with liver metastasectomies (associated with radiofrequency ablation). Post-therapeutic imaging monitoring was performed from every 3 to 6 months. There were no perioperative complications related to the combination of the two procedures, low morbidity and zero postoperative mortality. The follow-up period was from 10 to 40 months: 13 patients had no evidence of recurrence, 10 patients had hepatic metastases in regression, 4 of them had signs of peritoneal carcinomatosis and 4 patients showed progression of liver disease; all patients were on chemotherapy. During follow-up 4 patients died. Experience shows that the simultaneous approach of recto-colic and hepatic resections in colo-rectal cancers is a safe procedure, with low morbidity, the limits being dictated by the size of the liver metastases. The results at long-distance must be drawn by further consistent trials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0068.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy; pain management; target therapy; immuno-therapy
Online: 6 May 2022 (09:14:17 CEST)
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) develops as a challenging nerve-damaging adverse effect of anticancer drugs used in chemotherapy. The disorder may require a dose reduction of chemo-therapy and its most common sensory symptoms are severe pain, tingling, and numbness in the hands and feet. CIPN affects dramatically the patient's quality of life (QoL). Pain and sensory abnormalities may occur for months, or even years after the termination of chemotherapy. This disease has complicated pathophysiology featured by underlying mechanisms not completely known. Although many pharmaco-logical and non-pharmacological therapeutic approaches have been tested to overcome these symptoms, there is currently no standardized cure to prevent or treat CIPN. According to current guidelines, Duloxe-tine is the only recommended agent for painful neuropathic symptoms. Therefore, finding effective thera-pies for CIPN is mandatory. The purpose of this review is to dissect CIPN, the target and immunothera-py-based approaches to this disorder, as well as to offer new insights for novel therapeutic perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0041.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: multicore magnetic nanoparticles; magnetoliposomes; magnetic hyperthermia; antitumor thienopyridine derivative; chemotherapy
Online: 6 April 2022 (10:27:22 CEST)
Multicore magnetic nanoparticles of manganese ferrite were prepared using carboxymethyl-dextran and melamine as agglutinating agents. The nanoparticles prepared using melamine exhibit a flower-shape structure, a saturation magnetization of 6.16 emu/g and good capabilities for magnetic hyperthermia. Magnetoliposome-like structures containing the multicore nanoparticles exhibit sizes in the range 250 – 400 nm. A new antitumor thienopyridine derivative was loaded in these nanocarriers with a high encapsulation efficiency of 98% ± 2.6%. Release profiles in absence and presence of an AMF indicate a transport by diffusion, with a maximum compound release of 31% under the AMF. A sustained and controlled drug release in anticipated from the results, pointing to suitable characteristics of the magnetoliposomes for dual cancer therapy (combined magnetic hyperthermia and chemotherapy).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0218.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: cancer; nanoparticles; chemotherapy; cellular targeting; multidrug resistance; cryosurgery; scale-up
Online: 10 August 2021 (09:44:24 CEST)
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death and morbidity with a complex pathophysiology. Traditional cancer therapies include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. However, limitations such as lack of specificity, cytotoxicity, and multi-drug resistance pose a substantial challenge for favorable cancer treatment. The advent of nanotechnology has revolutionized the arena of cancer diagnosis and treatment. Nanoparticles (1-100nm) can be used in the treatment of cancer owing to their specific advantages such as biocompatibility, reduced toxicity, more excellent stability, enhanced permeability and retention effect, and precise targeting. Nanoparticles are classified into several main categories. The nanoparticle drug delivery system is particular and utilizes tumor and tumor environment characteristics. Nanoparticles not only solve the limitations of conventional cancer treatment but also overcome multidrug resistance. Additionally, as new multidrug resistance mechanisms are unraveled and studied, nanoparticles are being investigated more vigorously. Various therapeutic implications of nano-formulations have created brand new perspectives for cancer treatment. However, a majority of the research is limited to in vivo and in vitro studies, and the number of nano-drugs that are approved has not much amplified over the years. In this review, we discuss numerous types of nanoparticles, targeting mechanisms along with approved nanotherapeutics for oncological implications in cancer treatment. Further, we also summarize the current perspective, advantages, and challenges in clinical translation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0559.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Hepatocellular carcinoma; Lenvatinib; Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy; Propensity score matching
Online: 26 July 2021 (09:59:34 CEST)
The comparative efficacy and safety between lenvatinib and hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still unclear. This multicenter historical cohort study enrolled 244 patients who were treated with HAIC (n = 173) or lenvatinib (n = 71) between 2012 and 2020. Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed, and 52 patients were selected per group. Clinical outcomes and safety were compared. Objective response rate (ORR) was not different between the two groups (26.0% vs. 23.1%, P = 0.736). Before PSM, HAIC group had a higher proportion of Child-Pugh B and portal vein tumor, whereas lenvatinib group had more patients with extrahepatic metastases, which was adjusted after PSM. There were no differences in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) after PSM (HAIC vs. lenvatinib, median PFS, 3.6 vs. 4.0 months, P = 0.706; median OS 10.8 vs. 7.9 months, P = 0.106). Multivariate Cox-regression showed that alpha-fetoprotein ≤ 1000 ng/mL was only associated factor for OS after PSM in all patients (hazard ratio = 0.421, P = 0.011). Subgroup analysis for patients with high tumor burden beyond the REFLECT eligibility criteria revealed that HAIC group (n = 29) had a significantly longer OS than did lenvatinib group (n = 30) (10.0 vs. 5.4 months, P=0.004). More patients in HAIC group achieved better liver function than those in lenvatinib group at the time of best responses. There was no difference in the incidence of grade 3 and 4 adverse events between the two groups. Therefore, lenvatinib is comparable to HAIC in terms of ORR and OS in unresectable HCC meeting REFLECT eligibility criteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0330.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Chemotherapy; Radiotherapy; Cognitive dysfunction; Big data; Cohort studies; Survival analysis
Online: 14 June 2021 (07:51:57 CEST)
Background: We aimed to assess the risk of chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-related cognitive impairment in colorectal cancer patients. Methods: We randomly selected 40% of colorectal cancer patients from Korean National Health Insurance Database (NHID), 2004-2018 (N=148,848). Patients with one or more ICD-10 diagnostic codes for dementia or mild cognitive impairment was defined as cognitive impairment cases. Patients who were aged 18 or younger, diagnosed with cognitive impairment before colorectal cancer (N=8,225) and did not receive primary resection (N=45,320) were excluded. The effects of each chemotherapy agent on cognitive impairment were estimated. We additionally estimated the effect of radiotherapy in rectal cancer patients. Time-dependent competing risk Cox regression was conducted to estimate overall and age-specific hazard ratios (HR) separately for colon and rectal cancer. Results: In colon cancer, capecitabine and irinotecan was associated with higher cognitive im-pairment, while 5-fluorouracil was not. In rectal cancer, no chemotherapy agents increased the risk of cognitive impairment, nor did radiotherapy. Hazardous association of irinotecan was estimated larger in elderly patients compared with younger counterparts. Conclusion: Heterogeneous associations between various chemotherapy agents and cognitive impairment were observed. Elderly patients were more vulnerable to possible adverse cognitive effects. Radiotherapy did not increase the risk of cognitive impairment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0745.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Biodegradable polymers; Nanoparticles; Cancer chemotherapy; Controlled release; Drug delivery systems
Online: 30 September 2020 (12:47:17 CEST)
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) co-polymers show relatively higher in vivo degradation rate compared to other PHAs thus they received a great deal of attention for a wide range of medical applications. Nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with poorly water soluble anticancer drug docetaxel (DCX) were produced using poly 3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate, P(3HB-co-4HB), co-polymers biosynthesised from Cupriavidus sp. USMAA1020 isolated from Malaysian environment. Three co-polymers with different molar proportions of 4-hydroxybutirate (4HB) were used: 16% (PHB16), 30% (PHB30) and 70% (PHB70) 4HB-containing P(3HB-co-4HB). Blank and DCX loaded nanoparticles were then characterized for their size and size distribution, surface charge, encapsulation efficiency and drug release. Pre-formulation studies showed that an optimised formulation could be achieved through the emulsification/solvent evaporation method using PHB70 with the addition of 1.0% PVA, as stabilizer and 0.03% VitE-TPGS, as surfactant. DCX-loaded PHB70 nanoparticles (DCX-PHB70) gave the desired particle size distribution in term of average particles sizes around 150 nm and narrow particle size distribution (PDI below 0.100). The encapsulation efficiencies result showed that at 30% w/w drug-to-polymer ratio: DCX- PHB16 NPs were able to encapsulate up to 42% of DCX; DCX-PHB30 NPs encapsulated up to 46% of DCX and DCX-PHB70 NPs encapsulated up to 50% of DCX within the nanoparticles system. Approximately 60% of DCX was released from the DCX-PHB70 NPs within 7 days for 5%, 10% and 20% of drug to polymer ratio while for the 30% and 40% drug to polymer ratios, an almost complete drug release (98%) after 7 days of incubation was observed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0251.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: gastric acid suppressant; chemotherapy; tyrosine kinase inhibitors; proton pump inhibitors
Online: 31 March 2020 (03:40:46 CEST)
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the role of gastric acid suppressant use on outcomes of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and oral chemotherapy. We identified all researches evaluating the effect of GAS use on patients receiving oral chemotherapy or TKIs for solid tumors. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were calculated with fixed-effects or random-effects model. The study population included n=16 retrospective studies and 372,418 patients. Series concerned gastrointestinal tract tumors (n=5 studies), renal cell carcinomas (RCC, n=3 studies), non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC, n=5 studies), and soft tissue sarcomas or mixed histologies solid tumors in n=3 studies. The pooled HRs for OS and PFS were 1.31 (95% CI: 1.20–1.43; P<01) and 1.3 (95%CI 1.07-1.57; P<0.01) for GAS and no GAS users, respectively. Only studies of EGFR mutated NSCLC patients receiving TKIs and those with colorectal cancer receiving oral chemotherapy showed a significant correlation between GAS and poor survival. Our study supports the evidence of a possible negative impact of concomitant GAS therapy on survival outcomes of patients receiving oral anti-cancer drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0075.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: amphiphilc copolymer; hydrolyzable polyurea; micelle; controlled drug delivery; cancer chemotherapy
Online: 8 April 2019 (08:35:46 CEST)
In recent years, polyureas with dynamic hindered urea bonds (HUBs), as a class of promising biomedical polymers, have attracted attention as a benefit of their controlled hydrolytic property. The effect of the chemical structures on the properties of polyureas and their assemblies was rarely reported. In this study, four kinds of polyureas with different chemical groups have been synthesized, and the polyurea from cyclohexyl diisocyanate and tert-butyl diamine showed the fastest hydrolytic rate. The amphiphilic polyurea composed of hydrophobic cyclohexyl-tert-butyl polyurea and hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) was synthesized for controlled delivery of antitumor drug paclitaxel (PTX). The PTX-loaded PEGylated polyurea micelle more effectively entered into the murine breast cancer 4T1 cells and inhibited the corresponding tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, the PEGylated polyurea with adjustable degradation might be a promising polymer matrix for drug delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0110.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: oral cancer; radiotherapy; intra-arterial chemotherapy; head and neck cancer
Online: 7 May 2018 (08:48:20 CEST)
Purpose: The aim of present study was to compare the treatment results of daily cisplatin (CDDP), weekly docetaxel (DOC) intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy (DIACRT) regimen and weekly CDDP intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy (WIACRT) for patients with tongue cancer. Materials and Methods: Between January 2007 and December 2016, a total of 11 patients treated with WIACRT and 45 patients treated with DIACRT were enrolled in present study. In DIACRT group, 25 patients had T2, 20 patients had T3. A total of 9 patients had T2 and 2 had T3 in WIACRT (p = NS). In DIACRT, the treatment schedule consisted of intra-arterial chemotherapy (DOC, total 60 mg/m2; CDDP, total 150 mg/m2) and daily concurrent radiotherapy (RT) (total, 60 Gy). In WIACRT, the treatment schedule consisted of intra-arterial chemotherapy (CDDP, total 360 mg/m2) and daily concurrent RT (total, 60 Gy). Results: The median follow-up periods for DIACRT and WIACRT were 61 and 66 months respectively. The 5-year local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) rate were 94.5% and 89.6% for DIACRT group, 60.6% and 63.6% for WIACRT group respectively. The LC rate and OS of DIACRT group were significantly higher than that of WIACRT group. As regards toxicities, no treatment-related deaths were observed during the follow-up periods both in two groups. Conclusions: DIACRT was found to be feasible and effective for patients with tongue cancer and could become a new treatment modality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1909.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Colorectal cancer; Photodynamic therapy; Apoptosis; Porphyrin; Metalla-assemblies; Arene ruthenium; Chemotherapy
Online: 28 September 2023 (04:03:48 CEST)
Treatment regimens are regularly evolving, together with novel therapies and drugs. Such evolution is necessary to circumvent resistance mechanisms and to give patients the best possible health care. When dealing with cancer, most regimens involve multiple treatments (surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, etc.). The purpose of this study was to associate in a single compound metal-based drugs and photosensitizers to combine chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy. Two arene-ruthenium tetrapyridylporphyrin compounds (2H-TPyP-arene-Ru and Zn-TPyP-arene-Ru) have been synthesized and evaluated on two colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT116 and HT-29). The cytotoxicity and phototoxicity have been evaluated. In addition, the anticancer mechanism and the cell death process mediated by the two compounds were studied. The results showed that the two arene-ruthenium photosensitizer-containing complexes have a strong phototoxic effect after photoactivation. The 2H-TPyP-arene-Ru induced outstanding cytotoxicity when compared to the Zn-TPyP-arene-Ru analogue. Moreover, under light, these two arene-ruthenium photosensitizers induce an apoptotic process in human colorectal cancer cell lines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1721.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: axial force; chemotherapy; malignant colorectal obstruction; palliation; self-expandable metal stent
Online: 25 May 2023 (03:11:04 CEST)
Evidence of the efficacy and safety of colorectal stent placement for palliation remains insufficient. This single-arm, prospective, multicenter study with WallFlex enteral colonic stent included 200 consecutive patients with malignant large bowl obstruction in the palliation cohort. The technical and clinical success, as well as stent patency and complications as short-term (≤ 7 days) and long-term (> 7days) outcomes, of high axial force self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) placement was evaluated. The technical and clinical success rates were 98.5% and 94.5%, respectively. Non recurrent colorectal obstruction at 1 year was 63.9%, and 71.2% of the patients remained free of recurrent colorectal obstruction until death or the last follow-up. Fifty-six patients (28.0 %) received chemotherapy and five patients were administered bevacizumab after stent placement. The overall complication rate was 47%, including four (2.0%) early-onset and ten (5.0%) late-onset perforations, mostly due to stent-edge injury. Only the use of a long SEMS was a risk factor for perforation. In conclusion, endoscopic colorectal stenting using high axial force SEMS is an effective and safe procedure for palliation in patients with malignant colorectal obstruction. However, care should be taken to avoid perforation at the stent edge when using a long SEMS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0491.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Real-world evidence; treatment patterns; chemotherapy-ineligible; outcomes
Online: 29 August 2022 (12:27:14 CEST)
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematological malignancy that predominantly affects the elderly. Prognosis declines with age. For those who cannot tolerate intensive chemotherapy, historically established treatment options have been hypomethylating agents (HMAs), low dose cytarabine (LDAC), and best supportive care (BSC). As the standard of care evolves for those unfit for intensive chemotherapy, there is a need to understand established treatment pathways, clinical outcomes and healthcare resource utilization in Canada. The CURRENT study was a retrospective chart review of AML patients not eligible for intensive chemotherapy who initiated first-line treatment between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2018. Data were collected from 170 Canadian patients treated at six hematology centers, of whom 118 received systemic therapy and 52 received BSC as first-line treatment. Median overall survival was 8.58 months and varied from 2.96 months for BSC to 13.31 months for HMAs. Over 80% of patients had at least one outpatient visit, and 67% of patients receiving systemic therapy and 71% of those receiving BSC had at least one admission to hospital, during their first line of therapy. A total of 96 (81.4%) patients receiving first line systemic therapy and 39 (75.0%) of those receiving first line BSC had at least one red blood cell or platelet transfusion. These findings highlight the unmet need for novel therapies for patients ineligible for intensive chemotherapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0164.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer,; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; elederly; HER2- positive; pathological complete response; safety
Online: 12 January 2022 (13:31:16 CET)
Neoadjuvant systemic therapy has now become the the standard in early breast cancer management. Chemotherapy in combination with trastuzumab +/- pertuzumab targeted therapy can improve rates of pathologic complete response (pCR) in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. Achieving a pCR is considered a good prognostic factor, in particular in patients with more aggressive breast cancer subtypes such as TNBC or HER2 positive cancers. Furthermore, most studies demonstrate that chemotherapy in combination with trastuzumab and pertuzumab is well tolerated. The retrospective analysis presented here concentrates on neoadjuvant therapy with the TCbH-P regimen, with a particular emphasis on patients over 60 years of age. We analysed the factors affecting the achievement of pCR and presented adverse effects of the applied therapies, which opened a discussion about optimizing the therapy of older patients with HER-2 positive breast cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0535.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: chemotherapy; cachexia; 5-fluorouracil; skeletal muscle; p38; NF-κB; dystrophin; desmin
Online: 22 March 2021 (13:12:15 CET)
Skeletal myopathy encompasses both atrophy and dysfunction and is a prominent event in cancer and chemotherapy-induced cachexia. Here, we investigate the effects of chemotherapeutic agent, 5-fluorouracil (5FU), on skeletal muscle mass and function, and whether small molecule therapeutic candidate, BGP-15, could be protective against the chemotoxic challenge exerted by 5FU. Additionally, we explore the molecular signature of 5FU treatment. Male Balb/c mice received metronomic tri-weekly intraperitoneal delivery of 5FU (23 mg/kg), with and without BGP-15 (15 mg/kg), 6 times in total over a 15-day treatment period. We demonstrated that neither 5FU, nor 5FU combined with BGP-15, affected body composition indices, skeletal muscle mass or function. Adjuvant BGP-15 treatment did, however, prevent the 5FU-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and p65 NF-κB subunit, signalling pathways involved in cell stress and inflammatory signalling, respectively. This as associated with mitoprotection. 5FU reduced the expression of the key cytoskeletal proteins, desmin and dystrophin, which was not prevented by BGP-15. Combined, these data show that metronomic delivery of 5FU does not elicit physiological consequences to skeletal muscle mass and function but is implicit in priming skeletal muscle with a molecular signature for myopathy. BGP-15 has modest protective efficacy against the molecular changes induced by 5FU.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0654.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: breast cancer; BARD1; surveillance; management; genetic testing; predisposition; susceptibility; neoadjuvant; chemotherapy
Online: 26 September 2020 (17:32:52 CEST)
Current oncological developments are based on improved understanding of genetics, and especially the discovery of genes whose alterations affect cell functions with consequences for the whole body. Our work is focused on the one of these genes, the BARD1 and its oncogenic role in breast cancer. Most importantly, the study points to new avenues in the treatment and prevention of the most frequent female cancer based on BARD1 research. The BARD1 and BRCA1 proteins have similar structures and functions, and they combine to form the new molecule BARD1-BRCA1 heterodimer. The BARD1-BRCA1 complex is involved in genetic stabilization at the cellular level. It allows to mark abnormal DNA fragments by attaching ubiquitin to them. In addition, it blocks (by ubiquitination of RNA polymerase II) the transcription of damaged DNA. Ubiquitination, as well as stabilizing chromatin, or regulating the number of centrosomes, confirms the protective cooperation of BARD1 and BRCA1 in the stabilization of the genome. The overexpression of the oncogenic isoforms BARD1β and BARD1δ permit cancer development. The introduction of routine tests, for instance, to identify the presence of the BARD1β isoform, would make it possible to detect patients at high risk of developing cancer. On the other hand, introducing BARD1δ isoform blocking therapy, which would reduce estrogen sensitivity, may be a new line of cancer therapy with potential to modulate responses to existing treatments. It is possible that the BARD 1 gene offers new hope for improving breast cancer therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0371.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; BARD1; surveillance; management; genetic testing; predisposition; susceptibility; neoadjuvant; chemotherapy
Online: 18 August 2020 (03:08:11 CEST)
Current oncological developments are based on improved understanding of genetics, and especially the discovery of genes whose alterations affect cell functions with consequences for the whole body. Our work is focused on the most important of these genes, the BARD1 and its oncogenic role in breast cancer. Most importantly, the study points to new avenues in the treatment and prevention of the most frequent female cancer based on BARD1 research. The BARD1 and BRCA1 proteins have similar structures and functions, and they combine to form the new molecule BARD1-BRCA1 heterodimer. Through ubiquitination, this heterodimer has significant effects on individual proteins, enabling, among others, the destruction of damaged DNA fragments. Ubiquitination, as well as stabilizing chromatin, or regulating the number of centrosomes, confirms the protective cooperation of BARD1 and BRCA1 in the stabilization of the genome. The overexpression of the oncogenic isoforms BARD1β and BARD1δ permit cancer development. The introduction of routine tests, for instance, to identify the presence of the BARD1β isoform, would make it possible to detect patients at high risk of developing cancer. On the other hand, introducing BARD1δ isoform blocking therapy, which would reduce estrogen sensitivity, may be a new line of cancer therapy with potential to modulate responses to existing treatments. It is possible that the BARD 1 gene offers new hope for improving breast cancer therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0346.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Integrative review; Short-term Calorie Reduction; Fasting; Cancer; Chemotherapy; Calorie Restriction
Online: 15 August 2020 (09:41:11 CEST)
Recent preclinical studies have shown the potential benefits of short-term calorie reduction (SCR) on cancer treatment. In this integrative review, we aimed to identify and synthesize current evidence regarding the feasibility, process, and effects of SCR in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Ovid Medline, PsychINFO, and Embase were searched for original research articles using various combinations of Medical Subject Heading terms. Among the 311 articles identified, seven studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of the reviewed studies was small randomized controlled trials or cohort study with fair quality. The results suggest that SCR is safe and feasible. SCR is typically arranged around the chemotherapy with the duration ranging from 24 to 96 hours. Most studies examined the protective effects of SCR on normal cells during chemotherapy. The evidence supports that SCR had the potential to enhance both physical and psychological wellbeing of patients during chemotherapy. SCR is a cost-effective intervention with great potential. Future well-controlled studies with sufficient sample sizes are needed to examine the full and long-term effects of SCR and its mechanism of action.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0218.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; diffusion-weighted imaging; magnetic resonance; hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy
Online: 9 August 2020 (15:34:00 CEST)
This study aimed to identify the utility of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with an apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map as a predictor of the intrahepatic response of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to cisplatin-based hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC). We retrospectively evaluated 113 consecutive patients with HCC who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MR imaging. The appropriate cutoff for the tumor-to-liver ADC ratio was determined to be 0.741. Of the 113 patients, 51 (45%) presented with a tumor-to-liver ADC ratio < 0.741. Evaluation of the intrahepatic treatment response after 2-3 cycles of HAIC in these 51 patients revealed that 20 patients (39%) experienced an objective response to HAIC. On the other hand, only 10 of the 62 patients with a tumor-to-liver ADC ratio ≥ 0.741 (16%) experienced an objective response. Thus, the objective response rate was significantly higher in patients with a tumor-to-liver ADC ratio < 0.741 than in those with a tumor-to-liver ADC ratio ≥ 0.741 (P = 0.006). Multivariate logistic regression analysis using parameters including perfusion alteration, percentage of a non-enhancing portion, and tumor-to-liver ADC ratio revealed that a tumor-to-liver ADC ratio < 0.741 (odds ratio 3.03; P = 0.015) is the sole predictor of an objective response to HAIC. Overall survival rates were significantly higher in patients with objective responses to HAIC than in those without objective responses (P = 0.001 by log-rank test). In conclusion, patients with unresectable HCC with a tumor-to-liver ADC ratio < 0.741 showed a favorable intrahepatic response to HAIC. Therefore, diffusion-weighted MR imaging can play a critical role as a predictor of response to cisplatin-based HAIC in unresectable HCC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0157.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: schistosomiasis; monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA); chemotherapy; oxidative stress; antioxidant enzymes; SEA
Online: 16 September 2019 (01:27:58 CEST)
Schistosomiasis, a crippling ailment that afflicts over 220 million people worldwide. Yet or up till now, there is no vaccine for schistosomiasis, and chemotherapy relies heavily on a single drug, the praziquantel. The present study was undertaken to investigate the therapeutic effect of Monophosphoryl Lipid A (MPLA) as an adjuvant in soluble egg antigen (SEA) vaccinated mice against the deleterious pathological impacts induced in hepatic tissues of mice by Schistosoma mansoni infection. In addition, to study the associated parasitological, immunological and biochemical parameters. Parasitological parameters showed that intraperitoneal injection of MPLA into SEA-vaccinated and S. mansoni-infected mice was effective to a significant degree in reducing the worm and egg burden, granuloma count and diameter as well as the total area of infection in their livers versus SEA-untreated but infected ones. In addition, MPLA showed ameliorative action on the elevated liver oxidative stress marker, including malondialdehyde (MDA) and decrease in the level of the antioxidant enzymes, reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) which may have a role in the liver damage and fibrosis due to S. mansoni infection. In conclusion, treatment with MPLA has multi-functions in attenuating the deleterious impacts of S. mansoni infection in mice livers. Its effects are mediated through a reduction of ova count, worm burden, granuloma diameter and amelioration of antioxidant defense systems, and liver function biomarkers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0075.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; objective response; modified RECIST; sorafenib; hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy
Online: 4 July 2019 (10:56:53 CEST)
Background In SILIUS (NCT01214343), combination of sorafenib and hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy did not significantly improve overall survival in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared with sorafenib alone. In this study, we explored the relationship between objective response by mRECIST and overall survival (OS) in the sorafenib group, in the combination group and in all patients in the SILIUS trial. Methods Association between objective response and OS in patients treated with sorafenib (n=103), combination (n=102) and all patients (n=205) were analyzed. The median OS of responders was compared with that of non-responders. Landmark analyses were performed according to objective response at several fixed time points, as sensitivity analyses, and the effect on OS was evaluated by Cox regression analysis with objective response as a time-dependent covariate, with other prognostic factors was performed. Results In the sorafenib group, OS of responders (n = 18) was significantly better than that of non-responders (n = 78) (p < 0.0001), where median OS was 27.2 (95% CI, 16.0–not reached) months for responders and 8.9 (95% CI, 6.5–12.6) months for non-responders. HRs from landmark analyses at 4, 6, and 8 months were 0.45 (p=0.0330), 0.37 (p=0.0053), and 0.36 (p=0.0083), respectively. Objective response was an independent predictor of OS based on unstratified Cox regression analyses. In the all patients and the combination group, similar results were obtained. Conclusion In the SILIUS trial, objective response was an independent prognostic factor for OS in patients with HCC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0171.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: microfluidics; metastasis; cancer; mechanical properties; physics of cancer; chemotherapy; microcirculation; tumor microenvironment
Online: 4 July 2023 (08:47:01 CEST)
There is rapidly emerging evidence from pre-clinical studies, patient samples and patient subpopulations that certain chemotherapeutics inadvertently produce prometastatic effects. Prior to this, we showed that doxorubicin and daunorubicin, stiffen cells before causing cell death, predisposing the cells to clogging and extravasation, the latter being a step in metastasis. Here, we investigate which other anti-cancer drugs might have similar prometastatic effects by altering the biophysical properties of cells. We treat myelogenous (K562) leukemic cancer cells with the drugs nocodazole and hydroxyurea, and then measure their mechanical properties using the microfluidic microcirculation mimetic (MMM) device, which mimics aspects of blood circulation and enables the measurement of cell mechanical properties via transit times through the device. We also quantify the morphological properties of cells to explore biophysical mechanisms underlying the MMM results. Results from MMM measurements show that nocodazole- and hydroxyurea-treated K562 cells exhibit significantly altered transit times. Nocodazole caused significant (p < 0.01) increase in transit times, implying a stiffening of cells. This work shows the feasibility of using the MMM to explore possible biophysical mechanisms that might contribute to chemotherapy-induced metastasis. Our work also suggests cell mechanics as a therapeutic target for much needed antimetastatic strategies in general.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0602.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Chemotherapy Resistance; Molecular Targeting; Signalling Pathway; Metastasis; Apoptosis; Tumor Microenvironment; Cancer Stemness
Online: 8 June 2023 (07:37:41 CEST)
Cancer is a devastating disease, causing tremendous morbidity and mortality each year. Cancer can be considered as a genetic disease in the sense that instabilities in protooncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are among the hallmarks of cancer progression and metastasis. However, a particular cancer can express different proteins in different patients, making cancer a heterogeneous disease. This heterogeneity in part influences treatment resistance and failure. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the mechanism by which cancer cells develop and enhance resistance to different agents. This review aims to present the general paradigm and recent updates on cancer cell resistance to different antitumor agents. It demonstrates that tumor resistance results from a myriad of factors, including tumor microenvironment, supporting immune cells, and cancer stem cells. This interaction contributes to cancer cells overcoming the therapeutic effects of different classes of antitumor agents, such as cytotoxic chemotherapeutics, targeted agents, and immunotherapies. With the development of advanced molecular analysis, specialized genomic assessment has assisted clinicians and researchers in choosing selected agents combating cancer cells. Together, this approach can potentially reduce treatment toxicity, health system burden, and financial costs while improving patient quality of life. Understanding the exact mechanism of drug resistance in cancer cells can open the way to new effective and less toxic therapeutics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0501.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Breast Neoplasm; Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy (NAC); pathologic Complete Response (pCR); Risk Factor; recurrence
Online: 29 March 2023 (03:52:14 CEST)
Background: Pathologic complete response (pCR) of breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is highly related to molecular subtypes. Patients who achieved tumor pCR after NAC have a better prognosis. However, despite of better prognosis, pCR patients have a potential for recurrence. There is little evidence of risk factors of recurrence in patients with pCR. We aim to analyze factors associated with tumor recurrence in patients who achieved pCR. Methods: This study retrospectively reviewed the data of patients diagnosed with breast cancer who achieved pCR after receiving NAC between January 2009 and December 2018 in Samsung Medical Center. pCR was defined as no residual invasive cancer in the breast and axillary nodes even if there is residual ductal carcinoma in situ (ypT0 or ypTis with ypN0). Breast cancers are classified into 4 subtypes based on hormone receptors (HR) and human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status. Patients who had bilateral breast cancer, inflammatory breast cancer, distant metastasis, unknown subtype, and histologically unique case were excluded from the study. Results: In total 483 patients were included in this study except for patients who corresponded to the exclusion criteria. The median follow-up duration was 59.0 months (range, 0.5-153.3 months). Breast cancer recurred in 4.1% of patients (20 of 483). There was a significant difference in clinical T (p = .004) and clinical N (p = .034) stage in the Kaplan-Meier curve for disease-free survival. Molecular subtypes (p = .573), Ki67 (p = 1.000), and breast surgery type (p = .574) were not associated with tumor recurrence in patients who achieved pCR after NAC. In the clinical T stage and clinical N stage, there was a significant difference between recurrence and no-recurrence groups (clinical T stage; p = .045, clinical N stage; p = .002). Univariable Cox regression revealed statistical significance in the clinical T stage (p = .049) and clinical N stage (p = .010), while multivariable Cox regression demonstrated non-significance in the clinical T stage (p = .320) and clinical N stage (p = .073). Conclusion: Results in this study showed that clinical T, clinical N stage, and molecular subtypes were not statistically significant predictors of recurrence in patients who achieved pCR after NAC. It is hypothesized that a multicenter-based study would lead to the identification of factors as predictors of recurrence after achieving pCR.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0354.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Anthracyclines; Cardiotoxicity; Heart failure; Chemotherapy toxicity; Cardio-Oncology; Breast cancer; Haematological cancer
Online: 20 December 2022 (04:26:21 CET)
Background: Anthracyclines form the backbone of many systemic chemotherapy regimens but dose-limiting cardiotoxicity can also lead to reduction in cardiac function and an increased risk of heart failure. Methods: This review was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines and registered on PROSPERO (CRD42022373496). Results: 26 studies met the eligibility criteria including a total of 910 patients. Overall reduction in pooled mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) post‐anthracyclines in the placebo arms of included randomised-controlled trials was 4.6% (95% CI, 2.7 to 6.6). The trend in LVEF showed a progressive decline until approximately 180 days after which there was no significant change. Those receiving a cumulative anthracycline dose 300 mg/m2 experienced a more profound reduction. The risk of a 10% absolute decline in LVEF from baseline or decline to an LVEF below 50%, the overall pooled risk was 16% (95% CI: 11 to 21; I2 = 77%). Sensitivity analyses by baseline LVEF and trastuzumab treatment status did not yield significant differences. Conclusion: While the mean LVEF decline in patients without cardioprotective therapy was clinically small, a vulnerable subset experienced significant impairment. Further research to best identify those who benefit most from cardioprotective therapies when receiving anthracyclines are required.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0368.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: circulating tumor DNA; colon cancer; colorectal cancer; minimal residual disease; adjuvant chemotherapy
Online: 27 May 2022 (03:52:10 CEST)
Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), the tumor-derived cell-free DNA fragments in the bloodstream carrying tumor-specific genetic and epigenetic alterations, represents an emerging novel tool for minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment in patients with resected colorectal cancer (CRC). For many decades, precise risk-stratification following curative-intent colorectal surgery has remained an enduring challenge. The current risk stratification strategy relies on clinicopathologic characteristics of the tumors that lacks precision and results in over-and undertreatment in a significant proportion of patients. Consequently, a biomarker that can reliably identify patients harboring MRD would be of critical importance in refining patient selection for adjuvant therapy. Several prospective cohort studies have provided compelling data suggesting that ctDNA could be a robust biomarker for MRD that outperforms all existing clinicopathologic criteria. Numerous clinical trials are currently underway to validate the ctDNA-guided MRD assessment and adjuvant treatment strategies. Once validated, the ctDNA technology will likely transform the adjuvant therapy paradigm of colorectal cancer, supporting ctDNA-guided treatment escalation and de-escalation. The current article presents a comprehensive overview of the published studies supporting the utility of ctDNA for MRD assessment in patients with CRC. We also discuss ongoing ctDNA-guided adjuvant clinical trials that will likely shape future adjuvant therapy strategies for patients with CRC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0297.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: regulatory T cell; tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; triple-negative breast cancer
Online: 22 March 2022 (07:50:45 CET)
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by an active immune response. We evalu-ated intratumoral interrelation between FOXP3+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and other cy-tokines in TNBC. Network analysis refined cytokines significantly correlate with FOPX3 in TNBC. Treatment response and prognosis imformation of patients and survival data from the TGCA and METABRIC databases were analyzed according to refined cytokines. Interleukin (IL)-33 was sig-nificantly expressed by TNBC cell lines than luminal cell lines (log2 fold change: 5.31, p <0.001) and IL-33 and TGFB2 showed a strong correlation with FOXP3 in the TNBC cell line. Immunohisto-chemistry demonstrated IL-33 high group was a significant predictor of complete response of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (odds ratio (OR) 4.12, p<0.05) and a favorable survival compared to IL-33 low group (OR 6.48, p<0.05) in TNBC. Survival data from TGCA and METABRIC revealed that FOXP3 was a significantly favorable marker in IL-33 high group com-pared to the low IL-33 low group (hazard ratio (HR) 2.1, p=0.02), and IL-33 high/TGFB2 high subgroup showed significant favorable prognosis in the FOXP3 high group compared to the FOPX3 low group in TNBC (HR 3.5, p=0.01). IL-33 and TGFB2 were key cytokines of intratumoral interrelation among FOXP3 in TNBC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Neoadjuvant therapy; Soft tissue tumor; Sarcoma; Tail sign; Radiotherapy; Chemotherapy; Hyperthermia; Surgery
Online: 6 July 2021 (11:25:42 CEST)
Several types of soft tissue sarcomas have peripheral infiltrative growth characteristics called tail-like lesions. The efficacy of neoadjuvant therapy for tumors with tail-like lesions has not been elucidated. From 2012 to 2019, we analyzed 36 patients with soft tissue sarcoma with tail-like lesions treated with neoadjuvant therapy, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or both. The ef-fect of neoadjuvant therapy on the tail sign was investigated by analyzing the change in tail-like lesions during neoadjuvant therapy and histological responses. The median length of the tail-like lesion reduced from 29.5 mm at initiation to 19.5 mm after neoadjuvant therapy. The extent of shrinkage in tail-like lesion was related to the histopathological responses in the main part. Com-plete disappearance of the tail-like lesion was observed in 12 patients; however, it was not related to achieving a microscopically negative margin. The oncologic outcomes did not significantly differ between cases with complete disappearance of tail-like lesions or not. This study indicated the shrinkage of tail-like lesions did not have significant effect on complete resection or improve-ment of clinical outcomes. A more comprehensive evaluation is needed to elaborate on the surgi-cal strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0442.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: schistosomiasis; soil-transmitted-helminthiasis; mapping; preventive chemotherapy; transmission control; Gabon; Central Africa
Online: 27 August 2018 (07:49:51 CEST)
In order to follow the Preventive Chemotherapy for the transmission control as recommended by WHO, Gabon initiated in 2014 the mapping of Schistosomiasis and Soil Transmitted Helminthiasis (STH). Here we report the results of the Northern and Eastern health regions, representing a third of the land area and 12% of its total population. All the 9 departments of the two regions were surveyed and from each, 5 schools were examined with 50 schoolchildren per school. The parasitological examinations were realized using the filtration method for urine and the Kato-Katz technique for stool samples. Overall 2245 schoolchildren (1116 girls and 1129 boys), mean aged 11.28 ± 0.04 years, were examined. Combined schistosomiasis and STH affected 1270 (56.6%) with variation between regions, departments and schools. For schistosomiasis, prevalence were 1.7% across the two regions, with no significant difference (p>0.05) between the Northern (1.5%) and the Eastern (1.9%). Schistosomiasis is mainly caused by Schistosoma haematobium with a prevalence of 1.5%, 1.9% and 1.7%, respectively in the North, East and globally. STH are more common than schistosomiasis, with an overall prevalence of 56.1% significantly different between the Northern (58.1%) and Eastern (53.6%) regions (p = 0.034). Trichuris trichiura is the most abundant infection with a prevalence of 43.7% followed by Ascaris lumbricoides 35.6% and hookworms 1.4%. According to these results, an appropriate mass drug administration strategy is given for the control of each neglected tropical disease group surveyed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0145.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: febrile neutropenia; chemotherapy; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; outcomes; multivariate logistic regression model
Online: 2 November 2023 (10:24:29 CET)
Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a major concern in patients undergoing chemotherapy for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL); however, the overall risk of FN is difficult to assess. This study aimed to develop a model for predicting the occurrence of FN in patients with DLBCL. In this multicenter, retrospective, observational analysis, a multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between FN incidence and pretreatment clinical factors. We included adult inpatients and outpatients (aged ≥ 18 years) diagnosed with DLBCL who were treated with chemotherapy. The study examined 246 patients. Considering FN occurring during the first cycle of chemotherapy as the primary outcome, a predictive model with a total score of 5 points was constructed as follows: 1 point each for viral hepatitis, extranodal involvement, and a high level of soluble interleukin-2 receptor and 2 points for lymphopenia. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of this model was 0.844 (95% confidence interval: 0.777–0.911). Our predictive model can assess the risk of FN before patients with DLBCL start chemotherapy, leading to better outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1899.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; BNT162b2 vaccine; cancer patients; anti-neoplastic treatment; chemotherapy; antibodies; immunogenicity.
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:49:55 CEST)
The BNT162b2 vaccine is globally used for preventing morbidity and mortality related to COVID-19. Cancer patients have had priority for receiving the vaccine due to their diminished immunity. This study reports the response of administering the 3rd and 4th vaccine doses to can-cer patients receiving active anti-neoplastic treatment. 142 patients have received two doses of the mRNA-based BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine, while 76 and 25 patients have received three and four doses, respectively. The efficacy of the humoral response following two vaccine doses was diminished in cancer patients, especially in the group of patients receiving chemotherapy. In a multivariate analysis, patients after three and four BNT162b2 vaccine doses were more likely to have antibody titers in the upper tertile compared to patients after two doses of the vaccine (odds ratio (OR) 7.62 (95% CI 1.38-42.12), p=0.02 and 17.15 (95% CI 5.01-58.7), p<0.01, respective-ly). Unlike the response after two doses, the 3rd and 4th BNT162b2 vaccine booster doses, had an increased efficacy of 95-100% in cancer patients while on active treatment. This result could be explained by different mechanisms including the development of memory B cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1474.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Hepatocellular carcinoma; Atezolizumab–bevacizumab; Hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy; Overall survival; Progression-free survival
Online: 21 July 2023 (14:00:43 CEST)
This study aimed to compare the prognosis and characteristics of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma treated with first-line atezolizumab plus bevacizumab (AB) combination therapy and hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy (HAIC). We retrospectively assessed 179 and 72 patients treated with HAIC and AB combination therapy, respectively, between January 2018 and January 2023. The progression-free survival of patients treated with HAIC was significantly superior than that of patients treated with AB (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in overall survival and objective response rate (ORR) between the two groups (P=0.1056 and P=0.137, respectively). After propensity score matching (PSM), our data revealed that there was no significant difference in PFS between patients who received AB combination therapy and HAIC therapy (P=0.8888). However, patients who received AB combination therapy had significantly better overall survival than those who received HAIC therapy (P=0.0133). In addition, after PSM, significant differences in ORR and disease control rate were not observed. In conclusion, our propensity score study reveals that patients treated with AB therapy have a significantly longer OS than those treated with HAIC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0552.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cancer chemotherapy; transmembrane receptors; EGFR; targeted protein degradation; furfuryl-quinolin-triazole-thiol chemicals
Online: 10 July 2023 (07:23:13 CEST)
Targeted protein degradation is an attractive technology for cancer treatment due to its ability to overcome the unpredictability of small molecule inhibitors that cause resistance mutations. In recent years, various targeted protein degradation strategies have been developed based on the ubiquitin-proteasome system in the cytoplasm or the autophagy-lysosomal system during endocytosis. In this review, we describe and compare technologies for targeted inhibition and targeted degradation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), one of the major proteins responsible for the onset and progression of many types of cancer. In addition, we have developed an alternative strategy, called alloAUTO, based on the binding of new heterocyclic compounds to an allosteric site located in close proximity to the EGFR catalytic site. These compounds cause targeted degradation of the transmembrane receptor, simultaneously activating both systems of protein degradation in cells. Damage to EGFR signaling pathways promotes inactivation of Bim sensor protein phosphorylation, which leads to disintegration of the cytoskeleton, followed by detachment of cancer cells from the extracellular matrix and, ultimately, to cancer cell death. This hallmark of targeted cancer cell death suggests an advantage over other targeted protein degradation strategies, namely that the fewer cancer cells survive, the fewer chemotherapy-resistant mutants appear.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0936.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; Lymph node; Occult lymph node metastasis; Postoperative chemotherapy; Lymphadenectomy
Online: 13 June 2023 (12:22:21 CEST)
Background A limited lymphadenectomy may make patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) at risk for missing occult nodal disease. This study aimed to determine an effective threshold of lymph nodes (LNs) for evaluation of the quality of lymphadenectomy and discuss the impact of adjuvant chemotherapy on pN0 patients. Methods Patients treated surgically for ESCC between 2010 and 2018 in Sichuan Cancer Hospital were included. NPV (Negative Predictive Value) based on a beta-binomial distribution was developed to assess the confidence of node-negative disease. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted to compare survival differences among groups. Results When patients had >21 LNs examined, the probability of false-negative findings was estimated at <10%, and NPV was estimated at a high level (>86.5%). For patients with LNs removed ≤21, 5-year OS (or DFS) in postoperative chemotherapy group vs that in surgery group was 65.3% vs 54.6%, p = 0.041 (or 59.2% vs 46.6%, p = 0.033). But for patients with >21 LNs, there were no statistical differences (p = 0.683 for OS or p = 0.942 for DFS). Conclusion Only pN0 patients who were at high risk of occult lymph node metastasis (examined LNs ≤21) could benefit from postoperative chemotherapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0718.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Relapsed or Refractory Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma, DLBLC, immunotherapy, chemotherapy-free regimen
Online: 29 September 2020 (15:09:47 CEST)
The most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in adults is diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL). There is a historical unmet need for more effective therapies in the 2nd and 3rd line setting. Emerging immunochemotherapies have shown activity in small studies of heavily pre-treated patients with prolonged remissions achieved in some patients. Anti-CD19 CAR (chimeric antigen receptor) T cells are potentially curative in the 3rd line and beyond setting and are under investigation in earlier lines of therapy.1 Antibody-drug conjugates (ADC’s) such as polatuzumab vedotin targeting the pan-B-cell marker CD79b has proven effectiveness in multiply-relapsed DLBCL patients. Tafasitamab (MOR208) is an anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody producing prolonged remissions when combined with Lenalidomide in patients who were not candidates for salvage chemotherapy or autologous stem cell transplant. Selinexor, an oral, small-molecule selective inhibitor of XPO1-mediated nuclear export (SINE), demonstrated prolonged activity against heavily-pretreated DLBCL without cumulative toxicity and is being investigated as part of an oral, chemotherapy-free regimen for relapsed aggressive lymphoma. This article reviews current strategies and novel therapies for relapsed/refractory DLBCL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: head and neck cancer; induction chemotherapy; 18F-FDG PET/CT; target volume delineation
Online: 7 October 2018 (09:48:55 CEST)
Background and objectives: Induction chemotherapy (ICT) before definitive chemoradiation (CRT) gives high response rates in LA-SCCHN. However, pre-ICT gross tumour volume (GTV) for radiotherapy (RT) planning is still recommended. As 18F-FDG PET/CT has an advantage of biological tumour information comparing to standard imaging methods, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility of 18F-FDG PET/CT-based post-ICT GTV delineation for RT planning in LA-SCCHN and to assess the prognostic value of PET parameters: maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). Methods: 47 LA-SCCHN patients were treated with 3 cycles of ICT (docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil) followed by CRT (70 Gy in 35 fractions with weekly cisplatin). Pre- and post-ICT PET/CT examinations were acquired. Planning CT was co-registered with post-ICT PET/CT and RT target volumes were contoured according to post-ICT PET. Post-ICT percentage decrease of SUVmax, MTV and TLG in primary tumour and metastatic regional lymphnodes (LN) was counted. Loco-regional failure patterns, 3-year progression free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. Results: 3-year PFS and OS rates for study population were 67% and 61% respectively. 31.9% of patients progressed loco-regionally. All progresses were localised in high-to-intermediate dose (60–70 Gy) RT volumes and none in low dose (50 Gy) volumes. Decrease of SUVmax ≥74% (p = 0.03), MTV ≥ 68% (p = 0.04), TLG ≥ 76% (p = 0.02) in primary tumour, and LN TLG decrease ≥74% (p = 0.03) were associated with PFS. Decrease of primary tumour SUVmax ≥ 74% (p = 0.04), MTV ≥ 69% (p = 0.04), TLG ≥ 74% (p = 0.02) and LN TLG ≥ 73% (p = 0.02) were prognostic factors for OS. Conclusions: According to our results, 18F-FDG PET/CT-based post-ICT GTV delineation is feasible strategy without negative impact on loco-regional control and survival. Percentage decrease of metabolic PET parameters SUVmax, MTV and TLG has a prognostic value in LA-SCCHN.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0633.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: benign neoplasm; desmoid tumors; chemotherapy; high-risk pregnancy; delivery; uncommon complications; abdominal discomfort; management
Online: 10 October 2023 (10:45:54 CEST)
Introduction: Desmoid tumor (DT) is a rare benign neoplasm rising from muscle aponeurosis, having been associated mostly with trauma or pregnancy. DT has an infiltrative and locally aggressive growth pattern and usually does not metastasize. However, it has a high recurrence and complication rate. When they occur in pregnancy, are all pregnancies and deliveries taken as individual case for optimal management by the physicians and midwifes, who need to be cautious in finding the optimal delivery mode for patients, which depends on tumor size, location, behavior and past history. Study Objectives: We present a case report of a large desmoid tumor of the anterior abdominal wall in a 29-year-old woman in pregnancy, presenting a delivery problem, which resolved in surgical management. Moreover, we are bringing a systematic review of the literature to provide an overview on pathomechanism, symptoms, diagnostics and treatment management of the pregnant women affected by DT. Results: The authors report a case of pregnant women who underwent systemic oncological treatment for abdominal wall desmoid tumor and have been pregnant afterwards. The observational conservative management was chosen with an elective cesarean section at the 38+4 pregnancy week with uncomplicated postpartum follow-up. Conclusion: Pregnancy-associated desmoid tumors are very rare and optimal management of this tumor is not well established, despite some guidelines for non-pregnant patients. The authors reviewed the literature focusing on the actual modern management of desmoid tumors at all, including patients during the pregnancy, as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2118.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: cytoreductive surgery; extreme cytoreductive surgery; hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy; malign peritoneal mesothelioma; peritoneal cancer index.
Online: 29 September 2023 (14:56:58 CEST)
Extreme cytoreductive surgery (eCRS) may sometimes be required to achieve complete cytoreduction, which is one of the most important prognostic factors. This study investigated the impact of eCRS on survival and peri-postoperative outcomes. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) patients who underwent cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS-HIPEC) were retrospectively examined. Patients who underwent CRS-HIPEC were divided into eCRS and less extensive CRS (leCRS) groups. Resection of ≥5 organs or ≥3 small bowel anastomoses was defined as eCRS. Survival and perioperative outcomes of both groups were compared.In the study including 31 patients, eCRS-HIPEC was used in 15 patients. Complete cytore-duction (CC score 0/1) was achieved in all 31 patients. Compared with LeCRS, mean length of stay, length of stay in the intensive care unit, mean peritoneal cancer index (PCI), and intraoperative blood loss were higher in the eCRS group. Additionally, the risk of developing complications was observed to be more frequent and the duration of surgery was longer. Rates of serious complications and morbidity were similar in patients undergoing eCRS compared with leCRS. In patients with high PCI and multiple organ involvement, complete cytoreduction can be achieved by performing eCRS and equivalent survival results can be achieved with low PCI..
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2252.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: nutritional assessment; oesophageal cancer; pharyngeal cancer; prognosis; survival; nutritional status; diagnosis; malnutrition; chemotherapy; radiotherapy
Online: 30 June 2023 (12:36:40 CEST)
Background: Malnutrition in oesophageal and pharyngeal cancer patients constitutes a common and serious concern, which significantly reduces patients’ prognosis. Cancers of the oesophagus and the pharynx can considerably impair feeding in patients, resulting in severe undernutrition. This is a scoping review which aims to critically summarize and scrutinize the current clinical evidence on the use and prognostic role of diverse nutritional assessment tools on the prognosis of patients with oesophageal and pharyngeal cancers. Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases were comprehensively explored utilizing relative keywords to detect clinical studies that investigate whether nutritional status may affect disease prognosis. Results: Several assessment tools have evaluated and highlighted the prognostic role of nutritional status on patients’ survival and disease complications in both oesophageal and pharyngeal cancers. Regarding oesophageal cancer, CONUT, PNI, PG-SGA and NRS-2002 are more commonly used, while albumin is also frequently evaluated. Regarding pharyngeal cancers, fewer studies are currently available. PNI has been evaluated and its significance as a factor for shorter overall survival, distant metastasis-free survival, progression-free survival, and locoregional recurrence-free has been highlighted. Comprehensive Nutritional Index has also been evaluated with positive results, as well as NRS 2002, GPS, and body weight status. However, there is currently a lack of studies with adequate female patients. There is also a significant lack of well-designed prospective studies with well-organized methodology. Conclusion: Nutritional status may significantly affect disease progression and patients’ survival, highlighting the importance of a good nutritional status in patients with oesophageal and pharyngeal cancers. Further large-scaled and well-designed prospective clinical studies are strongly recommended to verify the potential beneficial effects of nutritional status in patients with oesophageal and pharyngeal cancers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: non-small-cell lung cancer; performance status; cytotoxic chemotherapy; immune checkpoint inhibitor; cancer cachexia
Online: 20 September 2022 (05:53:12 CEST)
Most pivotal clinical trials in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have excluded patients with poor performance status (PS), and data on the efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapy have not been fully accumulated. For NSCLC patients with PS 2 and without druggable genetic alterations, monotherapy with cytotoxic agents or carboplatin-based combination therapy is usually administered based on the results of several randomized trials. However, the evidence of cytotoxic chemotherapy for patients with PS 2 is insufficient, with limited efficacy and toxicity concerns. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are a promising treatment for patients with PS 2 because of lower incidence of severe toxicity compared to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Meanwhile, several reports suggest that anti-PD-1 antibodies monotherapy is less effective for patients with PS 2, especially for those with PS 2 caused by disease burden. Although the combination therapy of nivolumab and ipilimumab is a promising treatment option, there is a divergence in efficacy data between clinical trials. The standard of care for advanced NSCLC with PS 2 has not been established, and future therapeutic strategies should take into account the heterogeneity of the PS 2 population.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cancer; surgery; chemotherapy; radiotherapy; health optimization; exercises; diet; emotion; chronic stress; kinetics; lethal factors
Online: 24 November 2019 (04:40:48 CET)
After reviewing cancer theories, cancer treatment development histories, randomized clinical trial's performance, cancer treatment strategy, trial follow-up times, and conducting numerous simulations using existing data, the authors found: (1) medical treatments come with three to four lethal factors: treatment side-effects, emotional distress and chronic dress, lack of exercises or physical inactivity, and excessive nutrition in some cases; (2) clinical trial exaggerates the benefits of fast-acting treatments and underestimates the slow-delivering adverse side effects as a result of statistical averaging, interfering effects of personal lifestyle factors, and insufficient follow-up times; (3) the benefits of medical treatments are limited by chain comparison, where surgery sets up a negative standard relative to the best way for resolving cancer; (4) the strategy of destroying the tumor is unworkable; (5) medical treatments can turn natural cancer growth curve into approximately doubly exponential curve; (6) multiple factor non-medical measures are much more powerful than medical treatments in controlling cancer growth and metastasis rates; and (7) cancer early diagnosis and over treatments are bad strategies that have great adverse impacts on cancer patients. Based on huge increases in cancer growth rate constants, substantial of loss of organ functional capacity, and severe systemic aging-like cellular damages, the authors concluded that medical treatments promote cancer growth and metastasis rates and shorten patient lives in most cases, and the claimed benefits are caused by triple biases of clinical trials. The authors believe that the better strategy for ending the global cancer epidemic is abandoning clinical trails as the research model, changing caner treatment strategy from killing cancer cells to slowing down cancer growth rates by using multiple factors optimization approach in personalized medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0189.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: G-quadruplex DNA; interactions; berberine and palmatine analogues; chemotherapy; NMR; FRET and MST assays
Online: 14 May 2018 (11:44:10 CEST)
In this article/review, the selective interactions of several berberine and palmatine derivatives with various DNA G-quadruplex structures are reported. These derivatives were constructed starting from two natural compounds, berberine and palamatine, through specific synthetic passages following two different schemes for each of them and using several substituents. The details of these synthesis are also described. Indeed, the study of the interactions of these derivative compounds with various G-quadruplex forming sequences was carried out by means of various structural and biochemical techniques. The results show that the presence of suitable side chains are very useful to improve the interaction of the ligands with G-quadruplex structures. Thus, since G-quadruplex formation is promoted by these compounds, which have never been reported before, these may be tested as potential anticancer drugs.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1950.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: inflammatory breast carcinoma; targeted biological therapy; HER2 overexpression; multidisciplinary treatment; aggressive cancer management; systemic chemotherapy
Online: 28 June 2023 (07:12:56 CEST)
(1) Background: This case presents a rare and challenging clinical scenario involving a 50-year-old female patient diagnosed with Inflammatory Carcinoma, a particularly aggressive and rapidly growing form of breast cancer. The disease is characterized by heat, redness, swelling and noticeable changes in the breast's skin texture, resembling the skin of an orange (peau d'orange). This case is important because it contributes to the limited clinical literature on such aggressive forms of breast cancer.; (2) Methods: The multidisciplinary approach was employed. Diagnostic procedures such as imaging tests, biopsy, and histopathological examination were performed to confirm the diagnosis of Inflammatory Carcinoma and assess the extent of the disease. The presence of the HER2 protein on the tumor cells supported the selection of a combination therapy involving systemic chemotherapy and targeted biological therapy.; (3) Results: The patient responded positively to the combination therapy consisting of systemic chemotherapy and targeted biological therapy. The aggressive nature of Inflammatory Carcinoma, characterized by rapid growth and distinct skin changes, was effectively addressed. The presence of the HER2 protein on the tumor cells indicated the potential efficacy of the combination therapy in aggressive forms of breast cancer.; (4) Conclusions: This case highlights the critical importance of a multidisciplinary approach in managing complex cases of breast cancer, especially rare and aggressive subtypes like Inflammatory Carcinoma. The positive response of the patient to the combination therapy involving systemic chemotherapy and targeted biological therapy demonstrates the potential for favorable outcomes in aggressive disease presentations.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1637.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: rapidly growing ulcerated breast cancer; intensive neoadjuvant chemotherapy; skin ulceration; invasive ductal carcinoma; doxorubicin; cyclophosphamide.
Online: 22 June 2023 (15:00:18 CEST)
(1) Background: This case report focuses on a 46-year-old female patient diagnosed with a rare and aggressive form of breast cancer known as rapidly growing, ulcerated breast cancer. The patient exhibited rapid progression of the disease, experiencing discomfort and noticeable changes in the size and texture of the affected breast over a short period of time; (2) Methods: An intensive neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen was employed as the primary treatment approach. The patient's response to this treatment was closely monitored and assessed. Various diagnostic tests and imaging techniques were utilized to evaluate the extent of the disease and track its response to the chemotherapy; (3) Results: The patient's response to the neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen was remarkable, resulting in a complete pathologic response. This outcome, although unusual in rapidly growing, ulcerated breast cancers, highlights the effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in managing large, locally advanced breast cancers; (4) Conclusions: The multidisciplinary approach employed in managing this complex breast cancer case proved to be crucial to the patient's favorable outcome. Despite the aggressive nature of the disease and the challenges posed by the rapid growth and ulceration, the patient achieved a positive result. This case contributes to the limited clinical literature on such unusual and aggressive breast cancer cases, providing valuable insights for future clinical practice.8
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1494.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: microgravity; chemotherapy; paclitaxel; hydroxyurea; morphometry; drug response; immune dysfunction; space medicine; terrestrial medicine; fluorescence microscopy
Online: 21 June 2023 (07:34:49 CEST)
Unlike plants which have special gravity-sensing cells, such special cells in animals are yet to be discovered. However, microgravity, the condition of apparent weightlessness, causes bone, muscular and immune system dysfunctions in astronauts following spaceflights. Decades of investigations show correlations between these organ and system-level dysfunctions with changes induced at the cellular level both by simulated microgravity as well as microgravity conditions in outer space. Changes in single bone, muscle and immune cells include morphological abnormalities, altered gene expression, protein expression, metabolic pathways and signaling pathways. These suggest that human cells mount some response to microgravity. However, the implications of such adjustments on many cellular functions and responses are not clear. Here, we addressed the question whether microgravity induces alterations to drug response in cancer cells. We used both adherent cancer cells (T98G) and cancer cells in suspension (K562) to confirm known effects of microgravity and then treated the K562 cells with common cancer drugs (hydroxyurea and paclitaxel) following 48 hours of exposure to microgravity via a NASA-developed rotary cell culture system. Fluorescence-guided morphometry revealed microgravity-induced loss of the significant reduction (p < 0.0l) to the nuclear to cytoplasm ratio of cancer cells treated with hydroxyurea. Our results call for more studies on impact of microgravity on cellular drug-response, in view of the growing need for space medicine, as space exploration grows.
COMMENTARY | doi:10.3390/sci2030070
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: small molecule inhibitor; personalized medicine; precision medicine; oncology; targeted therapy; drug delivery; drug screening; chemotherapy
Online: 8 September 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
The development of targeted therapeutics for cancer continues to receive intense research attention as laboratories and pharmaceutical companies seek to develop drugs and technologies that improve treatment efficacy and mitigate harmful side effects. In the aftermath of World War I, it was discovered that mustard gas destroys rapidly dividing cells and could be used to treat cancer. Since then, chemotherapy has remained a predominant treatment for cancer; however, the destruction of dividing cells throughout the body yields devastating side effects including off-target damage of the digestive tract, bone marrow, skin, and reproductive tract. Furthermore, the high mutation rate of cancerous cells often renders chemotherapy ineffective long-term. Therapies with improved specificity, localization, and efficacy are redefining cancer treatment. Herein, we define and summarize the principal advancements in targeted cancer treatment and briefly comment on the march towards personalized medicine in the treatment of human cancer.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0173.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; non small cell lung cancer; double primary cancers; B7-H3; gefitinib; chemotherapy
Online: 14 May 2019 (13:04:44 CEST)
Management of multiple primary cancers, a not so infrequent event in oncology practice, is a critical issue due to the lack of literature . In this study, we reported the case of a patient with metachronous double metastatic non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) who received gefitinib in combination with gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel and with mFOLFOX6 in first and second line, respectively. She achieved a progression free survival and an overall survival (OS) of 28 months for NSCLC and PFS-1 and OS of 20 and 13 months, respectively for PDAC. Moreover, the combination of gefitinib and chemotherapies treatments displayed a good safety profile. Given the insignificant frequency of this case, we performed a molecular characterization of both neoplasms with the aim to investigate the existence of particular activated pathways and/or similar immunological mutations. it is interesting to note that two neoplasms shared a commune mutation of B7-H3 gene, with the consecutive impairment of its expressed protein. In both PDAC and NSCLC, the expression of this protein was associated with a worse survival. Since B7-H3 is an anti-apoptotic protein, the reduction of its expression or function should justify a pro-apoptotic activity with a putative justification of the long survival of the patient considered in this report.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1681.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: ovarian cancer; MAGE A-10; NY-ESO-1; immunohistochemistry; response to platinumbased chemotherapy; platinum sensitivity; prognosis
Online: 24 August 2023 (03:47:53 CEST)
: Ovarian cancer has a dismal prognosis. Standard treatment following surgery relies on platinum-based chemotherapy. However, sizeable percentages of patients are unresponsive. Identification of markers predicting response to chemotherapy might help select eligible patients while sparing unresponsive ones treatment-associated toxicity. Cancer/testis antigens (CTA) are expressed by healthy germ cells and malignant cells of diverse histological origin. This expression profile identifies them as attractive targets of cancer immunotherapies. We analyzed correlations between expression of MAGE-A10 and New York esophageal-1 cancer (NY-ESO-1) CTAs at protein level and effectiveness of platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with advanced-stage high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC). MAGE-A10 and NY-ESO-1 protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples from 93 patients with advanced-stage HGSOC treated at our institutions between January 1996 and December 2013. Correlation between expression of these markers and response to platinum-based chemotherapy, evaluated according to RECIST 1.1 criteria, platinum sensitivity, measured as platinum free interval (PFI), progression free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was explored. MAGE-A10 protein expression predicts unresponsiveness to platinum-based chemotherapy (p=0.005), poor platinum sensitivity (p<0.001), and poor PFS (p<0.001) and OS (p<0.001). Multiva-riate analysis identifies MAGE-A10 protein expression as independent predictor of poor platinum sensitivity (p=0.005) and shorter OS (p<0.001). Instead, no correlation was observed between NY-ESO-1 protein expression and response to platinum-based chemotherapy (p=0.832), platinum sensitivity (p= 0.168), PFS (p=0.126) and OS (p=0.335). MAGE-A10 protein expression reliably identifies advanced-stage HGSOC unresponsive to platinum-based chemotherapy. Targeted im-munotherapy could represent an important alternative therapeutic option in these cancers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0507.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; TILs; PD-L1; immunotherapy; chemotherapy, triple negative breast cancer; HER2; luminal breast cancer; CPS
Online: 7 June 2023 (08:04:20 CEST)
With the rise of novel immunotherapies able to stimulate the antitumor immune response, increasing literature data concerning the immunogenicity of breast cancer have been published in recent years. Numerous clinical studies have been conducted in order to identify novel biomarkers that could reflect the immunogenicity of BC and predict response to immunotherapy. In this regard, TILs have emerged as an important immunological biomarker related to the antitumor immune re-sponse in BC. TILs are more frequently observed in triple-negative breast cancer and HER2+ sub-types where increased TIL levels have been linked to better response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and with improved survival. PD-L1 is a type 1 transmembrane protein ligand expressed on T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells and is considered a key inhibitory checkpoint involved in cancer immune regulation. PD-L1 immunohistochemical expression in breast cancer is observed in about 10–30% of cases and is extremely variable based on tumor stage and molecular subtypes . In detail, TNBC shows the highest percentages of PD-L1 positivity, followed by HER2+ tumors. On the other hand, PD-L1 is rarely expressed (0-10% of cases) in hormone-receptor positive BC. The prognostic role of PD-L1 expression in BC is still controversial since different immunohistochemistry (IHC) clones, cut-off points and scoring systems have been utilized across published studies. In the present paper an extensive review on the current knowledge of immune landscape of BC is provided. In detail TILS and PD-L1 expression across different BC subtypes is discussed also providing a guide for their pathological assessment and reporting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0262.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: photodynamic therapy; sonodynamic therapy; photothermal hyperthermia; magnetic hyperthermia; anticancer; antimicrobial; combinations; nanomaterials chemotherapy; CAP; immunotherapy; radiotherapy
Online: 12 April 2023 (08:31:16 CEST)
The rapid rise in research and development following the discovery of photodynamic therapy to establish novel photosensitizers and overcome the limitations of the technology soon after its clinical translation has given rise to a few significant milestones. These include several novel generations of photosensitizers, the widening of the scope of applications, leveraging of the offerings of nanotechnology for greater efficacy, selectivity for the disease over host tissue and cells, the advent of combination therapies with other similarly minimally invasive therapeutic technologies, the use of stimulus-responsive delivery and disease targeting, and greater penetration depth of the activation energy. Brought together, all these milestones have contributed to significant enhancement of what is still arguably a novel technology. Yet the major applications of photodynamic therapy still remain firmly located in neoplasms, from where most of the new innovations appear to launch to other areas, such as microbial, fungal, viral, acne, wet age-related macular degeneration, atherosclerosis, psoriasis, environmental sanitization, pest control, and dermatology. The core value proposition of combinations of photodynamic therapy is that they enhance the leading alternative and are proposed to overcome challenges of the leading clinical anticancer and antibacterial methods, mainly due to its inherent barriers against the emergence of resistance and its rapid development of targeted and high precision therapy. Combinations with chemotherapy and radiotherapy and demonstrated applications in mop-up surgery adventitiously promise to repurpose these top three clinical tools. This review will navigate the vast and increasing innovations that have been created so as to obviate novel areas of further innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0429.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy; cisplatin; sorafenib; multikinase inhibitors; risk factors; propensity score-matched analysis
Online: 24 September 2021 (12:38:25 CEST)
Given that the outcome of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) with cisplatin for intrahepatic advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear, we aimed to compare prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) following HAIC with cisplatin versus sorafenib for intrahepatic advanced HCC using propensity score-matched analysis. We enrolled 348 patients with intrahepatic advanced HCC who received HAIC with cisplatin (n = 97) or sorafenib (n = 251) between June 2006 and March 2020. No significant difference was observed in OS between HAIC with cisplatin and sorafenib cohorts (median survival time [MST]: 13.9 vs. 12.7 months; p = 0.0989). To reduce confounding effects, 176 patients were selected using propensity score-matched analysis (n = 88 for each treatment). HAIC with cisplatin significantly prolonged OS compared with sorafenib (MST: 16.2 vs. 12.2 months; p = 0.0060). Following stratification according to the Child–Pugh classification, for both patients with class A (MST: 24.0 vs. 15.6 months; p = 0.0097) and class B (MST: 8.5 vs. 6.9 months; p = 0.0391), HAIC with cisplatin rather than sorafenib significantly prolonged OS. Our findings suggest that HAIC with cisplatin demonstrates longer prognostic effects than sorafenib in intrahepatic advanced HCC, regardless of the hepatic reserve.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0492.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: low-molecular-weight fucoidan; colorectal cancer; HCT116 cell; Caco-2 cell; fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy; complementary therapy
Online: 21 June 2021 (08:55:12 CEST)
This study investigated the roles of low-molecular-weight fucoidan (LMWF) in enhancing the anti-cancer effects of fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy. HCT116 and Caco-2 cells were treated with LMWF and 5-FU. Cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis, and migration were analyzed in both cell types. Potential mechanisms underlying how LMWF enhances the anti-cancer effects of fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy were also explored. The cell viability of HCT116 and Caco-2 cells was significantly reduced after treatment with a LMWF-5-FU combination. In HCT116 cells, LMWF enhanced the suppressive effects of 5-FU on cell viability through the 1) induction of cell cycle arrest in the S phase and 2) late apoptosis mediated by the Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. In Caco-2 cells, LMWF enhanced the suppressive effects of 5-FU on cell viability through both c-mesenchymal–epithelial transition (MET)/ Kirsten Rat Sarcoma virus (KRAS)/ extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-MET/ phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinases (PI3K)/ protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathways. Moreover, LMWF enhanced the suppressive effects of 5-FU on tumor cell migration through the c-MET/ matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 signaling pathway in both HCT116 and Caco-2 cells. Our results demonstrated that LMWF is a potential complementary therapy for enhancing the efficacies of fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy in colorectal cancers (CRCs) with the wild-type or mutated KRAS gene through different mechanisms. However, in vivo studies and in clinical trials are required to validate the results of the present study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0047.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: tumor microenvironment; biomarkers; solid cancers; computational biology; cancer stem cells; anti-cancer stem cell therapy; chemotherapy
Online: 4 May 2020 (10:00:51 CEST)
Solid tumors display complex biology and most therapies including chemotherapy cannot prevent therapy resistance and relapse. Most therapeutics target cancer cells, but recent data suggest the presence of cancer stem cells as cells with self-renewal and tumorigenic abilities. Cancer stem cell markers have been suggested to have prognostic value and can be targeted during cancer treatment and in resistant disease. CSCs have been postulated to play significant contextual roles in tumor initiation, progression, therapy resistance and metastasis. CSCs have thus been targeted by new generation cancer drugs. The transcriptional expression of several CSC markers in different cancers was evaluated by searching publicly available The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) databases. We report here new findings on expression and prognostic significance of CSC markers in several cancers by examining the expression of CSCs markers in tumor tissues versus the adjacent normal tissues. We found that CSC markers were mostly highly expressed various tumors such as colon, lung, pancreatic and esophageal cancers. No CSC marker is expressed in the same pattern in all cancers and individual CSC marker expression was not linked to patient survival. This analysis calls for continued research on CSCs and clinical evaluation of the CSC markers in relation to prognosis of cancers in large population samples. Novel cancer drugs ought to target CSCs, cancer cells and tumor microenvironment variations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0254.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: peritoneal carcinomatosis, tumor homing peptide, nanoparticle, intraperitoneal chemotherapy, image guided surgery, affinity targeting, integrins, cd206, nucleolin
Online: 19 April 2018 (14:28:02 CEST)
During last decades multiple therapeutic approaches have been explored for improved management of peritoneally disseminated malignancies – a grim condition known as peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). Intraperitoneal administration can be used to achieve elevated local concentration and extended half-life of the drugs in the peritoneal cavity to improve their anticancer efficacy. However, IP-administered chemotherapeutics have a short residence time in the IP space, and are not tumor selective. An increasing body of work suggests that functionalization of drugs and nanoparticles with targeting peptides increases their peritoneal retention and provides a robust and specific tumor binding and penetration that translates into improved therapeutic response. Here we review a progress in affinity targeting of intraperitoneal anticancer compounds, imaging agents and nanoparticles with tumor homing peptides. We review classes of tumor homing peptides relevant for PC targeting, payloads for peptide-guided precision delivery, applications for targeted compounds and the effects of nanoformulation of drugs and imaging agents on affinity-based tumor delivery.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1029.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: immune checkpoint inhibitors; CAR-T cell therapy; new cancer therapies and perioperative implications; perioperative chemotherapy toxicity; pneumonitis
Online: 15 June 2023 (07:37:26 CEST)
Targeted cancer therapy has grown exponentially in the last decade, representing the largest frontier in the modern concept of precision medicine. This renaissance is largely due to our rapidly evolving ability to biochemically harness our immune systems to target cancer-specific antigens. Combined with an increasing armamentarium of surgical and non-invasive techniques for cancer mitigation we have upgraded cancer therapy from a non-specific assault on cell-division to a multi-modal, targeted approach. This renaissance has resulted in an increase in the perioperative footprint of patients with advanced cancer. The scope of the perioperative clinician has evolved from one of passive/reactive management of complications to a proactive approach that starts in the preoperative optimization phase and continues into the postoperative period. The perioperative world should not exist in a silo, and thus involvement of the oncology team is paramount. To provide safe oncologic care, it is essential to be up to date in newer cancer therapies, lest we act on erroneous and/or outdated information. Oncologists should weigh in on immune status, recent chemotherapeutic exposures, and potentially evolving toxicities. These might involve critical changes to perioperative infectious prophylaxis, steroid administration, and coagulopathy management. First, patients living beyond the typical life-expectancy for their cancer will carry a high burden of cancer-related downstream effects. General metabolic issues will include malnutrition, cachexia, and gastric outlet obstruction. Severe protein-calorie malnutrition, as well as hepatic and renal dysfunction can impact the metabolism and clearance of drugs. The cardiovascular, endocrinologic, pulmonary, and central nervous system implications of new cancer therapies will be discussed extensively below. Second, we have to enhance our ability to manage a cancer population who may be experiencing increasing novel chemotherapeutic toxicities. Newer agents differ from historical agents, which were blunt-force tools aimed at nonspecific destruction of cell-division. These drugs are efficacious but physiologically costly. Newer immunogenic therapies have a slightly improved acute safety profile, and a more complex chronic toxicity profile that may be overt or insidious. Chronic toxicities can present overtly or as a smoldering undertone to other active medical conditions such as sepsis, pneumonia, failure to thrive, or renal failure. The new therapies discussed in this review occur in the context of an overall increasingly multi-faceted cancer care machine. An example is screening for esophageal cancer in patients with Barrett's esophagus, or periodic chest CTs for patients with a strong history of tobacco use. These interventions are more likely to detect disease while it is still resectable, and resections will commonly accompany neo-adjuvant therapy. These approaches commonly involve new immunotherapies whose efficacy is higher-yield with a lower disease burden. In a recent example, the immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) ipilimumab plus nivolumab have significantly increased survival rate for squamous cell esophageal cancer when combined with standard chemotherapy. Surgical resection has evolved to one that often accompanies neoadjuvant chemo and radiation. The increasing efficacy of this approach may de-necessitate many major resections, and increase the number of sub-anatomic resections and minimally invasive procedures. Improved techniques - notably for hepatectomy, whipple procedure, prostatectomy, nephrectomy - have increased the safety profile and decreased the perioperative physiologic burden. This has enabled a broader subset of patients (due to cancer burden or due to medical comorbidities) to qualify for the operation, and increased the involvement of anesthesia and their perioperative services. With an increase in surgical candidacy comes an increase in post-surgical complications, and post-surgical maintenance such as drains, embolizations, imaging studies, etc. In the non-OR anesthesia realm, there have been considerable advancements in cancer “micro-treatments” such as hepatic metastasis embolization, tumor ablation, and peri-tumor vascular embolization. There are an ever-increasing number of IR-guided embolizations for bleeding tumors, aspiration of malignant effusions, and drainage of abscesses. This review serves to provide insight into new categories of chemotherapy and their perioperative implications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0932.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: gastric cancer; HER2; immunotherapy; PD-1/PD-L1; antibody-drug conjugate; chemotherapy; trastuzumab; novel therapies; clinical trials
Online: 13 June 2023 (11:15:24 CEST)
Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease with increasing global incidence in recent years. Human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER2) is overexpressed in approximately 10-20% of gastric cancers. The implementation of targeted therapy against HER2 as part of the standard of care treatment in metastatic disease has improved the prognosis of this subset of patients. However, gastric cancer still has high mortality rates and urgently requires new treatment strategies. The combination of immunotherapy with HER2-targeted therapies has shown synergistic effects in preclinical models, being the rationale behind exploring this combination in clinical trials in locally advanced and metastatic settings. Additionally, the irruption of antibody-drug conjugates and other novel HER2-targeted agents has led to the development of numerous clinical trials showing promising results. This review presents the molecular mechanisms supporting the use of HER2-targeted drugs in combination with immunotherapy and provides an overview of the therapeutic scenario of HER2-positive disease. We focus on the role of immunotherapy but also summarize emerging therapies and combinations under clinical research that may change the standard treatment in HER-2 positive disease in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0561.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Nivolumab; immunotherapy; head and neck cancers; HNSCC; chemotherapy; neutrophil to lymphocyt ratio; NLR; second primary malignancy; Cetuximab
Online: 9 May 2023 (04:21:38 CEST)
The prognosis of patients with recurrent or metastatic of the head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC) refractory to platinum-based chemotherapy is severe and, consequently, the identification of therapeutic options for this category of patients is a priority. Nivolumab, an anti- programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD-1) monoclonal antibody, has been approved for the treatment of recurrent or metastatic HNSCC after platinum-based therapy progressing. We present the early experience of two academic center including diagnostic, clinical, biological, therapeutic and outcomes characteristics of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with Nivolumab. The purpose of the study is to identify certain peculiarities and to report them compared to the data from the literature in order to generate some hypotheses that coud constitute criteria for the selection of cases with maximum benefit to immunotherapy. Analyzing the data obtained from 18 patients treated in Emergency County Hospital Craiova, "Saint Nectarie" Oncological Hospital Craiova and Euroclinic Oncological Center Iasi January 2020 and March 2023 it could be hypothesized that lower nadir values of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (<3.5) and the adition of intensive regimens of chemotherapy and radiotherapy could justify a favorable response in terms of progression free survival (PFS) during immunotherapy with Nivolumab. To our knowledge, the study included the first two cases of second primary malignancy (SPM) in the head neck region treated with Nivolumab. The reported data support a possible benefit of the sequential administration of radiotherapy, immunotherapy for SPM cases. Higher positive dynamic of neutrophil to lymphocyt ratio (NLR) could be associated with worst outcome during immunotherapy. All study observations including the role of infections and antibiotic treatment as well as the possible biomarker value of NLR variation during immunotherapy should be investigated in multicenter clinical trials.