ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0593.v1
Online: 24 June 2021 (08:47:39 CEST)
The impact of sex in the development of long-term toxicities affecting the quality of life of cancer survivors has not been investigated experimentally. To address this issue, a series of neurologic and cardiologic endpoints were used to investigate sex-based differences triggered by paclitaxel treatment and radiotherapy exposure. Male and female WT mice were treated with Paclitaxel (150 and 300 mg/kg) administered weekly over 6 weeks or exposed to 19 Gy cardiac irradiation. Cohorts were analyzed for behavioral and neurobiologic endpoints to assess systemic toxicity of paclitaxel or cardiovascular endpoints to assess radiotherapy toxicity. Interestingly, female WT mice exhibited enhanced tolerance compared to male WT mice regardless of the treatment regimen. To provide insight into the possible sex-specific protective mechanisms, rhoB deficient animals and elderly mice (22 months) were used with a focus on the possible contribution of sex hormones including estrogen. RhoB deficiency and advanced age had no impact on neurocognitive impairment induced by Paclitaxel but reversed the cardioprotection was observed in females after radiotherapy. Conversely, rhoB deficiency protected males from radiation toxicity. In sum, rhoB was identified as a molecular determinant driving estrogen dependent cardioprotection in female mice, whereas neuroprotection was not sex-hormone dependent. To our knowledge, this study revealed for the first time sex- and organ-specific responses to paclitaxel and radiotherapy.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0347.v1
Online: 14 December 2020 (14:51:41 CET)
Ovarian lymphoma is an infrequent disease, accounting for less than 1% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosis. Symptoms include abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge, abdominal pain, and urinary obstruction due to the large mass. In our case, a 60-year-old woman, underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, as she presented with low-grade follicular lymphoma (FL) in both the ovaries, and the left ovary was observed to be enlarged. The tumor is categorized as lymphoma based upon immunohistochemical markers. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis and bone marrow biopsy are important for the staging of primary lymphoma of the ovary. The first-line chemotherapy regimen includes rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin hydrochloride (hydroxydaunorubicin), vincristine sulfate (Oncovin), and prednisone (R-CHOP) for rapidly proliferative non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Lymphomas with slower growth patterns can be treated with Bendamustine-Rituximab and don’t need aggressive R-CHOP treatment.
Online: 14 October 2020 (10:24:48 CEST)
Background: Oncology patients experience a large number of symptoms and, those referring to cognitive performance has an ever-increasing importance in clinical practice due to the increase in survival rates and interest in the patient's quality of life. The studies reviewed show that chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment may occur in 15 and 50% of oncology patients. The main objective of this research was to study the impact of chemotherapy on the cognitive function of patients with locoregional breast cancer.Method: Analytical, prospective, longitudinal study using three measures, unifactorial intrasubject design, non-probability and random selection sampling. The sample comprised women newly diagnosed with locoregional breast cancer in stages I, II, IIIA who received chemotherapy at the University Hospital of Salamanca (Complejo Asistencial Universitario de Salamanca) randomly selected for three years. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, HAD); quality of life (QLQ-BR23 scale) and the following cognitive variables were assessed: processing speed, attention, memory and executive functions (subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale and the Trail Making Test). Results: The final sample size included 151 participants; 23 were excluded. A decline in cognitive performance was observed in patients which was not completely recovered two months after chemotherapy had been completed. Also, worse cognitive performance was observed in patients with anxious or depressive symptoms. There is a negative impact on the quality of life. Conclusion: Chemotherapy has an impact on the cognitive performance of oncology patients in most of the cognitive domains studied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0370.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: retinoblastoma; eye surgery; chemotherapy; radiotherapy
Online: 14 June 2021 (15:00:47 CEST)
Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular paediatric eye cancer. It accounts for approximately 11% of primary cancers occurring in the first age of life, with 95% of diagnoses before 5 years of age [1-3]. Since retinoblastoma is very aggressive, early diagnosis and prompt treatment are vital for children to preserve their sight and life. In western countries in Europe and North America, retinoblastoma is diagnosed early so the chances of saving the patient’s life and preserving vision are good. However, in large regions of Africa and Asia, where the diagnosis of retinoblastoma is delayed, the deadly effect is observed [2-5]. In these regions, socioeconomic factors and poor recognition of the seriousness of the disease result in a high mortality rate of up to 70%. At the same time, the mortality rate in Europe and North America is 3-5 % . Besides, the incidence of retinoblastoma also varies by race and region, from 40 to 60 per million live births, which corresponds to 1 per 16,000 - 24,000 live births, with the greatest disease burden recorded in the countries of Asia and Africa where the highest birth rates are recorded [2,3 However, the nationwide studies of the retinoblastoma epidemiology have been conducted in many countries, such as Sweden, Finland, Netherlands, Singapore, Great Britain, United States of America, Korea and Taiwan, there is a lack of data from Eastern European countries like Poland [1,3-11]. The management of retinoblastoma may also differ between developed and developing countries. The current strategy of retinoblastoma treatment aims to save the life, eye, vision and cosmetics of the child, in order of priority. Medical management of retinoblastoma includes surgical treatment (enucleation), external beam radiotherapy, systemic chemotherapy with or without focal therapies such as cryotherapy, laser photocoagulation and plaque radiotherapy. Recently, intra-arterial and intravitreal chemotherapies have been used to treat retinoblastoma with the ability to save globes that otherwise would have been enucleated [2,3]. The present study aimed to investigate the incidence and characteristics of retinoblastoma in the overall population of Poland in the years 2010-2017 and to report the changes that occurred during that period.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0088.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: ovarian cancer; heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC); intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IP); cytoreductive surgery; secondary cytoreduction; interval cytoreduction
Online: 6 June 2018 (11:56:33 CEST)
Heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has several potential benefits. Higher doses of chemotherapy can be used with HIPEC because the plasma-peritoneal barrier results in little absorption into the blood stream. HIPEC offers higher peritoneal penetration in comparison to an intravenous (IV) regimen and does not have the traditional normothermic intraperitoneal (IP) regimen limitation of post-operative adhesions. Hyperthermia itself has cytotoxic effects and can potentiate antineoplastic effects of chemotherapy in part by increasing the depth of tumor penetration by up to 3 mm. For the treatment of ovarian cancer, HIPEC has been evaluated in the recurrent setting with secondary cytoreduction. Recent studies, including a prospective trial, have evaluated its role in primary management of ovarian cancer. This review summarizes previous and ongoing studies regarding the use of HIPEC in the management of ovarian cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0052.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: mucositis; radiotherapy; chemotherapy; pathophysiology; management; melatonin
Online: 9 March 2017 (04:46:30 CET)
The current treatment for cervico-facial cancer involves radio and/or chemotherapy. Unfortunately, cancer therapies can lead to local and systemic complications such as mucositis, which is the most common dose-dependent complication in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. Mucositis can cause a considerably reduced quality of life in cancer patients already suffering from physical and psychological exhaustion. However, melatonin, whose role in the treatment of mucositis has recently been investigated, offers an effective alternative therapy in the prevention and/or management of radio and/or chemotherapy-induced mucositis. This review focuses on the pathobiology and management of mucositis in order to improve the quality of cancer patients’ lives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0216.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Planckian Distribution Equation; breast cancer; mRNA; chemotherapy
Online: 8 February 2021 (16:00:22 CET)
Chemotherapy-related deaths, the result of treatment with faulty medications, account for nearly 10% of all breast cancer deaths (Rashbass, 2016). Patient-specific, personalized medicine is evidently required to administer optimized therapeutics and prevent treatment-related mortality. In order to develop a predictive model for breast cancer therapy, the following study analyzed the mRNA data of 4,704 genes derived from 20 breast cancer patients before and after doxorubicin treatment for 16 weeks (O’brien et al., 2006; Perou et al., 2000). The genomic data of each patient was first stratified into 9 groups (corresponding to the 9 Mechanisms defined in Figure 4) based on mRNA expression in response to the tumor and to the doxorubicin treatment. The study then employed the Planckian Distribution Equation (PDE) discovered at Rutgers University to model the stratified samples by transforming each mechanism into a single long-tailed histogram fitted by the PDE. Our PDE model is based on 3 parameters - A, B, and C - of which 2 were extracted from each model to generate the plots seen in figures 5e and 5f. The drug-induced slopes of the A vs C plots were then determined for all 9 mechanisms of each patient. The study observed an increase in post-treatment mRNA levels for longer surviving patients in 6 mechanisms. Further analysis displayed how the drug treatment uniquely altered each of the mechanisms based on the length of patient survival. These results indicate that the PDE-based procedures described herein may provide a novel tool for discovering potential anti-breast cancer pharmaceuticals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0225.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: cancer; chemotherapy; nausea; vomiting; progressive muscle relaxation
Online: 19 October 2019 (16:11:44 CEST)
(1) Background: Previous systematic review suggested a beneficial effect of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. However, poor quality of eligible studies impaired the reliability and validity of findings. Moreover, additional potential studies with good quality published in Chinese language have been published recently. The aim of the present systematic review was to investigate the value of PMR training in preventing and alleviating nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy among cancer patients. (2) Methods: We assigned two independent investigators to search all potential studies in PubMed, Cochrane Controlled Register of Trial (CENTRAL), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), China Biomedical Literature database (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang data. We used data extraction sheet extracted all essential information, and used the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool to appraise the quality of eligible studies. Finally, we qualitatively summarized the results of all included studies. (3) Results: Six studies enrolling 288 patients were considered to meet our selection criteria finally. Of these 6 studies, three were labeled as moderate quality, and the remaining studies were low quality. All included studies consistently suggested that PMR has a positive impact on nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy among cancer patients especially alleviating the incidence, frequency and degree of delayed nausea and vomiting. (4) Conclusions: Independent studies indicated that PMR was a beneficial approach to prevent and alleviate nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy among cancer patients. However, further studies considering other types of primary tumors should be designed in order to increase the generality of PMR because studies included in the present systematic review mainly enrolled lung cancer and breast cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0256.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: immunocheckpoint inhibitors; chemotherapy; tirosin kinase inhibitors; angiogenesis
Online: 28 March 2019 (06:48:37 CET)
Despite the impact of immune checkpoint inhibitors on malignancies treatment is unprecedented, a lack of response to these molecules is observed in several cases. Differently from melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer, where the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors results in a high efficacy, the response rate in other tumors, such as gastrointestinal cancers, breast cancer, sarcomas, and part of genitor-urinary cancers remains low. The first strategy evaluated to improve the response rate to immune checkpoint inhibitors is the use of predictive factors for the response as PD-L1 expression, tumor mutational burden, and clinical features. In addition to the identification of the patients with a high sensibility to immune checkpoint inhibitors, another approach currently under intensive investigation is the use of therapeutics in a combinatory manner with immune checkpoint inhibitors to obtain an enhancement of efficacy through the modification of the tumor immune microenvironment. In addition to the abscopal effect induced by radiotherapy, a lot of studies are evaluating several drugs able to improve response rate to immune checkpoint inhibitors, including microbiota modifiers, drugs targeting co-inhibitors receptors, anti-angiogenic therapeutics, small molecules, and oncolytic viruses. In view of the rapid and extensive development of this research field, we conducted a systematic review of the literature identifying which of these drugs are closer to achieving validation in the clinical practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0004.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: breast cancer; optimal control; ketogenic diet; chemotherapy
Online: 1 February 2018 (04:45:40 CET)
In this paper, a mathematical model of breast cancer governed by a system of ordinary differential equations in the presence of chemotherapy treatment and ketogenic diet is discussed. Several comprehensive mathematical analysis was carried out using varieties of analytical methods to study the stability of the breast cancer model. Also, sufficient conditions on parameter values to ensure cancer persistence in the absence of anti-cancer drugs ketogenic diet and cancer emission when anti-cancer drugs, immune-booster, ketogenic diet are included were established. Furthermore, optimal control theory is applied to find out the optimal drug adjustment as an input control of the system therapies to minimize the number of cancerous cells by considering different controlled combinations of administering the chemotherapy agent and ketogenic diet using the popular Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle. Numerical simulations were presented to validate our theoretical results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0126.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: liposome; tumor-targeted; radiation; tumor; drug delivery; chemotherapy
Online: 8 September 2022 (14:06:26 CEST)
Targeted delivery of drugs or other therapeutic agents through internal or external triggers has been used to control and accelerate the release from liposomal carriers in a number of studies, but relatively few utilize energy of therapeutic X-rays as a trigger. We have synthesized liposomes that are triggered by ionizing radiation (RTLs) to release their therapeutic payload. These liposomes are composed of natural egg PE, DSPC, cholesterol, and DSPE-PEG-2000, and the mean size of the RTL was in the range of 114 to 133 nm, as measured by NTA. The trigger mechanism is the organic halogen, chloral hydrate, which is known to generate free protons upon exposure to ionizing radiation. Once protons are liberated, a drop in internal pH of the liposome promotes destabilization of the lipid bilayer and escape of the liposomal contents. In proof of principle studies, we assessed RTL radiation-release of fluorescent tracers upon exposure to a low pH extracellular environment or exposure to X-ray irradiation. Biodistribution imaging before and after irradiation demonstrated a preferential uptake and release of the liposomes and their cargo at the site of local tumor irradiation. Finally, a potent metabolite of the commonly used chemotherapy irinotecan, SN-38, was loaded into RTL along with near infrared (NIR) fluorescent dyes for imaging studies and measuring tumor cell cytotoxicity alone or combined with radiation exposure, in vitro and in vivo. Fully loaded RTLs were found to increase tumor cell killing with radiation in vitro and enhance tumor growth delay in vivo after three i.v. injections combined with three, 5 Gy local tumor radiation exposures compared to either treatment modality alone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0225.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: chemotherapy; muscle atrophy; Doxorubicin; mitochondria; reactive oxygen species
Online: 16 March 2022 (08:22:57 CET)
Doxorubicin (Dox) is a commonly used chemotherapeutic that can adversely affect skeletal muscle, including causing muscle atrophy. Dox is known to induce an event known as mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) in cardiac muscle and this plays an important role in Dox-mediated cardiac toxicity. Further to this, recent evidence identifies MPT as a mechanism of atrophy in skeletal muscle, suggesting that MPT may underlie some of the Dox-related toxicity in skeletal muscle. To test this hypothesis, we used cultured human primary myotubes, C2C12 myotubes, and single adult mouse flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle fibers in experiments involving Dox treatment with or without inhibitors of MPT. Dox treatment of myotubes caused myonuclear translocation of the mitochondrial protein apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) and increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS), consistent with the known consequences of MPT. Furthermore, Dox caused atrophy in C2C12 myotubes grown on patterned plates, human primary myotubes, and single muscle fibers from adult mice. Notably, Dox-induced atrophy could be prevented by a wide variety of agents that inhibit MPT, as well as by inhibiting mROS or Caspase 3. In conclusion, our results indicate that MPT plays an important role in driving Dox-mediated skeletal muscle atrophy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0716.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Malaria elimination; Mathematical model; Human mobility; Intervention chemotherapy
Online: 29 September 2020 (14:42:16 CEST)
In central Senegal malaria incidences have declined from 2000 to 2010 in response to scaling-up of control measures and then remained stable, making elimination improbable. Additional control measures are needed to reduce transmission. We simulated chemoprophylaxis interventions targeting malaria hotspots, using a meta-population mathematical model based on differential equation framework and incorporating human mobility. The model was fitted to weekly malaria incidences from 45 villages. Three approaches for selecting intervention targets were compared: a) villages with malaria cases during the low transmission season of the previous year; b) villages with highest incidences during the high transmission season of the previous year; c) villages with highest connectivity with adjacent populations. Our modeling, considering human mobility, showed that the intervention strategies targeting hotspots would be effective in reducing malaria incidence in both targeted and untargeted areas. But whatever the intervention, pre-elimination stage (1-5 cases per 1,000 per year) would not be reached without simultaneously increasing vector control by more than 10%. Targeted interventions allow increasing overall malaria control and elimination potential.
Online: 5 July 2020 (16:39:32 CEST)
In the last few decades, the dynamics of tumor cells and their growths are presented via clinical, experimental, and theoretical approaches, which leads to the development of the new idea of multiple cancer therapies to control and reduce the death rate for earlier detection. In this paper, we discussed the dynamics of tumor cell growth and its treatment process. We analyzed some simple mathematical models and generalized the study to understand the growth of tumor cells. The main proposed model is a system of ordinary differential equations which combines interactions among natural killer cells, dendritic cells and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. The model is solved numerically to explain how the tumor cells spread and become more dangerous as well as the treatment process of cancer. It is also studied that how the cell behaves in the presence of different therapy and drugs. The optimal control of chemotherapy has been discussed. It has also been explained how much the model is effective in reducing tumor cells over time. Finally, a couple of spatially distributed models are discussed for tumor cell growth.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: neuroendocrine neoplasms; chemotherapy; temozolomide; metronomic treatment; second-line
Online: 26 July 2019 (16:56:08 CEST)
Background: The front-line treatment of advanced NeuroEndocrine Neoplasms (NENs) depends on clinical and pathological factors but there are no standard second-line therapies. Methods: Metastatic NENs patients were treated at the ENETS (European NeuroEndocrine Tumor Society) center of excellence of Naples (Italy), from 2014 to 2017 with second-line metronomic temozolomide, 75 mg/m2 per os “one week on/one week off”. Toxicity was graded with NCI-CTC criteria v4.0; objective responses with RECIST v1.1 and performance status (PS) according to ECOG. Results: Twenty-six consecutive patients were treated. Median age was 65.5 years. The predominant primary organs were pancreas and lung. Grading was G2 in 11 patients, G3 in 15. Eleven patients presented with PS 1 and 15 with PS 2. The median time-on-temozolomide therapy was 12.2 months (95% CI: 11.4-19.6). No G3/G4 toxicities were registered. Complete response was obtained in 1 patient, partial response in 4, stable disease in 19 (disease control rate: 92.3%), and progressive disease in 2. The median overall survival from temozolomide start was 28.3 months. PS improved in 73% of patients. Conclusions: Metronomic temozolomide is a safe and active treatment for G2 and G3 NENs. Prospective and larger trials are needed to confirm these results.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0318.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: S100A10; annexin A2; plasmin; ovarian cancer; chemotherapy resistance
Online: 15 October 2018 (14:02:03 CEST)
S100A10, which is also known as p11 is located in the plasma membrane and forms a heterotetramer with annexin A2. The heterotetramer, comprising of 2 subunits of annexin A2 and S100A10, activates the plasminogen activation pathway which is involved in cellular repair of normal tissues. Increased expression of annexin A2 and S100A10 in cancer cells leads to increased levels of plasmin which promote degradation of the extracellular matrix, increased angiogenesis and invasion of the surrounding organs. Although many studies have investigated the functional role of annexin A2 in cancer cells including ovarian cancer, S100A10 has been less studied. We recently demonstrated that high stromal annexin A2 and high cytoplasmic S100A10 expression is associated with a 3.4 fold increased risk of progression and 7.9 fold risk of death in ovarian cancer patients. Other studies have linked S100A10 with multidrug resistance in ovarian cancer, however, no functional studies to date have been performed in ovarian cancer cells. This article reviews the current understanding on S100A10 function in cancer with a particular focus on ovarian cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0099.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: premature ovarian failure (POF); PBMC, chemotherapy; cancer; ovary
Online: 6 August 2018 (07:56:50 CEST)
Cancer treatment with specific chemotherapeutic agents has been well documented to have an adverse impact on female fertility leading to premature ovarian failure (POF). The objective of this study was to investigate if chemotherapeutic induced POF can be reversed with an infusion of autologous nucleated peripheral blood cells (PBMC). To reach our goal, mice were treated with a single intraperitoneal injections of busulfan and cyclophosphamide to induce POF. This was followed by transfusion of PBMC. The ovarian morphology and functional parameters were monitored by radioimmunoassay, real-time PCR, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry analysis. Our study showed that chemotherapy (CTX) protracted estrous cycle period and repressed E2 production. CTX decreased the expressions of steroidogenesis markers- CYP-17 synthesis, StAR and Connexin-43 protein expression from the ovarian follicles. We also observed reduced numbers and sizes of the primordial and primary follicles in CTX-treated mice compared to untreated controls (P < 0.05). When both CTX and untreated –control groups were stimulated with gonadotrophin, the control group produced ten times more ova than the CTX group. Finally, the treatment of premature ovarian failure induced by CTX with autologous PBMC transfusion resulted in over-expression and a statistically significant increase in several stem cell markers and restoration of fertility. Infusion with PBMC in CTX further decreased the estrous cycle length by 2.5 times (P < 0.01). We found that transfusion of autologous PBMC to mice with chemotherapy induced POF was very effective at restoring fertility. These results are similar to other studies using bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0001.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: ovarian cancer; ALDH1A1; cancer stem cells; senescence; chemotherapy resistance
Online: 2 May 2022 (09:39:22 CEST)
Ovarian cancer is a deadly disease attributed to late-stage detection as well as recurrence and development of chemoresistance. Ovarian cancer stem cells (OCSCs) are hypothesized to be largely responsible for emergence of chemoresistant tumors. Although chemotherapy may initially succeed at decreasing the size and number of tumors, it leaves behind residual malignant OCSCs. In this study, we demonstrate that Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) is essential for the survival of OCSCs. We identified a novel ALDH1A1 inhibitor, compound 974, and used 974 as a tool to decipher the mechanism of stemness regulation by ALDH1A1. Treatment of OCSCs with 974 significantly inhibited ALDH activity, expression of stemness genes, spheroid, and colony formation. In vivo limiting dilution assay demonstrated that 974 significantly inhibited CSC frequency. Transcriptomic sequencing of cells treated with 974 revealed significant downregulation of genes related to stemness and chemoresistance as well as senescence and senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP). We confirmed that 974 inhibited senescence and stemness induced by platinum-based chemotherapy in functional assays. Overall, these data establish that ALDH1A1 is essential for OCSCs survival and ALDH1A1 inhibition sup-presses chemotherapy induced senescence and stemness. Targeting ALDH1A1 using small molecule inhibitors in combination with chemotherapy therefore presents a promising strategy to pre-vent ovarian cancer recurrence and has potential for clinical translation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0478.v1
Online: 31 May 2020 (16:11:51 CEST)
Background: At present, the treatments for patients with advanced lung cancer focus on chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, or a combination of multiple treatments. Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to compare the various chemotherapy-based combination therapies and find the best one for patients with advanced lung cancer. Methods: Based on database (PubMed, EMBASE and Medline) for randomized controlled trials of advanced lung cancer with combination therapy from 2008 to 2020, we searched literatures with overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR) and adverse as outcome indicators and established a Bayesian mesh meta-analysis for multiple treatment strategies. Then, we combined the results of four outcome indicators to find out the best chemotherapy-based combination therapy strategy for patients with advanced lung cancer, further, we tried to screen out the best drugs of which were commonly used now. Results: It contained a total of 51 studies, including five combination therapies: Chemotherapy/Chemotherapy plus placebo (CT), chemotherapy plus one targeted therapy drug (CT+T), chemotherapy plus two targeted therapy drugs (CT+T+T), chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy (CT+I) or chemotherapy combined with biotherapy (CT+B). In terms of four outcome indicators, CT+I showed the best therapeutic benefits. In the comparison of immunotherapy drugs, pembrolizumab showed the best effect. Conclusion: Our results showed that, among the multiple chemotherapy-based combination therapy strategies, chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy is the best choice for patients with advanced lung cancer, and pembrolizumab combined with chemotherapy has the best effect.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: glioblastoma; miRNA; MGMT; survival; radiotherapy; chemotherapy; temozolomide; translational medicine
Online: 9 April 2020 (08:27:12 CEST)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common high-grade intracranial tumor in adults. It is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation, diffuse infiltration due to high invasive and migratory capacities, as well as intense resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. With a five-year survival of less than 3% and an average survival rate of 12 months after diagnosis, GBM has become a focus of current research to urgently develop new therapeutic approaches in order to prolong survival of GBM patients. The methylation status of the promoter region of the O6-methylguanine–DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is nowadays routinely analyzed, since a methylated promoter region is beneficial for an effective response to temozolomide-based chemotherapy. Furthermore, several miRNAs were identified regulating MGMT expression, apart from promoter methylation, by degrading MGMT mRNA before protein translation. These miRNAs could be a promising innovative treatment approach to enhance Temozolomide (TMZ) sensitivity in MGMT unmethylated patients and to increase progression-free survival as well as long-term survival. In this review, the relevant miRNAs are systematically reviewed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0178.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Colo-rectal cancer; liver metastasis; simultaneous approach; surgical treatment; chemotherapy
Online: 9 November 2022 (15:36:13 CET)
Management of synchronous colorectal cancer with liver metastases (SCLM) is still on debate, regarding timing, indications and complications of the 3 strategies: classic approach (first tumor resection), simultaneous resection and reverse approach (liver first). A retrospective single-centre evaluation of synchronous approach was accomplished, focusing on surgical technique, indications and perioperative complications. Between 2017 and 2020, 31 SCLM patients benefited from synchronously colorectal and hepatic approach: segmental colectomies/rectal resections, simultaneously with liver metastasectomies (associated with radiofrequency ablation). Post-therapeutic imaging monitoring was performed from every 3 to 6 months. There were no perioperative complications related to the combination of the two procedures, low morbidity and zero postoperative mortality. The follow-up period was from 10 to 40 months: 13 patients had no evidence of recurrence, 10 patients had hepatic metastases in regression, 4 of them had signs of peritoneal carcinomatosis and 4 patients showed progression of liver disease; all patients were on chemotherapy. During follow-up 4 patients died. Experience shows that the simultaneous approach of recto-colic and hepatic resections in colo-rectal cancers is a safe procedure, with low morbidity, the limits being dictated by the size of the liver metastases. The results at long-distance must be drawn by further consistent trials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0068.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy; pain management; target therapy; immuno-therapy
Online: 6 May 2022 (09:14:17 CEST)
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) develops as a challenging nerve-damaging adverse effect of anticancer drugs used in chemotherapy. The disorder may require a dose reduction of chemo-therapy and its most common sensory symptoms are severe pain, tingling, and numbness in the hands and feet. CIPN affects dramatically the patient's quality of life (QoL). Pain and sensory abnormalities may occur for months, or even years after the termination of chemotherapy. This disease has complicated pathophysiology featured by underlying mechanisms not completely known. Although many pharmaco-logical and non-pharmacological therapeutic approaches have been tested to overcome these symptoms, there is currently no standardized cure to prevent or treat CIPN. According to current guidelines, Duloxe-tine is the only recommended agent for painful neuropathic symptoms. Therefore, finding effective thera-pies for CIPN is mandatory. The purpose of this review is to dissect CIPN, the target and immunothera-py-based approaches to this disorder, as well as to offer new insights for novel therapeutic perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0041.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: multicore magnetic nanoparticles; magnetoliposomes; magnetic hyperthermia; antitumor thienopyridine derivative; chemotherapy
Online: 6 April 2022 (10:27:22 CEST)
Multicore magnetic nanoparticles of manganese ferrite were prepared using carboxymethyl-dextran and melamine as agglutinating agents. The nanoparticles prepared using melamine exhibit a flower-shape structure, a saturation magnetization of 6.16 emu/g and good capabilities for magnetic hyperthermia. Magnetoliposome-like structures containing the multicore nanoparticles exhibit sizes in the range 250 – 400 nm. A new antitumor thienopyridine derivative was loaded in these nanocarriers with a high encapsulation efficiency of 98% ± 2.6%. Release profiles in absence and presence of an AMF indicate a transport by diffusion, with a maximum compound release of 31% under the AMF. A sustained and controlled drug release in anticipated from the results, pointing to suitable characteristics of the magnetoliposomes for dual cancer therapy (combined magnetic hyperthermia and chemotherapy).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0218.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: cancer; nanoparticles; chemotherapy; cellular targeting; multidrug resistance; cryosurgery; scale-up
Online: 10 August 2021 (09:44:24 CEST)
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death and morbidity with a complex pathophysiology. Traditional cancer therapies include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. However, limitations such as lack of specificity, cytotoxicity, and multi-drug resistance pose a substantial challenge for favorable cancer treatment. The advent of nanotechnology has revolutionized the arena of cancer diagnosis and treatment. Nanoparticles (1-100nm) can be used in the treatment of cancer owing to their specific advantages such as biocompatibility, reduced toxicity, more excellent stability, enhanced permeability and retention effect, and precise targeting. Nanoparticles are classified into several main categories. The nanoparticle drug delivery system is particular and utilizes tumor and tumor environment characteristics. Nanoparticles not only solve the limitations of conventional cancer treatment but also overcome multidrug resistance. Additionally, as new multidrug resistance mechanisms are unraveled and studied, nanoparticles are being investigated more vigorously. Various therapeutic implications of nano-formulations have created brand new perspectives for cancer treatment. However, a majority of the research is limited to in vivo and in vitro studies, and the number of nano-drugs that are approved has not much amplified over the years. In this review, we discuss numerous types of nanoparticles, targeting mechanisms along with approved nanotherapeutics for oncological implications in cancer treatment. Further, we also summarize the current perspective, advantages, and challenges in clinical translation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0559.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Hepatocellular carcinoma; Lenvatinib; Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy; Propensity score matching
Online: 26 July 2021 (09:59:34 CEST)
The comparative efficacy and safety between lenvatinib and hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still unclear. This multicenter historical cohort study enrolled 244 patients who were treated with HAIC (n = 173) or lenvatinib (n = 71) between 2012 and 2020. Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed, and 52 patients were selected per group. Clinical outcomes and safety were compared. Objective response rate (ORR) was not different between the two groups (26.0% vs. 23.1%, P = 0.736). Before PSM, HAIC group had a higher proportion of Child-Pugh B and portal vein tumor, whereas lenvatinib group had more patients with extrahepatic metastases, which was adjusted after PSM. There were no differences in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) after PSM (HAIC vs. lenvatinib, median PFS, 3.6 vs. 4.0 months, P = 0.706; median OS 10.8 vs. 7.9 months, P = 0.106). Multivariate Cox-regression showed that alpha-fetoprotein ≤ 1000 ng/mL was only associated factor for OS after PSM in all patients (hazard ratio = 0.421, P = 0.011). Subgroup analysis for patients with high tumor burden beyond the REFLECT eligibility criteria revealed that HAIC group (n = 29) had a significantly longer OS than did lenvatinib group (n = 30) (10.0 vs. 5.4 months, P=0.004). More patients in HAIC group achieved better liver function than those in lenvatinib group at the time of best responses. There was no difference in the incidence of grade 3 and 4 adverse events between the two groups. Therefore, lenvatinib is comparable to HAIC in terms of ORR and OS in unresectable HCC meeting REFLECT eligibility criteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0330.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Chemotherapy; Radiotherapy; Cognitive dysfunction; Big data; Cohort studies; Survival analysis
Online: 14 June 2021 (07:51:57 CEST)
Background: We aimed to assess the risk of chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-related cognitive impairment in colorectal cancer patients. Methods: We randomly selected 40% of colorectal cancer patients from Korean National Health Insurance Database (NHID), 2004-2018 (N=148,848). Patients with one or more ICD-10 diagnostic codes for dementia or mild cognitive impairment was defined as cognitive impairment cases. Patients who were aged 18 or younger, diagnosed with cognitive impairment before colorectal cancer (N=8,225) and did not receive primary resection (N=45,320) were excluded. The effects of each chemotherapy agent on cognitive impairment were estimated. We additionally estimated the effect of radiotherapy in rectal cancer patients. Time-dependent competing risk Cox regression was conducted to estimate overall and age-specific hazard ratios (HR) separately for colon and rectal cancer. Results: In colon cancer, capecitabine and irinotecan was associated with higher cognitive im-pairment, while 5-fluorouracil was not. In rectal cancer, no chemotherapy agents increased the risk of cognitive impairment, nor did radiotherapy. Hazardous association of irinotecan was estimated larger in elderly patients compared with younger counterparts. Conclusion: Heterogeneous associations between various chemotherapy agents and cognitive impairment were observed. Elderly patients were more vulnerable to possible adverse cognitive effects. Radiotherapy did not increase the risk of cognitive impairment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0745.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Biodegradable polymers; Nanoparticles; Cancer chemotherapy; Controlled release; Drug delivery systems
Online: 30 September 2020 (12:47:17 CEST)
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) co-polymers show relatively higher in vivo degradation rate compared to other PHAs thus they received a great deal of attention for a wide range of medical applications. Nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with poorly water soluble anticancer drug docetaxel (DCX) were produced using poly 3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate, P(3HB-co-4HB), co-polymers biosynthesised from Cupriavidus sp. USMAA1020 isolated from Malaysian environment. Three co-polymers with different molar proportions of 4-hydroxybutirate (4HB) were used: 16% (PHB16), 30% (PHB30) and 70% (PHB70) 4HB-containing P(3HB-co-4HB). Blank and DCX loaded nanoparticles were then characterized for their size and size distribution, surface charge, encapsulation efficiency and drug release. Pre-formulation studies showed that an optimised formulation could be achieved through the emulsification/solvent evaporation method using PHB70 with the addition of 1.0% PVA, as stabilizer and 0.03% VitE-TPGS, as surfactant. DCX-loaded PHB70 nanoparticles (DCX-PHB70) gave the desired particle size distribution in term of average particles sizes around 150 nm and narrow particle size distribution (PDI below 0.100). The encapsulation efficiencies result showed that at 30% w/w drug-to-polymer ratio: DCX- PHB16 NPs were able to encapsulate up to 42% of DCX; DCX-PHB30 NPs encapsulated up to 46% of DCX and DCX-PHB70 NPs encapsulated up to 50% of DCX within the nanoparticles system. Approximately 60% of DCX was released from the DCX-PHB70 NPs within 7 days for 5%, 10% and 20% of drug to polymer ratio while for the 30% and 40% drug to polymer ratios, an almost complete drug release (98%) after 7 days of incubation was observed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0251.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: gastric acid suppressant; chemotherapy; tyrosine kinase inhibitors; proton pump inhibitors
Online: 31 March 2020 (03:40:46 CEST)
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the role of gastric acid suppressant use on outcomes of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and oral chemotherapy. We identified all researches evaluating the effect of GAS use on patients receiving oral chemotherapy or TKIs for solid tumors. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were calculated with fixed-effects or random-effects model. The study population included n=16 retrospective studies and 372,418 patients. Series concerned gastrointestinal tract tumors (n=5 studies), renal cell carcinomas (RCC, n=3 studies), non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC, n=5 studies), and soft tissue sarcomas or mixed histologies solid tumors in n=3 studies. The pooled HRs for OS and PFS were 1.31 (95% CI: 1.20–1.43; P<01) and 1.3 (95%CI 1.07-1.57; P<0.01) for GAS and no GAS users, respectively. Only studies of EGFR mutated NSCLC patients receiving TKIs and those with colorectal cancer receiving oral chemotherapy showed a significant correlation between GAS and poor survival. Our study supports the evidence of a possible negative impact of concomitant GAS therapy on survival outcomes of patients receiving oral anti-cancer drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0075.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: amphiphilc copolymer; hydrolyzable polyurea; micelle; controlled drug delivery; cancer chemotherapy
Online: 8 April 2019 (08:35:46 CEST)
In recent years, polyureas with dynamic hindered urea bonds (HUBs), as a class of promising biomedical polymers, have attracted attention as a benefit of their controlled hydrolytic property. The effect of the chemical structures on the properties of polyureas and their assemblies was rarely reported. In this study, four kinds of polyureas with different chemical groups have been synthesized, and the polyurea from cyclohexyl diisocyanate and tert-butyl diamine showed the fastest hydrolytic rate. The amphiphilic polyurea composed of hydrophobic cyclohexyl-tert-butyl polyurea and hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) was synthesized for controlled delivery of antitumor drug paclitaxel (PTX). The PTX-loaded PEGylated polyurea micelle more effectively entered into the murine breast cancer 4T1 cells and inhibited the corresponding tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, the PEGylated polyurea with adjustable degradation might be a promising polymer matrix for drug delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0110.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: oral cancer; radiotherapy; intra-arterial chemotherapy; head and neck cancer
Online: 7 May 2018 (08:48:20 CEST)
Purpose: The aim of present study was to compare the treatment results of daily cisplatin (CDDP), weekly docetaxel (DOC) intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy (DIACRT) regimen and weekly CDDP intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy (WIACRT) for patients with tongue cancer. Materials and Methods: Between January 2007 and December 2016, a total of 11 patients treated with WIACRT and 45 patients treated with DIACRT were enrolled in present study. In DIACRT group, 25 patients had T2, 20 patients had T3. A total of 9 patients had T2 and 2 had T3 in WIACRT (p = NS). In DIACRT, the treatment schedule consisted of intra-arterial chemotherapy (DOC, total 60 mg/m2; CDDP, total 150 mg/m2) and daily concurrent radiotherapy (RT) (total, 60 Gy). In WIACRT, the treatment schedule consisted of intra-arterial chemotherapy (CDDP, total 360 mg/m2) and daily concurrent RT (total, 60 Gy). Results: The median follow-up periods for DIACRT and WIACRT were 61 and 66 months respectively. The 5-year local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) rate were 94.5% and 89.6% for DIACRT group, 60.6% and 63.6% for WIACRT group respectively. The LC rate and OS of DIACRT group were significantly higher than that of WIACRT group. As regards toxicities, no treatment-related deaths were observed during the follow-up periods both in two groups. Conclusions: DIACRT was found to be feasible and effective for patients with tongue cancer and could become a new treatment modality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0491.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Real-world evidence; treatment patterns; chemotherapy-ineligible; outcomes
Online: 29 August 2022 (12:27:14 CEST)
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematological malignancy that predominantly affects the elderly. Prognosis declines with age. For those who cannot tolerate intensive chemotherapy, historically established treatment options have been hypomethylating agents (HMAs), low dose cytarabine (LDAC), and best supportive care (BSC). As the standard of care evolves for those unfit for intensive chemotherapy, there is a need to understand established treatment pathways, clinical outcomes and healthcare resource utilization in Canada. The CURRENT study was a retrospective chart review of AML patients not eligible for intensive chemotherapy who initiated first-line treatment between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2018. Data were collected from 170 Canadian patients treated at six hematology centers, of whom 118 received systemic therapy and 52 received BSC as first-line treatment. Median overall survival was 8.58 months and varied from 2.96 months for BSC to 13.31 months for HMAs. Over 80% of patients had at least one outpatient visit, and 67% of patients receiving systemic therapy and 71% of those receiving BSC had at least one admission to hospital, during their first line of therapy. A total of 96 (81.4%) patients receiving first line systemic therapy and 39 (75.0%) of those receiving first line BSC had at least one red blood cell or platelet transfusion. These findings highlight the unmet need for novel therapies for patients ineligible for intensive chemotherapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0164.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer,; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; elederly; HER2- positive; pathological complete response; safety
Online: 12 January 2022 (13:31:16 CET)
Neoadjuvant systemic therapy has now become the the standard in early breast cancer management. Chemotherapy in combination with trastuzumab +/- pertuzumab targeted therapy can improve rates of pathologic complete response (pCR) in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. Achieving a pCR is considered a good prognostic factor, in particular in patients with more aggressive breast cancer subtypes such as TNBC or HER2 positive cancers. Furthermore, most studies demonstrate that chemotherapy in combination with trastuzumab and pertuzumab is well tolerated. The retrospective analysis presented here concentrates on neoadjuvant therapy with the TCbH-P regimen, with a particular emphasis on patients over 60 years of age. We analysed the factors affecting the achievement of pCR and presented adverse effects of the applied therapies, which opened a discussion about optimizing the therapy of older patients with HER-2 positive breast cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0535.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: chemotherapy; cachexia; 5-fluorouracil; skeletal muscle; p38; NF-κB; dystrophin; desmin
Online: 22 March 2021 (13:12:15 CET)
Skeletal myopathy encompasses both atrophy and dysfunction and is a prominent event in cancer and chemotherapy-induced cachexia. Here, we investigate the effects of chemotherapeutic agent, 5-fluorouracil (5FU), on skeletal muscle mass and function, and whether small molecule therapeutic candidate, BGP-15, could be protective against the chemotoxic challenge exerted by 5FU. Additionally, we explore the molecular signature of 5FU treatment. Male Balb/c mice received metronomic tri-weekly intraperitoneal delivery of 5FU (23 mg/kg), with and without BGP-15 (15 mg/kg), 6 times in total over a 15-day treatment period. We demonstrated that neither 5FU, nor 5FU combined with BGP-15, affected body composition indices, skeletal muscle mass or function. Adjuvant BGP-15 treatment did, however, prevent the 5FU-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and p65 NF-κB subunit, signalling pathways involved in cell stress and inflammatory signalling, respectively. This as associated with mitoprotection. 5FU reduced the expression of the key cytoskeletal proteins, desmin and dystrophin, which was not prevented by BGP-15. Combined, these data show that metronomic delivery of 5FU does not elicit physiological consequences to skeletal muscle mass and function but is implicit in priming skeletal muscle with a molecular signature for myopathy. BGP-15 has modest protective efficacy against the molecular changes induced by 5FU.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0654.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: breast cancer; BARD1; surveillance; management; genetic testing; predisposition; susceptibility; neoadjuvant; chemotherapy
Online: 26 September 2020 (17:32:52 CEST)
Current oncological developments are based on improved understanding of genetics, and especially the discovery of genes whose alterations affect cell functions with consequences for the whole body. Our work is focused on the one of these genes, the BARD1 and its oncogenic role in breast cancer. Most importantly, the study points to new avenues in the treatment and prevention of the most frequent female cancer based on BARD1 research. The BARD1 and BRCA1 proteins have similar structures and functions, and they combine to form the new molecule BARD1-BRCA1 heterodimer. The BARD1-BRCA1 complex is involved in genetic stabilization at the cellular level. It allows to mark abnormal DNA fragments by attaching ubiquitin to them. In addition, it blocks (by ubiquitination of RNA polymerase II) the transcription of damaged DNA. Ubiquitination, as well as stabilizing chromatin, or regulating the number of centrosomes, confirms the protective cooperation of BARD1 and BRCA1 in the stabilization of the genome. The overexpression of the oncogenic isoforms BARD1β and BARD1δ permit cancer development. The introduction of routine tests, for instance, to identify the presence of the BARD1β isoform, would make it possible to detect patients at high risk of developing cancer. On the other hand, introducing BARD1δ isoform blocking therapy, which would reduce estrogen sensitivity, may be a new line of cancer therapy with potential to modulate responses to existing treatments. It is possible that the BARD 1 gene offers new hope for improving breast cancer therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0371.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; BARD1; surveillance; management; genetic testing; predisposition; susceptibility; neoadjuvant; chemotherapy
Online: 18 August 2020 (03:08:11 CEST)
Current oncological developments are based on improved understanding of genetics, and especially the discovery of genes whose alterations affect cell functions with consequences for the whole body. Our work is focused on the most important of these genes, the BARD1 and its oncogenic role in breast cancer. Most importantly, the study points to new avenues in the treatment and prevention of the most frequent female cancer based on BARD1 research. The BARD1 and BRCA1 proteins have similar structures and functions, and they combine to form the new molecule BARD1-BRCA1 heterodimer. Through ubiquitination, this heterodimer has significant effects on individual proteins, enabling, among others, the destruction of damaged DNA fragments. Ubiquitination, as well as stabilizing chromatin, or regulating the number of centrosomes, confirms the protective cooperation of BARD1 and BRCA1 in the stabilization of the genome. The overexpression of the oncogenic isoforms BARD1β and BARD1δ permit cancer development. The introduction of routine tests, for instance, to identify the presence of the BARD1β isoform, would make it possible to detect patients at high risk of developing cancer. On the other hand, introducing BARD1δ isoform blocking therapy, which would reduce estrogen sensitivity, may be a new line of cancer therapy with potential to modulate responses to existing treatments. It is possible that the BARD 1 gene offers new hope for improving breast cancer therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0346.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Integrative review; Short-term Calorie Reduction; Fasting; Cancer; Chemotherapy; Calorie Restriction
Online: 15 August 2020 (09:41:11 CEST)
Recent preclinical studies have shown the potential benefits of short-term calorie reduction (SCR) on cancer treatment. In this integrative review, we aimed to identify and synthesize current evidence regarding the feasibility, process, and effects of SCR in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Ovid Medline, PsychINFO, and Embase were searched for original research articles using various combinations of Medical Subject Heading terms. Among the 311 articles identified, seven studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of the reviewed studies was small randomized controlled trials or cohort study with fair quality. The results suggest that SCR is safe and feasible. SCR is typically arranged around the chemotherapy with the duration ranging from 24 to 96 hours. Most studies examined the protective effects of SCR on normal cells during chemotherapy. The evidence supports that SCR had the potential to enhance both physical and psychological wellbeing of patients during chemotherapy. SCR is a cost-effective intervention with great potential. Future well-controlled studies with sufficient sample sizes are needed to examine the full and long-term effects of SCR and its mechanism of action.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0218.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; diffusion-weighted imaging; magnetic resonance; hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy
Online: 9 August 2020 (15:34:00 CEST)
This study aimed to identify the utility of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with an apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map as a predictor of the intrahepatic response of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to cisplatin-based hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC). We retrospectively evaluated 113 consecutive patients with HCC who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MR imaging. The appropriate cutoff for the tumor-to-liver ADC ratio was determined to be 0.741. Of the 113 patients, 51 (45%) presented with a tumor-to-liver ADC ratio < 0.741. Evaluation of the intrahepatic treatment response after 2-3 cycles of HAIC in these 51 patients revealed that 20 patients (39%) experienced an objective response to HAIC. On the other hand, only 10 of the 62 patients with a tumor-to-liver ADC ratio ≥ 0.741 (16%) experienced an objective response. Thus, the objective response rate was significantly higher in patients with a tumor-to-liver ADC ratio < 0.741 than in those with a tumor-to-liver ADC ratio ≥ 0.741 (P = 0.006). Multivariate logistic regression analysis using parameters including perfusion alteration, percentage of a non-enhancing portion, and tumor-to-liver ADC ratio revealed that a tumor-to-liver ADC ratio < 0.741 (odds ratio 3.03; P = 0.015) is the sole predictor of an objective response to HAIC. Overall survival rates were significantly higher in patients with objective responses to HAIC than in those without objective responses (P = 0.001 by log-rank test). In conclusion, patients with unresectable HCC with a tumor-to-liver ADC ratio < 0.741 showed a favorable intrahepatic response to HAIC. Therefore, diffusion-weighted MR imaging can play a critical role as a predictor of response to cisplatin-based HAIC in unresectable HCC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0157.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: schistosomiasis; monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA); chemotherapy; oxidative stress; antioxidant enzymes; SEA
Online: 16 September 2019 (01:27:58 CEST)
Schistosomiasis, a crippling ailment that afflicts over 220 million people worldwide. Yet or up till now, there is no vaccine for schistosomiasis, and chemotherapy relies heavily on a single drug, the praziquantel. The present study was undertaken to investigate the therapeutic effect of Monophosphoryl Lipid A (MPLA) as an adjuvant in soluble egg antigen (SEA) vaccinated mice against the deleterious pathological impacts induced in hepatic tissues of mice by Schistosoma mansoni infection. In addition, to study the associated parasitological, immunological and biochemical parameters. Parasitological parameters showed that intraperitoneal injection of MPLA into SEA-vaccinated and S. mansoni-infected mice was effective to a significant degree in reducing the worm and egg burden, granuloma count and diameter as well as the total area of infection in their livers versus SEA-untreated but infected ones. In addition, MPLA showed ameliorative action on the elevated liver oxidative stress marker, including malondialdehyde (MDA) and decrease in the level of the antioxidant enzymes, reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) which may have a role in the liver damage and fibrosis due to S. mansoni infection. In conclusion, treatment with MPLA has multi-functions in attenuating the deleterious impacts of S. mansoni infection in mice livers. Its effects are mediated through a reduction of ova count, worm burden, granuloma diameter and amelioration of antioxidant defense systems, and liver function biomarkers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0075.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; objective response; modified RECIST; sorafenib; hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy
Online: 4 July 2019 (10:56:53 CEST)
Background In SILIUS (NCT01214343), combination of sorafenib and hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy did not significantly improve overall survival in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared with sorafenib alone. In this study, we explored the relationship between objective response by mRECIST and overall survival (OS) in the sorafenib group, in the combination group and in all patients in the SILIUS trial. Methods Association between objective response and OS in patients treated with sorafenib (n=103), combination (n=102) and all patients (n=205) were analyzed. The median OS of responders was compared with that of non-responders. Landmark analyses were performed according to objective response at several fixed time points, as sensitivity analyses, and the effect on OS was evaluated by Cox regression analysis with objective response as a time-dependent covariate, with other prognostic factors was performed. Results In the sorafenib group, OS of responders (n = 18) was significantly better than that of non-responders (n = 78) (p < 0.0001), where median OS was 27.2 (95% CI, 16.0–not reached) months for responders and 8.9 (95% CI, 6.5–12.6) months for non-responders. HRs from landmark analyses at 4, 6, and 8 months were 0.45 (p=0.0330), 0.37 (p=0.0053), and 0.36 (p=0.0083), respectively. Objective response was an independent predictor of OS based on unstratified Cox regression analyses. In the all patients and the combination group, similar results were obtained. Conclusion In the SILIUS trial, objective response was an independent prognostic factor for OS in patients with HCC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0368.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: circulating tumor DNA; colon cancer; colorectal cancer; minimal residual disease; adjuvant chemotherapy
Online: 27 May 2022 (03:52:10 CEST)
Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), the tumor-derived cell-free DNA fragments in the bloodstream carrying tumor-specific genetic and epigenetic alterations, represents an emerging novel tool for minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment in patients with resected colorectal cancer (CRC). For many decades, precise risk-stratification following curative-intent colorectal surgery has remained an enduring challenge. The current risk stratification strategy relies on clinicopathologic characteristics of the tumors that lacks precision and results in over-and undertreatment in a significant proportion of patients. Consequently, a biomarker that can reliably identify patients harboring MRD would be of critical importance in refining patient selection for adjuvant therapy. Several prospective cohort studies have provided compelling data suggesting that ctDNA could be a robust biomarker for MRD that outperforms all existing clinicopathologic criteria. Numerous clinical trials are currently underway to validate the ctDNA-guided MRD assessment and adjuvant treatment strategies. Once validated, the ctDNA technology will likely transform the adjuvant therapy paradigm of colorectal cancer, supporting ctDNA-guided treatment escalation and de-escalation. The current article presents a comprehensive overview of the published studies supporting the utility of ctDNA for MRD assessment in patients with CRC. We also discuss ongoing ctDNA-guided adjuvant clinical trials that will likely shape future adjuvant therapy strategies for patients with CRC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0297.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: regulatory T cell; tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; triple-negative breast cancer
Online: 22 March 2022 (07:50:45 CET)
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by an active immune response. We evalu-ated intratumoral interrelation between FOXP3+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and other cy-tokines in TNBC. Network analysis refined cytokines significantly correlate with FOPX3 in TNBC. Treatment response and prognosis imformation of patients and survival data from the TGCA and METABRIC databases were analyzed according to refined cytokines. Interleukin (IL)-33 was sig-nificantly expressed by TNBC cell lines than luminal cell lines (log2 fold change: 5.31, p <0.001) and IL-33 and TGFB2 showed a strong correlation with FOXP3 in the TNBC cell line. Immunohisto-chemistry demonstrated IL-33 high group was a significant predictor of complete response of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (odds ratio (OR) 4.12, p<0.05) and a favorable survival compared to IL-33 low group (OR 6.48, p<0.05) in TNBC. Survival data from TGCA and METABRIC revealed that FOXP3 was a significantly favorable marker in IL-33 high group com-pared to the low IL-33 low group (hazard ratio (HR) 2.1, p=0.02), and IL-33 high/TGFB2 high subgroup showed significant favorable prognosis in the FOXP3 high group compared to the FOPX3 low group in TNBC (HR 3.5, p=0.01). IL-33 and TGFB2 were key cytokines of intratumoral interrelation among FOXP3 in TNBC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Neoadjuvant therapy; Soft tissue tumor; Sarcoma; Tail sign; Radiotherapy; Chemotherapy; Hyperthermia; Surgery
Online: 6 July 2021 (11:25:42 CEST)
Several types of soft tissue sarcomas have peripheral infiltrative growth characteristics called tail-like lesions. The efficacy of neoadjuvant therapy for tumors with tail-like lesions has not been elucidated. From 2012 to 2019, we analyzed 36 patients with soft tissue sarcoma with tail-like lesions treated with neoadjuvant therapy, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or both. The ef-fect of neoadjuvant therapy on the tail sign was investigated by analyzing the change in tail-like lesions during neoadjuvant therapy and histological responses. The median length of the tail-like lesion reduced from 29.5 mm at initiation to 19.5 mm after neoadjuvant therapy. The extent of shrinkage in tail-like lesion was related to the histopathological responses in the main part. Com-plete disappearance of the tail-like lesion was observed in 12 patients; however, it was not related to achieving a microscopically negative margin. The oncologic outcomes did not significantly differ between cases with complete disappearance of tail-like lesions or not. This study indicated the shrinkage of tail-like lesions did not have significant effect on complete resection or improve-ment of clinical outcomes. A more comprehensive evaluation is needed to elaborate on the surgi-cal strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0442.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: schistosomiasis; soil-transmitted-helminthiasis; mapping; preventive chemotherapy; transmission control; Gabon; Central Africa
Online: 27 August 2018 (07:49:51 CEST)
In order to follow the Preventive Chemotherapy for the transmission control as recommended by WHO, Gabon initiated in 2014 the mapping of Schistosomiasis and Soil Transmitted Helminthiasis (STH). Here we report the results of the Northern and Eastern health regions, representing a third of the land area and 12% of its total population. All the 9 departments of the two regions were surveyed and from each, 5 schools were examined with 50 schoolchildren per school. The parasitological examinations were realized using the filtration method for urine and the Kato-Katz technique for stool samples. Overall 2245 schoolchildren (1116 girls and 1129 boys), mean aged 11.28 ± 0.04 years, were examined. Combined schistosomiasis and STH affected 1270 (56.6%) with variation between regions, departments and schools. For schistosomiasis, prevalence were 1.7% across the two regions, with no significant difference (p>0.05) between the Northern (1.5%) and the Eastern (1.9%). Schistosomiasis is mainly caused by Schistosoma haematobium with a prevalence of 1.5%, 1.9% and 1.7%, respectively in the North, East and globally. STH are more common than schistosomiasis, with an overall prevalence of 56.1% significantly different between the Northern (58.1%) and Eastern (53.6%) regions (p = 0.034). Trichuris trichiura is the most abundant infection with a prevalence of 43.7% followed by Ascaris lumbricoides 35.6% and hookworms 1.4%. According to these results, an appropriate mass drug administration strategy is given for the control of each neglected tropical disease group surveyed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0718.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Relapsed or Refractory Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma, DLBLC, immunotherapy, chemotherapy-free regimen
Online: 29 September 2020 (15:09:47 CEST)
The most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in adults is diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL). There is a historical unmet need for more effective therapies in the 2nd and 3rd line setting. Emerging immunochemotherapies have shown activity in small studies of heavily pre-treated patients with prolonged remissions achieved in some patients. Anti-CD19 CAR (chimeric antigen receptor) T cells are potentially curative in the 3rd line and beyond setting and are under investigation in earlier lines of therapy.1 Antibody-drug conjugates (ADC’s) such as polatuzumab vedotin targeting the pan-B-cell marker CD79b has proven effectiveness in multiply-relapsed DLBCL patients. Tafasitamab (MOR208) is an anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody producing prolonged remissions when combined with Lenalidomide in patients who were not candidates for salvage chemotherapy or autologous stem cell transplant. Selinexor, an oral, small-molecule selective inhibitor of XPO1-mediated nuclear export (SINE), demonstrated prolonged activity against heavily-pretreated DLBCL without cumulative toxicity and is being investigated as part of an oral, chemotherapy-free regimen for relapsed aggressive lymphoma. This article reviews current strategies and novel therapies for relapsed/refractory DLBCL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: head and neck cancer; induction chemotherapy; 18F-FDG PET/CT; target volume delineation
Online: 7 October 2018 (09:48:55 CEST)
Background and objectives: Induction chemotherapy (ICT) before definitive chemoradiation (CRT) gives high response rates in LA-SCCHN. However, pre-ICT gross tumour volume (GTV) for radiotherapy (RT) planning is still recommended. As 18F-FDG PET/CT has an advantage of biological tumour information comparing to standard imaging methods, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility of 18F-FDG PET/CT-based post-ICT GTV delineation for RT planning in LA-SCCHN and to assess the prognostic value of PET parameters: maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). Methods: 47 LA-SCCHN patients were treated with 3 cycles of ICT (docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil) followed by CRT (70 Gy in 35 fractions with weekly cisplatin). Pre- and post-ICT PET/CT examinations were acquired. Planning CT was co-registered with post-ICT PET/CT and RT target volumes were contoured according to post-ICT PET. Post-ICT percentage decrease of SUVmax, MTV and TLG in primary tumour and metastatic regional lymphnodes (LN) was counted. Loco-regional failure patterns, 3-year progression free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. Results: 3-year PFS and OS rates for study population were 67% and 61% respectively. 31.9% of patients progressed loco-regionally. All progresses were localised in high-to-intermediate dose (60–70 Gy) RT volumes and none in low dose (50 Gy) volumes. Decrease of SUVmax ≥74% (p = 0.03), MTV ≥ 68% (p = 0.04), TLG ≥ 76% (p = 0.02) in primary tumour, and LN TLG decrease ≥74% (p = 0.03) were associated with PFS. Decrease of primary tumour SUVmax ≥ 74% (p = 0.04), MTV ≥ 69% (p = 0.04), TLG ≥ 74% (p = 0.02) and LN TLG ≥ 73% (p = 0.02) were prognostic factors for OS. Conclusions: According to our results, 18F-FDG PET/CT-based post-ICT GTV delineation is feasible strategy without negative impact on loco-regional control and survival. Percentage decrease of metabolic PET parameters SUVmax, MTV and TLG has a prognostic value in LA-SCCHN.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: non-small-cell lung cancer; performance status; cytotoxic chemotherapy; immune checkpoint inhibitor; cancer cachexia
Online: 20 September 2022 (05:53:12 CEST)
Most pivotal clinical trials in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have excluded patients with poor performance status (PS), and data on the efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapy have not been fully accumulated. For NSCLC patients with PS 2 and without druggable genetic alterations, monotherapy with cytotoxic agents or carboplatin-based combination therapy is usually administered based on the results of several randomized trials. However, the evidence of cytotoxic chemotherapy for patients with PS 2 is insufficient, with limited efficacy and toxicity concerns. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are a promising treatment for patients with PS 2 because of lower incidence of severe toxicity compared to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Meanwhile, several reports suggest that anti-PD-1 antibodies monotherapy is less effective for patients with PS 2, especially for those with PS 2 caused by disease burden. Although the combination therapy of nivolumab and ipilimumab is a promising treatment option, there is a divergence in efficacy data between clinical trials. The standard of care for advanced NSCLC with PS 2 has not been established, and future therapeutic strategies should take into account the heterogeneity of the PS 2 population.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cancer; surgery; chemotherapy; radiotherapy; health optimization; exercises; diet; emotion; chronic stress; kinetics; lethal factors
Online: 24 November 2019 (04:40:48 CET)
After reviewing cancer theories, cancer treatment development histories, randomized clinical trial's performance, cancer treatment strategy, trial follow-up times, and conducting numerous simulations using existing data, the authors found: (1) medical treatments come with three to four lethal factors: treatment side-effects, emotional distress and chronic dress, lack of exercises or physical inactivity, and excessive nutrition in some cases; (2) clinical trial exaggerates the benefits of fast-acting treatments and underestimates the slow-delivering adverse side effects as a result of statistical averaging, interfering effects of personal lifestyle factors, and insufficient follow-up times; (3) the benefits of medical treatments are limited by chain comparison, where surgery sets up a negative standard relative to the best way for resolving cancer; (4) the strategy of destroying the tumor is unworkable; (5) medical treatments can turn natural cancer growth curve into approximately doubly exponential curve; (6) multiple factor non-medical measures are much more powerful than medical treatments in controlling cancer growth and metastasis rates; and (7) cancer early diagnosis and over treatments are bad strategies that have great adverse impacts on cancer patients. Based on huge increases in cancer growth rate constants, substantial of loss of organ functional capacity, and severe systemic aging-like cellular damages, the authors concluded that medical treatments promote cancer growth and metastasis rates and shorten patient lives in most cases, and the claimed benefits are caused by triple biases of clinical trials. The authors believe that the better strategy for ending the global cancer epidemic is abandoning clinical trails as the research model, changing caner treatment strategy from killing cancer cells to slowing down cancer growth rates by using multiple factors optimization approach in personalized medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0189.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: G-quadruplex DNA; interactions; berberine and palmatine analogues; chemotherapy; NMR; FRET and MST assays
Online: 14 May 2018 (11:44:10 CEST)
In this article/review, the selective interactions of several berberine and palmatine derivatives with various DNA G-quadruplex structures are reported. These derivatives were constructed starting from two natural compounds, berberine and palamatine, through specific synthetic passages following two different schemes for each of them and using several substituents. The details of these synthesis are also described. Indeed, the study of the interactions of these derivative compounds with various G-quadruplex forming sequences was carried out by means of various structural and biochemical techniques. The results show that the presence of suitable side chains are very useful to improve the interaction of the ligands with G-quadruplex structures. Thus, since G-quadruplex formation is promoted by these compounds, which have never been reported before, these may be tested as potential anticancer drugs.
COMMENTARY | doi:10.3390/sci2030070
Subject: Keywords: small molecule inhibitor; personalized medicine; precision medicine; oncology; targeted therapy; drug delivery; drug screening; chemotherapy
Online: 8 September 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
The development of targeted therapeutics for cancer continues to receive intense research attention as laboratories and pharmaceutical companies seek to develop drugs and technologies that improve treatment efficacy and mitigate harmful side effects. In the aftermath of World War I, it was discovered that mustard gas destroys rapidly dividing cells and could be used to treat cancer. Since then, chemotherapy has remained a predominant treatment for cancer; however, the destruction of dividing cells throughout the body yields devastating side effects including off-target damage of the digestive tract, bone marrow, skin, and reproductive tract. Furthermore, the high mutation rate of cancerous cells often renders chemotherapy ineffective long-term. Therapies with improved specificity, localization, and efficacy are redefining cancer treatment. Herein, we define and summarize the principal advancements in targeted cancer treatment and briefly comment on the march towards personalized medicine in the treatment of human cancer.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0173.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; non small cell lung cancer; double primary cancers; B7-H3; gefitinib; chemotherapy
Online: 14 May 2019 (13:04:44 CEST)
Management of multiple primary cancers, a not so infrequent event in oncology practice, is a critical issue due to the lack of literature . In this study, we reported the case of a patient with metachronous double metastatic non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) who received gefitinib in combination with gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel and with mFOLFOX6 in first and second line, respectively. She achieved a progression free survival and an overall survival (OS) of 28 months for NSCLC and PFS-1 and OS of 20 and 13 months, respectively for PDAC. Moreover, the combination of gefitinib and chemotherapies treatments displayed a good safety profile. Given the insignificant frequency of this case, we performed a molecular characterization of both neoplasms with the aim to investigate the existence of particular activated pathways and/or similar immunological mutations. it is interesting to note that two neoplasms shared a commune mutation of B7-H3 gene, with the consecutive impairment of its expressed protein. In both PDAC and NSCLC, the expression of this protein was associated with a worse survival. Since B7-H3 is an anti-apoptotic protein, the reduction of its expression or function should justify a pro-apoptotic activity with a putative justification of the long survival of the patient considered in this report.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0429.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy; cisplatin; sorafenib; multikinase inhibitors; risk factors; propensity score-matched analysis
Online: 24 September 2021 (12:38:25 CEST)
Given that the outcome of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) with cisplatin for intrahepatic advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear, we aimed to compare prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) following HAIC with cisplatin versus sorafenib for intrahepatic advanced HCC using propensity score-matched analysis. We enrolled 348 patients with intrahepatic advanced HCC who received HAIC with cisplatin (n = 97) or sorafenib (n = 251) between June 2006 and March 2020. No significant difference was observed in OS between HAIC with cisplatin and sorafenib cohorts (median survival time [MST]: 13.9 vs. 12.7 months; p = 0.0989). To reduce confounding effects, 176 patients were selected using propensity score-matched analysis (n = 88 for each treatment). HAIC with cisplatin significantly prolonged OS compared with sorafenib (MST: 16.2 vs. 12.2 months; p = 0.0060). Following stratification according to the Child–Pugh classification, for both patients with class A (MST: 24.0 vs. 15.6 months; p = 0.0097) and class B (MST: 8.5 vs. 6.9 months; p = 0.0391), HAIC with cisplatin rather than sorafenib significantly prolonged OS. Our findings suggest that HAIC with cisplatin demonstrates longer prognostic effects than sorafenib in intrahepatic advanced HCC, regardless of the hepatic reserve.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0492.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: low-molecular-weight fucoidan; colorectal cancer; HCT116 cell; Caco-2 cell; fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy; complementary therapy
Online: 21 June 2021 (08:55:12 CEST)
This study investigated the roles of low-molecular-weight fucoidan (LMWF) in enhancing the anti-cancer effects of fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy. HCT116 and Caco-2 cells were treated with LMWF and 5-FU. Cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis, and migration were analyzed in both cell types. Potential mechanisms underlying how LMWF enhances the anti-cancer effects of fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy were also explored. The cell viability of HCT116 and Caco-2 cells was significantly reduced after treatment with a LMWF-5-FU combination. In HCT116 cells, LMWF enhanced the suppressive effects of 5-FU on cell viability through the 1) induction of cell cycle arrest in the S phase and 2) late apoptosis mediated by the Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. In Caco-2 cells, LMWF enhanced the suppressive effects of 5-FU on cell viability through both c-mesenchymal–epithelial transition (MET)/ Kirsten Rat Sarcoma virus (KRAS)/ extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-MET/ phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinases (PI3K)/ protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathways. Moreover, LMWF enhanced the suppressive effects of 5-FU on tumor cell migration through the c-MET/ matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 signaling pathway in both HCT116 and Caco-2 cells. Our results demonstrated that LMWF is a potential complementary therapy for enhancing the efficacies of fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy in colorectal cancers (CRCs) with the wild-type or mutated KRAS gene through different mechanisms. However, in vivo studies and in clinical trials are required to validate the results of the present study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0047.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: tumor microenvironment; biomarkers; solid cancers; computational biology; cancer stem cells; anti-cancer stem cell therapy; chemotherapy
Online: 4 May 2020 (10:00:51 CEST)
Solid tumors display complex biology and most therapies including chemotherapy cannot prevent therapy resistance and relapse. Most therapeutics target cancer cells, but recent data suggest the presence of cancer stem cells as cells with self-renewal and tumorigenic abilities. Cancer stem cell markers have been suggested to have prognostic value and can be targeted during cancer treatment and in resistant disease. CSCs have been postulated to play significant contextual roles in tumor initiation, progression, therapy resistance and metastasis. CSCs have thus been targeted by new generation cancer drugs. The transcriptional expression of several CSC markers in different cancers was evaluated by searching publicly available The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) databases. We report here new findings on expression and prognostic significance of CSC markers in several cancers by examining the expression of CSCs markers in tumor tissues versus the adjacent normal tissues. We found that CSC markers were mostly highly expressed various tumors such as colon, lung, pancreatic and esophageal cancers. No CSC marker is expressed in the same pattern in all cancers and individual CSC marker expression was not linked to patient survival. This analysis calls for continued research on CSCs and clinical evaluation of the CSC markers in relation to prognosis of cancers in large population samples. Novel cancer drugs ought to target CSCs, cancer cells and tumor microenvironment variations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0254.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: peritoneal carcinomatosis, tumor homing peptide, nanoparticle, intraperitoneal chemotherapy, image guided surgery, affinity targeting, integrins, cd206, nucleolin
Online: 19 April 2018 (14:28:02 CEST)
During last decades multiple therapeutic approaches have been explored for improved management of peritoneally disseminated malignancies – a grim condition known as peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). Intraperitoneal administration can be used to achieve elevated local concentration and extended half-life of the drugs in the peritoneal cavity to improve their anticancer efficacy. However, IP-administered chemotherapeutics have a short residence time in the IP space, and are not tumor selective. An increasing body of work suggests that functionalization of drugs and nanoparticles with targeting peptides increases their peritoneal retention and provides a robust and specific tumor binding and penetration that translates into improved therapeutic response. Here we review a progress in affinity targeting of intraperitoneal anticancer compounds, imaging agents and nanoparticles with tumor homing peptides. We review classes of tumor homing peptides relevant for PC targeting, payloads for peptide-guided precision delivery, applications for targeted compounds and the effects of nanoformulation of drugs and imaging agents on affinity-based tumor delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0092.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: CEA 1; colorectal cancer 2; follow-up 3; tumor markers 4; early intervention 5; adjuvant chemotherapy 6
Online: 7 May 2022 (04:09:32 CEST)
Carcinoembriogenic antigen (CEA) is a routine marker for follow-up of colo-rectal cancers. We aimed to determine whether a CEA increase within the normal range can be linked to a recurrence risk. We included 78 consecutive patients with colo-rectal cancer, who underwent curative surgical treatment with or without chemo- or radiotherapy. As reference, we used the smallest value of the CEA during follow-up. A total of 34/78 patients (43.6%) had fluctuations of CEA of at least 1.1 ng/ml, with or without increases above 5 ng/ml. In 27/34 patients (79.4%) increases of CEA were explained either by recurrence (15/34 patients, 44.1%), adjuvant chemotherapy (7/34 patients, 20.6%) or benign pathology (5/34 patients, 14.7%). In 5 of 22 recurrences (23%) a CEA increase of at least 1.1 ng/ml, but below 5 ng/ml preceded the clinical relapse by a median of 8 months (range 3-22 months). The 4-year disease-free survival was 89% in patients with postoperative CEA <2.5 ng/ml, and 55% in patients with CEA >2.5 ng/ml. CEA increase by at least 1.1 ng/ml within the normal range, after curative treatment of colorectal cancer can be either an early sign of relapse or can be usually explained by other pathological processes.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI); neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC); breast cancer; Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); residual tumor size
Online: 6 July 2021 (12:40:31 CEST)
Background: The present retrospective study was designed to evaluate the relative diagnostic utility of breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI) and breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as means of evaluating female breast cancer patients in China. Methods: A total of 229 malignant breast cancer patients underwent ultrasound, mammography, BSGI, and MRI between January 2015 and December 2018 for initial tumor staging. Of these patients, 73 were subsequently treated via definitive breast surgery following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), of whom 17 exhibited a complete pathologic response (pCR) to NAC. Results: BSGI and MRI were associated with respective 76.8% and 69.6% sensitivity values as a means of detecting residual tumors following NAC, while both of these approaches exhibited comparable specificity in this diagnostic context (58.8% vs 70.6%, P=0.473). Conclusion: These results demonstrate that BSGI is a useful auxiliary approach to evaluating pCR to NAC treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0546.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: triple negative breast cancer; Pembrolizumab; Atezolizumab; chemotherapy; anti-PD-L1; biomarkers; targeted therapies; development of novel drugs
Online: 24 May 2021 (09:23:50 CEST)
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) has a higher mRNA expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) which is a ligand to programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). The binding of the ligand leads to suppressed activity of T-cell-mediated immune response against cancer cells. The approval of anti-PD-L1 drugs including pembrolizumab and atezolizumab in subgroups of TNBC offer potential improvement to the current treatment regimens available for TNBC. We conducted a meta-analysis to review the efficacy of pembrolizumab and atezolizumab for the treatment of TNBC in both adjuvant and neo-adjuvant settings. A systematic strategy was used as per the PRISMA 2020 statement. All statistical analyses were conducted using Review Manager 5.4. Outcome measures included objective response rate, progression free survival, overall survival in adjuvant therapy groups, and pathological complete response rates in neoadjuvant groups. Six clinical trials were included. For adjuvant therapies, the ORR (OR=1.26, P = 0.04) of Atezolizumab/Pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy was higher in intention to treat (ITT) arms than the placebo groups in TNBC. A positive effect size was found for PFS in the ITT arms (Cohen’s d = 1.55, P<0.001). The Atezolizumab plus chemotherapy group had a positive effect size for OS compared to the control groups (Cohen’s d = 0.52, P<0.001). In the neo-adjuvant setting, patients in ITT arms had higher pCR rates as compared to the control groups (OR= 1.61, P = 0.001). Our findings collate evidence of pembrolizumab and atezolizumab as a viable treatment option among patients with TNBC with PDL1+ subgroups deriving benefits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0288.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: desmoplastic small round cell tumor; treatment; prognosis; surgery; radiotherapy; chemotherapy; tyrosine kinase receptor; target therapy; rare disease
Online: 11 December 2020 (15:53:20 CET)
Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is an extremely rare, aggressive sarcoma affecting adolescents and young adults with male predominance. Generally, it originates from serosal surface of abdominal cavity. The hallmark characteristic of DSRCT is the EWSR1-WT1 gene fusion. This translocation up-regulates the expression of PDGFRα, VEGF and other proteins related to tumor and vascular cell proliferation. Current management of DSRCT includes a combination of chemotherapy, radiation and aggressive cytoreductive surgery plus intra-peritoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy (HIPEC). Despite advances in multimodal therapy, outcomes remain poor since the majority of patients present disease recurrence and die within 3 years. The dismal survival makes DSRCT an orphan disease with urgent need of new drugs. The treatment of advanced and recurrent disease with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as pazopanib, sunitinib, and mTOR inhibitors have been evaluated in small studies. Recent works using comprehensive molecular profiling of DSRCT identified potential therapeutic targets. In this review, we aim to describe the current studies conducted to better understand DSRCT biology and to explore the new therapeutic strategies under investigation in preclinical models and in early phase clinical trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: neutropenia; neutropenic fever; chemotherapy; kidney function impairment; mild kidney disease; eGFR; CKD-EPI; G-CSF; Kaplan-Meier curves; survival analysis
Online: 10 November 2022 (11:11:40 CET)
Neutropenia is a common adverse event during myelosuppressive oncological chemotherapy, predisposing to febrile neutropenia (FN). Patients with coexisting moderate-to-severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of FN, included in the guidelines for the primary prophylaxis of FN. However, this does not include mild kidney function impairment with esti-mated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 60–89 ml/min/1.73m2. This prospective study analyzed the risk of neutropenia in patients on chemotherapy without indication for the primary prophy-laxis of FN. The study enrolled 38 patients starting chemotherapy, including 26 (68.4%) patients aged 65 years or more. The median duration of follow-up was 76 days. The methodology of cre-atinine assessment enabled the use of the newly recommended CKD-EPI formula for identifying patients with a mild reduction of glomerular filtration. Sixteen (42.1%) patients developed at least G2 neutropenia without episodes of FN. Only five (13.1%) patients had eGFR<60ml/min/1.73m2, while 15 (62.5%) eGFR< 90ml/min/1.73m2. The relative risk of neutro-penia in patients with impaired eGFR was over six times higher than in patients with eGFR>90 ml/min/1.73m2 (RR=6.08; 95%CI:1.45–27.29; p< 0.01). Our observation indicates that even a mild reduction in eGFR is a risk factor for the development of neutropenia and a potential risk factor for FN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0111.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: helminthiasis dynamics in Ghana, preventive chemotherapy, school-aged children, high-risk adults, neglected tropical diseases, age-structure, infection risk, cost analysis
Online: 5 November 2018 (11:43:33 CET)
Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH), a neglected tropical disease (NTD) remains a major health problem all over the world including Ghana, which has STH prevalence of 25.4%. To control the disease, the government of Ghana currently concentrates on implementing mass drug administration (MDA) efforts focusing only among school-aged children. However, various studies have suggested that focusing on only a specific group for MDA may not be cost-effective. Moreover, some adults such as teachers and school-workers spend large fraction of their time with children, who shed more parasite in environment due to unhygienic behavior, and thus have a higher risk of getting infected as compared to other adults. In this study we use a mathematical model to evaluate age-structured and risk-based policies for implementing MDA while capturing transmission dynamics of STH in Ghana. A cost model was developed that included various costs related to MDA to study cost-effectiveness of current policies of MDA in Ghana against novel policies to control STH in Ghana. We carry out analysis for five different scenarios— I: no MDA (baseline), II: current MDA policy (focusing children) in Ghana, III: MDA for different age groups (adults and children groups) for unlimited budget, IV: MDA for different age groups with limitations of number of individuals treated, and, V: MDA for different groups based on their risk of getting infected (adults school workers (high-risk group), adults non-school workers and children groups). Our results suggest that it might be more cost-effective to allocate treatment through MDA to at least some proportion of adults along with children. In case of unlimited budget, the best strategy in Scenario IV would be to treat approximately 22% of adults and approximately 45% of children. The most cost-effective among the 5 scenarios is suggested through scenario V, where high-risk adults group and children are provided MDA at higher level than low-risk adults. In conclusion, age-structured and risk-based allocation of treatment and resources is crucial to reducing STH load in developing countries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0489.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: chemotherapy; breast cancer metastasis; stress response; ATF3; seed and soil theory; cancer-host interaction; tumor microenvironment; immune modulation; tumor immune environment
Online: 29 August 2018 (09:05:46 CEST)
An emerging picture in cancer biology is that, paradoxically, chemotherapy can actively induce changes that favor cancer progression. These pro-cancer changes can be either inside (intrinsic) or outside (extrinsic) the cancer cells. In this review, we will discuss the extrinsic pro-cancer effect of chemotherapy; that is, the effect of chemotherapy on the non-cancer host cells to promote cancer progression. We will focus on metastasis, and will first discuss recent data from mouse models of breast cancer. Intriguingly, despite reducing the size of primary tumors, chemotherapy changes the tumor microenvironment, resulting in an increased escape of cancer cells into the blood stream. Furthermore, chemotherapry changes the tissue microenvironment at the distant sites, making it more hospitable to cancer cells upon their arrival. We will then discuss the idea and evidence that these devastating pro-metastatic effects of chemotherapy can be explained in the context of stress response. At the end, we will discuss the potential relevance of these mouse data to human breast cancer and their implication on chemotherapy in the clinic.