ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0986.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: growth potential; growth rate; hybridization; serrasalmidae
Online: 14 July 2023 (09:17:22 CEST)
We evaluated the growth of four genetic groups, two pure (pacu and tambaqui) and two hybrids (tambacu and paqui) of Serrasalmidae fish fed with different feeding programs. Over the five months, 30 animals from each genetic group that were evaluated in three cages with 10 animals from each genetic group per cage. A different feeding program was used for each cage, consisting of three commercial diets containing 24, 28, or 32% crude protein (CP) in different combinations. A logistic model or an exponential were used to fit the growth curves. The evaluation time did not allow the adjustment of the logistic model for the tambaqui and paqui groups, as well as for the animals fed the food program with the highest initial protein intake. Pure pacu proved to be an early performing group, while tambacu hybrid reached a higher final weight without slowing down growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0164.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: artificial intelligence; machine learning; mandibular growth; growth prediction
Online: 4 July 2023 (07:55:01 CEST)
The goal was to create a novel machine learning (ML) model which can predict the magnitude and direction of pubertal mandibular growth in males with Class II malocclusion. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 123 males at three time points (T1: 12, T2: 14, T3: 16 years old) were collected from an online database of longitudinal growth studies. Each radiograph was traced, and 7 different ML models were trained using 38 data points obtained from 92 subjects. 31 subjects were used as a test group, to predict post-pubertal mandibular length and Y-axis using input data from T1 and T2 combined (2-year prediction), and T1 alone (4-year prediction). Mean absolute errors (MAEs) were used to evaluate the accuracy of each model. For all ML methods tested using the 2-year prediction, the MAEs for post-pubertal mandibular length ranged from 2.11-6.07mm and 0.85-2.74° for the Y-axis. For all ML methods tested with 4-year prediction, the MAEs for post-pubertal mandibular length ranged from 2.32-5.28 mm and 1.25-1.72° for the Y-axis. Besides its initial length, the most predictive factors for mandibular length were found to be chronological age, upper and lower face heights, upper and lower incisor positions and inclinations. For the Y-axis, the most predictive factors were found to be Y-axis at earlier time points, SN-MP, SN-Pog, SNB and SNA. Whilst the potential of ML techniques to accurately forecast future mandibular growth in Class II cases is promising, a requirement for more substantial sample sizes exists to further enhance the precision of these predictions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0161.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Total factor productivity; growth accounting; economic growth; Zambia.
Online: 20 March 2017 (16:03:06 CET)
Most empirical work on sources of economic growth for different countries lack country-specific empirical evidence to guide policy choices in individual developing countries and previous studies of factor productivity tend to focus on the entire economy or a single sector. In this study, we use the recently developed growth accounting tools to explicitly determine the sources of economic growth at both national and sectoral levels in Zambia between 1970 and 2013. We use data from World Development Indicators and Zambia’s Central Statistical Office. On average, total factor productivity (TFP) contributes about 5.7% to economic growth. Sectoral analysis shows that agriculture contributes the least to GDP and that within each sector; factors that contribute to growth differ. Structural transformation has been slow and contributed to the observed inefficiency. We outline the implications of the observed growth and provide recommendations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1011.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: tree radial growth; iterative growth model; Tibetan Plateau; coniferous forest; growth variability; tree size heterogeneity
Online: 14 June 2023 (08:40:50 CEST)
Tree growth is under the combined influence of abiotic and biotic factors. Trees with different sizes may respond differently to these factors, implying that tree heterogeneity in tree size may also modulate the overall growth trend. To test this hypothesis, we focused on the radial growth trends of natural subalpine forests on the Tibetan Plateau. We first extended the iterative growth model (IGM) to the tree-ring scale (IGMR) to test the applicability of the generalized metabolic growth theory to tree growth. As predicted by the IGMR, the radial growth of trees at the aggregate scale is constrained by a unimodal pattern. Using the IGMR, we reconstructed the historical best growth trajectory (HBGT) of trees within the same community based on the tree with the largest radius and/or longest age in the community. From the average difference between the HBGT and the current radial growth rate of trees with different sizes, we constructed an indicator that can measure the overall variation in tree radial growth. Based on this indicator, we found a negative effect of tree size heterogeneity on the overall variability of tree growth across elevations. Further analysis also revealed that the radial growth rate of trees on the Tibetan Plateau has increased significantly compared to the past, where growing season average temperature and annual minimum temperature were negatively and positively correlated with tree growth below and above the treeline, respectively. Our study not only confirmed that the overall variability of tree growth depends on tree size heterogeneity but also proposed an indicator that reveals net changes in tree radial growth rate relative to the past. These theoretical advances facilitate the understanding of changes in the extent of subalpine forests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0291.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: hypocotyl growth; neurotransmitter; root growth; skototropism; γ-aminobutyric acid
Online: 3 August 2023 (07:21:57 CEST)
The adaptation of plants to biotic and abiotic stress depends on their abilities to sense their surroundings and to generate and transmit corresponding signals to different parts of their body that can evoke changes necessary for optimizing growth and defense. Light has been shown to be one of the key environmental factors that modulate the physiology of both plants and animals via the diverse photoreceptors found in them. Both plants and animals contain a large repertoire of intra- and intercellular signals molecules that include organic and inorganic. One such molecule is a neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a non-protein amino acid, that rapidly accumulates in plant tissues in response to biotic and abiotic stress and regulates plant growth. Lots of research has been done on GABA in plants for slightly more than half a century now: Its discovery in plant tissues was immediately followed by physiological and biochemical studies. Thereafter molecular-genetics era of cloning the genes encoding the GABA shunt enzymes and transporters, and recombinant expression and purification of the enzymes in vitro to elucidate their regulatory properties and substrate specificity was established. Recently the discovery of the first bona fide GABA target proteins in plants, the ALMTs suggest that GABA indeed could be one of the signaling molecules in plants. All this research did not address in detail the relationship between light and GABA. To better understand the role of GABA in relation to light we set up six light conditions to investigate the changes in the hypocotyl and root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana under different light conditions, including total light, total dark, light blocker, gradient light, shoot dark, shoot dark with blocker. We treated the seedlings with 3-MPA, a GABA inhibitor, using different concentrations grown under different light conditions between 24 to 96 h. Our results show that both the root and hypocotyl are modulated by GABA when grown under different light conditions. These results clearly suggest a link in the signaling pathway of GABA with photoreceptor signaling pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0068.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: economic growth; electricity access, energy production, population growth; ARDL
Online: 8 November 2018 (10:32:08 CET)
The major aim of this study was to investigate and explores the linkage between economic growth, electricity access, energy use and population growth in Pakistan. To check the variables stationarity, Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Phillips-Perron unit root test was applied and an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to co-integration was applied to investigate the dynamic causality link among the study variables. These tests shed light on the long-run connection among the variables; further, the results revealed that electricity access to population, electricity access to urban population, energy usage, population growth, and urban population growth had a significant impact on economic growth, while the electricity access to rural population and rural population growth has a negative impact on the economic growth in Pakistan. According to these findings, study commends that government of Pakistan pay further attention to increase its electricity production from different sources including, hydroelectric, solar, oil and gas and nuclear in order to fulfill the country’s demands. By using ARDL bounds testing approach, this study filled the literature gap regarding economic growth, electricity access, energy use and population growth in Pakistan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0073.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: optical floating zone; self flux; crystal growth; oxide growth
Online: 13 April 2017 (06:18:11 CEST)
Growing crystals of nickel niobate (NiNb2O6), we noticed that changing growth conditions allowed our material to enter different areas of the phase diagram. In particular, we found that excess material accumulated within and above the liquid zone. Analysis showed that this was an unincorporated constituent. Changing the ratio of the constituent oxides - an excess of ~4% of either NiO or Nb2O5 gave us the opportunity to investigate changes in zone stability, melting temperature and quality of the resulting crystal. We found that a small excess of nickel oxide decreases the melting temperature significantly, and created the best pseudo-rutile NiNb2O6 crystal studied, while higher amounts of niobium oxide allowed us to stabilize the NiNb2O6 columbite phase. This research reinforces the idea that self-flux as a travelling solvent can significantly impact crystal growth parameters and quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0008.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Respiratory Rate; Growth
Online: 2 August 2020 (10:38:52 CEST)
Background: Elevated respiratory rates (RR) have been described in several disease states, such as pneumonia, asthma and bronchiolitis. Despite this, there are few studies defining the range of RR found in healthy children. Available age percentiles for RR have been generated using methods that have the potential themselves to alter the rate. Aim: The aim of this study was to develop accurate percentile charts of RR specific for age in healthy children for potential use in pre-hospital care (first-aid), clinical medicine and for reference in respiratory research. Method: A newly developed optical respiratory sensor was used to measure RR which placed no restrictions on respiratory excursion. This technique enabled recording in awake children without the artefact of the observer’s presence on the subject’s RR. A cross-sectional sample of healthy children was obtained from maternity wards, childcare centres and schools in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Results: RR were observed in 560 awake and 103 sleeping children of which data from 343 awake and 94 sleeping children was used to create reference ranges for healthy children from newborn to 13 years of age. The recorded rates were significantly higher when children were awake compared to asleep. During quiet sleep, RR decreased from 40 (interquartile range 7) bpm at one month to 20 (interquartile range 3) in children aged 3 years. In awake children, RR ranged from a median of 40 bpm (interquartile range 18) at 1 year to 12 bpm (interquartile range 11) at 13 years respectively. Conclusion: The optical sensor was found to be an appropriate respiratory transducer, capable of measuring RR and reducing artefact by the subjective responses of alert children. The centile charts will be helpful as an aid to detecting abnormal RR in children and will contribute to further systematic reviews related to this vital sign.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0491.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Productive capacities; Economic growth; Economic growth volatility; Structural Economic Vulnerability.
Online: 19 April 2021 (13:30:15 CEST)
Recent years' global shocks (e.g., the 2008 financial crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic) and environmental shocks - such as natural disasters - have heightened the vulnerability of developing countries to future shocks, and can compromise their development prospects. International institutions and researchers have advocated that the strengthening of productive capacities in these countries would help them enhance the resilience of their economies to shocks, and promote sustainable development. The present paper has examined the effect of productive capacities on economic growth and economic growth volatility in developing countries, in particular when they face a high level of structural economic vulnerability. The analysis covers 117 developing countries over the period 2000-2018. It shows that productive capacities do not only promote economic growth, but also reduce economic growth volatility. On the other hand, structural economic vulnerability reduces economic growth, in particular when it exceeds a certain level, and induces greater volatility of economic growth. Interestingly, the findings suggest that productive capacities promote economic growth and reduce economic growth volatility in countries that face a high degree of structural economic vulnerability. These findings support the recommendation by international institutions and researchers that if they were to enhance the resilience of their economies to shocks, and promote sustainable economic growth, developing countries (in particular the poorest ones) should strengthen their productive capacities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1470.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Growth hormone receptor (GHR); Human growth hormone; Deletion of exon 3 (d3GHR); Polymorphism; Growth and development; Hormone deficiency
Online: 21 August 2023 (11:59:26 CEST)
Growth hormone (GH) is a peptide hormone that plays a crucial role in controlling growth, development, and lifespan. Molecular regulation of GH is accomplished via the GH receptor (GHR) gene, which is the main factor influencing human development and is essential to optimal functioning of the GH/IGF-I axis. Two GHR isoforms have been studied, according to the presence (flGHR) or absence (d3GHR) of exon 3. The d3GHR variant, which has recently been related to longevity, is associated with enhanced signal transduction and higher receptor function. Many of these studies indicated that the growth response to GH treatment may be affected. Individuals carrying the d3GHR isoform have higher receptor activity, improved signal transduction, and alterations in the treatment response and efficacy compared with those carrying the WT isoform. Further, studies performed in patients with acromegaly, Prader-Willi syndrome, Turner syndrome, small for gestational age (SGA), and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) suggested that the d3GHR variant may have an impact on the relationship between GH and IGF-I levels, height, weight, BMI, and other variables. Other research, however, revealed inconsistent results, which might have been caused by confounding factors, including limited sample sizes and different experimental methods. In this review, we lay out the complexity of the GHR isoforms and provide an overview of the major pharmacogenetic research conducted on this ongoing and unresolved subject.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0819.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Preeclampsia; Fetal growth restriction; sFlt-1; Inhibin-A; Placental growth factor
Online: 31 December 2020 (14:23:21 CET)
Objective: We previously provided evidence to confirm that soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), placental growth factor (PlGF), and their ratio, are useful tools to direct the management of preeclampsia (PE), fetal growth restriction (FGR), and PE+FGR near delivery. In this study we examine the potential additive value of Inhibin-A, a hormone marker of the transforming growth factor family. Methods: We used a cohort of 125 pregnant women enrolled near delivery at clinics of the University Medical Center of Ljubljana, Slovenia. There were 31 cases of PE, 16 of FGR, 42 of PE+FGR, 15 iatrogenic preterm delivery (PTD), and 21 unaffected controls with delivery of a healthy baby at term. Cases delivered before 34 weeks’ gestation included 13 of PE, 12 of FGR, 22 of PE+FGR, and 6 of PTD. We recorded demographic characteristics and medical history and the levels of PlGF, sFlt-1 and Inhibin-A. The predictive accuracy of each biomarker, their ratios, and combinations was estimated from areas under the curve (AUC) of Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves. We estimated accuracy by the continuous marker model and a cut-off model. Results: Combining Inhibin-A with PlGF or with the sFlt-1 / PlGF ratio showed a 10-20% increase in AUCs and 5-15% increase in the detection rate, at 10% false positive rate, of PE, and a lower, but significant, increase for PE+FGR but not for FGR alone. The use of a cut-off model was adequate, although a bit higher accuracy was obtained from the continuous model. Highest correlation was found for PlGF with all three complications. Conclusion: Inhibin-A improves the accuracy of predicting PE and PE+FGR provided by the angiogenic markers alone, bringing the results to a diagnostic level, thus assisting in directing clinical management. Inhibin-A had no added value for the accuracy of predicting FGR alone.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: fibroblast growth factor; fibroblast growth factor receptor; targeted treatments; breast cancer
Online: 7 June 2018 (07:50:30 CEST)
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy and second only to lung cancer in terms of mortality in women. Despite the incredible progress made in this field, the metastatic breast cancer leaves a poor prognosis. In an era of personalized medicine, there is an urgent need for a better knowledge of the biology leading to the disease, which can lead to the design of always more accurate drugs against patients’ specific molecular aberrations. Among one of the actionable targets is the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) pathway, triggered by specific ligands. The FGFRs/FGFs axis offers interesting molecular targets to be pursued in clinical development. This mini-review will focus on the current knowledge of the FGFRs mutations leading to tumour formation and summarizes the state-of-the-art of therapeutic strategies for targeted treatments against the FGFRs/FGFs axis in the context of BC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0017.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: short stature; growth hormone deficiency; insulin-like growth factor-1; growth hormone stimulation tests; neurosecretory dysfunction; final height; retesting
Online: 4 January 2022 (18:05:06 CET)
According to current guidelines, growth hormone (GH) therapy is strongly recommended in children and adolescents with GH deficiency (GHD) in order to accelerate growth rate and attain normal adult height. The diagnosis of GHD requires demonstration of decreased GH secretion in stimulation tests, below the established threshold value. Currently, GHD in children is classified as secondary insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) deficiency. Most of children diagnosed with isolated GHD presents with normal GH secretion at the attainment of near-final height or even in mid-puberty. The most important clinical problems, related to the diagnosis of isolated GHD in children and to optimal duration of rhGH therapy include: arbitrary definition of subnormal GH peak in stimulation tests, disregarding factors influencing GH secretion, insufficient diagnostic accuracy and poor reproducibility of GH stimulation tests, discrepancies between spontaneous and stimulated GH secretion, clinical entity of neurosecretory dysfunction, discrepancies between IGF-1 concentrations and results of GH stimulation tests, significance of IGF-1 deficiency for the diagnosis of GHD, a need for validation IGF-1 reference ranges. Many of these issues have remained unresolved for 25 years or even longer. It seems that finding solutions to them should optimize diagnostics and therapy of children with short stature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0177.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: growth; reproduction; mangroves; Decapoda
Online: 19 May 2023 (08:10:55 CEST)
In order to study the burrowing crab Neohelice granulata (Dana, 1851) in the northern limit of its distribution and to test the hypothesis that mesoscale factors are more deterministic than latitudinal variation in this crab life history, the population dynamics of this specie was studied in the Caceribú river (Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil). The sex ratio was female-biased over the year. Males were significantly larger (t-test = 3.53, p < 0.05) than females (CW mean = 29.14 mm and 27.32 mm, respectively), which were predominant in the intermediary-size classes. The breading season took place from February to November, with a peak in May. The recruitment was observed all over the year, but mostly from October to December. The size at maturity was estimated at 19.0 mm for females and 23.9 mm for males. Average fecundity was 20,419 eggs (±12,627.12) and showed a decrease from the first to the last stage of embryonic development. The asymptotic size was similar between males (CW∞ = 24.86 mm) and females (CW∞ = 24.50 mm). Longevity was estimated in 1.33 and 1.23 years in males and females, respectively. Mortality rates were slightly higher in males (Z = 3.71) than in females (Z 0 3.41). Analysing the results of this study and the literature we conclude that the population dynamics of N. granulata do not follow a latitudinal trend. This strengthens the hypothesis that brachyurans’ life histories are mainly driven by mesoscales factors than latitudinal variation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0144.v1
Online: 13 March 2019 (09:36:39 CET)
This lecture aims to survey the existing literature on the dynamic urban growth. Theapplication in this lecture is a small step in the long iterative process between theconstruction of a model and its use for practical purposes. In this lecture, we follow thenotion of urban development and conduct an analysis of conceptual modeling phases ofurban development by Paeliuck (1970).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0848.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: gibel carp; growth indicators; weight-length relationship; condition factor；growth stage; feed formulation
Online: 10 August 2023 (10:50:05 CEST)
ccurate recording of growth indicators for aquaculture species at different stages is essential for evaluating aquaculture production effectiveness and the rationality of feed formulations. Due to their convenience and non-invasiveness, weight, length, and condition factor are commonly used to assess the growth of aquaculture species . However, fish growth indicators, can vary significantly with age structure and feed components(nutrition), and relying on a single indicator may lead to misjudgments . In this study we investigated the growth indicators of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio var. CAS V) at different growth stages (juvenile and adult) and different feed formulations. Meanwhile, fish weight-length relationship () was used to assess the growth indicators. The results showed that the weight-length relationship of gibel carp varied significantly with age and feed formulations. Additionally, the condition factor calculated depended on the weight-length relationship was more consistent with weight/length changes than measured. Weight analysis indicated that both weight, length, height, back thickness, and carcass ration had higher weights in analyzing fish growth. Therefore, during aquaculture production, fish growth evaluating requires considering diverse indicators such as weight, length,body height, back thickness, carcass ration,as well as condition factor to avoid misjudging the actual growth situation. Meanwhile, the use of the condition factor should consider the sufficient amount of data and whether the assumptions (such as being in a isometric growth period) are met.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0085.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Bifidobacterium; growth inertia; solid-liquid-liquid passage culture; viable bacterium concentrations; rapid growth
Online: 1 August 2023 (10:45:31 CEST)
Bifidobacterium is the most beneficial flora of the human gastrointestinal tract, but there is a concentration threshold for Bifidobacterium to exert its beneficial properties. In this work, the effect of several simple culture methods on the number of viable bifidobacteria was discussed to improve its viable concentrations, and we unexpectedly discovered that bifidobacteria have inert growth. The concentration of viable bacteria of two isolated Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, BZ11 and BZ25 and Lactobacillus plantarum SQ-4 were investigated using solid-liquid-liquid circulation subculture, solid-liquid-liquid subculture and solid-liquid-liquid circulation subculture. These 3 subculture methods increase the viable cell concentration, and the best is the solid-liquid-liquid subculture. The highest concentrations of third-generation BZ11 and BZ25 were 9.62 × 109 CFU/mL and 1.21 × 1010 CFU/mL in order by solid-liquid-liquid subculture method, which was 10.38 times and 42.31 times higher (P<0.05) than those of the first generation, respectively. However, none of these three subculture methods increased the concentration of SQ-4. These results suggested that Bifidobacterium has growth inertia and Solid-liquid-liquid passage culture inhibiting the growth inertia. This finding is valuable in promoting the industrial application of probiotic bifidobacteria to potential probiotic food production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0602.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Economic complexity; Poverty headcount; Economic Growth; Economic growth volatility; Income inequality; External shocks.
Online: 29 January 2021 (06:06:47 CET)
This paper has examined the effect of economic complexity on poverty in developing countries. The analysis has used a sample of 84 countries over the period 1980-2017. Results indicate that greater economic complexity results in lower poverty headcount rates. This is particularly the case for countries that enjoy higher economic growth rates, lower levels of income inequality and lower degrees of economic growth volatility, including due to lower sizes of export demand and financial flows shocks. These findings have important policy implications for developing countries that are exploring ways and means to recover from the current COVID-19 pandemic crisis, and prepare for future crises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0280.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: thin film crystal growth; epitaxial layer growth; multifunctional borate crystals; planar optical waveguides
Online: 28 January 2019 (12:20:05 CET)
We investigated fabrication of neodymium doped thin film optical waveguide-based devices as potential active sources for planar integrated optics. Liquid-phase epitaxial growth was used to fabricate neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum borate films on compatible lattice-matched un-doped yttrium aluminum borate substrates. We observed the refractive index contrast of the doped and un-doped crystal layers by differential interference contrast microscopy. In addition, characterization by X-ray powder diffraction, optical absorption and luminescence spectra demonstrated the crystal quality and uniformity and optical guiding of the resulting thin films.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1691.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: digitization; uplifting business; business growth
Online: 25 September 2023 (11:27:42 CEST)
At this point, because of the progression of technology, the shift toward new forms of communication, and the expansion of existing ones, we can communicate with another person in any part of the world, regardless of how great the distance between us may be. In addition, the importation of technologies helps boost living standards and advances the service sector. The digital revolution is not only taking place but also gaining momentum daily. Expanding our knowledge has a profound impact on all facets of our economy, from healthcare to the energy and transportation industries and beyond. These paradigm-shifting breakthroughs are exceptional in their breadth, scale, and pervasiveness of impact. Our work is to convey the theoretical perspectives about the impact of digitalization on highlighting the growth of businesses, and that is the ultimate goal of our efforts.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1623.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Gigantism; earthworm growth; Eisenia; Dendrobaena
Online: 23 August 2023 (07:12:59 CEST)
Earthworms are iteroparous organisms with indeterminate growth, i.e. they continue to increase in size throughout their life and after completion of sexual development. Terrestrial oligochaetes vary greatly in size. Depending on the species, adult earthworms can reach between 10 mm and 3 m in length and between <1 mm and >25 mm in width, with most being of length 5-15 cm. Among the more than 7000 species described to date, very few (~20) reach lengths greater than 1 m. The longest earthworm on record is Amynthas mekongianus, which is found in the mud banks of the Mekong River in Southeast Asia and which reaches almost 3 m in length. It is about the same size as Megascolides australis, the ‘Giant Gippsland Earthworm’. These atypically giant earthworm species remain a scientific curiosity in terms of their biology, but they cannot be considered cases of gigantism. Gigantism occurs when organisms are much larger than normal or exhibit excessive growth. Earthworms obtain energy from the organic matter on which they feed, and their growth mainly depends on the quality of the resource and on the species, as well as on food availability, environmental factors, which can directly or indirectly affect growth by modifying food availability, and other factors such as competition. This is particularly evident in earthworms, which display indeterminate growth and large species-dependent variations in size. The biology, life cycle and growth and reproduction rates of Eisenia fetida (Savigny 1826) and Eisenia andrei (Bouché 1972), the earthworm species most commonly used in vermicomposting and vermiculture, have been widely reported. Here we present details of the enormous growth of individual specimens of Eisenia andrei and Dendrobaena hortensis reared under particular culture conditions and fed a special diet. Individuals almost 20 times the average weight of individuals of the species have been obtained. Possible explanations for this interesting phenomenon are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0118.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: accelementer; muscle thickness; growth; development
Online: 7 February 2023 (04:00:41 CET)
Purpose: Physical activity (PA) is likely the most important modifiable element for the growth of skeletal muscle. However, a detailed investigation of PA’s impact on preschoolers’ of skeletal muscle development is lacking. This study aimed to determine whether PA level is related to skeletal muscle thickness among preschool children. Methods: 275 healthy preschoolers between the ages 4–6 were instructed to wear an accelerometer for 4 consecutive days. The daily steps and minutes spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and total PA (TPA) were examined. Muscle thickness (MT) was measured by B-mode ultrasonography. The MT was measured at the anterior (AT) and posterior thigh (PT) and the anterior (AL) and posterior lower leg (PL). Results: Boys were more physically active and engaged in significantly more TPA and MVPA on weekdays compared with girls. Compared with that on the weekends, more physical activity, and significantly greater number of daily steps and higher TPA and MVPA were recorded for both boys and girls on the weekdays. Multivariable regression analyses, after adjusting for daylight duration, indicated that a daily increase in the TPA and MVPA would lead to higher muscle size in AT (β=1.11 and β=1.37, p<0.05), and PL (β=1.18 and β=0.94, p<0.05) among preschool children. Conclusions: The time spent involved in most of the different categories of MVPA was significantly higher for boys than for girls on the weekdays and weekends. MVPA was positively correlated with greater skeletal muscle development in the lower body.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0443.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Growth Opportunities; Inter-Industry; Leverage
Online: 19 May 2021 (13:16:14 CEST)
Inter-industry has various capital structures to take advantage of growth opportunities due to agency differences and information asymmetric problems. This research aims to analyze: (1) the differences in leverage between industries; (2) the impact of shareholders-debtholders conflict and information asymmetric on growth opportunities. The findings show that there are differences in leverage between industries. However, they are relatively stable and not excessive for assets to prevent conflicts between managers and shareholders and debtholders. Equity is also not used to utilize growth because it is used to reduce the discretionary power (dilution) of shareholders. As a result, the use of opportunities and growth is limited.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0237.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: preterm infant; human milk; growth
Online: 11 May 2021 (10:48:34 CEST)
Human milk (HM) is the gold standard for feeding infants but has been associated with slower growth in preterm infants compared with preterm formula. This systematic review and meta-analysis summarises the post-1990 literature to examine the effect of HM feeding on growth during the neonatal admission of preterm infants with birth weight ≤1500g and/or born ≤28 weeks’ gestation. Medline, PubMed, CINAHL and Scopus were searched, and comparisons grouped as: exclusive human milk (EHM) vs exclusive preterm formula (EPTF), any HM vs EPTF and higher vs lower doses of HM. We selected studies that used fortified HM and compared that with a PTF; studies comparing unfortified HM and term formula were excluded. Experimental and observational studies were pooled separately. The GRADE system was used to evaluate risk of bias and certainty of evidence. Forty-four studies were included with 37 (n =9,963 infants) included in the meta-analyses. In general, due to poor quality studies, evidence of the effect of any HM feeds or higher versus lower doses of HM was inconclusive. There was a possible effect that lower doses of HM compared with higher doses of HM improved weight gain during the hospital admission, and separately, a possible effect of increased head circumference growth in infants fed EPTF vs any HM. The clinical significance of this is unclear. There was insufficient evidence to determine the effects of an exclusive HM diet on any outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0631.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Coral Growth; Microfragmentation; Transplantation; Zeolite
Online: 30 October 2020 (09:01:07 CET)
Coral reef is an important underwater ecosystem that is rich in biodiversity in it. Coral growth has decreased drastically due to physical and chemical threats, such as the effect of warming seawater, fish bombing activities, and the effects of wastewater. The efficiency level of coral transplantation is determined by many factors, including the stability of the environment's physical condition, the level of coral diversity, and the method of transplantation. The influence of the planting medium can also be a key factor in succeeding the coral transplantation process. The use of stable and natural growing media can be a solution to replace conventional growing media that have been used. Zeolite material is a medium that has many advantages such as amending the trace elemental contents of saltwater such as carbon absorbents, detoxifiers, ammonia remover, catalysts, promoting marine micro-algal growth, become a media for bacterial growth, etc. This review discusses the possibility of zeolites as the candidate media that can be used as a new medium in coral transplantation process to accelerate coral growth and maintain coral health by increasing the adaptation of corals to the effects of global climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0179.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Diversity; resource curse; economic growth.
Online: 13 April 2018 (14:18:36 CEST)
This paper contributes to the debate on the impact of economic diversity and the resource curse on economic growth. We use dynamic panel data models on data on Canadian and US sub-national jurisdictions. We find evidence for a positive relationship between diversity and growth. Based on the Krugman Specialization Index, our analysis shows that the required threshold for not having the resource curse is 0.209. Above this threshold, the marginal contribution of natural resources to economic growth is lower for a more diversified regional economy than a less diversified one. We highlight the policy implications of these findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0065.v3
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Corruption; Economic growth; Panel Data
Online: 26 February 2018 (15:38:23 CET)
This study attempts to assess the impact of corruption on economic growth in the Mediterranean countries, during the period from 1998 to 2007. Econometric analysis using panel regression has been adopted to test this effect. Individual effects models such as random effects model and fixed effects model were applied to the study sample of 160 observations, and to choose the suitable model, we implemented several tests. For our analysis, we used a basic model that includes the dependent variable GDP per capita as a factor of economic growth and the corruption perception index as the independent variable concerned. Then we completed the model with several standardized macroeconomic control variables mentioned above and applied the individual effects models. The outcomes illustrate that corruption has a negative impact on the selected Mediterranean countries’ economic growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0222.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: inflation; economic growth; threshold effects
Online: 30 August 2016 (08:54:34 CEST)
Achieving high economic growth rate while maintaining low inflation rate, has become the main objective of monetary authorities all over the world. Indeed, empirical literature reflects that high inflation rates are detrimental to long run growth and entail welfare costs. To achieve this objective, central banks have availed different options from time to time which include inflation targeting. Monetary authorities in Tanzania have been targeting an inflation level of around 5 percent per annum for economic policy purposes. However, when high inflation is to be controlled, tight monetary policy is put in place which might in turn affect the economic activity. Also, the Tobin effect suggests that inflation causes individuals to substitute out of money and into interest earning assets, which leads to greater capital intensity which in turn promotes economic growth. Against these major points, this paper examines a non linear relationship between inflation and economic growth using both a quadratic and threshold endogenous models and attempts to identify the existence of threshold effects between these variables. The paper uses a data set spanning from 1967 to 2015. The most interesting finding of the estimations is that the estimated coefficient of the linear term of inflation is negative while the estimated coefficient of the square term of inflation is positive, suggesting a U-shaped effect as opposed to inverse or inverted U-shaped relationship found in other countries by previous studies. These results suggest that the Tobin effect may be valid for high inflation, in which people strongly realize the importance of substituting money for interest-bearing assets. This leads to an increase in capital investment, and in turn, an increase in economic growth even with high inflation rate. However, this U-shaped relationship between inflation and economic growth suggests that, the economy is better off at extremely low inflation episodes. The optimal inflation rate that ranges between 3.25 percent and 3.75 percent is obtained by minimizing the residual sum of squares and/or maximizing adjusted R-squared. These findings have some policy implications for the policymakers and development partners. The paper is consistent with policy suggestions by international agencies. Efforts to minimize inflation to a very low level are likely to have a positive effect on economic growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0721.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: infant; newborn; growth hormone; insulin-like growth factor 1; metabolic diseases; low weight newborn
Online: 10 November 2023 (14:46:43 CET)
Objective: To analyze the relation between alterations in the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis during the first 6 months of life and weight in children born in the Lower Middle São Francisco region. Methods: This is an analytical cohort, with a quantitative approach and a translational perspective. Thirty children with low and normal birth weight were initially identified in a hospital and reapproached at 3 and 6 months of age. Birth weight and alterations in GH/IGF-1 curves at birth, third month, and sixth month of life. Results: Weight gain during the 6 months of follow-up in newborns with low birth weight was greater compared to newborns with normal birth weight. All children who were born with low birth weight had an altered GH/IGF-1 curve at birth (p = 0.002). Most newborns with low birth weight maintained the alteration in the GH/IGF-1 curve at the third month of life (p = 0.027). Regarding the GH/IGF-1 curve at the sixth month, alteration persisted in greater proportion among children with low birth weight. Conclusion: Alterations in insulin resistance markers, demonstrated by increased GH without a proportional increase in IGF-1, were observed to be significant in children with low birth weight, with greater adiposity in this group, which may increase the risk of metabolic diseases in later life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0290.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: aging; Apoptosis; Brain-derived neurotrophic factor; transforming growth factor β1; vascular endothelial growth factor
Online: 17 February 2023 (02:25:34 CET)
Curcumin is a natural dietary polyphenol which that possesses potent anti-aging and neuroprotective properties through various mechanisms and signaling pathways. This study aimed to investigate the effect of curcumin on factors involved in neurogenesis and angiogenesis in the aged brain. Old female Wistar rats were divided into three equal groups (n=7): control, sham, and curcumin (received curcumin, i.p., 30 mg/kg and 5 days/week for 8 weeks) rats. Curcumin treatment caused a significant increase in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and anti-apoptotic protein BCl-2 in the brains of aging rats but no significant effect on anti-apoptotic Bax protein. Additionally, curcumin attenuated brain lipid peroxidation and decreased transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). These results suggested that curcumin possesses neuroprotective effects against brain aging, which were mediated by improvment in neurogenesis and angiogenesis. Also, curcumin could alleviate brain aging which may be due to attenuating oxidative stress, inhibiting apoptosis and down-regulating TGF-β1, which in turn enhances VEGF and BDNF. Therefore, curcumin has potential therapeutic value in the treatment of neurological apoptosis, neurogenesis and angiogenesis changes caused by brain aging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0539.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Au/α-Fe2O3 heterostructure; island-type growth; epitaxial growth; surface functionalization; gas sensor activity
Online: 22 June 2021 (10:45:38 CEST)
In this work epitaxial Au islands have been grown on epitaxial α-Fe2O3 thin film by pulsed laser deposition on SrTiO3(111) substrate. Both Au and α-Fe2O3 layer show an island-type growth with an average particle size of 40 and 62 nm, respectively. The crystallographic coupling of lattices is confirmed with a rotation of 30º between the in-plane crystallographic axes of α-Fe2O3(0001) structure and those of SrTiO3(111) substrate and between the in-plane crystallographic axes of Au(111) and those of α-Fe2O3(0001) structure. α-Fe2O3 is the only phase of iron oxide identified before and after its functionalization with Au nanoparticles. In addition, its structural character-istics are also preserved after Au deposition, with minor changes at short-range order. The func-tional character of the complex systems as gas sensor has been proven at room temperature. Con-ductance measurements of Au(111)/α-Fe2O3(0001)/ SrTiO3(111) system show that the incorpora-tion of Au islands on top of the α-Fe2O3(0001) layer induces an enhancement of the gas-sensing ac-tivity for CO and CH4 gas in comparison to a bare α-Fe2O3(0001) layer grown on SrTiO3(111).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0415.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Economics; SFC; Growth imperative; Steady state economy; Money stock; Money supply; Green economy; Green Growth
Online: 2 July 2021 (13:51:03 CEST)
“Money has always been something of an embarrassment to economic theory. Everyone agrees that it is important; indeed, much of macroeconomic policy discussion makes no sense without reference to money. Yet, for the most part theory fails to provide a good account for it.” (Banerjee and Maskin, 1996, p. 955)The debate about whether or not a growth imperative exists in debt based, interest bearing mone- tary systems has not yet been settled. It is the goal of this paper to introduce a new perspective in this discussion.For that purpose an SFC computational model is constructed which simulates a post Keynesian Endogenous Money system without including economic parameters such as production, wages, consumption and savings. A case is made that isolating the monetary system allows for better analysis of the inherent properties of such a system.Loan demands, which are assumed to happen, are the driving force of the model. Simulations can be run in two modes, each based on a different assumption. Either the growth rate of the money stock is assumed to be constant or the loan rate, expressed as a percentage of the money stock, is assumed to be constant.Simulations with varying parameters are run in order to determine the conditions under which the model converges to stability, which is defined as converging to a bounded debt rate.The analysis shows that stability of the model is dependent on net bank profit ratios, expressed relative to their debt assets, remaining below the growth rate of the money stock. Based on these findings it is argued that the question about the existence of a growth imperative in debt based, interest bearing monetary systems needs to be reframed. The question becomes whether a steady state economy can realistically support such a system without destabilising it. In order to answer this question real world behavior of economic actors must be included in the model.It is concluded that there are indications that it might not be feasible for a steady state economy to support a stable debt based, interest bearing monetary system without strong interventions. However, more research is necessary for a definite answer. Real world observable data should be analysed through the lens of the presented model to bring more clarity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0386.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: metabolism; growth; soil fertility; bioactivities; sulphation
Online: 30 November 2023 (09:13:45 CET)
Seaweed polysaccharides can substitute synthetic compounds present in commercial stimulants and fertilizers, used in agriculture to improve crops yield and vigor. In this study, three different poly-saccharides (alginate, agar and carrageenan) were extracted from one brown seaweed, Saccorhiza polyschides, and two red seaweeds, Gracilaria gracilis and Chondrus crispus, respectively, and applied on potted turnip greens (Brassica napus L.), with intention to analyze their impact on plant growth, development and metabolism. Turnip plants treated with polysaccharides, specially, carrageenan of Chondrus crispus showed the best results in improving the crop’s productivity, such as plant length and weight, number of leaves, nutrient and pigment content, and soil fertility, compared with turnip plants from the negative control or treated with a commercial leaf fertilizer. λ-carrageenan extracted from the tetrasporophyte generation of Chondrus crispus had the highest bioactivity and positive effect in turnip plants among all treatments. λ-carrageenan has shown that can improve plant growth, increase plant’s biomass, and root system, enhance photosynthetic activity, increase the uptake of soil nutrients, and protect plants against abiotic and biotic stresses, stimulating the production of secondary metabolites and manage its defense pathways. Seaweed extracted polysaccharides have the potential to be used in sustainable agriculture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0373.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: drosophila integrins; cancer; cell growth; invasion
Online: 9 October 2023 (04:37:46 CEST)
Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Key to cancer initiation and progression is the crosstalk between cancer cells and their microenvironment. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a major component of the tumour microenvironment and integrins, main cell-ECM adhesion receptors, are involved in every step of cancer progression. However, accumulating evidence has shown that integrins can act as tumour promoter but also as tumour suppressor factors, revealing that the biological roles of integrins in cancer are complex. This incites a better understating of integrin function in cancer progression. To achieve this goal, simple model organisms, such as Drosophila, offer a great potential to unravel underlying conceptual principles. Here, we find that in the Drosophila wing disc epithelium the PS integrins act as suppressors of tumours induced by a gain of function of the oncogenic form of Ras, RasV12. We show that PS integrin depletion enhances the growth, delamination and invasive behaviour of RasV12 tumour cells, as well as their ability to affect the tumour microenvironment. These results strongly suggest that integrin function as tumour suppressors might be evolutionary conserved. Drosophila can be used to understand the complex tumour modulating activities conferred by integrins, thus facilitating drug development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0142.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: immunology; growth performance; nutrition; microbiology; hematology
Online: 4 September 2023 (08:33:34 CEST)
The aim of this paper was to test isolated and pre-selected bacteria strains from Nile tilapia intestinal mucus, collected in Brazilian commercial fish farming, to use as probiotics in the feeding. The variable were growth performance, hematology, microbiology and immunology. These strains were submitted to in vitro inhibition tests of pathogenic bacteria. Then, they were identified by PCR and sequencing, and comparing using the BLAST software. The experiment was carried out in the Fisheries Institute, Sao Paulo, Brazil, for 84 days, following the randomized experiment design with seven treatments and three replicates (21 experimental units): T0 – control, T1 – Bacillus velezensis, T2 – Bacillus pumilus, T3 – Bacillus subtilis, T4 –Enterococcus hirae T5 – Enterococcus faecium and T6 – mix of bacteria strains used to this experiment. The variables analyzed were: growth performance, DGGE (Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), phagocytes respiratory burst activity, hematology and bromatology. As result, the bacteria strains B. pumilus (T2) and all bacteria mix (T6), included in Nile tilapia diet, promoted better biomass values, with similar feed conversion rate of control group (p<0,05). Apparently, the microorganisms use does not affect the health and well-fare of the fish. The hematology index, except basophils and thrombocytes numbers do not demonstrated differences among the groups, as well as glycemia, lactate level, respiratory burst and lysozyme activities. In conclusion, the isolated and pre-selected bacteria from intestinal mucus of Nile tilapia, B. pumilus (T2) and mix (T6 - B. velezensis, B. pumilus, B. subtilis, E. hirae and E. faecium) improve the growth performance and may be used as probiotics for Nile tilapia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1353.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: pIgR; polymorphism; disease-resistant; growth; chicken.
Online: 21 August 2023 (03:11:16 CEST)
Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) plays an important role in mediating mucosal defenses, but the association between its single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and traits (such as growth and disease-resistant) in birds is scarcely known. In this research, we aimed to detect the single nucleotide polymorphisms of the pIgR gene in the chicken F2 resource population and discern the possible associations between pIgR SNPs and chicken growth, disease-resistant, respectively. Six-SNPs (3, 9, 15, 16, 19, and 21) in chicken (Gallus gallus) were significantly associated with disease-resistant in the pIgR gene (P < 0.05). The major allele genotype with SNP 9 and SNP 19 occurred more frequently with high Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) antibody rates; the major allele genotype with the SNP 3 was predominant in those with significantly lower NDV antibody rates (P < 0.05); heterozygous with the SNP 15 and SNP 21 occurred more frequently with high avian leukemia virus (ALV) antibody rates; the TT genotypes with the SNP 16 was predominant in those with low infectious bursal disease (IBD) antibody rates (P < 0.05). Besides, SNP 12 showed significant associations with body weights (BW) and shank lengths (SL) (P < 0.05). Genotyping revealed that the C allele occurred more frequently in breeds with high growth rates and the T allele was predominant in those with low growth rates at 8, 10, and 12w of age (P < 0.05). This polymorphic site may serve as a useful target for the marker assisted selection of growth and disease-resistant traits in chicken.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1669.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Population growth; Water demand management; Tabriz
Online: 25 July 2023 (09:17:07 CEST)
In this research, a new conceptual framework introduced to analysis of water security. Using the exponential, logistic growth model, and employing the historical population of Tabriz city from 1956 to 2016, the future period (2022-2100) population predicted. Pearson Correlation, Spearman's Rho and Kendall's rank coefficients were used for analyzing correlation between population and water consumption. In addition, the amount of city water demand in the future period predicted using the ordinary least square model. Then, water stress and water scarcity indices calculated for Tabriz city in the future period. Results indicated that the mathematical population growth models are very suitable for prediction of city population. There was a significant positive correlation between the city population and water demand. In addition, the amount of water demand will proportionally increase with rising number of population. Finally, linear and quadratic equations presented for city water demand based on the city population number. It can be concluded that Tabriz city will be faced with severe water stress in the future period. The proposed new method in this study can be used for other different cities of the world. Also, Results will be helpful for decision makers in optimum management of urban water resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1150.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: Macrobrachium rosenbergii; growth trait; gut microbiome
Online: 18 July 2023 (04:17:03 CEST)
In this study, we evaluated how gut microbes associated with hepatopancreatic and gonadal expression genes impact on growth traits in different sex of M. rosenbergii. By comparing the relative abundance of gut microbes between the male (high weight gain, HiWG) and female (low weight gain, LoWG) animals, we have shown that at the phyla, family and genera level, the abundance of microbes existed significantly difference between both group. At the genera level, the abundance of Candidatus Hepatoplasma and unidentified Chloroplast lower in the LoWG animals than in the HiWG animals, and Lactobacillus and Ligilactobacillus have opposed trend. The abundance of Candidatus Hepatoplasma and unclassfied Chloroplast was associated with the growth traits in the HiWG group. The Lolium perenne microbial species belong to unclassfied Chloroplast genera have tight association with Ralstonia pickettii, both might association on Geobacter anodirecteducens abundance, which correlation with the expression of glutathione peroxidase and collagen, which were highly expressed in the hepatopancreas and gonads of HiWG group animals of M. rosenbergii and might promote growth and development. These associations were not detected in the female LoWG group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0411.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: nanomaterials; carbon dots; doping; plant growth
Online: 6 July 2023 (11:47:52 CEST)
Carbon dots have received much attention due to their unique physicochemical properties and diverse applications in bioimaging, optoelectronic devices, catalysis, and agriculture. Here in this work, we report a simple hydrothermal synthesis of nitrogen and phosphorus-doped carbon dots (N, P-CDs). The optical and physical properties of the synthesized N, P-CDs were analyzed using systematical spectroscopy and electrical characterization. The synthesized N, P-CDs show strong photoluminescence at 626 nm and demonstrate high stability under UV light and other conditions. Moreover, we incorporate the synthesized N, P-CDs into water spinach by root spraying and leaf spraying. It was found that N, P-CDs could effectively promote the growth of water spinach by increasing the photosynthetic rate, and the content of total phenols and anthocyanins in water spinach
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1834.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: colostrum; ewe; lamb growth; udder conformat
Online: 26 May 2023 (09:27:16 CEST)
In sheep raised for meat production, the relationship between external udder conformation, colostrum quality, and lamb growth rates has not received much attention. We hypothesize that ewes with a more desirable udder conformation at lambing have greater colostrum quality and increased growth rates in lambs. Fifty Suffolk ewes were used in this study. Within 6-8 hours of parturition, colostrum samples from both halves of the udder were collected and a visual scoring of the udder was conducted. Colostrum quality was measured for total protein using both optical and Brix refractometers. On day 2, day 45, and day 60 after parturition, lamb weights were recorded, and udder conformation measurements were repeated. A visual scoring system evaluating udder floor (scale 1-4), udder depth (scale 1-9), teat placement (scale 1-9), teat lesions (present or absent), and the presence of wool (present or absent) was used to assess external udder conformation. Normal udder parameters include udder depth scores of 5 or 6, udder floor score of 1 or 2, teat placement scores 4, 5, and 6, and the absence of teat lesions and wool. All ewes not meeting normal parameters were considered to have an abnormal udder. The data was analyzed using the GLM procedure. Mean total colostrum total protein was greater (p = 0.03) in ewes displaying ‘normal’ udder conformation compared with those with ‘abnormal’ (14.82±0.5 and 13.31±0.3mg/dl). Mean Brix values were also greater (p = 0.03) for ewes with a ‘normal’ udder compared to an abnormal udder confirmation, respectively (21.70±0.8 and 19.54±0.5). On day 2 after parturition, mean lamb body weight was not different between ewes with ‘normal’ and abnormal udder (5.38±0.26 vs 5.46±0.15). No difference (p > 0.05) in lamb weights were detected between ewes with normal and abnormal udder conformations on day 45 and 60 after parturition. This data provides evidence of increased colostrum total protein values and increased Brix values present in ewes with ‘normal’ udder conformation and no difference in lamb weights between udder conformations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0199.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: growth rate; carcass traits; gene expression.
Online: 8 June 2021 (09:15:47 CEST)
The aim of present study was to link the gene expression profile of selected candidate genes with blood profile, growth performance and carcass traits of Barki lambs. Thirty-eight Barki lambs were divided into 3 groups (fast, intermediate and slow growing) according to growth perfor-mance. Body tissues (muscle, liver and fat) were taken from for RNA isolation and Real-time PCR. The results indicated that, the final body weight hot carcass weight were heavier (P ≤ 0.05) in fast (49.9 Kg and 24.57) than intermediate (40.7 and 19.07 Kg) and slow (30.8 and 15.10 Kg) growing animals. The blood profile of total protein, total lipids, calcium, T3 and T4 hormones did not differ among sheep groups. Genes involved in protein biosynthesis (RPL7), fatty acid oxidation (CPT1) and lipolysis (FABP4) were up regulated in fast and intermediate growing lambs in all studied tissues. While, gene-regulating lipogenesis (ADIPOQ) was expressed simi-larly in fat and liver tissues, but increased its expression in muscle of fast and intermediate growing lambs. Expression of CAPN3 was increased in fast and intermediate growing compared to slow growing lambs. In conclusion, the current study providing an evidence for the im-portance of co-expression of these genes in main body tissues linked with growth performance of Barki lambs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0251.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Breed; Diet; Growth; Indigenous; Intake; Sasso
Online: 9 April 2021 (09:48:31 CEST)
The objective of this study was to develop the least-cost starter’s diet and evaluated its effect on the growth performance of Sasso breeds and Indigenous ecotype of chicks under the local condition of the South Gondar Zone. The effects of substitution of different levels of commercial starters ration with homemade diet on the growth performance of Sasso and Indigenous chicks were studied in Hiruy Abaregay village of Farta district. The research area is 586km distant from the capital city of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 510 Sasso T-44 and 90 Indigenous local ecotypes day-old chicks were randomly divided into five groups, each with 102 and 18 chicks, respectively. These were assigned into five treatments in which 100 (T1), 75 (T2), 50 (T3), 25 (T4), and 0% (T5) of commercial starter’s diet in factorial completely randomized design (CRD) with 3 replications for 60 days feeding period. The results obtained indicated that increased levels of substitution of a commercial diet with a homemade diet significantly depressed (p<0.001) mean daily feed consumption and retention of dry matter, nitrogen, and metabolizable energy. Growth rate as measured by mean daily weight gain, mean final body weight, and total feed consumption and feed cost were significantly miserable (p<0.001) in an increased homemade diet. On the contrary, there was an increase in feed conversion ratio and fiber content in high-level dilution of starter’s commercial diet with a homemade diet. However, the groups of chicks on 0, 25, and 50% commercial starters diets replaced by homemade diet were significantly higher (p<0.001) in mean daily feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and final body weight attained. The results of this study indicated that up to 50% of expensive commercial starter’s diet could economically be replaced with the least cost homemade diet without adversely affecting the growth performance of chicks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0191.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: fortified infant cereals; anemia; growth; infants
Online: 4 November 2020 (10:49:03 CET)
After approximately 6 months of age, term breastfed infants are increasingly depending on other sources of iron to avoid iron deficiency anemia. The appropriate complementary feeding must include a balance composition of foods containing an adequate amount of macro- and micronutrients to reduce the risk of iron deficiency anemia. This study aims to compare the anemia and growth status of infants receiving commercial fortified infant cereals (FIC) with infants not receiving them. We use all complete multiple Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) from 2005 to 2018 to understand global infant feeding patterns. To better control for the strong household wealth effect in nutritional choices and possibly health awareness, we use propensity score technique as applied in outcome research to better control the effect of covariates. After matching and controlling for confounders, we did find a significant association between reduced risk of anemia and consumption of FIC. After matching and adjusting for confounders the small but positive effects of consumption of FIC on Height for age z-score and Weight for Height Z-score are no longer statistically significant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0025.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: β-mannanase; bacteriophage; calf, growth; survival
Online: 1 October 2020 (16:46:42 CEST)
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with bacteriophage and β-mannanase on health and growth performance in calves. Thirty-six pre-weaning male Holstein calves were randomly allocated to one of four dietary treatments: no supplementation, 0.1% β-mannanase, 0.1% bacteriophage, and both 0.1% bacteriophage and β-mannanase supplementation in a starter. The experiment lasted from 2 weeks before weaning to 8 weeks after weaning. Twenty-two calves survived to the end of the experiment. No interaction was observed between the two methods of supplementation. A 1-kg increase in initial BW resulted in a 1.41-fold increase in the odds ratio of survival (p < 0.01). The bacteriophage supplementation tended to increase the odds ratio of survival (p = 0.09). The number of Escherichia coli in feces significantly decreased one week after weaning. β-mannanase supplementation increased the concentrates intake (p < 0.01) and tended to increase the final BW (p = 0.08). Analysis of repeated measures indicated β-mannanase supplementation increased weekly body weight gain (p = 0.018). We conclude that bacteriophage supplementation may have a positive effect on calf survival rate, while β-mannanase supplementation may increase the growth rate and intake of a starter in calves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0384.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: health expenditure; economic growth; carbon emissions
Online: 17 September 2020 (07:50:55 CEST)
Researchers’ attention has been turned on Health expenditure, Carbon emissions, and economic growth as they play a focal role in the current debate on environmental protection and sustainable development. Our paper endeavors to investigate the impact of economic growth and CO2 emissions on Health expenditure for two main countries in Asia (China and India) using a dynamic panel data model estimated employing the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) for the period 1960–2019. Our empirical results show that there is a significant relationship between health expenditure, CO2 emissions, and economic growth. The empirical evidence indicates a significant positive impact of CO2 emissions on health expenditure whiles economic growth has a negative impact on health expenditure for both countries for the period under study. The population growth rate has transposed effect on India's health spending; on the other hand, its impact on China’s health spending is significantly positive. The strong observable correlation between health expenditure and economic growth is crucial for economic development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0319.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: COVID-19; structural break; growth stage
Online: 20 May 2020 (04:24:15 CEST)
COVID-19 is an infectious disease, growth of which depends upon the linked stages of the epidemic, the average number of people one person can infect and the time it takes for those people to become infectious themselves. We have studied the COVID-19 time series to understand the growth behaviour of COVID-19 cases series. A structural break occurs in the COVID-19 series at the change time form one stage to another. We have performed the structural break analysis of data available for 207 countries till April 20, 2020. There are 42 countries which have recorded five breaks in COVID cases series. This means that these countries are in the sixth stage of growth transmission and show a downward pattern in reporting in the daily cases, whereas countries with two and three breaks, record the rapid growth pattern in the daily cases. From this study, we conclude that the more the breaks in the series, there is more possibility to determine the constant or decreasing rate of daily cases. It is well fitted using lognormal distribution as this distribution is archived at its highest peak after some period and then suddenly it decreases at a longer time period. This can be seen in various countries like China, Australia, New Zealand and so on.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0504.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; Pakistan; exponential growth; projection
Online: 29 April 2020 (10:38:30 CEST)
The observed data of COVID-19 progression in Pakistan for first 50 days from the first patient been reported has shown quite an unusual trend which is in opposition to clear exponential spread pattern of any infectious disease. The data of positive cases of 50 days of disease progression has been collected from COVID-19 dashboard of Pakistan and analyzed to see the graphical trend and to forecast the behaviour of disease progression for next 30 days. Mathematical equations regarding exponential growth are used to analyse the disease progression and different possible trajectories are plotted to understand the approximate trend pattern. The possible projections estimated 20k-456k positive cases within 80 days of disease spread in Pakistan. Although, the disease progression pattern is not perfectly exponential, it is still threatening a major fraction of susceptible population and demands effective strategic planning and control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0273.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: foreign direct investment; economic growth; economies
Online: 29 March 2019 (08:01:17 CET)
This paper aims to research whether there is link between FDI inflows and Economic growth in the Republic of Seychelles Island. The ordinary least square results obtained shows that in the impact of FDI inflows on economic growth is low. Small Island Developing States attracts less FDI inflow because they are limited to few resources that attracts overseas firms which results in retarded development. The research lighted that impact of foreign direct investment on host countries does not only depend on the quality and quantity of the FDI inflows but some other variables such as the internal policies and the management skills, market structures, economic trends among others.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0069.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Fusarium graminearum; RGB; oats; rice; growth
Online: 8 January 2019 (11:48:41 CET)
Fusarium graminearum is a cereal pathogen responsible for economic losses worldwide every year. An understanding of its growth is key to control its infection, but current growth models are limited because their size-based approach provides little information about the mold's metabolism. Recently, a RGB (red, green and blue) imaging analysis demonstrated the predictability of F. graminearum color change as it grows in yeast extract agar (YEA). This study aimed to verify the same phenomenon in oats (aw = 0.94, 0.97 and 0.99) and rice (aw = 0.97, 0.98 and 0.99). Photos were taken using a professional camera and a smartphone (iPhone 6) after incubation and during the subsequent 16 days, and average RGB was quantified using ImageJ software. The photos showed very similar color variations, regardless of the type of grain or aw. The mold first adopted a k-selection strategy by growing as a mycelium and then a r-selection strategy, increasing spore production. All RGB channels showed positive Pearson correlations between them (p < 0.001) and it was possible to design a model showing two lag phases, the first prior to a mycelial phase and the second prior to a sporular phase at the end of the experiment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0012.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: economic growth; democracy; MENA; simultaneous equations
Online: 1 August 2018 (09:45:56 CEST)
This paper examines the indirect effect of democracy on economic growth using a dataset of 17 MENA countries from 1990 to 2015. Democracy is assumed to affect growth through a series of channels: education, health, physical capital accumulation per labor, government consumption, and trade openness. A system of six simultaneous equations, 3SLS, is used to estimate the effect of democracy on growth through these channels. For further analysis, the countries are classified into groups according to the democratic status on the one side, and the level of income on the other. The results indicate that democracy enhances growth through its positive effect on health in all classifications of countries within the MENA region. However, the effect of democracy on growth through education and physical capital/labor is non-monotonic. Democracy always hinders growth through government size and trade openness. Once all of these indirect effects are accounted for, the overall effect of democracy on growth is negative in less democratic countries and poor countries, but positive in more democratic countries and rich countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0020.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Verticillium dahliae; VdAAC; RNAi; growth; virulence
Online: 2 November 2016 (16:27:40 CET)
Verticillium dahliae invades the roots of host plants and causes vascular wilt, which seriously diminishes the yield of cotton and other important crops. The protein AAC (ADP, ATP carrier) is responsible for transferring ATP from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm. When V. dahliae protoplasts were transformed with short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the VdAAC gene, fungal growth and sporulation were significantly inhibited. To further confirm a role for VdAAC in fungal development, we generated knockout mutants (ΔVdACC), which were hypersensitive to stresses such as UV light and high concentrations of NaCl or sorbitol. Compared with wild-type V. dahliae (Vd wt), ΔVdAAC was impaired in germination and virulence; these impairments were rescued in the complementary strains (ΔVdAAC-C). Moreover, when an RNAi construct of VdAAC under the control of the 35S promoter was used to transform Nicotiana benthamiana, the expression of VdAAC was downregulated in the transgenic seedlings, and they had elevated resistance against V. dahliae. The results of this study suggest that VdAAC contributes to fungal development, virulence and response to stresses and is a promising candidate gene to control V. dahliae. In addition, RNAi is a highly efficient way to silence fungal genes and provides a novel strategy to improve disease resistance in plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0062.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Remittances; Economic Growth; Bangladesh; Remittances Utilisation
Online: 20 July 2016 (10:27:13 CEST)
The paper examines the impact of inward remittances flows on per capita GDP growth in Bangladesh during 1976-2012. We find that the growth effect of remittances is negative at first but becomes positive at a later stage, an evidence of a non-linear. Unproductive use of remittances was rampant in the beginning when they were received by migrant families but better social and economic investments led to more productive utilisation of remittances receipts at later periods. This was the possible mechanism behind the U-shaped relationship. Unlike what is suggested in the literature that the effect of remittances is more pronounced in a less financially developed economy, our evidence do not show that the effect of remittances on per capita GDP growth in Bangladesh is conditional on the level of financial development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0043.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: biosensors; cyclic voltammetry; electrochemical sensors; extracellular electron transfer; extracellular polymeric substances; growth curve; microbial growth phases
Online: 5 January 2020 (16:23:51 CET)
Microbial growth has been of prime importance to the researchers in health and biotechnology industries. It has been known to be closely associated to the secretion of extracellular polymeric substances that help in the formation of colonies. Inter-microbial communication happens within such colonies by means of extracellular electron transfer mediated by the aforementioned polymeric substances. Conventionally, different phases of microbial growth are monitored with the aid of a traditional UV-Visible spectrophotometer by measuring the optical density of the liquid medium at 280 nm. In this paper, we have developed an alternative novel way to sense different growth phases employing electrochemical means i.e. two-terminal cyclic voltammetry. This cyclic voltammetry relies on the extracellular electron transfer mechanism taking place via the polymeric substances secreted by the microorganisms, measured by the temporal area changes in the current-voltage hysteresis curves in the inoculated nutrient broth. This work paves a new way to detect the biological activity in the medium, which can be directly correlated to the population of microorganisms. It would be of immense interest to scientists and researchers working in the field of microbiology as well as in development of biosensors, electrochemical sensors etc. which would be helpful in absence of traditional spectrophotometers.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0197.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: corporate sustainability strategy; corporate growth strategy; Maslow Pyramid; Organic Growth Theory; corporate social responsibility; corporate responsibility; sustainability
Online: 7 August 2020 (12:04:21 CEST)
This paper introduces a theory for the evolution of corporates in which the growth and sustainability strategies are developed simultaneously. Since the introduction of corporate sustainability, it has been an extra cost for risk mitigation and making ‘compensating’ positive impact. The world has reached a tipping point of volatility, mainly due to climate change but also by emergence of COVID-19, so that the applicability of existing corporate structures is under question and these poses high risk to the existence of our planet. On the other hand, the technology cost for sustainable investment has reached a parity in comparison with non-sustainable alternatives. Therefore, our proposed Organic Grow Theory introduces a step-by-step approach so that corporates can grow and be profitable without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. It is concluded that, a new structure for corporate, called Founcorp, would be needed to direct corporates to evolve being a responsible legal entity.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0126.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: sustainability; sustainable development goals; organic growth theory
Online: 5 December 2023 (06:15:50 CET)
This paper evaluates the global sustainable competitiveness of three blocks of power (US, China and EU) based on OGT (Organic Growth Theory) structure. In addition, a sensitivity analysis of COVID-19 on three measures of global sustainable competitiveness, economy, environment and social is also presented. OGT is a well-thought-through and standard framework for evaluation of any type of organiza-tion in their pathway to experience truly sustainable growth. GDP (Gross Domestic Product) is used as an economic measure; total carbon emissions equivalent is used as an environmental measure and HMI (Human Development Index) as a social measure. It is concluded that the pandemic has paused the evolution of countries to be truly world centric countries. However, the recovery plans seem to be highly aligned with the OGT scores and it is expected that the scores to improve dramatically.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1059.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: human milk oligosaccharides; growth indicator; secretor status
Online: 16 November 2023 (10:31:03 CET)
Studies show Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs) influence on infant growth were conflicted. This study aims to determine the relationship between HMO profiles and weight growth indicators of infants ages 0-4 months in Indonesia. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted among 120 mother-infant pairs aged 0 – 4 months from the hospital and Public Health Center in Jakarta between August 2021 – May 2022. The gene analysis for the Secretor and Lewis status of the mother were performed by using targeted Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and Sanger at baseline. The HMO profiles (2'FL, LNFP I, LNT, LNnT, 3'SL, and 6'SL), breast milk calories, and fat were examined at 0, 2, and 4 months. Weight for age z-score, weight for length z-score, infection episode, and mother's body mass index were examined every month. Data were analyzed using Pearson or Spearman correlation test (correlation coefficient), general linear model for repeated measures ANOVA test and Friedman test (mean difference between and within groups, respectively) and logistic regression unadjusted OR (association between dependent and independent variables), with a p-value <0.05 considered statistically significant. Infants' weight velocities were higher among high LNT and 3'SL levels in the second month, and in high 2'FL and LNFP I mothers in the fourth month. HMO profile (2’FL, LNFP I, and LNT) of lactating mothers have a positive relationship with weight growth indicators, and innovative interventions to enhance HMO concentration among mothers should be considered as one of the ways to improve infant growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0200.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: hair follicles; regeneration; alopecia; colostrum; growth factors
Online: 3 November 2023 (11:17:19 CET)
Normally, people lose between 50 and 100 hairs a day and generate new ones from the stem cells of hair follicles, but in people suffering from baldness, the condition called alopecia or androgenetic alopecia, the stem cells remain inactive and are unable to regenerate new hair. The stages of hair growth have been studied to better understand how hair grows and what might be done to prevent or treat premature hair loss. Anagen is referred to as the active phase of hair growth in which the hair shaft is produced by the hair follicle, whereas during catagen and telogen phases the lower part of hair follicle regresses until its growth stops. Although 9% of hair follicles remain in telogen at any one time, a variety of factors including growth factors and cytokines promote the transition from telogen to anagen and the subsequent stimulation of hair growth. In this work, we discuss a new possible treatment, AMPLEX PLUS that could help significantly slow hair loss and encourage new hair growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2175.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Glycine soja; Vine growth habit; QTL mapping
Online: 31 August 2023 (10:39:34 CEST)
Vine growth habit (VGH) is a notable property of wild soybean plants that also holds a high degree of importance in the context of domestication as it can preclude the use of these wild cultivars for the breeding and improvement of domesticated soybean. Here, a bulked segregant analysis (BSA) approach was employed to study the genetic etiology of VGH in soybean plants by integrating linkage mapping and population sequencing approaches. To develop a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, the cultivated Zhongdou41 (ZD41) soybean cultivar was bred with ZYD02787, a wild soybean accession. The VGH status of each line in the resultant population was assessed, ultimately leading to the identification of 6 and 9 QTLs from the BSA sequencing of the F4 population and F6- F8 population sequence mapping, respectively. One QTL shared across these analyzed generations was detected on chromosome 19. Three other QTLs detected by BSA-seq were validated and localized to 90.93 kb, 2.9 Mb, and 602.08 kb regions of chromosomes 6 and 13, respectively harboring 14, 53, and 4 genes. Four consistent VGH-related QTLs located on chromosomes 10, 13, and 19 were detected by both analytical approaches in a minimum of two environments, while an additional five loci on chromosomes 2, 10, and 18 were detected in at least two environments only via ICIM mapping. Of the detected loci, five had been reported previously whereas six represent novel QTLs. Together, these data offer new insight into the genetic basis for VGH in soybean plates, providing a rational basis to inform the use of wild accessions in future breeding efforts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1573.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Bacillus; Rhizobium; Pseudomonas; Streptomyces; Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria
Online: 21 June 2023 (15:28:24 CEST)
A large number of studies have indicated that plant community modulate the yield, improve growth and promote development of host plants, and among them rhizosphere growth-promoting bacteria play an important role in increasing crop yield. Bacteria benefit from the plant nutrients provided by the roots, but plants can benefit from their rhizobacteria as well. Rhizobia are considered as the most important candidate for plant growth promotion in comparison with rhizobacteria due to their endophytic nature and nitrogen fixing ability. They can also provide auxins which play a notable function in plant growth and plant-microbe interactions. Bacillus spp., the sporulating Gram-positive bacteria, have important roles in plant growth promotion and induction of systemic resistance. Pseudomonas are Gram-negative aerobic chemoheterotroph and are usually found in the environment. Streptomyces are important groups of soil bacteria from the actinomycetes family. Most of them are efficient rhizosphere and rhizoplane colonizers, and they can also be endophytes colonizing inner tissues of host plants. The present review aims to present the most up-to-date findings and results regarding the effects of plant growth promoting bacteria on yield of different crops, especially sorghum. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the actions of different bacteria briefly illustrated, aiming to present future needs to be addressed in sustainable crop production. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria inoculation with different plants or treating plants with microbe-to-plant signal constituents can be an effectual technique to stimulate crop growth. They are also active in protecting crops from phytopathogens and environmental stress, plant pathogens and they have positive roles in nutrient cycling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1199.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Kalmegh; Elicitors; Growth; Andrograholide; Salicylic acid; Chitosan
Online: 16 June 2023 (11:09:56 CEST)
With the objective of studying the influence of elicitors on growth, yield and quality of kalmegh we carried out an investigation for two consecutive years. Nine treatments with three replications were laid out in CRD design. Chitosan, Yeast extract, Jasmonic acid and Salicylic acid were evaluated at different concentrations. CHT 1000 ppm exhibited highest plant height (73.91 cm) and secondary branches (29.07) at the time of harvest. Primary branches and number of leaves per plant were highest in CHT 1000 ppm (26.36; 88.32) which were on par with SA 200 ppm (26.28; 81.51). Plant spread was highest in SA 200 ppm (35.46 cm2) which was on par with CHT 1000 ppm (35.11 cm2). CHT and SA sprays were recorded with on par results for yield parameters but highest fresh (42.34 g) and dry (18.30) herbage yield per plant were exhibited with SA 200 ppm. Highest total chlorophyll (4.459 mg g-1) and total andrographolides (3.494%) content were recorded in SA 200 ppm spray. Significant and positive improvement in growth, yield and quality of kalmegh was noticed with Salicylic acid spray @ 200 ppm at 30 and 60 DAS signifying its use in cultivation of kalmegh for high productivity, quality and better returns for farmers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0365.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: silicon; thin-films; nanostructures; growth; plasma-assisted
Online: 5 May 2023 (11:41:55 CEST)
Silicon-based thin-films and nanostructures are of paramount importance in a wide range of applications, including microelectronics, photovoltaics, large area sensors, as well as biomedicine. The wide accessibility of silicon and its relatively low cost have driven a continuous improvement of the technology based on this element. Plasma technology has been widely used for the synthesis of coatings and nanostructures based on silicon. Moreover, it has given a fundamental contribution for continuously improving the control of the physicochemical properties of silicon-based materials, and for allowing the synthesis of nanometric structures with well-defined shape and morphology. In this work, we have reviewed the most interesting developments of plasma-assisted processed for the synthesis of Si-based materials, both inorganic and organic, in the last five years. A special attention has been given to the new techniques, or modifications of already existing ones, that open new possibilities for the synthesis of materials with new properties, as well as nanostructures with novel characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0002.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Czochralski method; gallium oxide; scintillator; melt growth
Online: 1 May 2023 (00:23:55 CEST)
β-Ga2O3 is a well-known semiconductor material for power devices and other applications. Recently, β-Ga2O3 has also been reported as a scintillator material with a light yield of approximately 8400 ph./MeV, scintillation decay time of <1 μs, and density of 6.44 g/cm3. In this study, 2-inch diameter β-Ga2O3 single crystals were prepared by oxide crystal growth using the cold crucible (OCCC) method under various oxygen partial pressures. In the OCCC method, as in the cold crucible method, a high frequency is applied directly to the oxide materials, which are heated and melted, and the melt is held by the outermost solid material itself that is cooled by water using a copper hearth. In the OCCC method, crystal growth is performed while rotating the seed crystal, as in the Czochralski method, to increase the crystal diameter. The optical properties and radiation responses of the crystals grown under various oxygen partial pressures were evaluated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0547.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: Brown-marbled grouper; muscle; growth; RNA-seq
Online: 19 April 2023 (05:19:32 CEST)
Brown-marbled grouper is one of the most important mariculture species in China, which is used as an important crossbreeding parent in grouper industry. Enhancing growth rates is a key target in fish breeding, and gaining insight into the underlying mechanisms responsible for growth differences among individuals can aid in the improvement of grouper growth rates. However, the mechanism behind this difference in growth in this fish is unclear. The difference of transcriptome profiles of muscle tissue between fast- and slow-growing brown-marbled grouper was analyzed by RNA-Seq. 77 significantly up-regulated genes and 92 significantly down-regulated genes were identified in the growth extreme groups. The up-regulated of ghr and tnni2 and the down-regulated of stc2 led to the growth advantages of brown-marbled grouper. The differently expressed genes (DEGs) were used for GO and KEGG enrichment analysis. The results of GO enrichments indicated that the significantly upregulated genes in the fast-growing group were involved in protein folding, actin cytoskeleton, myosin complex, etc. The results of KEGG enrichments indicated that the significantly upregulated genes in the fast-growing group were involved in glycolysis/ gluconeogenesis, adipocytokine signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, carbon metabolism, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, etc. To analysis the difference gene sets between fast- and slow-growing group, the RNA-seq data were used by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). The results showed that the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway was up-regulated in the fast-growing group. The up-regulated of this pathway could lead to higher nutrient absorption efficiency and lead to muscle growth in the fast-growing group. These results contribute to understanding of the molecular mechanisms of fast growth and regulative pathways regulating growth in brown-marbled grouper.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0146.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Cancer cells; Finite Difference Method; tumor growth
Online: 10 April 2023 (09:38:08 CEST)
Cancer diseases lead to the second-highest death rate all over the world. The dynamics of invasion of cancer cells into the human body tissues and metastasis are the main causes of death in patients with cancer. This study deals with theoretical investigation of the dynamics of invasion of cancer cells for tumour growths in human body tissues using discretized Cahn-Hilliard, concentration and reaction-diffusion equations which were solved by Finite Difference Method with the aid of MATLAB computer software. A Crank-Nicolson numerical scheme was developed for the discretized model equations. The numerical result obtained was used to describe the dynamics of cancer invasion of tissues with respect to cancer cells density on tumour growth, turbulence and mobility and equilibrium between charge and discharge of cancer cells. The results of the study provide new insights into combating cancer disease by providing mitigating and intervention measures to this major health problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0194.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Children; Growth; Development Modeling; Role Modeling; Stunting
Online: 14 June 2022 (05:28:12 CEST)
Stunting, during the Covid-19 pandemic, is increasingly becoming a big problem in the world, especially in poor and developing countries. Observational studies have shown that stunting is associated with poor nutrition, especially a plant-based diet, inflammation, caused by infection, enteric dysfunction, an environment with clean water, inadequate sanitation and hygiene (WASH), and endogenous inflammation associated with excess adiposity. This causes nutritional interventions to be often unsuccessful (Kemenkes RI, 2018).The government intervenes to reduce stunting to the target party, which is divided into two categories. The first category is specific nutrition intervention, namely monitoring children under five at the posyandu, giving immunizations, giving vitamin A, giving Supplementary Foods (PMT), and others. The second category is sensitive nutrition interventions, namely the provision of drinking water and proper sanitation, postnatal family planning (KB) services, providing information related to stunting, food social assistance, conditional cash assistance, and others. (KEMEN-PMK, 2018). WHO states, that the impact of stunting can be divided into short-term and long-term impacts. The short-term impacts are; increased incidence of morbidity and mortality; cognitive, motor, and verbal development in children is not optimal; and increased healthcare costs. While the long-term impact; Posture that is not optimal as an adult (shorter than usual); Increased risk of obesity and other diseases; The decline in reproductive health; Less than optimal learning capacity and performance during school years; and Low productivity and work capacity (Kemenkes RI, 2018). The nursing goal is to help people achieve quality, holistic health. Implementation of Modeling and Role Modeling Theory is an option in implementing nursing care for children with stunting. “Modeling” is gaining an understanding of the client’s world from the client’s perspective. That is to build a “model” of the client’s worldview. “Role‑Modeling” is based on the assumption that all humans want to interact with others, they want to carry out selected roles in society. Role-Modeling is using the client’s model of the world to plan interventions that meet his or her perceived needs, grow, develop and heal. Role-Modeling requires that we aim to build trust, promote a positive orientation and a sense of control, affirm strengths and set specific mutual goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0306.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: urbanization; urban growth urban hierarchy; urban system
Online: 17 September 2021 (11:22:00 CEST)
The objectives of this paper are to analyze the urban growth and urbanization phenomenon in Algeria. Two processes that originated respectively by the expansion of existing urban areas and the process of urbanization that took place between 1954 and 2008, a period marked by significant economic, social and political changes in Algerian society. Our analysis was mainly based on the Algerian general census of population and habitat (2008) and on the application of rank-size distribution of cities according to Zipf’s rule. This study revealed that in Algeria, the urban system is particularly marked by the dramatic expansion of small cities. Indeed, the development of small towns, through the transition from rural to urban and the residential loosening of large cities have influenced the trend towards the balance of the urban system in Algeria. Results revealed also how the "primatial" city is undergoing profound economic and social changes at the national level. These changes are most often imposed from the top as part of land-use planning policy. This study provides some insights into the demographic dynamics of cities and the evolution of urban hierarchies in Algeria, through the comparison of the different rank-size distributions of Algerian cities in space and time. Our results suggest that land-use planning strategies are the only policies capable of influencing the future of the Algerian urban system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0759.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Okun's law; unemployment rate; Economic Growth; Liberia
Online: 23 June 2021 (13:11:14 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to examine the connection between economic growth and unemployment in Liberia between 2001 and 2019. The unit root test and the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) Co-integration test were used to examine the relationship between unemployment and GDP. The Auto Regressive Distribution Lag (ARDL) bounds test is used to determine if the variables are linked in the long run. According to the results of the ARDL model, there is no long-run relationship between unemployment and economic growth. This study' results have particularly important policy implications for Liberian economic authorities. In both the long and medium term, the observational results showed no meaningful relationship between unemployment and economic growth. The Liberian government should direct its spending toward activities that directly and indirectly promote the creation of employment and decent jobs, a conducive environment and flexible labor market policies or legislation that are not impediments to job creation, and finally, the government should prioritize labor intensive industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0417.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Light-emitting diodes; PPFD; DLI; growth; morphology
Online: 15 April 2021 (13:12:44 CEST)
Although the vegetative stage of indoor cannabis production can be relatively short in duration, there is a high energy demand due to higher light intensities (LI) than the clonal propagation stage and longer photoperiods than the flowering stage (i.e., 16 – 24 hours vs. 12 hours). While electric lighting is a major component of both energy consumption and overall production costs, there is a lack of scientific information to guide cultivators in selecting a LI that corresponds to their vegetative stage production strategies. To determine the vegetative plant responses to LI, clonal plants of ‘Gelato’ were grown for 21 days with canopy-level photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) ranging between 135 and 1430 µmol·m-2·s-1 on a 16-hour photoperiod (i.e., daily light integrals of ≈ 8 to 80 mol·m-2·d-1). Plant height and growth index responded quadratically; the number of nodes, stem thickness, and aboveground dry weight increased asymptotically; and internode length and water content of aboveground tissues decreased linearly with increasing LI. Foliar attributes had varying responses to LI. Chlorophyll content index increased asymptotically, leaf size decreased linearly and specific leaf weight increased linearly with increasing LI. Generally, PPFD levels of ≈ 900 µmol·m-2·s-1 produced compact, robust plants that are commercially relevant, while PPFD levels of ≈ 600 µmol·m-2·s-1 promoted plant morphology with more open architecture – to increase airflow and reduce the potential foliar pests in compact (i.e., indica-dominant) genotypes.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: digestible energy; growth performance; microbiome; metabolome; donkey
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:28:35 CET)
Little information is available regarding the impacts of dietary energy level on the gut microbiota and metabolites of donkeys. This studied aimed to explore the effects of dietary energy content on growth performance, intestinal microbiome and metabolome of Dezhou donkeys. Thirty-six 9-month-old male Dezhou donkeys were assigned to two groups fed low or high content energy diets (LE or HE). Results showed that donkeys fed HE had improved (P < 0.05) the average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (G/F), compared with those receiving LE diet. Compared to the LE group, feeding HE specially increased the abundances of unidentified_Prevotellaceae (P = 0.02) while decreased the richness of unidentified_Ruminococcaceae (P = 0.05) of donkeys. Compared to LE group, feeding HE diet significantly (P < 0.05) affected the metabolic pathways involving the aspartate metabolism and urea cycle. In addition, the increased bacteria and metabolites in the HE-fed group exhibited a positive correlation with improved growth performance of donkeys. Taken together, feeding HE diet increased the richness of some specific bacteria and upregulated growth-related metabolic pathways, which contributed to the augmented growth performance of donkeys. Thus, it is a recommendable dietary strategy to feed HE diet to fattening donkey for superior production performance and feed efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0287.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Urban growth; cellular automata; Benslimane; GIS; Landsat
Online: 9 November 2020 (22:56:32 CET)
In this study, our goal was to research land-use change by combining spatio–temporal land use/land cover monitoring (LULC (1989–2019) and urban growth modeling (1999–2039) in Benslimane, Morocco, to determine the effect of urban growth on different groups based on cellular automata (CA) and geospatial methods. A further goal was to test the reliability of the AC algorithm for urban expansion modeling. To do this, four years of satellite data were used at the same time as population density, downtown distance, slope, and ground road distance. The LULC satellite reported a rise of 3.8 km2 (318% variation) during 1989–2019. Spatial transformation analysis reveals a good classification similarity ranging from 89% to 91% with the main component analysis (PCA) technique. The statistical accuracy between the satellite scale and the replicated built region of 2019 gave 97.23 %t of the confusion matrix overall accuracy, and the region under the receiver operational characteristics (ROC) curve to 0.94, suggesting the model's high accuracy. Although the constructed area remains low relative to the total area of the municipality's territory, the LULC project shows that the urban area will extend to 5,044 km2 in 2019, principally in the western and southwestern sections. In 2019–2039, urban development is expected to lead to a transformation of the other class (loss of 1,364 km2), followed by vegetation cover (loss of 0.345 km2). In spatial modeling and statistical calculations, the GDAL and NumPy Python 3.8 libraries were successful.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0063.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: nanoparticles; silver; L-arginine; conjugation; muscle growth
Online: 4 March 2020 (10:45:11 CET)
The aim of the study was to analyze the in ovo injection of chemically and biologically synthesized silver nano-particles (Ag NPs) using Brassica oleracea L. var capitate f. Rubra, (BOL) conjugation with L-Arginine (L-Arg) on the immune, muscle growth, survivability and hatchability of the broiler chickens. L-Arg (100 μg) conjugated with 1000 µg of Ag NPs synthesized by (BOL)-extract and L-Arg (100 μg) conjugated with 100 µg of Ag NPs chemically synthesized were injected into fertile eggs at 8d, 14d and 18d of incubation. Living embryo and hatched chicks were calculated. Survivability and hatchability were not affected by the injected dose of L-Arg (100 μg) with 1000 µg (BOL-Ag NPs) and L-Arg (100 μg) with 100 µg (C-Ag NPs) but it significantly improved when the eggs were injected on day 14 of incubation compared with those injected on days 8 or 18. Moreover, the protein expression of muscle development markers such as myogenin and myoD were significantly up-related in 14 d of incubation whereas the heat shock proteins (HSPs) such as HSP-60 and HSP-70 were significantly up-regulated in 18 d incubation. In addition, the in ovo injection on 18 d significantly increased the serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) as well the immunoglobulin (IgM) levels were increased in 14d incubation period in serum at the same concentration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0003.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: trade; conversion factors; price rate; economic growth
Online: 1 March 2020 (02:57:28 CET)
The impact of monetary policies and their implementation by exchange rate covered the economic condition of Ghana. The social inclusion and conversion factors change the implemented policies of nations, where the real price, trade, technology, a price rate and price level of ratio take an important part of growth. The reform of the financial sector favors the free floating of the exchange rate and global trade by under the premise of flexible exchange rates. The tragedy of country growth and exchange rate toward a trajectory of growth with the growth-enhancing effect through social inclusion, conversion factors, price level ratio, exchange rate, merchant rate, export and trade services. The research study is based on secondary study and social inclusion equity indicators with public resources, building human resources and social protection for economic development has determined. The monetary policies are classified by the different evidence and trade indicators. The significant influence of growth and internal policies has affected trade and exchange rates with growth and reserve policies. The results have computed by linear regression and it proved that social inclusion and alternative conversion factors impact on the global trade and create short term binary relationship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0315.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Lactobacillus; piglet; weaning; gut microbiota; growth enhancement.
Online: 24 December 2019 (10:59:14 CET)
The composition of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of piglets is easily affected by environmental changes, particularly during the weaning period. Compound strains of Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus salivarius were supplemented to piglets during pre- and post-weaning to determine their effects in improving the growth performance and ameliorating the diarrhea rate and stress caused by antioxidation in piglets. A larger number of L. reuteri and L. salivarius colonized the distal segment of the ileum and the total numbers of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium were higher in the ileal mucous membrane and cecal lumen with probiotics supplementation. The numbers of antioxidative and immune molecules were increased in the plasma following compound bacteria (CL) supplementation, whereas cortisol and endotoxin levels were lower and growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 were higher. Spearman’s and KEGG analysis of the bacterial operational taxonomic unit and antioxidative and immune indices and metabolic genes indicated that the body growth modulation by CL supplementation could be attributed to optimization of the intestinal bacterial composition. Collectively, these results suggest that supplementation with CL could reduce stress and improve the growth performance of piglets during weaning by optimizing the intestinal bacterial composition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0189.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: nanoparticles; silver; L-arginine; conjugation; muscle growth
Online: 15 December 2019 (13:37:00 CET)
The aim of the study was to analyze the in ovo injection of chemically and biologically synthesized silver nano-particles (Ag NPs) using Brassica oleracea L. var capitate f. Rubra, (BOL) conjugation with L-Arginine (L-Arg) on the immune, muscle growth, survivability and hatchability of the broiler chickens. L-Arg (100 μg) with 1000 µg (BOL-Ag NPs) and L-Arg (100 μg) with 100 µg (C-Ag NPs) were injected into fertile eggs at 8, 14 and 18 of incubation. Survival and hatched chicks were calculated. Survivability and hatchability were unaffected by the injected dose of L-Arg (100 μg) with 1000 µg (BOL-Ag NPs) and L-Arg (100 μg) with 100 µg (C-Ag NPs) but it significantly improved when the eggs were injected on day 14 of incubation compared with those injected on days 8 or 18. Moreover, the protein expression of muscle development markers such as myogenin and myoD were significantly up-related in 14 d incubation whereas the heat shock proteins (HSPs) such as HSP-60 and HSP-70 were significantly up-regulated in 18 d incubation. In addition, the in ovo injection on 18 d significantly increased the serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) as well the immunoglobulin (IgM) levels were increased in 14-day incubation period in serum at the same concentration. Collectively, these results indicate that injecting L-Arg (100 μg) with 1000 µg of BOL-Ag NPs or L-Arg (100 μg) with 100 µg of C-Ag NPs to eggs at day 14 after incubation could improve their hatchability, survival rate, and muscle growth marker.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0250.v3
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Built-settlements; urban features; spatial growth; , random forest; dasymetric modelling; population
Online: 9 October 2019 (10:48:20 CEST)
Mapping settlement extents at the annual time step has a wide variety of applications in demography, public health, sustainable development, and many other fields. Recently, while more multitemporal urban feature or human settlement datasets have become available, issues still exist in remotely-sensed imagery due to coverage, adverse atmospheric conditions, and expenses involved in producing such feature sets. These challenges make it difficult to increase temporal coverage while maintaining high fidelity in the spatial resolution. Here we demonstrate an interpolative and flexible modeling framework for producing annual built-settlement extents. We use a combined technique of random forest and spatio-temporal dasymetric modeling with open source subnational data to produce annual 100m x 100m resolution binary settlement maps in four test countries of varying environmental and developmental contexts for test periods of five-year gaps. We find that in the majority of years, across all study areas, the model correctly identified between 85-99% of pixels that transition to built-settlement. Additionally, with few exceptions, the model substantially out performed a model that gave every pixel equal chance of transitioning to the category “built” in each year. This modelling framework shows strong promise for filling gaps in cross-sectional urban feature datasets derived from remotely-sensed imagery, provide a base upon which to create future built/settlement extent projections, and further explore the relationships between built area and population dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0415.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Fusarium graminearum, mycelial growth, RGB, gray scale.
Online: 28 May 2018 (16:31:22 CEST)
Size-based fungal growth studies have limitations. For example, the growth in size stops in closed systems once it reaches the borders and poorly describes the metabolic status, especially in the stationary phase. This might lead mycotoxin studies to unrealistic results. Color change could be a viable alternative as pigments are results of the mold’s metabolic activity. This study aimed to verify the possibility of using gray values and the RGB system to analyze the growth of Fusarium graminearum. It consisted color and area measurement using the ImageJ software for specimens grown in yeast extract agar (YEA). The results suggest the usability of color and gray values as reliable tools to analyze the growth of F. graminearum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0206.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: CO2; adaptation; photosynthesis; growth; weeds; carboxylation efficiency
Online: 22 January 2018 (17:44:14 CET)
Seeds of three C3 and one C4 annual weedy species were collected from agricultural fields in Beltsville, Maryland in 1966 and 2006, when atmospheric CO2 concentrations averaged about 320 and 380 mmol mol-1, respectively. Plants from each collection year were grown over a range of CO2 concentrations to test for adaptation of these weedy species to recent changes in atmospheric CO2. In all three of the C3 species, the increase in CO2 concentration from 320 to 380 mmol mol-1 increased total dry mass at 24 days in plants from seeds collected in 2006, but not in plants from seeds collected in 1966. Shoot and seed dry mass at maturity was greater at the higher growth CO2 in plants collected in 2006 than in 1966 in two of the species. Down regulation of photosynthetic carboxylation capacity during growth at high CO2 was less in the newer seed lots than in the older in two of the species. Overall, the results indicate that adaptation to recent changes in atmospheric CO2 has occurred in some of these weedy species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0174.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: provenances, height, root-collar-diameter, survival, growth
Online: 18 January 2018 (16:39:53 CET)
The aims of the study were to evaluate seedling growth and survival of Prunus africana provenances in awi highland based on ecological requirement of the tree. We measured survival and growth of three P.africana provenances seedlings found in Ethiopia (provenances sources namely: Gedeo, Jibat and Munnessa). Design of experiment with randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Seedlings planted at 2m, 2.5m and 3m distance between plants, plot, and blocks respectively. A plot size of 10mx10m and 25 plants are found per plot (0.01ha). We used ANOVA to test differences in survival, and growth among provenances over time. Results concluded that, provenances have no significant variation among in establishment rate, plant height and collar diameter growth. Of these provenances, Jibat was the first in establishment (56%), second in height (1.97m) and diameter (2.89cm). Gedeo was stood first in height (2.30m) but second in establishment rate (52%) and thickness(3.45cm), but Munessa with very good growth in diameter(3.59cm) might be prefreed for bark extraction followed by Gedeo, last in height (1.75m),but established second (52%). Contrary to expectations, seedlings were still at substantial risk of mortality ≥3 years after planting. Probably the plants survival rate and growth probably affected by altitude, soil water potential, light exposure, and wild animal presence in the surrounding. In steep slope sites, canopy shade, existing weed vegetation as well as wild animals such as apes is unlikely to enhance seedling survival after planting. Our results suggest that seedling mean growth increased with 0.008mm thickness and 0.41mm per day while 2.8mm thickness and 146.8mm tall increment recorded in 2560meter elevated high land or injibara with mean value of 18.5°C and rain fall is 1300mm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0068.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: breast milk lipidome, preterm infant, growth trajectory
Online: 11 December 2017 (15:53:33 CET)
Human milk is recommended for feeding preterm infant. Yet the potential impact of specific breast-milk lipid components on the initial growth rate of very-preterm infants has received scant attention. The current pilot study aims to determine whether breast-milk lipidome had any impact on the early growth pattern of preterm infants fed their own mother’s milk. A prospective monocentric observational birth cohort was established, enrolling 147 preterm infants, who received their own mother’s breast-milk throughout hospital stay. Among that cohort, infants who experienced slow (n=15) or fast (n=11) growth were selected, based on the change in their weight Z-score between birth and hospital discharge (-1.54± 0.42 and -0.48± 0.19 Z-score, respectively). Liquid chromatography-high resolution-mass spectrometry was used to obtain lipidomic signatures in breast-milk. Multivariate analyses made it possible to identify breast-milk lipid species that allowed clear-cut discrimination between the 2 infants’ groups. Validation of the selected biomarkers was performed by means of various multidimensional statistical techniques, false-discovery rate and ROC curve computation. Breast-milk associated with fast growth contained more medium chain-saturated fatty acid and -sphingomyelin, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA)-containing phosphethanolamine, and less oleic acid-containing triglyceride and DGLA-oxylipin. Their predictive ability of preterm early-growth rate was validated in presence of confounding clinical factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0028.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Oil revenue; External debt; Economic growth; ARDL
Online: 4 December 2017 (17:33:46 CET)
Oil revenues and external debt might have stimulated economic growth in the oil exporting countries via investment in capital projects. The paper estimated economic growth on oil revenues and external debt after controlling public investment and population growth over the period 1970-2015. Following the confirmation of the order of integration, our analysis is based on autoregressive distributed lag bound testing to cointegration approach. The key findings are that oil revenues and public investment contributes to Nigeria’s economic growth. However, our findings also indicate that external debt and population growth retards growth. The study suggests that minimizing fiscal deficits and unnecessarily foreign loans by creating tax avenues through the development of the non-oil sectors would reduce the dependency syndrome on a single commodity (oil) in Nigeria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0053.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Black polyethylene, Mulches, Allium sativum, Growth, Grass
Online: 19 July 2017 (22:50:23 CEST)
A field experiment to assess the effect of mulch on growth (days to maturity, plant height, leaf length and leaf number) of Garlic (Allium Sativum L.) was conducted in 2015 - 2016 at Addis Ababa University Selale campus, on demonstration field to identify optimum plant growth using different mulches for Garlic tested independently. The experiment was designed using randomized complete block. The analyzed result using ANOVA shows significance difference among the treatments. Plots treated with black polyethylene mulch and grass mulch enhanced maturity by about 114 and 116 days, respectively, while garlic in control showed slightly delayed maturity of 125 days. Maximum plant height (66.5 cm) was recorded in the plants mulched by black polyethylene mulch followed by grass mulch which records 62.3 cm and 52.3 cm, respectively. A highly significant variation (p<0.05) in the leaf length was observed at the different mulch treatments. Significantly maximum leaf number (15.3) was recorded in plants mulched with black polyethylene followed by grass mulch with 14.0 leaf number. Thus, black polyethylene and grass mulch performs better than control treatment in growth parameter evaluation of garlic plants under fiche condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0971.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: processing speed; developmental trajectories; primary school education; cross-country longitudinal study; mixed effects growth modeling; latent class growth modeling
Online: 14 September 2023 (08:46:02 CEST)
This cross-country four-year longitudinal study investigated the development of processing speed throughout primary school education. The analyses were conducted on data collected from 441 schoolchildren in Grades 1, 2, 3 and 4 (aged 6.42 to 11.85 years) in the Kyrgyzstan and Russia. Mixed effects growth modeling was applied to estimate average and individual growth trajectories for processing speed at two cross-country samples. Latent class growth modeling was conducted to identify different types of growth trajectories for processing speed and to compare the distribution of the types within the analyzed samples. According to the results, processing speed significantly increases across primary school years. The trajectory is characterized by nonlinear changes with more intensive growth between Grades 1 and 2, which later slows down until Grade 4. There were no significant cross-country differences in the initial score of processing speed or developmental changes in processing speed across primary school years. The development of processing speed is described by a model with three quadratic growth types but minimally differs. It is concluded that in both samples, the development of processing speed may be characterized by homogeneity, with the most intensive growth from Grade 1 to Grade 2 and subsequent linear improvement until Grade 4.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0313.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: cardiogenesis, endocardial cushions, neural crest, hemodynamics, shear stress, semilunar valve, outflow tract septum, Klf2, growth factors, Transforming growth factor
Online: 17 September 2018 (13:45:32 CEST)
The beating heart is subject to intrinsic mechanical factors, exerted by contraction of the myocardium (stretch and strain) and fluid forces of the enclosed blood (wall shear stress). The earliest contractions of the heart occur already in the 10-somite stage in the tubular as yet unsegmented heart. With development the looping heart becomes asymmetric providing varying diameters and curvatures resulting in unequal flow profiles. These flow profiles exert various wall shear stresses and as a consequence different expression patterns of shear responsive genes. In this paper we investigate the morphological changes of the heart after changes the blood flow by ligation of the right vitelline vein in a model chicken embryo and analyze the extended expression in the endocardial cushions of the shear responsive gene Tgfbeta receptor III. A major phenomenon is the diminished endocardial-mesenchymal transition resulting in hypoplastic (even absence of) atrioventricular and outflow tract endocardial cushions, that might be lethal in early phases. The surviving embryos exhibit several cardiac malformations including ventricular septal defects and malformed semilunar valves related to a malposition of the aortopulmonary septum and the enclosed neural crest cells. We discuss the results in the light of the interactions between several shear stress responsive signaling pathways including Vegf, Notch, Pdgf, Klf2, eNos, Endothelin and Tgfβ/Bmp/Smad.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1838.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: food allergy; children; adequate nutrition; catch-up growth.
Online: 29 November 2023 (09:48:42 CET)
Background: Data suggest that food allergies greatly impact a child’s health and growth due to inadequate nutrient intake. Our study aimed to establish the long-term outcome of children with food allergies compared to a control group. Methods: This study was a retrospective cohort study with longitudinal follow-up with a mean period of 4.85 years from the diagnosis to the last study visit. The patients’ nutritional intake was assessed using a three-day food diary and analysed by a dietitian. Patients (61 boys and 33 girls, mean age 6.9 years) had a single food allergy including 21 patients with cow’s milk, 34 with egg, and 39 with peanut allergies. The control group included 36 children (19 boys and 17 girls, mean age 8.03 years). Blood analysis was performed on all participants. Results: Data from our study showed that patients with cow’s milk, egg or peanut allergies had normal growth and achieved catch-up growth from the diagnosis until the last study visit. In the cow's milk allergy group, the allergy was shown to affect calcium intake (p<0.05), while egg and peanut allergies did not impact the dietary intake of nutrients. None of the investigated food allergies affected blood results (p<0.05). Conclusions: In the present study, we showed that single food allergies do not compromise growth in children if they are provided with appropriate support and that the affected children reach catch-up growth from the diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1493.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: machine learning; preeclampsia; intrauterine growth restriction; prediction; screening
Online: 23 November 2023 (08:45:26 CET)
1) Background: The screening of preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) represents a constant challenge for obstetricians. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the predictive performance of 4 machine learning-based algorithms for the prediction of PE, IUGR, and their association in a cohort of singleton pregnancies; (2) Methods This prospective study was conducted at a tertiary maternity hospital in Romania, and included 210 pregnancies that underwent first trimester screening. We included clinical and paraclinical data into 4 machine learning-based algorithms decision tree (DT), naïve Bayes (NB), support vector machine (SVM), and random forest (RF), and calculated their predictive performance; (3) Results: RF performed the best when used to predict PE, IUGR, and its subtypes, as well as the association between PE and IUGR. The overall predictive performance of DT for all these disorders was inferior to RF, NB, and SVM. Both SVM and NB had similar accuracy for the prediction of PE, while NB performed better than SVM for the prediction of IUGR; (4) Conclusions: Machine-learning-based algorithms could be useful for the prediction of ischemic placental disease and need to be validated on large cohorts of patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0266.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Lung neoplasm, early stage, epidermal growth factor receptor
Online: 6 November 2023 (09:26:40 CET)
Definitive surgical resection is the preferred treatment for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Research into genetic alterations, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, in early stage NSCLC remains insufficient. Here, we investigated the prevalence of genetic alterations in early-stage NSCLC and the association between EGFR mutation and recurrence after complete resection. Between January 2019 and December 2021, 659 patients with NSCLC who underwent curative surgical resection at a single regional cancer center were recruited. We compared the clinical and pathological data between the recurrence and non-recurrence groups. Multivariate logistic regression was used to predict the risk factors for recurrence. Among the 659 enrolled cases, the most common histology was adenocarcinoma (74.5%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (21.7%). The prevalence of EGFR mutation was 43% (194/451). Among them, L858R point mutation and exon 19 deletion was 52.3% and 42%, respectively. ALK rearrangement was found at 5.7% (26/453), and ROS1 fusion was found at 1.6% (7/441). The recurrence rate of the entire population was 19.7%. In multivariate analysis, the presence of EGFR mutation, stage II or III (vs. stage I), and pathologic subtype (presence of solid type) were associated with recurrence. Among the recurred group, 86.5% of the patients with EGFR mutation experienced distant recurrence compared to only 66.7% of wild-type (p = 0.016), with no significant difference in median disease-free survival (p = 0.983). In conclusion, the prevalence of EGFR mutation, ALK rearrangement, and ROS1 fusion was 43.0%, 5.7%, and 1.6%, respectively in patients with early-stage NSCLC who underwent curative resection. Along with stage II/III and solid pathologic subtype, EGFR mutation was an independent risk factor for recurrence. In the recurrence group, the rate of distant metastasis was higher in patients with EGFR mutation than in those with wild-type.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1200.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana; PABA; root growth; folates; cell cycle
Online: 18 October 2023 (16:22:03 CEST)
The continuous growth of roots depends on their ability to maintain a balanced ratio between cell production and cell differentiation at the tip. This process was reported to be regulated by the hormonal balance of cytokinin and auxin. However, other important regulators, such as plant folates, have also been reported to play a regulatory role. In this study, we investigated the impact of the folate precursor PABA on root development. Using pharmacological, genetic, and imaging approaches, we show that the growth of Arabidopsis thaliana roots is repressed by either supplementing the growth medium with PABA or overexpressing the PABA synthesis gene GAT-ADCS. This is associated with a smaller root meristem size, which consists of fewer cells. Conversely, reducing the levels of free root endogenous PABA results in longer roots with extended meristems and increased cell numbers. We provide evidence that PABA represses Arabidopsis root growth in a folate-independent manner and likely acts through two mechanisms: (i) the G2/M transition of cell division in the root apical meristem and (ii) promoting premature cell differentiation in the transition zone. These data collectively suggest that PABA plays a role in Arabidopsis root growth at the point where cell division and cell differentiation intersect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0931.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Hermetia illucens; growth performance; sustanability; coffee sirvelskin; microalgae
Online: 16 October 2023 (08:01:37 CEST)
Hermetia illucens is a very promising insect due to its ability to convert low-value substrates in highly nutrient feed. Its feeding and nutrition are important issues. This work aimed to study the effect of different substrates composed of coffee silverskin, by-product of the roasting process, enriched with different inclusion of microalgae (5%, 10%, 20%, 25%), Schizochytrium limacinum and Isochrysis galbana, coupled with the assessment of environmental sustainability by LCA. In general, the inclusion of microalgae caused an increase in the growth performance of the larvae, although S. limacinum showed the best results. Higher prepupal weight were observed in larvae fed on 20% and 25% of S. limacinum, shorter development times in larvae fed on 25% of both S. limacinum and I. galbana and higher growth rate were observed in larvae fed on 25% of S. limacinum. Anyway, the inclusion of 10% of S. limacinum showed a small difference with the higher inclusions. Moreover, the 10% of S. limacinum achieved the best waste reduction index. Therefore, considering the greater inclusion of microalgae, the higher the environmental impact of larvae production, the addition of 10% of S. limacinum seems to be the best compromise for the larval rearing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1334.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: endophytes; Miscantus; antifungal activity; plant growth promotion properties
Online: 20 September 2023 (04:34:37 CEST)
Modern technologies can satisfy human needs only with the use of large quantities of fertilizers and pesticides that are harmful to the environment. For this reason, it is possible to develop new technologies for sustainable agriculture. The process could be made by using endophytic microorganisms with a (possible) positive effect on plant vitality. Bacterial endophytes have been reported as plant growth promoters in several kinds of plants under normal and stress conditions. In this study, isolates of bacterial endophytes from the roots and leaves of Miscanthus giganteus plants were tested for the presence of plant growth-promoting properties and their ability to inhibit pathogens of fungal origin. Pantoea ananatis and Pseudomonas libanensis were the predominant bacteria in leaves whereas other pseudomonads prevailed in roots. Selected bacterial isolates were able to solubilize inorganic phosphorus, to fix nitrogen, and to produce IAA, ACC deaminase and siderophore. Leaf bacterial isolate Pantoea ananatis 50 OL 2 had high production of siderophores and weak capabilities for phytohormone production. The root bacterial isolate of Pseudomonas libanensis 5 OK 7A showed the best results of phytohormone production. Four fungal cultures - Fusarium sporotrichioides DBM 3229, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum SS-01, Botrytis cinerea and Sphaerodes fimicola were used to test the antifungal activity and these cultures were selected for their representatives of known pathogenic fungi families, especially for crops. All selected roots endophyte isolates significantly inhibited the pathogenic growth of Fusarium sporotrichoides with a mean inhibition diamater (zone ≥ 5 mm). These results demonstrated that the root endophytic Pseudomonas sp. could be used as biofertilizer for crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0804.v1
Subject: Engineering, Metallurgy And Metallurgical Engineering Keywords: Creep; fatigue; Ferritic materials; crack growth; Phenomenological Model
Online: 13 September 2023 (03:04:03 CEST)
A model to rationalize the effects of test temperature and microstructural variables on the creep crack growth (CCG) and creep-fatigue crack growth (CFCG) rates in ferritic steels is described. The model predicts that as the average spacing between grain boundary particles that initiate creep cavities decrease, the CCG and CFCG rates increase. Further, CCG data at several temperatures collapse into a single trend when a temperature compensated CCG rate derived from the model is used. CCG and CFCG behavior measured at different temperatures is used to assess the effects of variables such as differences between basemetal (BM), weldmetal (WM) and the heat-affected zone (HAZ) regions. The model is demonstrated for Grade 22 and Grade 91 steels using data from literature. It is shown that differences between the CCG behavior of Grade 22 steel in new and ex-service conditions are negligible in the BM and WM regions but not in the HAZ region. The CCG behavior of Grade 91 steels can be separated into creep-ductile and creep-brittle regions. The creep-brittle tendency is linked to the presence of excess trace element concentrations in the material chemistry. Significant differences found in the CCG rates between BM and the WM and HAZ regions of Grade 91 steel were explained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0315.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: amazon tree; growth; physiology; photoinhibition; plasticity; light levels
Online: 6 September 2023 (04:10:10 CEST)
Defining the best conditions for the initial development of native species is one of the significant challenges to forest production. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate andiroba's physiological behavior and growth (Carapa guianensis Aubl.) seedlings at different shading levels. In a nursery seedling, C. guianensis seedlings grew on 0, 30, 50, and 70% shading, obtained with polyethylene screens. We measured at six plants per treatment. For the physiological data we measurement four times the total chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a/b ratio, maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), maximum potential photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (E), intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi), and carbon use efficiency (CUE), besides the growth parameters. While for growth rates parameters we developed six evaluation for as leaf area ratio (LAF), relative growth rates (RGR), and net assimilation rate (NAR). Chlorophyll content and Fv/Fm were inversely proportional to the light intensity. The other physiological and growth parameters showed better behavior in shaded environments, emphasizing the 50% treatment, with no significant difference between the 30% shading treatment. Therefore, the C. guianensis seedlings present growth plasticity under different shading levels, and we recommended producing seedlings at 50 or 30% shading.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0044.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: MET alterations; cancer progression; invasive growth; therapeutic targeting.
Online: 1 September 2023 (10:03:30 CEST)
The MET proto-oncogene encodes a pivotal tyrosine kinase receptor, binding the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, also known as scatter factor, SF) and governing essential biological processes such as organogenesis, tissue repair, and angiogenesis. The pleiotropic physiological functions of MET explain its diverse role in cancer progression in a broad range of tumors; genetic/epigenetic alterations of MET drive tumor cell dissemination, metastasis, and acquired resistance to conventional and targeted therapies. Therefore, targeting MET emerged as a promising strategy, and many efforts were devoted to identifying the optimal way of hampering MET signaling. Despite encouraging results, however, the complexity of MET's functions in oncogenesis yields intriguing observations, fostering a humbler stance on our comprehension. This review explores recent discoveries concerning MET alterations in cancer, elucidating their biological repercussions, discussing therapeutic avenues, and outlining future directions. By contextualizing the research question and articulating the study's purpose, this work navigates MET biology's intricacies in cancer, offering a comprehensive perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1930.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Biochemical compounds; Blue light; Growth; Immune system; Nutrition
Online: 29 August 2023 (08:51:26 CEST)
The development and use of selenium and iodine elements in agriculture aim to enrich agricultural food products for humans. This study was carried out as a three-factor factorial experiment in a completely randomized design (CRD). Three concentrations of sodium selenate fertilizer (0, 2, 4 mg/l), three potassium iodate (0, 2, 4 mg/l), and two supplementary radiation levels (blue light and sunlight) were used. The results showed that the highest and the lowest (3.44 & 3.12 mg/g f.w) leaf protein value was related to blue light and sunlight treatments, respectively. In the blue light treatment, the maximum and the minimum (4.77 & 3.39 mg/g f.w) leaf sugar amount was observed at 4 and 0 mg/l of the iodine, respectively. At 0 mg/l of selenium, the highest and the lowest (8.63 & 5.34 mg/g f.w) leaf vitamin C amount was recorded at the 4 and 0 mg/l of iodine, respectively. In blue light + 0 mg/l of the selenium, the highest and the lowest (2.94 & 2.10 mg/g f.w) leaf flavonoid quantity was seen at 2 and 0 mg/l of the iodine, respectively. In the blue light conditions, (5.20%) leaf nitrogen content was achieved in the selenium 4 mg/l group. In the same conditions, the maximum and the minimum (3.09 & 2.18%) leaf potassium amount was attained at selenium 2 and 4 mg/l, respectively. Under blue light conditions, the highest and the lowest (0.58 & 0.24 mg/kg dry matter) leaf selenium level was observed at 4 and 0 mg/l, respectively. In sunlightradiation levels, the maximum and the minimum (0.36 & 0.25 mg/kg dry matter) leaf selenium level were found at 4 and 0 mg/l of selenium, respectively. In the blue light conditions, the most and the lowest (1.65 & 0.72 mg/kg dry matter) seed selenium content was related to 4 and 0 mg/l of the selenium, respectively. In the blue light conditions, the highest and the lowest (8.49 & 4.25 mg/kg dry matter) leaf iodine level was recorded at 4 and 0 mg/l of iodine, respectively. In the blue light conditions, the maximum and the minimum (30.56 & 20.62 mg/kg dry matter) seed iodine value was related to 4 and 0 mg/l of the iodine, respectively. In the sunlight, the most and the lowest (24.96 & 20.29 mg/kg dry matter) seed iodine amount was achieved at 4 and 0 mg/l of the selenium, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0577.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: Sewage; population growth; pathogenic bacteria; DPSWR; Amazon coast
Online: 8 August 2023 (14:04:58 CEST)
This study focuses on the Cereja River, a Permanent Preservation Area located in Amazon coast. The hypothesis tested was that the water quality of the Cereja River has worsened over recent years due to unplanned urban growth. To assess changes in the water quality, seven campaigns were undertaken with data being collected at six fixed points, during two distinct periods (2013–2014 and 2018–2019). High-resolution satellite images from GoogleEarth (2012 and 2019) were used to register unplanned occupation. The DPSWR (Driver-Pressure-State-Welfare-Response) socioecological framework was used to identify potential measures for the management of environmental and anthropogenic problems. The increase in the number of households found on the Cereja margins between 2012-2019 has contributed to the river’s intense trophic condition, low concentrations of dissolved oxygen, high concentrations of pathogenic bacteria, and loss of vegetation cover. The water of the Cereja River is inadequate for any human use, and its contamination is one of the principal factors determining the reduction of the water quality of the Caeté estuary. According to the obtained results, the DPSWR model proved to be an excellent analytical tool for the evaluation of specific local scenarios, through the integrated analysis of socio-environmental issues. The scenario observed can be extrapolated to other rivers located within urban areas in the Amazon region that have relatively unplanned growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0503.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: economic growth; environment; municipal waste; waste management; Bulgaria
Online: 7 August 2023 (10:47:59 CEST)
This paper examines the relationship between GDP per capita and waste generated in European Union countries, highlighting the importance of this relationship for understanding the environmental consequences of economic growth and formulating waste management policies. The analysis findings demonstrate that, in most cases, higher GDP is associated with higher amounts of waste, although there are exceptions to this trend. A smaller number of countries are also found where no such relationship exists. These are primarily high-income countries in the lower part of the EKC or countries in transition. Cluster analysis reveals regional differences in the relationship between GDP and waste that the economic factors and the level of development in the regions concerned can explain. Bulgaria is among the European countries with the lowest economic growth associated with a large amount of waste. The analysis, therefore, focuses on Bulgaria. The impact of GDP per capita, Human Development Index and Population Density on municipal waste in Bulgaria is studied. The aim is to identify significant relationships and dependencies between these factors and the amount of waste. Based on the results of multiple regression analysis and the findings from municipal waste management data in Bulgaria, specific actions are proposed for municipal waste management in the country. Recommendations are made for developing sustainable waste management policies and sharing best practices between regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0439.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: growth and yield; growing design; quality; watering volume
Online: 7 August 2023 (02:27:25 CEST)
Producing cherry tomatoes became interesting to know watering volume and growing design on growth, yield, and quality of cherry tomatoes. The research aimed to intend the best treatment for each treatment of watering volume and Growing design on the productivity and quality of cherry tomato cultivar Ruby. The study is an experimental exploration using RCBD factorial. The treatment factors include: Growing Design (greenhouse, Rain shelter, Screen house) and Watering Volume (100% Etc, 75% ETc, 50% ETc). The result showed that root dry weight and root-shoot ratio were found higher in the screen house design, while fruit firmness was higher in the rain shelter design. Considering the effect of watering volume, higher fruit diameter, heavier fruit, fruits per plant, ultimate fruit & biological yield per plant, higher root & shoot biomass, root-shoot ratio, leaf chlorophyll content, greater fruit skin firmness and elasticity was noted in the 100% ETc treatment. In contrast, the growth rate was higher in 50% ETc treatment. Cultivating cherry tomatoes in a greenhouse using a watering volume of 100% ETc under the results is recommended. These conditions have led to better growth, higher fruit yield, and improved fruit quality, making them favorable options for successful cherry tomato production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1232.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Nudt2, TNBC, anchorage-independent growth, migration and invasion.
Online: 18 July 2023 (11:55:05 CEST)
The main known function of Nudix hydrolase 2 (Nudt2) is to hydrolyze the secondary messenger diadenosine 5', 5’’’-p1, p4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A). In this study we examined the role of Nudt2 in breast carcinoma through its expression in the human invasion ductal carcinoma tissues, and its functions in human triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines. A significantly high expression of Nudt2 in the human invasion ductal carcinoma tissues was observed in our study. Knockdown of Nudt2 in TNBC cell lines showed a significant reduction in cellular proliferation via the Ki67 marker, accompanied by G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest. A significant reduction in the migration and invasion of Nudt2 knockdown TNBC cell lines was also observed. The effect of Nudt2 knockdown in the TNBC cell lines on tumorigenicity and anchorage-independent growth was assessed, where significant reductions in the Nudt2 knockdown TNBC cell lines were found. It can therefore be concluded that Nudt2 plays a significant role in promoting TNBC growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2202.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: artificial intelligence; machine learning; growth and development; mandible
Online: 30 June 2023 (14:54:17 CEST)
The aim of this study was to create a novel machine learning (ML) algorithm for predicting the post-pubertal mandibular length and Y-axis in females. Cephalometric data from 176 females with Angle Class I occlusion were used to train and test 7 ML algorithms. For all ML methods tested, the mean absolute errors (MAEs) for the 2-year prediction ranged from 2.78-5.40 mm and 0.88-1.48 degrees, respectively. For the 4-year prediction, MAEs of mandibular length and Y-axis ranged from 3.21-4.00 mm and 1.19-5.12 degrees, respectively. The most predictive factors for post-pubertal mandibular length were mandibular length at previous timepoints, age, sagittal positions of the maxillary and mandibular skeletal bases, mandibular plane angle, and anterior and posterior face heights. The most predictive factors for post-pubertal Y-axis were Y-axis at previous timepoints, mandibular plane angle, and sagittal positions of the maxillary and mandibular skeletal bases. ML methods were identified as capable of predicting mandibular length within 3 mm, and Y-axis within 1 degree. Compared to each other, all of the ML algorithms were similarly accurate, with the exception of MLP regressor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1980.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: cryophilic; ecophysiology; growth temperature, life history; local climate
Online: 28 June 2023 (09:37:19 CEST)
Typhulaceae Jülich is one of the cold-adapted fungal families in basidiomycetes. Typhula (Pers.) Fr. and Pistillaria Fr. representing the family are distinguished from the morphology of a stipe to a hymenium (Fries 1821). The hymenium of Typhula is distinguishable from the stipe, but indistinguishable and consecutive in the genus Pistillaria. This taxonomic criterion is ambiguous, and consequently the opinion of Karsten (1882) has been widely accepted; I the genus Typhula, basidiomata develop from sclerotia, while basidiomata develop directly from substrata in the genus Pistillaris. But, Corner (1970) observed basidiomata of Pistillaria petasitis S. Imai in Hokkaido, Japan, from sclerotia. We collected irregular sclerotia of Typhula hyperborea H. Ekstr. from Upernavik, West Greenland. This specimen had a stipe-like structure on a Poaceae plant, and sclerotia developed on its tip. In August, P. petasitis in Hokkaido, Japan, formed basidiomata directly from substrates on the ground. Similar phenomena were found from other Typhula spp. in Japan. All of these fungi had the potential to produce sclerotia in culture, and as well as the capacity of mycelial growth at ambient air temperatures in each locality when samples were collected. These findings suggest that Typhula spp. developed basidiomata not only from the sclerotia dispersed by the basidiospores but also mycelia generated by the spore germination formed basidiomata multiple times depending on their growth environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1859.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Brassica napus; exogenous proline; recovered growth; simulated drought
Online: 27 June 2023 (09:40:28 CEST)
This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of exogenous proline on growth, biochemical responses, and plant recovery of drought-stressed oilseed rape plants after renewed irrigation. The experiment was conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. After 21 days of cultivation, 3-4 leaf stage seedlings were sprayed with proline (1 mM), then subjected to prolonged drought stress for 8 days to achieve a severe water deficit, then irrigation was resumed and recovery was assessed after 4 days. The results show that exogenous application of proline reduced drought-induced growth inhibition of seedlings while maintaining relative water content (RWC) and growth parameters closer to those of irrigated plants. Proline had a positive effect on chlorophyll accumulation and membrane permeability while decreasing ethylene, H2O2, and MDA levels. Moreover, after 4 days of recovery, the H2O2 content of the proline-treated plants was significantly lower (2-fold) and the MDA content was close to that of continuously irrigated plants. Thus, all these biochemical reactions influenced plant survival: after drought + proline treatment, the number of surviving plants was 2 times higher than that of drought-treated plants. The findings show that exogenous proline has antioxidant, osmotic, and growth-promoting properties that improve the drought tolerance of winter oilseed rape plants and is, therefore, beneficial for drought adaptation in oilseed rape.