ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0366.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: outcrop reservoir analog; tidal flat; reservoir performance; future drilling; reservoir quality prediction
Online: 16 September 2020 (12:56:56 CEST)
Three-dimensional (3D) facies and petrophysical models were generated from previously published data of carbonate strata in the Dam Formation (eastern Saudi Arabia) to quantitatively investigate, describe, understand, model, and predict the permeability anisotropy of tidal flat carbonate within a sequence stratigraphic framework. The resulting 3D models were used to conduct fluid flow simulations to demonstrate how permeability anisotropy influences the production of hydrocarbons and ultimately affects decisions concerning future drilling in the exploration and development of carbonate reservoirs that have tidal flat strata. The constructed 3D facies model consists of four lithofacies associations, two of which were grain-dominated associations and two of which were mud-dominated associations. These lithofacies associations varied spatially in four reservoir zones (zones 1 to 4), which represent two fourth-order sequences in the uppermost part of the Dam Formation. Zones 1 and 3 consist of transgressive parasequences, and zones 2 and 4 consist of the regressive parasequences of these sequences. The 3D porosity and permeability models have a coherent match with the distribution of the lithofacies and the stratigraphic framework of the Dam Formation. The results suggested that the permeability anisotropy in zones 1 and 3 is controlled by the occurrence of the grain-dominated lithofacies associated with tidal flat channels. This lithofacies association overlies the sequence boundaries of sequences 1 and 3, forms reservoir bodies with relatively high permeability values, and is elongated perpendicular to the shoreline of the depositional environments. In contrast, permeability anisotropy in zones 2 and 4 is thought to be controlled by the occurrence of the grain-dominated lithofacies associated with the oolitic shoal. This lithofacies association overlies the maximum flooding surface of sequences 2 and 4, forms reservoir bodies with relatively high permeability values, and is elongated parallel to the shoreline of the depositional environments. Fluid flow simulation results suggested that the trend in hydrocarbon production from the constructed 3D models depends on permeability anisotropy in each reservoir zone. Thus, recognizing trends in permeability anisotropy, which might be predicted using sequences stratigraphy, could help to identify potential areas for future drilling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0030.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: Coal mine; Underground reservoir; Reservoir capacity; Theoretical model
Online: 3 September 2018 (11:55:39 CEST)
The coal mine underground reservoir is an appropriate solution between coal mining and groundwater resource protection and utilization. By calculating the storage capacity of a groundwater reservoir, the storage coefficient has been proved to be always an empirical value. Based on the mathematical derivation of the vertical fracture area ratio and the horizontal fracture area rate of the collapse zone and the fissure zone in the goaf area of the coal seam, the mathematical models of tem are derived, and the model for calculating the water storage coefficient is derived. The water storage coefficient derived from the theoretical model had more basis and more advanced than the traditional empirical value. By using this method, the practical calculation of No.1 underground reservoir of the DaLliuta Coalmine in Shenhua Shendong, has got a perfect matching with the actual groundwater storage capacity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0152.v1
Online: 11 April 2018 (13:54:56 CEST)
Mycobacterium ulcerans is the causative agent of the Buruli ulcer, also known, in Australia, as Daintree ulcer or Bairnsdale ulcer. This destructive skin disease is characterized by extensive and painless necrosis of the skin and soft tissue with the formation of large ulcers, commonly on the leg or arm. To date, 33 countries with tropical, subtropical and temperate climates in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Western Pacific have reported cases of Buruli Ulcer. The disease is rarely fatal, although it may lead to permanent disability and/ or disfigurement if not treated appropriately or in time. It is the third most common mycobacterial infection in the world after tuberculosis and leprosy. The precise mode of transmission of M. ulcerans is yet to be elucidated. Nevertheless, it is possible that the mode of transmission varies with different geographical areas and epidemiological settings. The knowledge about the possible route of transmission and potential animal reservoir of M. ulcerans is poorly understood and still remains patchy. We conducted a systematic review with selected key words on PubMed and INFORMIT databases to aggregate available published data on animal reservoirs of M. ulcerans. After certain inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 17 studies were included in the review. A variety of animals, e.g rodents, shrews, possums (ringtail and brush tail), horses, dogs, alpacas, koalas and Indian flap-shelled turtles have been recorded as being infected with M. ulcerans around the world. The majority of studies included in this review identified animal reservoirs, either aquatic or terrestrial, as predisposing for the emergence and reemergence of M. ulcerans infection. Taken together, the selected studies in this systematic review and discussed so far, it is clear that exotic wildlife, aquatic animals and native mammals play a significant role as reservoirs for M. ulcerans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0216.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: ancient; canal; irrigation; Majapahit; NDVI; reservoir
Online: 9 December 2020 (10:54:59 CET)
Majapahit is one of vast kingdoms and civilizations in Southeast Asia in 14th century. The kingdom and its capital city are centered in present Trowulan suburban, east Java and bordered by mountain range in the south and river in the east and north. Regarding the geological condition then Majapahit kingdom has a challenge especially to provide the water managements for its agricultural practices. In here, this study aims to assess the hydrology systems developed by Majapahit civilizations and how this system is effective in maintaining vegetation health. Based on the results, the gravity-fed hydrology systems consist of networks involving river, dam, underground and surface water canal and reservoir pond. The water from upstream was managed using dams and channeled into streams and collected inside the ponds. This network spans approximately 10 km from the first dam to the last 6.49 Ha reservoir built in the middle of city. The water channeled from dam to reservoir pond was using natural streams and 2.4 km underground canal. This 40 cm depth man made canal was a water source for agricultural soils since it was used to irrigate the nearby paddy field. During past El Nino in 2019 that has caused prolong drought, the Majapahit irrigation system has provided water for the adjacent paddy field. Based on the vegetation health analysis measured using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), paddy field watered by man made canal shows higher NDVI values or at least has same values compared to the field watered by contemporary canals. Then, the 14th century irrigation system developed by Majapahit civilization is a valuable heritage that needs to be preserved considering its important functions even in this contemporary era.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0369.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: energy efficiency; reservoir network; water supply
Online: 25 May 2018 (12:20:12 CEST)
The power generation from hydroelectric plants has increased worldwide, contributing to the participation of the renewable sources to the energy matrix. In the semiarid Brazilian Northeast (NEB), thousands of small dams have been built over time as a solution for water supply. Although incompatible with hydropower generation due to the conflict with human water supply in the region, small reservoirs accumulate water and hydraulic energy at high altitudes. In this work, simulations were performed to assess how the arrangement of various sized reservoirs impact the power demand for water distribution in the Banabuiú River Basin – BRB (19,800 km²), Brazil. The power required to pump water from all 1,405 reservoirs to the districts is 6.5 GWh/year, whereas in the scenario with the 12 larger strategic reservoirs only, the power demand reaches 45.3 GWh/year. Although representing roughly 60% of the water availability of the BRB and being able to supply all the districts, the Arrojado Lisboa reservoir alone would demand 195 GWh/year to supply water to the entire basin, i.e. 30 times the power required in the real reservoir arrangement. By storing water at high altitudes and distributing it spatially, the small reservoirs increase the energy efficiency on the water distribution system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: drought; copula; Bayesian network; inflow; reservoir
Online: 5 January 2018 (05:01:45 CET)
Especially for drought periods, the higher the accuracy of reservoir inflow forecasting, the more reliable the water supply from a dam. The article focuses on probabilistic forecasting of seasonal inflow to reservoirs and determines estimates from the probabilistic seasonal inflow according to drought forecast results. The probabilistic seasonal inflow was forecasted by a copula-based Bayesian network employing a Gaussian copula function. Drought forecasting was performed by calculation of the standardized streamflow index value. The calendar year is divided into four seasons; the total inflow volume of water to a reservoir for a season is referred to as the seasonal inflow. Seasonal inflow forecasting curves conforming to drought stages produce estimates of probabilistic seasonal inflow according to the drought forecast results. The forecasted estimates of seasonal inflow were calculated by using the inflow records of Soyanggang and Andong dams in the Republic of Korea. Under the threshold probability of drought occurrence ranging from 50 to 55 %, the forecasted seasonal inflows reasonably matched critical drought records. Combining the drought forecasting with the seasonal inflow forecasting may produce reasonable estimates of drought inflow from the probabilistic forecasting of seasonal inflow to a reservoir.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0316.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: HIV; protease; CARD8; NNRTI; Inflammasome; Latent reservoir
Online: 24 May 2022 (03:54:52 CEST)
HIV-1 protease (PR) is a viral enzyme that cleaves viral polyprotein precursors to convert them into functional forms, a process essential to generate infectious viral particles. Due to its broad substrate specificity, HIV-1 PR can also cleave certain host cell proteins. Several studies have identified host cell substrates of HIV-1 PR and described the potential impact of their cleavage on HIV-1-infected cells. Of particular interest is the interaction between PR and the caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 8 (CARD8) inflammasome. While PR typically has low levels of intracellular activity prior to viral budding, induction of premature PR activation to trigger CARD8-mediated cell killing may help eliminate latent reservoirs in people living with HIV. In this review, we discuss the viral and host substrates of HIV-1 protease and highlight potential applications and advantages of targeting CARD8 sensing of HIV-1 PR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0030.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: reservoir computing; time series prediction; performance optimisation
Online: 2 November 2021 (10:09:46 CET)
Reservoir computing is a machine learning method that uses the response of a dynamical system to a certain input in order to solve a task. As the training scheme only involves optimising the weights of the responses of the dynamical system, this method is particularly suited for hardware implementation. Furthermore, the inherent memory of dynamical systems which are suitable for use as reservoirs mean that this method has the potential to perform well on time series prediction tasks, as well as other tasks with time dependence. However, reservoir computing still requires extensive task dependent parameter optimisation in order to achieve good performance. We demonstrate that by including a time-delayed version of the input for various time series prediction tasks, good performance can be achieved with an unoptimised reservoir. Furthermore, we show that by including the appropriate time-delayed input, one unaltered reservoir can perform well on six different time series prediction tasks at a very low computational expense. Our approach is of particular relevance to hardware implemented reservoirs, as one does not necessarily have access to pertinent optimisation parameters in physical systems but the inclusion of an additional input is generally possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0007.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: African agriculture; Irrigation; Landsat; Remote Sensing; Reservoir.
Online: 1 November 2021 (11:26:45 CET)
Agriculture in Morocco has been extensive until the middle of the 20th century due to the distribution of rainfall and the availability of water. In the middle of the last century hydraulic works were built that allowed the transition to intensive agriculture by the increase of irrigated areas, allowing that in the territories where there is water for irrigation and the climate allows it, the crops adapt to the demands of the market. The objective of the study is to assess by satellite images the land cover between 1985 and 2020, analyzing the changes in cultivation areas, as well as the changes in desert, sub-desert and forest areas of the Oum Er Rbia hydrological basin in Morocco. Landsat satellite images have been used since 1984 by the US government (Aerospace and Geological Agencies). A series of vegetation indices (NDVI, RVI, TNDVI and EVI) have been used; among which TNDVI (Transformed Normalized Vegetation Index) stands out for its better accuracy, which has allowed us to distinguish vegetation in cultivated and forest areas, as well as arid zones. In addition, the study has compared the use of two methodologies to calculate changes in the coverage of the Earth’s surface, has used local image processing from the Sentinel Application Platform tool and has also used the Google Earth Engine tool. The latter being the most optimal, although at the moment it has great limitations. In both methodologies and in the different indices it has been possible to observe during these 35 years as the cultivated area has increased (related to the availability of water by the construction of reservoirs and canals), how plant cover has improved in forest areas, and a range of variations in arid areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0140.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Adsorption; Scale Inhibitors; Fine sands; Colloids; Reservoir
Online: 7 May 2021 (10:42:36 CEST)
Scale inhibitors are deployed as preventive and rejuvenation operation in oil and gas industry when production operations are under threat or menace of scale blockage. The application of scale inhibitors is carried out through a method known as squeezing. In general, the squeeze process is governed by inhibitor-rock interaction which is described by adsorption/desorption isotherm. Most reservoirs produce loose sand grains or fine sand which float and flow within the pore spaces along with the squeezed scale inhibitors. Hypothetical reports have shown that not all scale inhibitors pumped into the formation adsorb onto the formation rock. A number of factors (irreversible adsorption, pH changes, competing ions, concentration and temperature) have been considered to affect the adsorption and return profile of these scale inhibitors. This review work examines the performances of most common scale inhibitors used in the oil and gas production activities, theoretical application in reservoirs and how loose fine sand grains affect the adsorption and desorption characteristics of squeezed scale inhibitors. Additionally, presented were overviews of previous reports on fine sand production and migration of fine sands through formation pores in reservoirs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0229.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: reservoir sediments; cullet; brick; sintering; orthogonal array
Online: 14 June 2018 (10:10:34 CEST)
In view of increasing concerns over non-renewable resource depletion and waste management, this study aimed to apply the Taguchi optimization technique to determine the process conditions for producing bricks by incorporating thin film transition liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCD) waste glass powder with reservoir sediments. An orthogonal array L16(45) was adopted, which consisted of five controllable four-level factors (i.e., cullet content, drying method, preheat time, sintering temperature, and error). Moreover, the analysis of variance method was used to explore the effects of the experimental factors on the density, water absorption, shrinkage ratio, loss of ignition, porosity, and compressive strength of the fired bricks. The microstructures of the fired specimens were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Then, the large-scale production techniques for fired bricks containing recycled TFT-LCD glass cullet and reservoir sediments was developed in a commercially available tunnel kiln. The test results showed that the structure of fired specimen was loose at a sintering temperature ranged from 900–950 °C. However, the fired specimen showed a significant densification at the sintering temperature of 1050 °C. In addition, Taguchi method is a feasible approach for optimizing process condition of brick using recycled TFT-LCD glass cullet and reservoir sediments and it significantly reduces the number of tests. On the other hand, the characteristics of fired bricks developed in the tunnel kiln were in compliance with Chinese National Standards class Ι building bricks criteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0268.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: dredging; sedimentation; PB Soedirman Hydroelectric reservoir; Banjarnegara; Indonesia
Online: 15 August 2022 (15:40:58 CEST)
The PB Sudirman hydroelectric power plant, built in 1988, has fewer than 50 years of operational life. In contrast, the planned operating life for this dam is 50 years. This dam is experiencing intensive sedimentation, which results in siltation. Dredging efforts and catchment area management are conducted to extend the operational life of the dam. Therefore, technical and economic analysis of dredging activities and the potential benefits of dredged sediment is needed to determine the solution's effectiveness. We use the site survey method to conduct an environmental impact analysis and interviews with dam managers. The identification of the extent and distribution of erosion-sedimentation was carried out as part of the technical assessment. In the economic study, we calculate the dredging costs and profits from selling dredged sediments, mainly sand. The analysis results show that the dredging of deposits in the foreset slope area is not profitable. There are 17 areas of bank spoil that have economic benefits. This study concludes that the need for dredging costs on foreset slopes is higher than the profit from selling dredging sediments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0001.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: arsenic; leaching; sediment; heavy metal; reservoir; abandoned mine
Online: 1 October 2019 (02:38:34 CEST)
Heavy metals, including arsenic from abandoned mines, are easily transported with sediment and deposited in water bodies such as reservoirs and lakes, creating critical water quality issues when they are released. Understanding the leaching of heavy metals is necessary for developing efficient water quality improvement plans. This study investigated how arsenic leaches from different soil types and responds to hydrologic conditions to identify areas susceptible to arsenic contamination. In this study, batch- and column-leaching tests and sequential extraction procedures were used to examine arsenic leaching processes in detail. The results showed that most arsenic-loaded sediments accumulated in the vicinity of a reservoir inlet, and arsenic in reservoir beds have a higher leaching potential than those from agricultural land and river beds. Arsenic deposited at the bottom of reservoirs had higher mobility than that in the other soils, and arsenic leaching was closely associated with the acidity of water. In addition, arsenic leaching was found to be responsive to seasons (wet or dry) as its mobilization is controlled by organic compounds that vary over time. The results suggested that temporal variations in the hydrochemical composition of reservoir water should be considered when defining a management plan for reservoir water quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0237.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: reservoir characterization; Bayesian inversion; A-priori statistical models
Online: 13 September 2018 (12:05:12 CEST)
We discuss the influence played by different statistical models in the prediction of porosity and litho-fluid facies from logged and post-stack inverted acoustic impedance (Ip) values. We compare the inversion and classification results obtained under three different a-priori statistical assumptions: an analytical Gaussian distribution, an analytical Gaussian-mixture model and a non-parametric mixture distribution. The first model assumes Gaussian distributed porosity and Ip values, thus neglecting their facies-dependent behaviour caused by different lithologic and saturation conditions. Differently, the other two statistical models relate each component of the mixture to a specific litho-fluid facies, so that the facies-dependency of porosity and Ip values is taken into account. Blind well tests are used to validate the final predictions, whereas the analysis of the maximum-a-posteriori (MAP) solutions, the coverage ratio and the contingency analysis tools are used to quantitatively compare the inversion outcomes. This work points out that the correct choice of the statistical petrophysical model could be crucial in reservoir characterization studies. Indeed, for the investigated zone it turns out that the simple Gaussian model constitutes an oversimplified assumption, while the two mixture models provide more accurate results, although the non-parametric one yields slightly superior predictions with respect to the Gaussian-mixture assumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0199.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Reservoir operation; SWAT; Genetic Algorithm; Urbanisation; Ganga River
Online: 23 March 2018 (15:07:22 CET)
Reservoirs are recognized as one of the most efficient infrastructure components in integrated water resources management and development. At present, with the ongoing advancement of social economy and requirement of water, the water resources shortage problem has worsened, and the operation of reservoirs, in terms of consumption of flood water, has become significantly important. Reservoirs perform both regulation of flood and integrated water resources management, in which the flood limited water level is considered as the most important parameter for trade-off between regulation of flood and conservation. To achieve optimal operating policies for reservoirs, large numbers of simulation and optimization models have been developed in the course of recent decades, which vary notably in their applications and working. Since each model has their own limitations, the determination of fitting model for derivation of reservoir operating policies is challenging and most often there is always a scope for further improvement as the selection of model depends on availability of data. Subsequently, assessment and evaluation associated with the operation of reservoir stays conventional. In the present study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) models and a Genetic Algorithm model has been developed and applied to two reservoirs in Ganga River basin, India to derive the optimal operational policies. The objective function is set to minimize the annual sum of squared deviation form desired irrigation release and desired storage volume. The decision variables are release for irrigation and other demands (industrial and municipal demands), from the reservoir. As a result, a simulation-based optimization model was recommended for optimal reservoir operation, such as allocation of water, flood regulation, hydropower generation, irrigation demands and navigation and e-flows using a definite combination of decision variables. Since the rule curves are derived through random search it is found that the releases are same as that of demand requirements. Hence based on simulated result, in the present case study it is concluded that GA-derived policies are promising and competitive and can be effectively used operation of the reservoir.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0087.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: air flooding; ARC; extra-low permeable reservoir; feasibility
Online: 26 September 2016 (09:03:03 CEST)
The development effect of water flooding in ultra-low permeability reservoir was poor due to its poor physical property and high shale content, the experimental study of air flooding which help to complement producing energy was carried out. Based on the Accelerating Rate Calorimeter experimental results, the crude oil of N block in L oilfield can produce low-temperature oxidation reaction, which was the basic condition of air flooding. Three groups of experiment natural cylinder core were designed for oil displacement, water flooding and air flooding were used respectively, and the relationship of differential pressure, oil recovery, injection capacity with injection volume was investigated. It has been showed on the result that the recovery efficiency improved sharply than water flooding, the effect of depressurization and augmented injection was obvious, and the air displacement was validation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0409.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: coronavirus; horseshoe bats; reservoir hosts; Indochina; China; herd immunity.
Online: 16 March 2021 (09:39:15 CET)
To date, viruses closely related to SARS-CoV-2 have been reported in four bat species: Rhinolophus acuminatus, Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus malayanus, and Rhinolophus shameli. Here, we analysed 343 sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (CO1) from georeferenced bats of the four Rhinolophus species identified as reservoirs of SARS-CoV-2-like viruses. Haplotype networks were constructed in order to investigate patterns of genetic diversity among bat populations of Southeast Asia. No strong geographic structure was found for the four Rhinolophus species, suggesting high dispersal capacity. The ecological niche of SARS-CoV-2 like viruses was predicted using the four localities of bat SARS-CoV-2-like viruses and the localities where bats showed identical or very similar CO1 haplotypes than virus-positive bats. The ecological niche of SARS-CoV-like viruses was deduced from the localities where bat SARS-CoV-like viruses were previously detected. The results show that the ecological niche of SARS-CoV2-like viruses includes several regions of mainland Southeast Asia whereas that of SARS-CoV-like viruses is mainly restricted to China. In agreement with these results, human populations in Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Thailand appear to be much less affected by the Covid-19 pandemic than other countries of Southeast Asia. In the climatic transitional zone between the two ecological niches (southern Yunnan, northern Laos, northern Vietnam, and possibly Hainan and Taiwan), genomic recombination between highly divergent viruses is more likely to occur. Since recombinant viruses can threaten the benefit of vaccination campaigns, these regions should be under surveillance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0691.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: water allocation; planning; river/reservoir systems; water availability modeling
Online: 28 September 2020 (16:55:27 CEST)
Effective water resources management requires assessments of water availability within a framework of complex institutions and infrastructure employed to manage extremely variable stream flow shared by numerous often competing water users and diverse types of use. The Water Rights Analysis Package (WRAP) modeling system is fundamental to water allocation and planning in the state of Texas in the United States. Integration of environmental flow standards into both the modeling system and comprehensive statewide water management is a high priority for continuing research and development. The public domain WRAP software and documentation are generalized for application any place in the world. Lessons learned in developing and implementing the modeling system in Texas are relevant worldwide. The modeling system combines: (1) detailed simulation of water right systems, interstate compacts, international treaties, federal/state/local agreements, and operations of storage and conveyance facilities; (2) simulation of river system hydrology; and (3) statistical frequency and reliability analyses. The continually evolving modeling system has been implemented in Texas by a water management community that includes the state legislature, planning and regulatory agencies, river authorities, water districts, cities, industries, engineering consulting firms, and university researchers. The shared modeling system contributes significantly to integration of water allocation, planning, system operations, and research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0210.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Nitrogen sink; sedimentation; nitrogen fixation; management; tropical reservoir; phosphorous sedimentation
Online: 16 May 2022 (12:25:44 CEST)
Nitrogen and phosphorous loading drives eutrophication of aquatic systems. Lakes and reservoirs are often effective N and P sinks, but information is needed on the variability of their biogeochemical dynamics, especially for tropical systems. A long-term N and P mass balance (2003-2018) in a small tropical eutrophic reservoir lake, Valle de Bravo (VB), Mexico, showed it is a net sink of N (-41.7 g N m-2 y-1), and P (-2.7 g P m-2 y-1), mainly through net sedimentation, equivalent to 181% and 68% of their respective loading (23.0 g N m-2 y-1 and 4.2 g P m-2 y-1). N mass balance showed that VB has a high net N atmospheric influx (31.6 g N m-2 y-1), which was 1.3 times the external load, and likely dominated by N2 fixation. During a period of high water level fluctuations (WLF), the net N atmospheric flux decreased by half compared to high level years. WLF can be a useful management tool to improve the trophic status of water bodies by decreasing anoxic conditions and net atmospheric fluxes, possibly through decreasing nitrogen fixation and/or promoting denitrification and other microbial processes that alleviate the N load.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0009.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: CSEM; artificial intelligence; energy transition using electromagnetics; reservoir monitoring; CCUS
Online: 2 August 2021 (09:40:13 CEST)
One of the key geophysical technologies for the energy industry during energy transition to zero footprint is fluid imaging. Knowledge of fluid distribution allows better, more optimized production reducing thus CO2 footprint per barrel produced and for CO2 storage the knowledge of where stored fluids go is mandatory to monitor reservoir seals. Electromagnetic is the preferred way to image fluid due to its strong coupling to the fluid resistivity. Unfortunately, acquiring and interpreting the data takes too long to contribute significantly to field operation and cost optimization. Using artificial intelligence and Cloud based data acquisition we can reduce the operational feedback to near real time and for the interpretation to close to 24 h. This then opens new door for the usefulness of this technology from exploration, monitoring and allows the application envelope to be enlarged to much noisier environment where real time acquisition can be optimized based on the acquired data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0344.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Siljan Ring; Precambrian; Ordovician-Silurian; Meta-Sedimentary Rocks; Fractures; Reservoir
Online: 12 March 2021 (15:54:16 CET)
Results of geological and geophysical investigations of the Siljan Ring impact structure (central Sweden) revealed complicated relationships between Paleozoic sedimentary succession and the Precambrian basement. Tectonic and depositional evolution caused complex geology. Studies of a new drill core from the C-C-1 well provide information necessary for the reconstruction of the geological setting in the southwestern part of Siljan Ring. The whole interval of the core section is from 32.60 to 634.90 m with almost no breaks. The sedimentary cover is 373.55 m thick in total. The sedimentary sequences are predominantly composed of wackestones, mudstones, and shales. In the lower part of the sedimentary section, limestone layers intercalate with black shales. In a result of the investigations, it has been suggested that sedimentary layers represent Late Ordovician and Silurian deposits and have disturbed stratigraphic relations. The basement section is composed of Precambrian meta-volcanic and meta-sedimentary rocks. The contact between the basement and the sedimentary cover is tectonic, not normal sedimentary, in origin. Tectonic processes caused intensive rock fracturing. Four generations of fractures were identified with analysis of fracture relations and mineralization sequence. Only two of them occur in sedimentary rocks that probably belong to the latest stages of tectonic activity. Highly fractured basement rocks in some cases contain open vugs developed along the fractures. Rock matrix is tight either in sedimentary and basement rocks and only micro-porosity space is recognized in cataclastic zones. Single evidence of bituminous filling of micro-porosity zone and partly cemented vug is established in limestone from the lower part of the sedimentary section. These findings are particularly valuable for stratigraphy refinement and tectonic setting reconstructions as well as oil and gas reservoir forecasts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0102.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Al Zaytun, Climate change, Drought, Islamic perspective, Plant species, Reservoir
Online: 2 March 2021 (15:58:41 CET)
The drought is one of all phenomena at local to a global scale that caused climate change impacts, alongside it also the human activities related, which were deforested and land use changed that caused to ecological disturbance, which one is hydrological changes. Hence, it’s a lot of lost productivity, chiefly to farming land aspects and the other, so the land restoration by reforestation is needed in framework to water cycle (hydrology) process kindly. The aim of this research has identified and analyzed ecological restoration to ecosystem services, chiefly in wastewater management (treatment) to conservation, especially in Al Zaytun areas (Pesantren), so observing and in-depth individual interview (with some of personage and pesantren of boards) is one method that used to data collected, alongside land survey management to classified type development in Al Zaytun areas. The result of this research revealed that Al Zaytun successfully in water management to conservation by wastewater treated management by Eichhornia crassipes (Enceng gondok), afterward to the reservoir as water saved development. Those conservation types considered capability in reviving to ecological systems to ecosystem services increased kindly, alongside to land restoration by some of the plant species or trees to grow and developed in which Tectona grandis L. f is more dominantly and it's favorite because of investment economic that advantage based on ecological perspective. These were type management that did by Al Zaytun, alongside its able in coping to both drought and climate change impacts kindly and adaptively, and of course, it’s part of an obligation as the follower’s Islam religion in preserving and maintaining natural resources, chiefly to water resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0295.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Streamline-based simulation; Nanoparticle transport; Reservoir simulation; Field-scale simulation
Online: 13 September 2020 (16:03:33 CEST)
Nanoparticle (NP) transport is increasingly relevant to subsurface engineering applications such as aquifer characterization, fracture electromagnetic imaging and environmental remediation. An efficient field-scale simulation framework is critical for predicting NP performance and designing subsurface applications. In this work, for the first time, a streamline-based model is presented to simulate NP transport in field-scale subsurface systems. It considers a series of behaviors exhibited by engineered nanoparticles (NPs), including time-triggered encapsulation, retention, formation damage effects and variable nanofluid viscosity. The key methods employed by the algorithm are streamline-based simulation (SLS) and an operator-splitting (OS) technique for modeling NP transport. SLS has proven to be efficient for solving transport in large and heterogeneous systems, where the pressure and velocity fields are firstly solved on underlying grids using finite-difference (FD) methods. After tracing streamlines, one-dimensional (1D) NP transport is solved independently along each streamline. The adoption of OS enhances flexibility for the entire solution procedure by allowing different numerical schemes to solve different governing equations efficiently and accurately. For the NP transport model, an explicit FD scheme is used to solve the advection term, an implicit FD scheme is used for the diffusion term and an adaptive numerical integration is used to solve the retention terms. The model is implemented in an in-house streamline-based code, which is verified against analytical solutions, a commercial FD reservoir simulator (ECLIPSE) and an academic FD colloid transport code (MNMs). For a 1D homogeneous case, the effluent breakthrough curves (BTC) produced by the in-house simulator are in good agreement with the analytical solution and MNMs, respectively. For a two-dimensional (2D) heterogeneous case, the BTC and concentration pattern of the in-house simulator all match well with the solution produced by commercial simulator. Simulations on a synthetic three-dimensional (3D) nanocapsule application engineering design case, are performed to investigate the effect of fluid and NP properties on the displacement pattern of an existing subsurface fluid.
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: low permeable oil reservoir; air injection; EOR; dynamic experiments; formulae
Online: 3 February 2020 (04:57:42 CET)
The Oil reservoirs with low permeability account for a large proportion in the world, they surpass half of the total number of the oil reservoirs in China, it is important to exploit this kind of reservoir effectively. The exploitive results of these reservoir using normal water flooding methods are very poor because of the thine pores, bad connections and so on. However, these problems can be well solved by applying gas injection techniques. In this paper, the effects on the recovery effects exerted by the injection parameters such as the oxygen content in the injected air, the injection speed etc. were studied by several experiments using independently designed equipments aiming at one low permeable sandstone reservoir in China. Several conclusions were made from the experiment results: the best recovery effects can be achieved by injecting the oxygen reduced air with 8% of oxygen at the speed of 0.3ml/min (7.41×10-4PV/min) using the methods of injecting the air slugs and the foaming agent slugs alternately; the best oxidation time of the oil was 168 hours and the final oil recovery could be enhanced by 26.5% in this method. It was also showed by the experiments that the larger the permeability ratio is, the larger the recovery factor will be increased. At last, several equations about relationships between the EOR and the air injection parameters were revealed according to the results of the experiments which may offer some references to the LTO process mechanisms study in the similar oil reservoir.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0007.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: shale gas; stimulated reservoir volume; fracture parameters optimization; formation parameters
Online: 3 September 2016 (11:16:08 CEST)
Hydraulic fracturing in shale gas reservoirs has usually resulted in complex fracture network. The results of micro-seismic monitoring showed that the nature and degree of fracture complexity must be clearly understood to optimize stimulation design and completion strategy. This is often called stimulated reservoir volume (SRV). In the oil & gas industry, stimulated reservoir volume has made the shale gas exploitation and development so successful, so it is a main technique in shale gas development. The successful exploitation and development of shale gas reservoir has mainly relied on some combined technologies such as horizontal drilling, multi-stage completions, innovative fracturing, and fracture mapping to engineer economic completions. Hydraulic fracturing with large volumes of proppant and fracturing fluids will not only create high conductivity primary fractures but also stimulate adjacent natural fractures. Fracture network forming around every hydraulic fracture yields a stimulated reservoir volume. A model of horizontal wells which was based on a shale gas reservoir after volume fracturing in China was established to analyze the effect of related parameters on the production of multi-fractured horizontal wells in this paper. The adsorbed gas in the shale gas reservoir is simulated by dissolved gas in the immobile oil. The key to simulate SRV is to accurately represent the hydraulic fractures and the induced complex natural fracture system. However, current numerical simulation methods, such as dual porosity modeling, discrete modeling, have the following limitations: 1) time-consuming to set up hydraulic and natural fracture system; 2) large computation time required. In this paper, the shape of the stimulated formation is described by an expanding ellipsoid. Simplified stimulated zones with higher permeability were used to model the hydraulic fracture and the induced complex natural fracture system. In other words, each primary fracture has an enhanced zone, namely SRV zone. This method saves much developing fine-grid time and computing time. Compared with the simulation results of fine-grid reference model, it has shown that this simplified model greatly decreases simulation time and provides accurate results. In order to analyze the impacts of related parameters on production, a series of simulation scenarios and corresponding production performance were designed. Optimal design and analyses of fracturing parameters and the formation parameters have been calculated in this model. Simulation results showed that the number of primary fractures, half length, SRV half-width and drop-down have great effects on the post-fracturing production. Formation anisotropies also control the production performance while the conductivity of the primary fractures and SRV permeability do not have much impact on production performance. The complexity of stimulated reservoir volume has strong effect on gas well productivity. Fracture number mainly affects the early time production performance. The increase of SRV width cannot enlarge the drainage area of the multi-fractured horizontal wells, but it can improve the recovery in its own drainage region. Permeability anisotropies have much effect on production rate, especially the late time production rate. The results prove that horizontal well with volume fracturing plays an irreplaceable role in the development of ultra-low permeability shale gas reservoir.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0135.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: Pannonian Basin; fractured reservoir; well-log; DFN modelling; fluid inclusion chemostratigraphy
Online: 5 September 2020 (09:31:16 CEST)
Numerous fractured hydrocarbon reservoirs exist in the metamorphic basement of the Pannonian Basin in Hungary. Many decades of experience in production have proven that these reservoirs are highly compartmentalised, resulting in a complex mosaic of permeable and impermeable domains situated next to each other. Consequently, in most fields, only a small amount of the total hydrocarbon reserve can be extracted. This paper aims to locate the potential migration pathways inside the most productive basement reservoir of the Pannonian Basin, using a multiscale approach. To achieve this, evaluation well-log data, DFN modelling and a composition analysis of fluid trapped in a vein-filling zeolite phase are combined. Data on a single well are presented as an example. The results of the three approaches indicate the presence of two highly fractured intervals separated by a barely fractured amphibolite. The two zones are probably part of the communicating fracture system inside the single metamorphic mass. The gas analysis further specifies the migrated fluids and indicates hydrocarbons of a composition similar to that of the recently produced oil. Consequently, we conclude that the two zones do not only form an ancient migration pathway but are also members of a more recent hydrocarbon system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0103.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Coronavirus; SARS-CoV; MERS-CoV; serology; molecular diagnosis; reservoir; public health
Online: 19 May 2020 (04:13:19 CEST)
Introduction: Coronaviruses are zoonotic viruses that include human epidemic pathogens such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome virus (MERS-CoV), and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome virus (SARS-CoV), among others (e.g., COVID-19, the recently emerging coronavirus disease). The role of animals as potential reservoirs for such pathogens remains an unanswered question. No systematic reviews have been published on this topic to date. Methods: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV infection in animals and its diagnosis by serological and molecular tests. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Results: 6,493articles were retrieved (1960-2019). After screening by abstract/title, 50 articles were selected for full-text assessment. Of them, 42 were finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. From a total of 34 studies (n=20,896 animals), the pool prevalence by RT-PCR for MERS-CoV was 7.2% (95%CI 5.6-8.7%), with 97.3% occurring in camels, in which pool prevalence was 10.3% (95%CI 8.3-12.3). Qatar was the country with the highest MERS-CoV RT-PCR pool prevalence, 32.6% (95%CI 4.8-60.4%). From 5 studies and 2,618 animals, for SARS-CoV, the RT-PCR pool prevalence was 2.3% (95%CI 1.3-3.3). Of those, 38.35% were reported on bats, in which the pool prevalence was 14.1% (95%CI0.0-44.6%). Discussion: A considerable proportion of infected animals tested positive, particularly by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). This essential condition highlights the relevance of individual animals as reservoirs of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. In this meta-analysis, camels and bats were found to be positive by RT-PCR in over 10% of the cases for both; thus, suggesting their relevance in the maintenance of wild zoonotic transmission.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: pore-fracture networks; coal-facies; coalbed methane reservoir; Sanjiang-Mulinghe basin
Online: 18 January 2020 (10:15:20 CET)
Pore-fractures network play a key role in coalbed methane (CBM) accumulation and production, while the impacts of coal facies on the pore-fractures network performance are still poorly understood. In this work, the research on the pore-fracture occurrence of 38 collected coals from Sangjiang-Muling coal-bearing basins with multiple techniques including mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), micro-organic quantitative analysis, and optic microscopy, and its variation controlling of coal face were studied. The MIP curves of 38 selected coals indicating pore structures were subdivided into three typical types including type I of predominant micropores, type Ⅱ of predominant micropores and macropores with good connectivity and type Ⅲ of predominant micropores and macropores with poor connectivity. For coal facies, there are three various coal facies were distinguished, which include lake shore coastal wet forest swamp, the upper delta plain wet forest swamp, tidal flat wet forest swamp with Q-cluster analysis and tissue preservation index - gelification index (TPI-GI) and Wood index - groundwater influence index (WI -GWI). The results show there is positive relationship between tissue preservation index (TPI), wood index (WI) and mesopores (102nm-103nm), while a negative relationship between TPI, WI and macropores/fractures. In addition, groundwater level fluctuations can control the development of type C and D fractures, and the frequency of type C and D fractures shows an ascending trend with increasing GWI, which may be caused by the mineral hydration of the coal. Finally, from the perspective of the pore-fractures occurrence in CBM reservoirs, the wet forest swamp of upper delta plain is considered to be the optimization areas for Sanjiang-Mulinghe coal-bearing basins by a comparative study of various coal facies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0313.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: nanoaditives; nitrogen foamed stimulation fluids; reservoir stimulation; rheology; formation damage; SEM
Online: 28 April 2019 (10:54:56 CEST)
Impact of Nitrogen Foamed Stimulation Fluids Stabilized by Nanoadditives on Reservoir Rocks of Hydrocarbon Deposits
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0260.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: reservoir; water quality indexes; GEVORG index; Armenian Water Quality Index; Armenia
Online: 25 January 2019 (15:03:46 CET)
In this article, the quality of water in the reservoirs of Lake Arpi, Lake Yerevan, Akhuryan, Azat, Aparan and Kechut was estimated with usage of the Armenian Water Quality Index. It was established that in the waters of reservoirs the the maximum permissible concentration of copper, vanadium, aluminum, chromium, manganese, iron, NH4+ and NO2- regularly increases. The following computational algorithm was used for determination of the Armenian Water Quality Index values: to determine the number of cases of MPC excess of i-substance or indicator of water –n; to estimate the total amount of cases of the maximum permissible concentration (N) – N = ∑n; to computes log2N, nlog2n and ∑nlog2n; to determine geoecological syntropy (I) and entropy (H): I = ∑ nlog2n/N and H = log2N – I. Then, Geo-Ecological Evolving Organized index index was determined: G = H/I. Further, the total amount multiplicity of MAC exceedances was estimated: (M) - M=∑m and log2M was computed. Finally, Armenian Water Quality Index was obtained: AWQI = G + 0.1log2M. It was established that the Armenian Water Qquality Index showed a linear dependence on the Water Contamination Index, the Specific Combinatory Water Quality Index, the Geo-Ecological Evolving Organized index and an inverse dependence on the Canadian Water Quality Index.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0164.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Integrated water resources management; support to decision-making process, streamflow forecast; simple and low-cost forecasting model; Guadalquivir River Basin; Genil River; Canales reservoir; Quéntar reservoir
Online: 11 June 2018 (16:40:22 CEST)
Forecasting streamflow accurately is essential to achieve an efficient integrated water resources management strategy and provide consistent support to water decision-makers. We present a simple, low-cost and robust approach for forecasting monthly and yearly streamflow during the hydrological year in course, applicable to headwater catchments. It combines the use of regression analysis techniques, the two-parameter Gamma continuous cumulative probability distribution function and the Monte Carlo method. It is based on a probabilistic comparison of the progression of the current hydrological year with the historic observed series. The methodology has been successfully applied to two headwater reservoirs within the Guadalquivir River Basin in southern Spain. The root-mean-square error and correlation coefficient were used to measure the accuracy of the model and the results showed good levels of reliability. The outputs are the probabilistic monthly and yearly streamflow and 80% confidence interval. Further reductions in prediction errors may be achieved from increasing the number of observed years. These risk-based predictions are of great value, especially, before the intensive irrigation campaign starts (usually in April), when Water Authorities are to take responsible management decisions about the best allocation of the available water volume between the different water users and environmental needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0115.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Mode I crack; fracture process zone; heterogeneity; discrete element method; reservoir fracability
Online: 10 October 2022 (07:16:19 CEST)
Hydraulic fracturing for oil-gas and geothermal reservoir stimulation is closely related to the generation and propagation of Mode I crack. Nonlinear deformation due to rock heterogeneity occurs at such crack tip, which causes the fracture process zone (FPZ) to form before the crack propagates unsteadily. However, the relationship between the FPZ characteristics and rock heterogeneity still remain elusive. We used three rock types common in reservoir for experimental investigation, and each of them includes two subtypes with different heterogeneity due to grain size or microstructural characteristics. Drawing on the experiment results, we calculated the FPZ size in each cracked chevron notched Brazilian disk, and we reproduced the formation process of the FPZ in marble by discrete element method. We showed that strong heterogeneity is favorable to large FPZ size, can enhance the ability of crack generation and complicate crack morphology. Coupling the Weibull distribution with fracture mechanics, the dependence of the FPZ size on heterogeneity degree can be theoretically explained, which suggests that inherent heterogeneity of rocks set physical foundation for formation of FPZ. These findings can improve our recognition to formation mechanism of the Mode I crack and provide useful guidelines for evaluating reservoir fracability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0539.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Total organic carbon; Total nitrogen; Soil microbial biomass; Vegetation types; Hongqipao reservoir
Online: 23 July 2020 (08:13:39 CEST)
This study investigated the spatial variability of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) and soil microbial biomass nitrogen (SMBN) in Hongqipao reservoir dominated by different vegetation types and the possible relationships with other soil properties. Top 0–50cm soil samples were collected in sites dominated by different vegetation types within the reservoir littoral zone. There was high spatial variability for SOC, TN, SMBC and SMBN in the Hongqipao reservoir. In addition, the SOC, TN, SMBC and SMBN contents decreased with increasing soil depth. This could be attributed by the fact that when plants detritus decompose, most of their organic matter is mineralized and a new soil layer which contains a greater amount of organic carbon is formed at the top. According to Pearson's correlation values and redundancy analysis (RDA) results, SOC was significantly and positively correlated with TN likely because the vegetation organic matter and liter could be the main nitrogen sources. Similarly, soil moisture content (MC) was significant positive correlated with SOC and TN. Conversely, BD was significant negative correlated with SOC and TN contents in the 0-50 cm soil profiles. However, no significant correlations were observed between SOC, TN, SMBC and SMBN contents and soil pH values. SMBN was significantly and positive correlated with C:N ratio and BD and negative related with MC. Multiple linear regression model revealed that all measures soil properties in this study could explain higher significant variability of the response variables (SOC, TN, SMBC and SMBN contents). This implies that all the measured soil variables within the different vegetation types in the reservoir played a crucial role in determining the contents of SOC, TN, SMBC and SMBN. This study further suggests that vegetation types play a major role in determining the spatial characteristics of SOC and TN. Any changes in the vegetation types in the reservoir may influence the distribution of SOC and TN. This may affect the global carbon budget and the atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration significantly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0310.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: hydraulic fracturing; energized fracturing fluid; tight gas; reservoir stimulation; frac fluid rheology
Online: 28 April 2019 (10:39:53 CEST)
Hydraulic fracturing is the most effective method of stimulation for hydrocarbon reservoirs. However the use of water-based fracturing fluids, can be a problem in water-sensitive formations due to the permeability damage hazard caused by clay minerals swelling. For this reason, the foamed fracturing fluids with addition of natural, fast hydrating guar gum were examined. The rheology and filtration coefficients of foamed fracturing fluids were examined and compared to the properties of conventional water-based fracturing fluid. Laboratory results provided the input for numerical simulation of the fractures geometry for water-based fracturing fluids and 50% N2 foamed fluids. The results show, that the foamed fluids were able to create shorter and thinner fractures compared to the fractures induced by the non-foamed fluid. The simulation proved that the concentration of proppant in the fracture and its conductivity are similar or slightly higher when using the foamed fluid. Moreover such fluids are able to significantly reduce the amount of water necessary for fracturing treatments, limiting clay minerals swelling, and reducing the reservoir permeability damage. The foamed fluids, when injected to the reservoir, provide additional energy, that allow for more effective flowback, and maintain the proper fracture geometry and proppant placing. The results of laboratory work in combination with the 3D simulation showed, that the foamed fluids have suitable viscosity which allows opening the fracture, and transport the proppant into the fracture, providing successful fracturing operation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0280.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: Porosity, permeability, skolithos, Ophiomorpha, lithofacies, reservoir, bioturbation, channel and coastal barrier systems.
Online: 25 April 2019 (11:16:30 CEST)
The controls of depositional environments on reservoir quality have been evaluated in terms of porosity and permeability of the Gabo Field, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Data used in this research include Well logs, Core data and photos, and grain size analysis for Wells 51 and 52 in the study area. Standard methods as applicable in petrophysical and sedimentological analysis has been adopted. Thirteen reservoir units have been identified in wells 51 and 52 which had 5 reservoirs cored each. The lithofacies units of the identified reservoirs across the study area, comprise pebbly sands, coarse -, medium -, fine- and very fine-grained sands, sandy mud, silty sands and heteroliths. The heteroliths – very fine-grained silty muds are highly bioturbated. Ophiomorpha and skolithos are the major trace fossils with sedimentary structures (ripple lamination, wavy lenticular and planar beds, cross bedded sands, coarsening and fining upward). The facies associations interpreted for the study area are Channel and Coastal barrier systems and the environment of deposition as distributary channel, upper and lower shoreface. The sedimentary processes that deposited facies ranged from high energy regimes, reworking by waves to low energy with periodic influx of silts and muds. The average porosity and permeability for reservoirs in Well 51 is 16.7% and 1317 Md, reservoirs in Well 52 is 28.2% and 2330Md whereas porosity range for the study area is 2% - 32% and permeability is 1.2 – 10600 Md. The reservoir quality reservoir of the sand units in Well 51 (7, 9 and 13) and Well 52 (5, 7, 9, 11 and 13) is excellent - good, this is because of the dynamics environments of deposition (upper shoreface and distributary channel) as well as the mechanisms that play out during deposition such as bioturbation, sorting, sedimentary structures formed. Whereas the poor quality across the reservoirs especially the lower shoreface and prodelta facies is as result of lack bioturbation, connectivity, multiplicity of burrows that may have been plugged by clay and intercalation of shale and sand (heteroliths). This research has shown that environments of deposition have direct influence the reservoir quality in terms of porosity and permeability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0573.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Borrelia miyamotoi, Ixodes, Lyme disease, relapsing fever, reservoir species, tick-borne disease, vector
Online: 30 December 2022 (08:08:13 CET)
Borrelia miyamotoi is an emerging tick-borne pathogen in the Northern hemisphere and is the causative agent of Borrelia miyamotoi disease (BMD). B. miyamotoi is vectored by the same hard-bodied ticks as Lyme disease Borrelia, yet phylogenetically groups with relapsing fever Borrelia, and thus has been uniquely labeled a hard tick-borne relapsing fever Borrelia. Burgeoning research has uncovered new aspects of B. miyamotoi in human patients, nature, and the lab. Of particular interest are novel findings on disease pathology, prevalence, diagnostic methods, ecological maintenance, transmission, and genetic characteristics. Herein we review recent literature on B. miyamotoi, discuss how findings adapt to current Borrelia doctrines, and briefly consider what remains unknown about B. miyamotoi.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0232.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: coronavirus; genome; recombination; COVID-19; reservoir host; secondary host; phylogenetic support; tree reconstruction
Online: 13 December 2022 (07:44:48 CET)
Phylogenetic trees of coronaviruses are difficult to interpret because they undergo frequent ge-nomic recombination. Here, we propose a new method, named coloured genomic bootstrap (CGB) barcodes, to highlight the polyphyletic origins of human sarbecoviruses and understand their host and geographic ori-gins. The results indicate that SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 contain genomic regions of mixed an-cestry originating from horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus) viruses. First, different regions of SARS-CoV share exclusive ancestry with five Rhinolophus viruses from Southwest China (RfYNLF/31C: 17.9%; RpF46: 3.3%; RspSC2018: 2.0%; Rpe3: 1.3%; RaLYRa11: 1.0%) and 97% of its genome can be related to bat viruses from Yunnan (China), supporting its emergence in Rhinolophus species of this province. Second, different regions of SARS-Cov-2 share exclusive ancestry with eight Rhi-nolophus viruses from Yunnan (RpYN06: 5.8%; RaTG13: 4.8%; RmYN02: 3.8%), Laos (RpBA-NAL103: 3.3%; RmarBANAL236: 1.7%; RmBANAL52: 1.0%; RmBANAL247: 0.7%), and Cam-bodia (RshSTT200: 2.3%), and 98% of its genome can be related to bat viruses from northern Laos and Yunnan, supporting its emergence in Rhinolophus species of this region. Although CGB barcodes are very useful to retrace the origins of human sarbecoviruses, further investigations are needed to better apprehend the diversity of coronaviruses in bats from Cambo-dia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0416.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Leishmania infantum; reservoir; wildlife; artiodactyls; roe deer; European hare; red fox; wild boar
Online: 27 October 2022 (02:10:58 CEST)
In the last decade, an upsurge of human leishmaniasis has been reported in the Emilia-Romagna region, Northeast Italy. Epidemiologic data raised doubts about the role of dogs as the main reservoirs for Leishmania infantum. In the present study, a total of 1,077 wild animals were screened for L. infantum DNA in earlobe and spleen samples from 2019 to 2022. The lymph nodes were tested only in the 23 animals already positive in the earlobe and/or spleen. A total of 71 (6.6%) animals resulted positive in at least one of the sampled tissues, including 3/18 (16.7%) wolves, 6/39 (15.4%) European hares, 38/309 (12.3%) roe deer, 1/11 (9.1%) red deer, 8 (4.9%) wild boars, 13/319 (4.1%) red foxes, 1/54 (1.9%) porcupine, and 1/59 (1.7%) European badger. Most of the infected animals (62/71) tested positive only in the earlobe tissue, just 4 animals (2 roe deer and 2 wild boars) tested positive only in the spleen, and 5 animals (3 roe deer and 2 red foxes) resulted positive for both tissues. L. infantum DNA was detected in the lymph nodes of 6/23 ani-mals. L. infantum detection occurred in all seasons associated with low real-time PCR Ct values. Further research is needed in order to clarify the role of wildlife in the re-emerging focus of leishmaniasis in Northeast Italy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0399.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: energy of currents; energy of waves; reservoir; seiche current; seiche wave; storm surge
Online: 24 December 2021 (10:54:22 CET)
The energy potential of long-period oscillations is estimated by comparing it with watercourse power. The relaxation time of long-period waves is chosen for the estimation time interval, during which their amplitude decreases e (Euler's number) times from the initial one. According to calculations, the amount of energy produced during this time by the watercourse is 9.35–18.71 million kW×h, while the amount of energy of long-period oscillations is 3–6 times less – 1.60–5.48 million kW×h. The components of the economic factor of using long-period waves and currents for electricity production are the predictability of their magnitudes and location of maxima, long-term availability, concentration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0124.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: drought; multi-purpose dam; water supply; reservoir operation criteria; standard water volume lines
Online: 6 August 2018 (14:05:54 CEST)
Recently, torrential rain and drought have occurred in close temporal proximity and for similar durations due to changes in the spatiotemporal patterns of rainfall owing to climate change. In particular, when a drought occurs, it tends to be prolonged, making it necessary to improve the operation of multi-purpose dams that not only control flooding but also serve as water supplies. In this study, standard water volume lines and action plans by response stage were improved so that water could be stored in advance of a drought instead of reservoir operation criteria set based on data from the past. The minimum water demand by use (domestic water, industrial water, and agricultural water) was also calculated. The improved reservoir operation criteria were applied to multi-purpose dams in the Nakdong River Basin, and their effects were analyzed by calculating additionally secured water volumes. In the future, in case of lowered water volumes in multi-purpose dams owing to a drought, the application of these improved reservoir operation criteria is expected to contribute to water supply stability by delaying entry into the drought stage, and minimizing the damages caused by limited water supplies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0221.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: palaeo-oil reservoir; aromatic hydrocarbons; thermochemical sulphate reduction (TSR); Qinglong antimony deposit; Nanpanjiang basin
Online: 11 August 2022 (11:53:43 CEST)
In Qinglong ore field, paleo-oil reservoir is found to be associated with antimony deposits, and they have close genetic relationship. In this study, aromatics geochemistry of paleo-oil reservoir bitumen was studied to further discuss the thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) reaction and the mechanism of antimony mineralization. A total of 124 aromatic compounds were identified by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis in bitumen samples, including abundant phenanthrene series, dibenzothiophene series, fluoranthene series, chrysene series, and a small number of fluorene series, naphthalene series, dibenzofuran series, biphenyl series, triaromatic steroid series. Aromatic parameters such as trimethylnaphthalene index (TMNr), methylphenanthrene index (MPI), methylphenanthrene distribution fraction (MPDF, F1 and F2), methyldibenzothiophene parameter (MDR), C28TAS-20S/(20R+20S), and benzofluoranthene/benzo[e]pyrene indicate Qinglong paleo-oil reservoir is in over maturity level. The abundance of phenanthrene and chrysene aromatic compounds and a small amount of naphthalene series, benzofluoranthene, fluoranthene, pyrene, anthracene, retene, perylene and biphenyl suggest that the parent material of the paleo-oil reservoir was mainly low aquatic organisms, mixed with a small amount of higher plant. The detected a certain number of compounds, such as retene, triaromatic steroid series and perylene, the ternary diagram of DBF–DBT–F and binary plot of Pr/Ph–DBT/P, DBT/(F+DBT)–DBF/(F+DBF) and Pr/Ph–DBT/DBF reveal that the source rock of the paleo-oil reservoir was formed in the marine environment of weak oxidation and weak reduction. The comprehensive analysis shows that the Qinglong paleo-oil reservoir originated from Devonian source rocks, just like other paleo-oil reservoirs and natural gas reservoirs in the Nanpanjiang basin. Abundant dibenzothiophene series were detected, indicating that the paleo-oil reservoir underwent a certain degree of TSR reaction. We believe that the paleo-gas reservoir formed by the evolution of paleo-oil reservoir participated in antimony mineralization, that is, hydrocarbon organic matter acted as reducing agent and transformed SO42− in oilfield brine into H2S through TSR, providing reduced sulfur and creating environmental conditions for mineralization.
Subject: Keywords: Tight sandstone; Low resistivity contrast oil pay; Reservoir Characteristic; Control mechanism; Longdong West area.
Online: 15 January 2021 (13:02:42 CET)
The log interpretation and evaluation of Chang 8 tight sandstone reservoir in Longdong West area, Ordos Basin, is facing great challenges due to the existence of low resistivity contrast oil pays. To better guide the exploration of oil resources in this area, the characteristics and control mechanism of low resistivity contrast oil pays were studied in this research. Firstly, according to the relative value of apparent resistivity increase rate of the target formation, the reservoir was divided into two types: low resistivity contrast oil pay (LRCP) and high resistivity oil pay (HRP). Then, the reservoir characteristics were studied by comparing and analyzing the experimental data, formation water data and logging data collected from the two reservoir types. On this basis, the control mechanism of LRCP was studied and summarized into reservoir micro factors and regional macro factors, respectively. It is found that the reservoir rock composition between LRCP and HRP is basically the same. Compared with HRP reservoir, the average porosity and permeability of LRCP reservoir are relatively better, but the pore structure is relatively poorer because of the high content of micro pores. When the filling pressure of crude oil is sufficient enough, the high oil saturation can be formed in LRCP reservoir. The high irreducible water saturation and high formation water salinity are the main micro factors reduced the reservoir resistivity. Besides, the difference of hydrocarbon expulsion capacity of source rock and the regional difference of formation water salinity are the macro factors influenced the distribution of LRCP and HRP from vertical and horizontal of the region. The formation of LRCP is controlled by the comprehensive influence of reservoir micro factors and regional macro factors. And the comprehensive consideration of the influence of micro factors and macro factors on LRCP is suggested during the log interpretation and evaluation.
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2); animal reservoir; cross-species transmission; cats
Online: 8 April 2020 (04:43:14 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2 causes severe pneumonia epidemics and probably originated in horseshoe bats, but the intermediate host is unknown. The interaction of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and its acceptor protein ACE2 is an important issue in determining viral host range and cross-species infection, while the binding capacity of Spike protein to ACE2 of different species is unknown. Here, we used the atomic structure model of SARS-CoV-2 and human ACE2 to assess the receptor utilization capacity of ACE2s from different species including cats, chimpanzees, dogs, cattles. Our results show, domestic cats (Felis catusc) and dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) are more susceptible to infection by SARS-CoV-2 and that they can efficiently transmit the virus to previously uninfected animals that are housed with them. Especially, cats could be a choice of animal model for screening antiviral drugs or vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0163.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Ranavirus; FV3; vIF-2α knockout mutant; bath exposure; wood frog; sublethal effects; reservoir host
Online: 15 March 2019 (11:58:03 CET)
Ranaviruses have been associated with rising numbers of mass die-offs in amphibian populations globally. With life-stages occupying different environments and presenting distinct physiologies, amphibian of different ages are likely to play an important role in pathogen persistence. To assess the potential role of post-metamorphic amphibians as a Ranavirus reservoir, we performed a bath-exposure study on wood frogs using environmentally relevant doses (~103 and ~104 PFU/mL) of wild-type (WT) and knockout Frog virus 3 (FV3), deficient for the vIF-2α immune-evasion gene, the effects of which have never been addressed in post-metamorphic anurans. We observed 42% infection prevalence and low mortality (10%) across the virus challenges, with half of the mortalities attributable to ranavirosis. Prevalence and viral loads followed a dose-dependent pattern. Notably, when exposed to the vIF-2α knockout (DvIF-2α) FV3, individuals exhibited significantly decreased growth and increased lethargy in comparison to WT FV3 treatments. Although 85% of individuals in the virus treatments exhibited stereotypic signs of ranavirosis throughout the experiment, at termination (40 days post exposure) most individuals were clear of signs of infection. Overall, this study provides evidence that even a single short time exposure to environmentally relevant doses of Ranavirus may cause sublethal infections in post-metamorphic amphibians, thus indicating their possible role as a reservoir for this pathogen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0062.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: natural gas hydrate; reservoir stimulation technique; variance analysis; conversion efficiency; sensitivity analysis; numerical simulation
Online: 11 December 2017 (07:30:36 CET)
Based on the geologic conditions of natural gas hydrate (NGH) accumulations in the Shenhu area, northern slope of the South China Sea, this paper used a method of combining reservoir stimulation technique (RST) with depressurization to investigate the conversion efficiency of marine NGH reservoirs in different intrinsic permeability and initial NGH saturation conditions, and analyze the influence of variably-stimulation effect on marine NGH conversion efficiency in different accumulation conditions, provided a reference scheme for improving the NGH conversion efficiency in the Shenhu area. In this work, we performed calculations for the variations in CH4 production rate and cumulative volume of CH4 in different initial NGH saturation, intrinsic permeability and stimulation effect conditions, variance analysis and range analysis methods were used to analyze the significance of these key factors and their interaction, and investigated the sensitivity of stimulation effect on NGH conversion efficiency, respectively. The simulation results showed that stimulation effect have a significant influence on NGH conversion efficiency, and the influence of interaction between these three factors were not obvious. Possibly most important, we clarified an optimum stimulation effect for higher NGH conversion efficiency under different accumulation conditions, especially in low-permeability and high-saturation, which corresponding stimulation effect were different.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0406.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: Array electromagnetics, magnetotellurics, controlled source electromagnetics, microseismics, reservoir monitoring, enhanced oil recovery, recovery factor improvement
Online: 23 September 2021 (12:27:38 CEST)
Focusing geophysics to improve recovery factor of hydrocarbon reservoirs adds value and contributes toward ZERO carbon footprint by increasing the recovery factor by of 30-40 % and thus reducing the cost/carbon emission per produced barrel. Thus, the Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) market is expected to grow more than 3.5% annually. This will be even more fueled by the Green-House-Gas (GHG) reduction and subsequent CO2 injection into the reservoirs as they are being produced. Presently, geophysics only ac-counts for a small percentage of this market, thus its growth is inevitable since more deterministic observation lead higher operating efficiency. Imaging the fluids (hydro-carbon, water, and CO2) is a key component to optimized production and injection. We designed a novel electromagnetic (EM) acquisition system that combines mul-ti-physics fluid imaging and acquires surface and borehole data with high fidelity. Borehole calibration is needed to upscale reservoir data and parameters to measurement scale. Multiple electromagnetic methods are used as well as microseismics in one layout for Exploration and Production (E & P) problems. Multi-components in electromagnetics allows resolving oil and water-bearing zones equally well while achieving the best ac-curacy suitable for repeat measurements. Because sedimentary basins are intrinsically anisotropic, considering 3-dimensional anisotropy is essential from measurement and 3D modeling viewpoint. Thus, the results have the better subsurface images. Here, we combine hardware design, methodology, 3D modeling, processing, and interpretations into an integrated technology and demonstrate the success with verifiable case histories.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0160.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: shale gas reservoir; stress sensitivity; multi-fractured horizontal well; spatially varying permeability; pressure transient analysis
Online: 14 August 2019 (09:22:26 CEST)
Shale gas reservoirs (SGR) are important replacements for conventional energy resources and have been widely exploited by hydraulic fracturing technologies. On the one hand, due to the inherent ultra-low permeability and porosity, there is stress sensitivity in the reservoirs generally. On the other hand, hydraulic fractures and the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) generated by the massive hydraulic fracturing operation have contrast properties with the original reservoirs. These two phenomena bring huge challenges in SGR transient pressure analysis. Although some works in the literatures have been done on the transient pressure analysis of multi-fractured horizontal wells in SGR, unfortunately, none of them has taken the stress sensitivity and spatially varying permeability of SRV zone into consideration simultaneously. To fill this gap, this paper first idealizes the SGR to be four linear composite regions. What’s more, SRV zone is further divided into sub-sections on the basis of non-uniform distribution of proppant within SRV zone which easily yields spatially varying permeability away from the main hydraulic fracture. The stress sensitivity is characterized by the varying permeability depended on the pore pressure. By means of perturbation transformation and Laplace transformation, an analytical multi-linear flow model (MLFM) is obtained and validated by the comparison with the previous model. On the basis of our model, the flow regimes are identified and the sensitivity analysis of critical parameters are conducted to further understand the transient pressure behaviors. The research results provided by this work are of significance for well test interpretation and production performance analysis of SGR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0156.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: rule-based system; reservoir management model; land management model; SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool)
Online: 10 May 2018 (06:27:38 CEST)
Decision tables have been used for many years in data processing and business applications to simulate complex rule sets. Several computer languages have been developed based on rule systems and they are easily programmed in several current languages. Land management and river-reservoir models simulate complex land management operations and reservoir management in highly regulated river systems. Decision tables are a precise yet compact way to model the rule sets and corresponding actions found in these models. In this study, we discuss the suitability of decision tables to simulate management in the river basin scale Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT+) model. Decision tables are developed to simulate automated irrigation and reservoir releases. A simple auto irrigation application of decision tables was developed using plant water stress as a condition for irrigating corn in Texas. Sensitivity of the water stress trigger and irrigation application amounts were shown on soil moisture and corn yields. In addition, the Grapevine Reservoir near Dallas, Texas was used to illustrate the use of decision tables to simulate reservoir releases. The releases were conditioned on reservoir volumes and flood season. The release rules as implemented by the decision table realistically simulated flood releases as evidenced by a daily NSE (Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency) of 0.52 and a percent bias of -1.1%. Using decision tables to simulate management in land, river and reservoir models was shown to have several advantages over current approaches including: 1) mature technology with considerable literature and applications, 2) ability to accurately represent complex, real world decision making, 3) code that is efficient, modular and easy to maintain, and 4) tables that are easy to maintain, support, and modify.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0316.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Horizontal well; Coal bed methane reservoir; Apparent permeability modulus; Pseudo-steady state diffusion; Pressure transient analysis
Online: 16 August 2021 (10:43:16 CEST)
Abstract: Coal bed methane (CBM) reservoirs are complex systems whose properties differ from those of conventional reservoirs. Coal seams are dual-porosity systems that comprise the porosities of the matrix and cleat system. Gas in the coal seams can be stored as free gas in the cleat system and as adsorbed gas in the porous medium. The flow mechanisms of the natural gas through the formation include desorption, diffusion, and Darcy’s flow regimes. The permeability of CBM reservoirs is more sensitive to pressure variations than conventional gas reservoirs. To study the flow behavior of CBM reservoirs it is mandatory to use a model that considers their unique characteristics. The objective of this study was to propose a physical and mathematical model of production performance for horizontal wells in CBM reservoirs whose permeability is dependent on pressure. A solution for the model was obtained by applying Pedrosa´s transformation, perturbation theory, Laplace transformation, the point source method, and Sthefest´s algorithm. The solution to this problem was validated with previous work thoroughly. The type curves of the model were built and the pressure transient behavior of the model was analyzed and discussed. The effects of several parameters on pressure behavior were also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0047.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: CO2 reservoir rock; CO2 sealing capacity; CO2 sequestration; CO2 storage capacity; CO2 storage ratio; supercritical CO2
Online: 6 June 2019 (09:51:40 CEST)
Laboratory experiments were performed to measure the supercritical CO2 (scCO2) storage ratio (%) of the conglomerate and sandstone in Janggi Basin, which are classified as rock in Korea available for CO2 storage. The scCO2 storage capacity was evaluated by direct measurement of the scCO2 amount replacing pore water in a reservoir rock core. The scCO2 sealing capacity of the cap rock (i.e., tuff and mudstone), was also compared by measuring the initial scCO2 seepage pressure (Δp) into the rock core. The measured average scCO2 storage ratio of the conglomerate and the sandstone in Janggi Basin was 30.7 % and 13.1 %, respectively, suggesting that the scCO2 storage capacity is greater than 360,000 metric tons in the Janggi Basin. The initial scCO2 seepage pressure of the tuff in the Janggi Basin was 15 bar and continuous scCO2 injection into the tuff core occurred at Δp higher than 20 bar. For the mudstone, the initial scCO2 seepage pressure was higher than 150 bar (10 times higher than that of the tuff), demonstrating that the mudstone is more suitable than the tuff to shield scCO2 leakage from the reservoir rock in the Janggi Basin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0533.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: reservoir computing; deep echo state network; neuronal similarity-based iterative pruning merging algorithm; chaotic time series forecast
Online: 30 January 2023 (02:34:13 CET)
Recently, a layer-stacked ESN model named deep echo state Network (DeepESN) has been established. As an interactional model of recurrent neural network and deep neural network, investigations of DeepESN are of significant importance in both areas. Optimizing the structure of neural networks remains a common task in artificial neural networks, and the question of how many neurons should be used in each layer of DeepESN must be stressed. In this paper, our aim is to solve the problem of choosing the optimized size of DeepESN. Inspired by the sensitive iterative pruning algorithm, a neuronal similarity-based iterative pruning merging algorithm (NS-IPMA) is proposed to iteratively prune or merge the most similar neurons in DeepESN. Two chaotic time series prediction tasks are applied to demonstrate the effectiveness of NS-IPMA. The results show that the DeepESN pruned by NS-IPMA outperforms unpruned DeepESN with the same network size, and NS-IPMA is a feasible and superior approach to improving the generalization performance of DeepESN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0220.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: spontaneous potential logging; electrochemical potential; finite element method; numerical modelling; synthetic and practical data; clayey sandstone reservoir
Online: 14 December 2021 (08:01:45 CET)
(1) The article is devoted to the development of a theoretical and algorithmic basis for numerical modeling of the spontaneous potential method (SP) as applied to the study of sandy-argillaceous reservoirs. (2) In terms of coupled flows, we consider a physical-mathematical model of SP signals from an electrochemical source, with regard to the case of fluid-saturated shaly sandstone. (3) An algorithm for 2D finite-element modeling of SP signals was developed and implemented in software, along with its internal and external testing with analytical solutions. The numerical SP modeling was carried out, with determining the dependences on the reservoir thickness and porosity, the amount of argillaceous material and the type of minerals. We performed a comparative analysis of the simulated and field SP data, using the results of laboratory core examinations taken from wells in a number of fields in the Latitudinal Ob Region of Western Siberia. (4) The results of the study may be used either for the development of the existing SP techniques, by providing them with a consistent computational model, or for the design of new experimental approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0203.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: complex adaptive systems; systems dynamics; dynamical systems; signal processing; reservoir computing; machine learning; Boolean networks; biological modeling
Online: 8 November 2018 (10:40:23 CET)
Reservoir computers (RCs) are a biology inspired computational framework for signal processing typically implemented using recurrent neural networks. Recent work has shown that Boolean networks (BN) can also be used as reservoirs. We analyze the performance of BN RCs, measuring their flexibility and identifying factors that determine effective approximation of Boolean functions that are applied in a sliding-window fashion over a binary signal, either non-recursively or recursively. We train and test BN RCs of different sizes, signal connectivity, and in-degree to approximate 3-bit, 5-bit and 3-bit recursive binary functions. We analyze how BN RC parameters and function average sensitivity, a measure of function smoothness, affect approximation accuracy as well as the spread of accuracies for a single reservoir. We found that approximation accuracy and reservoir flexibility are highly dependent on RC parameters. Overall, our results indicate that not all reservoirs are equally flexible and RC instantiation and training can be more efficient if this is taken into account. The optimum range of RC parameters opens up an angle of exploration for understanding how biological systems might be tuned to balance system restraints with processing capacity.
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Proppant; Hydraulic Fracturing; Unconventional Reservoir; Sand; Settling Rate; Crush Rate; Mesh Size; Grain Diameter; Proppant composition; Micro proppant
Online: 11 July 2020 (08:50:26 CEST)
The paper investigates the possible use of a low strength domestic sand (D) (up to today useless – not considered as proppant source) of small particle sizes, instead to that of high strength imported commercial sand (C), as a prospective micro-proppant for low permeability reservoirs in Poland. There is need to develop national unconventional gas resources like tight gas, shale gas and coalbed methane. An important energy source of value and readily available in Poland is coal. The basins of this resource are large and bears low permeability coalbed methane reservoirs which needs to be developed to contribute to the energy security, economy and environmental needs of the country. These reservoirs need technological assistance such as hydraulic fracturing which makes use of proppants for development. Most of the commonly used proppants over the years for fracturing have been large grain size commercial proppants of high strength material content bought abroad. Investigated finer proppants are known to have the ability to penetrate narrow fracture networks to ensure effective high reservoir volume and conductivity for production. Results from presented laboratory research shows the D - proppant, which is cheaper and readily available, has the 3K class with low settling rates as a potential micro-proppant for effective transportation, enhancement of conductivity and production rate in the narrow fractures of low permeability reservoirs. Future using of domestic proppant will decrease stimulation cost and will have positive impact on the environment due to omitting long distance transportation from abroad.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0335.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: tropical reservoir; water quality index (WQI); trophic state index (TSI); ecological risk index (ERI); ecological risk assessment (ERA)
Online: 28 December 2018 (06:47:30 CET)
A study of the water quality of the Adolfo López Mateos Reservoir (ALMD) was developed through different indicators from a spatial and seasonal perspective. Variables related to the general characteristics of water quality, trophic level and ecological risk were assessed through the water Quality Index (WQINSF-BROWN), Trophic State Index (TSICARLSON) and the Ecological Risk Index (RIHAKANSON). Using data from physical, chemical and biological parameters obtained from four sampling points in the ALMD, the water quality was assessed in each model used. The results indicated that the reservoir presents a water quality classified as “medium” (WQINSF-BROWN = 70), where significant variations in the concentrations of some parameters are observed. The reservoir showed a general trophic state classified as “Mesotrophic” (TSIGENERAL-AVERAGE = 43.04). The ecological risk analysis achieved the best classification of the methodology, discarding contamination by heavy metals in surface waters. Through this type of applied methodologies will help as decision making tools in the dam, as well as for application in other dams in the region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0398.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: fluctuating backwater area; reservoir; 2D shallow water equations; bed-load transport; Godunov-type scheme; FVM; non-uniformity sediment.
Online: 22 August 2018 (14:43:45 CEST)
Numerical modeling of sedimentation and erosion in reservoirs is an active field of reservoir research. However, simulation of bed-load transport phenomena has rarely been applied to other water bodies, in particular, the fluctuating backwater area. This is because the complex morphological processes between hydrodynamics and sediment transport are generally challenging to accurately predict. In this study, the refinement and application of a two-dimensional shallow-water and bed-load transport model to the fluctuating backwater area is described. The model employs the finite volume method of the Godunov scheme and saturated sediment transport equations. The model was verified against experimental data of a scaled physical model. It was then applied to actual reservoir operation, including reservoir storage, reservoir drawdown and continuous flood process, to predict the morphology of reservoir sedimentation and sediment transport rates and bed level changes in the fluctuating backwater area. It was found that the location and morphology of sedimentation effected by the downstream water level results in random evolution of the river bed, and bed-load sedimentation is transported from upstream to downstream with the slope of the longitudinal section of the river bed generally reduced. Moreover, the sediment is mainly deposited in the main channel and the elevation difference between the riverbank and channel decreases gradually.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0079.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: pepino mosaic virus (PepMV); Solanum elaeagnifolium; S. rostratum; tomato brown rugose fruit virus (To-BRFV); virus reservoir; weed management
Online: 3 August 2022 (08:35:30 CEST)
Invasive weeds cause significant crop yield and economic losses in agriculture. The highest in-direct impact may be attributed to the role of invasive weeds as virus reservoirs especially within the commercial growing areas. The new tobamovirus tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV), recently identified in the Middle-East, overcomes the Tm-22 resistance allele in the cultivated tomato varieties grown in greenhouses. In this study, we determined the role of invasive weed species as potential hosts for ToBRFV and pepino mosaic virus (PepMV). Out of all tested weed species, the invasive species So-lanum elaeagnifolium and S. rostratum, mechanically inoculated with ToBRFV, were positive for To-BRFV in both enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and RT-PCR tests. S. rostratum was also positive for PepMV. No conspicuous phenotype was observed on ToBRFV infected S. elaeagnifolium plants suggesting a hostplant associated defense response. S. rostratum plants inoculated with either ToBRFV alone or a mixture of ToBRFV and PepMV-IL, contained high ToBRFV levels. In addition, when inoculated with ToBRFV or PepMV-IL disease symptom manifestations were observed in S. rostratum plants and the symptoms were exacerbated upon mixed infections with both viruses. The distribution and abundance of both Solanaceae species increase the risks of virus transmission between species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0203.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: CO2-plume geothermal (CPG); Enhanced gas recovery (EGR); Combined CO2-EGR–CPG system; Sensitivity analysis; Reservoir simulation; Geothermal power generation
Online: 13 September 2021 (11:14:51 CEST)
There is a potential for synergy effects in utilizing CO2 for both enhanced gas recovery (EGR) and geothermal energy extraction (CO2-plume geothermal, CPG) from natural gas reservoirs. This “combined CO2-EGR–CPG system” has been introduced as a feasible approach that constitutes a CO2 Capture double-Utilization and Storage (CCUUS) system. In this study, we carry out reservoir simulations, using TOUGH2, to evaluate the sensitivity of the natural gas recovery, pressure buildup, and geothermal power generation performance of the combined system to various key reservoir and operational parameters. The reservoir parameters include horizontal permeability, permeability anisotropy, reservoir temperature, and pore-size-distribution index; while the operational parameters include wellbore diameter and ambient surface temperature. Using an example of a natural gas reservoir model, we also investigate the effects of different strategies of transitioning from the CO2-EGR stage to the CPG stage on the energy-recovery performance metrics and on the two-phase fluid-flow regime in the production well. The simulation results show that overlapping the CO2-EGR and CPG stages and having a relatively brief period of CO2 injection but no production (which we call the CO2-plume establishment stage) achieves the best overall energy (natural gas and geothermal) recovery performance. Permeability anisotropy and reservoir temperature are the parameters the natural gas recovery performance of the combined system is most sensitive to. The geothermal power generation performance is most sensitive to the reservoir temperature and the production wellbore diameter. The results of this study pave the way for future CPG-based geothermal power-generation optimization studies. For a CO2-EGR–CPG project, the results can be a guide regarding the required accuracy of the reservoir parameters during exploration and data acquisition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0301.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Deficit volume; drought intensity; drought magnitude; extreme number theorem; Markov chain; moving average smoothing; standardized hydrological index; sequent peak algorithm; reservoir volume.
Online: 13 July 2021 (11:25:59 CEST)
The traditional sequent peak algorithm (SPA) was used to assess the reservoir volume (VR) for comparison with deficit volume, DT, (subscript T representing the return period) obtained from the drought magnitude (DM) based method with draft level set at the mean annual flow on 15 rivers across Canada. At an annual scale, the SPA based estimates were found to be larger with an average of nearly 70% compared to DM based estimates. To ramp up DM based estimates to be in parity with SPA based values, the analysis was carried out through the counting and the analytical procedures involving only the annual SHI (standardized hydrological index, i.e. standardized values of annual flows) sequences. It was found that MA2 or MA3 (moving average of 2 or 3 consecutive values) of SHI sequences were required to match the counted values of DT to VR. Further, the inclusion of mean, as well as the variance of the drought intensity in the analytical procedure, with aforesaid smoothing led DT comparable to VR. The distinctive point in the DM based method is that no assumption is necessary such as the reservoir being full at the beginning of the analysis - as is the case with SPA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0523.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Social Fröhlich condensate; Societal stability; Order preserving; Quantum-like modeling; High social temperature; Information field; Information reservoir; Bose-Einstein statistics; Planck formula; Information overload; Indistinguishability
Online: 30 September 2021 (15:12:19 CEST)
This paper aims to present the basic assumptions for creation of social Fröhlich condensate and attract attention of other researchers (both from physics and socio-political science) to the problem of modelling of stability and order preservation in highly energetic society coupled with social energy bath of high temperature. The model of social Fröhlich condensation and its analysis are based on the mathematical formalism of quantum thermodynamics and field theory (applied outside of physics). The presented quantum-like model provides the consistent operational model of such complex socio-political phenomenon as Fröhlich condensation. The model of social Fröhlich condensation is heavily based on theory of open quantum systems. Its consistent elaboration needs additional efforts. Evidence of such phenomenon as social Fröhlich condensation is demonstrated by stability of modern informationally open societies Approaching the state of Fröhlich condensation is the powerful source of social stability. Understanding its informational structure and origin may help to stabilize the modern society. Application of the quantum-like model of Frhlich condensation in social and political sciences is really the novel and original approach to mathematical modeling of social stability in society exposed to powerful information radiation from mass-media and internet based sources.