Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Incidence and Characteristics of Retinoblastoma in Poland: The First Nationwide Study 2010-2017

Version 1 : Received: 13 June 2021 / Approved: 14 June 2021 / Online: 14 June 2021 (15:00:47 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Nowak, M.S.; Romanowska-Dixon, B.; Grabska-Liberek, I.; Żurek, M. Incidence and Characteristics of Retinoblastoma in Poland: The First Nationwide Study 2010–2017. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6539. Nowak, M.S.; Romanowska-Dixon, B.; Grabska-Liberek, I.; Żurek, M. Incidence and Characteristics of Retinoblastoma in Poland: The First Nationwide Study 2010–2017. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6539.

Journal reference: Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6539
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18126539

Abstract

Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular paediatric eye cancer. It accounts for approximately 11% of primary cancers occurring in the first age of life, with 95% of diagnoses before 5 years of age [1-3]. Since retinoblastoma is very aggressive, early diagnosis and prompt treatment are vital for children to preserve their sight and life. In western countries in Europe and North America, retinoblastoma is diagnosed early so the chances of saving the patient’s life and preserving vision are good. However, in large regions of Africa and Asia, where the diagnosis of retinoblastoma is delayed, the deadly effect is observed [2-5]. In these regions, socioeconomic factors and poor recognition of the seriousness of the disease result in a high mortality rate of up to 70%. At the same time, the mortality rate in Europe and North America is 3-5 % [2]. Besides, the incidence of retinoblastoma also varies by race and region, from 40 to 60 per million live births, which corresponds to 1 per 16,000 - 24,000 live births, with the greatest disease burden recorded in the countries of Asia and Africa where the highest birth rates are recorded [2,3 However, the nationwide studies of the retinoblastoma epidemiology have been conducted in many countries, such as Sweden, Finland, Netherlands, Singapore, Great Britain, United States of America, Korea and Taiwan, there is a lack of data from Eastern European countries like Poland [1,3-11]. The management of retinoblastoma may also differ between developed and developing countries. The current strategy of retinoblastoma treatment aims to save the life, eye, vision and cosmetics of the child, in order of priority. Medical management of retinoblastoma includes surgical treatment (enucleation), external beam radiotherapy, systemic chemotherapy with or without focal therapies such as cryotherapy, laser photocoagulation and plaque radiotherapy. Recently, intra-arterial and intravitreal chemotherapies have been used to treat retinoblastoma with the ability to save globes that otherwise would have been enucleated [2,3]. The present study aimed to investigate the incidence and characteristics of retinoblastoma in the overall population of Poland in the years 2010-2017 and to report the changes that occurred during that period.

Keywords

retinoblastoma; eye surgery; chemotherapy; radiotherapy

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