ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0064.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Greenhouse , microclimate , Modelling , fuzzy controller , Optimization , Solar Energy , Energy saving , Climate Model ,Greenhouse effect , Temperature
Online: 21 July 2016 (09:44:16 CEST)
Agricultural greenhouse is largely answered in the agricultural sphere, despite the shortcomings it has, including overheating during the day and night cooling which sometimes results in the thermal inversion mainly due to its low inertia. The glasshouse dressed chapel is relatively more efficient than the conventional tunnel greenhouse. Its proliferation on the ground is more or less timid because of its relatively high cost[14-22]. Agricultural greenhouse aims to create a favorable microclimate to the requirements of growth and development of culture, from the surrounding weather conditions, produce according to the cropping calendars fruits, vegetables and flower species out of season and widely available along the year. It is defined by its structural and functional architecture, the quality thermal, mechanical and optical of its wall, with its sealing level and the technical and technological accompanying[12-13]. The greenhouse is a very confined environment, where multiple components are exchanged between key stakeholders and them factors are light, temperature and relative humidity. This state of thermal evolution is the level sealing of the cover of its physical characteristics to be transparent to solar, absorbent and reflective of infrared radiation emitted by the enclosure where the solar radiation trapping effect otherwise called "greenhouse effect" and its technical and technological means of air that accompany. The socio-economic analysis of populations in the world leaves appear especially the last two decades of rapid and profound transformations These changes are accompanied by changes in eating habits, mainly characterized by rising consumption spread along the year. To effectively meet this demand, greenhouse-systems have evolved, particularly towards greater control of production conditions (climate, irrigation, ventilation techniques, CO2 supply, etc ...). Technological progress has allowed the development of greenhouses so that they become increasingly sophisticated and of an industrial nature (heating, air conditioning, control, computer, regulation, etc ...). New climate driving techniques have emerged, including the use of control devices from the classic to the use of artificial intelligence[10-11] such as neural networks and / or fuzzy logic, etc... As a result, the greenhouse growers prefer these new technologies while optimizing the investment in the field to effectively meet the supply and demand of these fresh products cheaply and widely available throughout the year.
Online: 21 January 2021 (13:20:57 CET)
60\% of the global population is expected to be in cities by 2050. At the same time the climate is changing at an accelerated rate. In this short paper we discuss the conflation of these two phenomena and how it may change the cities of the future. We formulate this as an optimization problem that could help answer important questions such as where are they likely to be located? How are they to be powered? What would be their demand for mobility and how might this be met? How over or under ground might these cities be? This paper first looks at a historical paradigm of cities in the absence of the climate crisis and then proposes the new paradigm to look at cities of the future faced by the challenge of the climate change crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0111.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: conservation agriculture; greenhouse gases; soil health
Online: 10 April 2018 (06:30:15 CEST)
Conservation Agriculture (CA) is capable of improving soil health and ecosystem functions. Soil carbon sequestration is one of the ecosystem processes that is of importance in sustainable land management involving reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation to climate change. In this study, we wanted to determine, during the first year of the process of establishing a CA cropping system in rain-fed areas in Madhya Pradesh state of India, which soil health indicators show measurable signs of improvement. Four field trials were selected, each comprising two neighboring plots. One plot (15×15 m) was managed conventionally under farmer practice and was tilled before sowing seeds, and in the adjacent plot Conservation Agriculture practices were applied. No mineral fertilizers or pesticides were applied in both treatments. Soil health indicators of soil aggregate stability, soil-atmosphere CO2 fluxes, water infiltration, soil moisture, potentially mineralizable nitrogen, soil organic content and bulk density were measured. Results demonstrate that soil CO2 emissions in CA soils decreased and soil aggregates stability improved in the first year. Generally, in CA soils, there were measurable improvements in all soil health indicators but only some of them were statistically significant.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0010.v1
Online: 1 October 2021 (11:39:15 CEST)
Ruminant mammals extract nutrients from plant-based food through fermentation in the rumen; fiber and starch are pre-digested by microorganisms and methane is produced as a by-product, which released into the atmosphere acts as a potent greenhouse gas. In an effort to reduce enteric methanogenesis, dietary additives for ruminants have been investigated, and marine macroalgae have proven particularly promising, e.g., the inclusion of 0.2% dry matter of the red alga A. taxiformis into cow feed decreased in vivo methane production by up to 98%. Thus, if globally applied, the addition of algae in ruminant diets could revolutionize the management of greenhouse gas emissions across the livestock sector. However, the ozone-depleting nature of halogen compounds produced in Asparagopsis sp. and the reported adverse health impacts on humans, along with impracticability issues and the difficulty to produce, commercialize and distribute algae widely, has sown some doubt on the feasibility of using macroalgae as methane mitigation instruments. To circumvent such obstacles, and taking into account the paradigm that eukaryotic hosts cannot be understood without considering interactions with their associated microbiome, the exploration of marine algae associated microorganisms is anticipated. Following the notion that in the close and intimate relationships between algae-hosts and their microbiota the origin of chemical response mechanisms is often unclear, and that compounds initially assigned to algae have previously been shown to stem from host-associated microbes, it is not unreasonable to think that these may be involved in the antimethanogenic effects of marine algae in the rumen. Once identified, such microorganisms could lead to antimethanogenic feed additives, and reduce enteric methanogenesis from livestock ruminants substantially. This review is three-fold: it provides a brief, historic overview of macroalgae as feed supplements for ruminants, sums up the difficulties related to using whole-macroalgae as large-scale antimethanogenic feed additives, and describes the macroalga microbiome, including its potential to serve as an antimethanogen for enteric fermentation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0545.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: LCIA; plant protection; compost; sustainable greenhouse production
Online: 22 December 2020 (09:32:12 CET)
Italian floriculture is facing structural changes. Possible options to maintain competitiveness of the involved companies include promotion of added values, from local productions to environmental sustainability. To quantify value and benefits of cleaner production processes and choices, a holistic view is necessary, and could be provided by life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Previous studies on ornamental products generally focused on data from one company or a small sample. The aim of this study was a gate-to-gate life cycle assessment of two ornamental species (Cyclamen persicum Mill. and Pelargonium ×hortorum Bailey) using data from a sample of 20 companies belonging to a floriculture district in Treviso, Veneto region. We also assessed the potential benefits for the environmental impact of the selected species of alternative management choices regarding plant protection and reuse of composted waste biomass. Life cycle impact assessment showed the higher impact scores for the zonal geranium, mainly as a consequence of greenhouse heating with fossil fuels. This factor, along with higher uniformity of production practices and technological level of equipment, translated in lower variability observed in comparison with cyclamen production, which shows a wider results range, in particular for eutrophication, acidification and human toxicity potentials. The application of integrated pest management had significant benefits in terms of impact reduction for acidification and human toxicity of cyclamen, while reduced use of mineral nutrients through compost amendment of growing media resulted in a reduced eutrophication potential. The achievable benefits for zonal geranium were not observable because of the dominant contribution of energy inputs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0365.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: carbon budget, greenhouse gases, decarbonization, climate change
Online: 16 November 2018 (14:23:30 CET)
The Global Carbon Budget is the cumulative carbon emissions that human activities can generate while limiting the global temperature increase to less than 2°C. On this basis, most countries ratified the Paris Agreement 2015, pledging to reduce national emissions and the impacts of climate change. The European Union has planned to reduce emissions by 80% of their 1990 value by 2050 but such a target needs to be coupled with a further constraint on the cumulative greenhouse gases released along the path to 2050. The aim and the novelty of this study are to propose, for the first time, a carbon budget for the European Union, which represents the most significant physical characteristic to assess the feasibility of current EU-28 greenhouse gas reduction objectives under the goals of the 2015 Paris treaty
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0600.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: emission inventory; livestock; greenhouse gases; air pollutant
Online: 30 September 2018 (06:04:22 CEST)
Livestock farming is a major source of greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions. In this study, we estimate methane, nitrous oxide and ammonia emission from livestock sector in the Red River Delta region from 2000 to 2015 and projection to 2030 using IPCC 2006 methodologies with the integration of local emission factors and provincial statistic livestock database. Methane, nitrous oxide and ammonia emissions in 2030 are estimated at 132 kt, 8.3 kt and 34.2 kt, respectively. Total global warming potential is 9.7 MtCO2eq in 2030, accounts for 33% greenhouse gas emissions from livestock in Vietnam. Pig farming is responsible for half of both greenhouse gases and ammonia emissions in the studied region. Other major livestock for greenhouse gas emission is cattle and for ammonia emission is poultry. Hanoi contributes for the largest emissions in the region in 2015 but will be caught up and surpassed by other provinces in 2030.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0009.v3
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: cave; greenhouse gas; karst; methane; methanogenesis; methanotrophy
Online: 5 December 2017 (07:17:57 CET)
The air in subterranean karst cavities is often depleted in methane (CH4) relative to the atmosphere. Karst is considered a potential sink for the atmospheric greenhouse gas CH4 because its subsurface drainage networks and solution-enlarged fractures facilitate atmospheric exchange. Karst landscapes cover about 14% of earth’s continental surface, but observations of CH4 concentrations in cave air are limited to localized studies in Gibraltar, Spain, Indiana (USA), Vietnam, Australia, and by incomplete isotopic data. To test if karst is acting as a global CH4 sink, we measured the CH4 concentrations, δ13CCH4, and δ2HCH4 values of cave air from 33 caves in the USA and three caves in New Zealand. We also measured CO2 concentrations, δ13CCO2, and radon (Rn) concentrations to support CH4 data interpretation by assessing cave air residence times and mixing processes. Among these caves, 35 exhibited subatmospheric CH4 concentrations in at least one location compared to their local atmospheric backgrounds. CH4 concentrations, δ13CCH4, and δ2HCH4 values suggest that microbial methanotrophy within caves is the primary CH4 consumption mechanism. Only 5 locations from 3 caves showed elevated CH4 concentrations compared to the atmospheric background and could be ascribed to local CH4 sources from sewage and outgassing swamp water. Several associated δ13CCH4 and δ2HCH4 values point to carbonate reduction and acetate fermentation as biochemical pathways of limited methanogenesis in karst environments and suggest that these pathways occur in the environment over large spatial scales. Our data show that karst environments function as a global CH4 sink.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0066.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: greenhouse; biomass; carbon dioxide; capture carbon dioxide; gasification
Online: 16 May 2022 (04:50:47 CEST)
The gasification of sugarcane cutting residues (RAC) is a process that occurs in a gasifier where the transformation of this raw material into a solid-state and a gasifying agent with a moderate calorific value occurs, thanks to the application of heat. And under restricted oxygen levels, we can say that there are several styles of gasifiers for air, steam, oxygen, and hydrogen, all of which have a performance that can be analyzed and categorized by their performance to avoid damage to the environment. (1) The objective of this article is based on the mathematical development using simulation of the gasification of cane cutting residues. (2) In the methodology, the simulation of the gasification and CO2 capture process was developed from the biomass residues of the sugarcane cutting residues; it was carried out as a transformation of the primary fuel into a gas stream whose main components are CO2 and H2, which can be separated relatively easily by their concentrations, available pressures and in some cases, their temperatures; (3) According to the kinetic data obtained, the second-order reaction in the transformation and improvement of the process was identified; applying to the optimization of development in the capture of CO2, contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gases. (4) The gasification simulation process results in a biomass conversion corresponding to 93% of its feed and the formation of volatiles whose molar fraction corresponds to 37% H2, 12% CH4, 37% CO and 12 % CO2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0225.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Greenhouse; Environmental suitability; Mushroom pest; Black fungus gnats
Online: 9 July 2021 (13:44:47 CEST)
Lycoriella species (Sciaridae) are responsible for significant economic losses in greenhouse production (e.g. mushrooms, strawberry, and nurseries). Current distributions of species in the genus are restricted to cold-climate countries. Three species of Lycoriella are of particular economic concern in view of their ability to invade across the Northern Hemisphere. We used ecological niche models to determine the potential for range expansion under climate change future scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) in distributions of these species of Lycoriella. Stable suitability under climate change was a dominant theme in these species; however, potential range increases were noted for key countries (e.g. USA, Brazil, and China). Our results illustrate the potential for range expansion in these species in the Southern Hemisphere, including some of the highest greenhouse production areas in the world.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0583.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: greenhouse gases; climate sensitivity; rapid adjustments; Bayesian analysis
Online: 24 May 2021 (15:13:18 CEST)
Equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) is the change in global mean temperature expected to result from doubling atmospheric CO2 concentration from pre-industrial levels. Extensive research during the past 40 years has not reduced the uncertainty associated with ECS. Sherwood et al.  applied Bayesian statistics to evidence from climate-process physics, historical observations and earlier proxies to reduce the range of ECS from 1.5 – 4.5 K to 2.6 – 4.1 K. This paper examines their methods and many of the assumptions they made. It also evaluates two additional periods in the Holocene to show that factors other than CO2 drove recent climate change. It identifies potential systematic errors resulting from adding non-equilibrium short-term adjustments to the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases and from underestimating the effects of solar irradiance, ocean currents and aerosols. These factors have resulted in estimates of the forcing by CO2 that far exceed the apparent effects in paleoclimate data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0569.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: COVID-19; greenhouse; MSMEs; renewable energy; solar energy
Online: 23 March 2021 (12:50:36 CET)
This study aimed to focus on how to design a low-cost greenhouse for the cultivation of crops, to propose the cost-effectiveness analysis of small agribusiness, and to promote sustainable agricultural production during and after the COVID-19 crisis for helping grassroots and anyone who lost their job. This article is qualitative engineering research, studying of literature reviews of greenhouse farming concept and Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, then, designing low-cost greenhouse model which was preliminarily adapted for hot climate countries. Three plants that were selected as representative plants of this model include sunflower, water spinach, and wheat. The greenhouse model, measuring 5 x 7 x 4 m (W x L x H), was designed for this mission. The total cost of one building is approximately 97,994 THB. For the worthiness of the investment, farmers should build at least three greenhouse buildings, which will return total income to farmers approximately 34,666.09 THB per month. The suggestion includes further knowledge and financial supports from the government sectors among farmers, then, boost them up using high-level technology and also planting high-price agribusiness production to promote the local economy to be strong and sustainable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0164.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: Polycarbonate; plastic; greenhouse; heating requirement; geothermal energy; Turkey
Online: 8 October 2020 (09:05:06 CEST)
Greenhouse have to provide optimal climate conditions for healthy plant growth and high production. Heating of greenhouses is required for an efficient and reliable production specially during winter time in Turkey. However, even in the temperate zones, heating costs has a great portion in the total production costs. Coal is preferred as a fuel in the greenhouse heating in provinces of Turkey where there is no geothermal energy. In this study, the heating requirements and fuel cost (fossil and geothermal energy) for Antalya, Afyon, Kütahya, Denizli, and Aydın provinces in the Aegean and Mediterranean region have been identified based on long term meteorological data. The calculations were made for two model greenhouses located in an area with 1 ha representing modern greenhouses of the regions. The first is a gothic roofed plastic model greenhouse and the second is a gable roofed polycarbonate model greenhouse. According to the results of calculations, total annual heatingrequirement values ranged from 6,096,283 (for Antalya) to 20,359,946 MJ/ha (for Afyon) for the plastic greenhouse wheras these values ranged from 3,187,074 (for Antalya) to 10,643,972 MJ/ha (for Afyon) for the polycarbonate greenhouse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0417.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Greenhouse agriculture; Lactuca sativa; spectral optimization; energy efficiency
Online: 29 March 2020 (03:35:34 CEST)
With the dramatic increase in world population, continued advances in modern greenhouse agriculture and plant growth practices are expected to help overcome the global problem of future food shortages. Next generation greenhouse design practices will need to address a range of issues, ranging from energy and land use efficiency to providing plant-optimised growth techniques. In this paper, we focus on investigating the optimum irradiation spectra matched to the lettuce species (Lactuca sativa, L.), which is commonly grown in greenhouse environments, in order to develop low-emissivity glass panes that maximize the biomass productivity of glass greenhouses. This low-emissivity glass passes the solar spectral components needed for crop growth, while rejecting other unwanted radiations, leading to significant energy savings and other beneficial effects related to greenhouse climate control, in a range of climates. This is due to reducing both the solar heat gain and photosaturation, which can raise the temperature of the crops to harmful levels. Experimental results show that substantial biomass productivity improvements in lettuce (up to ~14.7%) can be attained using spectrally optimized illumination, compared with white light irradiation. We also report on the development of advanced metal-dielectric thin-film filters that produce the optimum illumination spectrum when exposed to sunlight.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0178.v4
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: nutrition; children; greenhouse gas emissions; school meals; sustainability; Agenda 2030
Online: 8 July 2019 (14:52:09 CEST)
There is great potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) from public sector meals. This paper aimed to develop a strategy for reducing GHGE in the Swedish school food supply without compromising nutritional adequacy, affordability, and cultural acceptability. Amounts, prices and GHGE-values for all foods and drinks supplied to three schools over one year were gathered. The amounts were optimized by linear programming. Four nutritionally adequate models were developed: Model 1 minimized GHGE while constraining relative deviation (RD) from observed food supply; Model 2 minimized total RD while imposing stepwise GHGE reductions; Model 3 additionally constrained RD for individual foods to an upper and lower limit; and Model 4 further controlled how ratios between food groups could deviate. Models 1 and 2 reduced GHGE by up to 95% but omitted entire food categories or increased the supply of some individual foods by more than 800% and were deemed unfeasible. Model 3 reduced GHGE by up to 60%, excluded no foods, avoided high RDs of individual foods, but resulted in large changes in food group ratios. Model 4 limited changes in food group ratios but resulted in a higher number of foods deviating from the observed supply and limited the potential of reducing GHGE. Cost was reduced in almost all solutions. An omnivorous, nutritionally adequate, and affordable school food supply, with considerably lower GHGE is achievable with moderate changes to the observed food supply. Trade-offs will always have to be made between achieving GHGE reductions and preserving similarity to the current supply.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: biofuels; greenhouse gas; ghg; abatement cost; modelling; competition
Online: 18 December 2017 (11:47:05 CET)
Transport biofuels derived from biogenic material are used for substituting fossil fuels, thereby abating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Numerous competing conversion options exist to produce biofuels, with differing GHG emissions and costs. In this paper analysis and modelling of the long-term development of GHG abatement and relative GHG abatement cost competitiveness between crop-based biofuels in Germany is carried out. Presently dominant conventional biofuels and advanced liquid biofuels were found not to be competitive compared to the substantially higher yielding options available: sugar beet based ethanol for the short to medium term least-cost option and Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) for the medium to long term. The competitiveness of SNG was found to depend highly on the emissions development of the power mix. Silage maize based biomethane was found competitive on a land area basis, but not on an energetic basis. Due to land limitations as well as cost and GHG uncertainty, a stronger focus on the land use of crop-based biofuels should be laid in policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0379.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: chlorophyll fluorescence; fog system; greenhouse; energy flux; OJIP; photosynthesis
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:48:01 CET)
The low relative humidity (RH) levels in a greenhouse during the daytime in a strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch) cultivation period negatively affect the growth of strawberry related to photo-physiology. Therefore, this study was conducted to confirm an efficient RH management method by analyzing the phenotypic characteristics related to photo-physiology by controlling the RH in a greenhouse during the daytime with a fog system. Strawberry plants were grown respectively in a greenhouse affected by natural RH changes (control) and in a greenhouse with 40% ~ 50% RH adjusted during the daytime using a fog system. In the greenhouse, with controlled RH, the temperature decreased, and the RH was higher in the initial growth stage of strawberry planting than the control. It was observed a significant increase in the survival rate of the strawberry plant, as well as the incidence of powdery mildew, was lowered. In addition, the photosynthetic rate and OJIP chlorophyll a fluorescence transients related to photosystem II efficiency of strawberry leaves were significantly higher in the fog treatment than in the control. In winter, during the day, the number of days on which the temperature dropped below 20℃ has increased, the greenhouse temperature with controlled RH was lower due to the fog system. When the yield per strawberry plant in January and February was investigated, the control was higher than the RH treatment. Therefore, RH management using a fog system must be controlled at a level where a temperature range is adequate for plant growth, in which the efficient control of these parameters increases strawberry productivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0376.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Cucumis sativus L.; Tobamovirus; greenhouse sanitization; disease resistance; grafting
Online: 19 October 2020 (11:28:37 CEST)
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) is a re-emerging threat to greenhouse cucumber and other Cucurbitaceae crop productions worldwide. This seed-borne virus can easily spread from a contaminated seed to seedlings and to adjacent plants through mechanical contact of the foliage of diseased and healthy plants causing extensive yield losses. Additionally, infection may not be limited to the current crop but may also affect subsequent crops due to the long-term persistence of the virus on contaminated crop residues, greenhouse hard surfaces and soil or soil-less greenhouse substrates. In the present work, three greenhouse trials were conducted to develop an integrated pest management strategy towards controlling CGMMV in commercial cucumber greenhouses, by implementing an effective sanitization program and using resistant and grafted cucumber varieties. Results of sanitization trial highlighted that pressure washing and cleansing with an alkaline foam cleanser has eliminated CGMMV on some of the most heavily infested areas. However, three successive applications of cleanser and disinfectants were essential to completely eliminate CGMMV on porous and uneven surfaces, such as cement alleyway, tray gutter and floor mats. The varietal trial revealed that out of 15 cucumber varieties evaluated, two Mini (‘Katrina’ and ‘Khassib’) and three Long English (‘Sepire’, ‘Bomber’ and ‘LC13900’) had reduced or delayed CGMMV infection spread in the greenhouse but were intermediate in yield. The varieties ‘Sunniwell’ and ‘Bonbon’ were the most tolerant to CGMMV. They showed a high CGMMV infection level without compromising yield. These results proved the need for new productive cucumber varieties with CGMMV resistance. Grafting experiment showed only yield increase in case of grafted ‘Picowell’ over ‘Bonbon’ and not marked CGMMV resistance, which is a much desirable result when the grafting experiments are evaluated for their economic potential. In all, the current experimental trials unfold unique methodologies on CGMMV management in commercial greenhouses that are recommended to the growers to be followed for reducing crop losses and get benefitted on revenue compromise.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: systematic review; community intervention; greenhouse gas emissions; climate change
Online: 3 September 2020 (02:54:04 CEST)
This paper reviews research on community efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. We conducted a systematic search of relevant literature and supplemented our findings with an analysis of review papers previously published on the topic. Results indicate that there have been no peer-reviewed experimental evaluations of community-wide interventions to reduce greenhouse gases involving electricity, refrigeration, or food. The lack of findings limits the conclusions which can be made about the efficacy of these efforts. As a result, we are not accumulating effective interventions and some communities may be implementing strategies that are not effective. We advocate the funding of experimental evaluations of multi-sector community interventions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Such interventions would attempt to engage every sector of the community in identifying and implementing policies and practices to reduce emissions. Comprehensive multi-sector interventions are likely to have synergistic effects, such that the total impact is greater than the sum of impact of individual components. We describe the value of interrupted time-series designs as an alternative to randomized trials because these designs confer particular advantages for evaluating strategies in entire communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0297.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: cattle straw manure; bedding additives; ammonia; greenhouse gases; Zeolite
Online: 25 January 2020 (15:48:15 CET)
We studied the influence of lava meal, zeolite and top layer of sandy soil as bedding additives on gaseous C and N losses from a sloping-floor barn of naturally ventilated animal housing. We selected four barn units where eight young bulls’ group was reared in each barn. Chopped straw of wheat and barley applied daily at the rate of 5 kg per livestock unit (LU) in bedding areas where one LU consisted of 500 kg body mass of live bulls. Zeolite, lava meal and sandy soil (18% clay + silt) applied in barn at the rate of 10, 20 and 30% of straw dose, respectively. Static flux chamber was used to measure gases emissions from the barn unit and mass balance calculation was used to calculate straw manure total N (TN) losses during housing phase. On an average, all bedding additives decreased 85% of the NH3 emission compared to control; however, they did not influence CH4 emission. Zeolite decreased CO2 (35%) and N2O (37%) emission rates. Subsequently, lava meal, sandy soil and zeolite decreased 23, 37, and 50% of TN losses from barn manure, respectively. Overall, measured N emissions through NH3-N and N2O-N from the barns was 11% of calculated TN losses while remainder 89% was most probably attributed to di-nitrogen (N2), a harmless gas. Hence, in straw-based cattle housings, zeolite could be a promising additive for reduction of CO2, N2O and NH3 emissions and sandy soil can be considered as cheap and readily available resource for reducing NH3 emission.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0397.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: methane emissions; coal seam mining; gas engines; greenhouse gas
Online: 30 November 2019 (14:27:52 CET)
During the extraction of hard coal in Polish conditions, methane is emitted, which is referred to as mine gas. As a result of the desorption of methane, a greenhouse gas is released from coal seams. In order to reduce atmospheric emissions, methane from coal seams is captured by a methane drainage system. On the other hand, methane, which has been separated into underground mining excavations, is discharged into the atmosphere with a stream of ventilation air. For many years, Polish hard coal mines have been capturing methane to ensure the safety of the crew and the continuity of mining operations. As a greenhouse gas, methane has a significant potential, as it is more effective at absorbing and re-emitting radiation than carbon dioxide. The increase in the amount of methane in the atmosphere is a significant factor influencing global warming, however, it is not as strong as the increase in carbon dioxide. Therefore, in Polish mines, the methane-air mixture captured in the methane drainage system is not emitted to the atmosphere, but burned as fuel in systems, including cogeneration systems, to generate electricity, heat and cold. However, in order for such use to be possible, the methane-air mixture must meet appropriate quality and quantity requirements. The article presents an analysis of changes in selected parameters of the captured methane-air mixture from one of the hard coal mines in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in Poland. The paper analyses the changes in concentration and size of the captured methane stream through the methane capturing system. The gas captured by the methane drainage system, as an energy source, can be used in cogeneration, when the methane concentration is greater than 40%. Considering the variability of CH4 concentration in the captured mixture, it was also indicated which pure methane stream must be added to the gas mixture in order for this gas to be used as a fuel for gas engines. The balance of power of produced electric energy in gas engines is presented. Possible solutions ensuring constant concentration of the captured methane-air mixture are also presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0169.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: greenhouse gases; operating profit; mitigations; carbon price; environmental footprint
Online: 15 November 2019 (03:51:03 CET)
Between 2011 and 2016 small-scale farm trials were run across three dairy regions of New Zealand (Waikato, Canterbury, Otago) to compare the performance of typical regional farm systems with farm systems implementing a combination of mitigation options most suitable to the region. The trials ran for at least three consecutive years with detailed recording of milk production and input costs. Nitrate leaching per hectare of the milking platform (where lactating cows are kept) was estimated using either measurements (suction cups), models, or soil mineral nitrogen measurements. Post-trial, detailed farm information was used in the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory methodology to calculate the emissions from all sources; dairy platform, dairy support land used for wintering non-lactating cows (where applicable) and replacement stock, and imported supplements. Nitrate leaching was also estimated for the support land and growing of supplements imported from off-farm using the same methods as for the platform. Operating profit (NZ$/ha/year), nitrate leaching (kg N/ha/year), and greenhouse gas emissions (t CO2-e/ha/year) were all expressed per hectare of milking platform to enable comparisons across regions. Nitrate leaching mitigations adopted in lower-input (less imported feed and N fertiliser) farm systems reduced leaching by 22 to 30 percent, and greenhouse gas emissions by between nine and 24 percent. The exception was the wintering barn system in Otago where nitrate leaching was reduced by 45 percent but greenhouse gas emissions were unchanged due to greater manure storage and handling. Important drivers of a lower environmental footprint are reducing nitrogen fertiliser and imported feed. Their effect is to reduce nitrogen surplus and feed flow through the herd and drive down both greenhouse gas emissions and nitrate leaching. Emission reductions in the lower-input systems of Waikato and Canterbury came at an average loss of profit of approximately NZ$100/t CO2-e (three to five percent of industry average profit per hectare).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0227.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: artificial neural network; carbon dioxide; greenhouse gases; GMDH; GDP
Online: 22 June 2019 (16:17:02 CEST)
Increase in the emission of Greenhouse Gases (GHS) is among the significant concerns of government, societies, and policymakers. Due to the highest share of carbon dioxide in the produced GHGs, it is necessary to assess the factors that influence its emission. Energy systems and economic activities noticeably influence the amount of carbon dioxide production of countries. In this article, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) in addition to a linear correlation used to predict carbon dioxide emission of four CIS countries, including Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Azerbaijan based the consumption of various energy sources and GDP, as the economic indicator. According to the obtained data by the proposed models, carbon dioxide emission can be accurately estimated by utilizing the mentioned input data. Models’ R-squared value are 0.9997 and 0.9999 in the cases of applying the correlation and ANN-based model. Moreover, the average absolute relative deviations by utilizing the correlation and GMDH ANN are approximately 1.05% and 0.61%, respectively. These statistical values demonstrate more proper performance of the ANN-based model compared with the applied linear correlation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0597.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: global energy budget; simple greenhouse model; infrared-opaque limit
Online: 27 November 2018 (03:47:23 CET)
Earth atmosphere is almost opaque in the infrared: about 374 W/m2 is absorbed by the atmosphere out of 396 W/m2 surface upward longwave radiation, and only about 22 W/m2 leaves the system unabsorbed in the atmospheric window. This makes rise to the idea to approximate the annual global mean energy flow system from a simple idealized greenhouse model, where the surface is surrounded by a single-layer shortwave (SW) transparent, longwave (LW) opaque, non-turbulent atmosphere. The energy flows in this geometry can be described by elementary arithmetic relationships. Starting from this model, the realistic Earth’s atmosphere can be achieved by introducing partial atmospheric SW opacity, partial atmospheric LW transparency and turbulent fluxes during the course of the deduction. The resulted global mean energy flow system is then compared to several data sets such as satellite observations from the CERES mission; estimates using direct surface observations and climate models; global energy and water cycle assessments; and independent detailed clear-sky radiative transfer computations. We find that the deduction from this idealized model approximates the real values in Earth energy budget with reasonable accuracy: the deduced fluxes and the observed ones are consistent within the acknowledged error of observations; while fundamental features of the initial geometry like special ratios and definite relationships between the fluxes are preserved.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0125.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: conservation agriculture; soil greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes; soil tillage
Online: 10 April 2018 (10:02:25 CEST)
Conservation Agriculture (CA) alters soil properties and microbial processes compared to conventional agriculture. These changes can affect soil-atmosphere greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. In this overview, we summarized the results of global literature and the gaps in measuring and understanding of GHG fluxes in CA systems and conventional agriculture. Some studies compared soil carbon sequestration and soil respiration in conservation agriculture and no-tillage system with conventional agriculture and the results were not consistent in all experiments. Interactions between CA pillars and soil factors such as soil moisture, temperature, texture can determine the rate of respiration rate and soil-atmosphere CO2 fluxes. The majority of studies reported larger N2O emissions in no-tillage treatment compared with conventional tillage while some other studies reported no difference between no-tillage and conventional tillage systems. In the majority of CA studies, there is lack of required information which is necessary to understand the mechanisms and processes that affect soil GHG fluxes. Determining factors like climate, amount of plant residues, soil type, crop types included in crop rotation and cover crops and duration of the study are not considered. Static chamber method was used for measuring soil-atmosphere GHG fluxes in the majority of studies. Spatial and temporal changes in GHG flux rates are high and missing part of highly episodic events by using static chamber method may result over- or under-estimation in flux balance calculation. Applying standard techniques for measuring continuous fluxes can help to calculating accurate GHG balance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0129.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: feasibility; solar thermal energy; heat process; greenhouse gas emissions
Online: 17 March 2017 (04:05:07 CET)
This paper evaluates the potential of solar concentration technologies—compound parabolic collector (CPC), linear Fresnel collector (LFC) and parabolic trough collector (PTC)—as an alternative to conventional sources of energy for industrial processes in Latin America, where high levels of solar radiation and isolated areas without energy supply exist. The analysis is addressed from energy, economic and environmental perspective. A specific application for Argentina in which fourteen locations are analyzed is considered. Results show that solar concentration technologies can be an economically and environmentally viable alternative. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) ranges between 2.5 and 16.9 c€/kWh/m2 and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions avoided range between 33 and 348 kgCO2/(m2·year). CPC technology stands out as the most recommendable technology when the working fluid temperature ranges from 373K to 423K. As the working fluid temperature increases the differences between the LCOE values of the CPC and LFC technologies decrease. When 523K is reached LFC technology is the one which presents the lowest LCOE values for all analyzed sites, while the LCOE values of PTC technology are close to CPC technology values. Results show that solar concentration technologies have reached economic and environmental competitiveness levels under certain scenarios, mainly linked to solar resource available, thermal level requirements and solar technology cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0043.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Grass; Greenhouse Gases; Ruminal Degradation; Secondary Metabolites; Tropical Livestock Systems
Online: 4 October 2021 (10:40:05 CEST)
Enteric methane (CH4) emitted by ruminant species is known as one of the main greenhouse gases produced by the agricultural sector. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, in vitro gas production, dry matter degradation (DMD), digestibility, CO2 production and CH4 mitigation potential of five tropical tree species with novel forage potential including: Spondias mombin, Acacia pennatula, Parmentiera aculeata, Brosimum alicastrum and Bursera simaruba mixed at two levels of inclusion (15 and 30%) with a tropical grass (Pennisetum purpureum). Crude protein content was similar across treatments (135 g kg-1 DM), while P. purpureum was characterized by a high content of acid detergent fiber (335.9 g kg-1 DM) and B. simaruba by a high concentration of condensed tannins (20 g kg-1 DM). Likewise, A. pennatula and P. aculeata were characterized by a high content of cyanogenic glycosides and alkaloids respectively. Treatments SM30-PP70 (30% S. mombin + 70% P. purpureum) and BA30-PP70 (30% B. alicastrum + 70% P. purpureum) resulted in superior digestibility than P. purpureum, while in the AP30-PP70 (30% A. pennatula + 70% P. purpureum) was lower than the control treatment (P≤0.05). At 24 and 48 h, treatments that contained P. aculeata and B. alicastrum produced higher CH4 ml g-1 DOM than P. purpureum (P≤0.05). The inclusion of B. simaruba at 30% reduced CH4 at 25% compared to P. purpureum. Tropical tree species can improve the nutritional quality of ruminant rations and reduce CH4 emissions to consequently contribute to the development of sustainable ruminant production systems that generate diverse ecosystem services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0146.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Amazon rainforest; forestry degradation; greenhouse gas emission; remote sensing application.
Online: 7 December 2020 (12:25:25 CET)
This work presents the dynamics of forest clearing in the Brazilian Amazon during the period 2006–2019 in which includes the approval of the new Brazilian Forest Code in 2012. The study was carried out in the Brazilian Amazon, Pará State and in the municipality of Novo Progresso (Pará State). The analysis was based on deforestation and fire hotspot datasets issued by the Brazilian Institute for Space Research (INPE), produced based on optical and thermal sensors onboard different satellites. Deforestation data was also used to assess greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the slash-and-burn practices. The work showed a good correlation between the occurrence of fires in the newly deforested area in the municipality of Novo Progresso and the slash-and-burn practices. The same trend was also observed in the Pará State, suggesting a common practice along the deforestation arch. The study indicated positive coefficients of determination of 0.72 and 0.66 between deforestation and fire occurrences for the municipality of Novo Progresso and Pará State, respectively. The increased number of fire occurrences in the primary forest suggests possible ecosystem degradation. Deforestation reported for 2019 surpassed 10,000 km2, a significant intensification comparatively higher than the previous ten years which was on an average of 6,760 km2. The steady increase of deforestation in the Amazon after 2012 has been a worldwide concern because of the forest loss itself as well as the massive GHG emitted in the Brazilian Amazon (295 million tons of net CO2 equivalent in the year 2019). Better correlation of deforestation and fires occurrences reported from satellite images confirmed the slash-and-burn practice and the secondary effect of deforestation, which degrades primary forest surrounding the deforested areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0085.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: climate change; energy policy; exergy analysis; exergetic intensity; greenhouse gases
Online: 5 September 2018 (05:11:11 CEST)
Diverse factors may have an impact in Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions; thus, three main contributors, energy consumption, exergy indicator and gross domestic product (GDP) are examined in this work. This study explores the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption by means of the hypothesis postulated for the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). Panel data for 10 countries, from 1971 to 2014 have been studied. Despite all this wide gamma of research, the role of an exergy variable has not been tested to find the EKC; then exergy analysis is proposed. Exergy analyses were developed to propose an exergetic indicator as a control variable and a comparative empirical study is developed to study a multivariable framework with the aim to detect correlations between them. High correlation between CO2, GDP, energy consumption, energy intensity and trade openness are observed, conversely not statistically significant values for trade openness and energy intensity. The results do not support the EKC hypothesis, however exergy intensity opens the door for future research once it proves to be a useful control variable. Exergy provides opportunities to analyze and implement energy and environmental policies in these countries, with the possibility to link exergy efficiencies and the use of renewables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0318.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: input efficiency use; Kosovar greenhouse vegetable industry; tomatoes and peppers
Online: 20 June 2018 (09:40:52 CEST)
This study evaluates the input efficiency of greenhouse tomato and pepper farms in Kosovo. Using data collected from farm surveys, we conduct an input-oriented data envelopment analysis (DEA) to empirically assess input efficiency. Secondly, linear regression analysis is used to investigate which farm variables predict greenhouse tomato and pepper technical efficiency (TE). The DEA results indicated that among the seven regions in Kosovo, Prizren emerged as the most efficient greenhouse tomato producing region with a mean efficiency of 0.83 (on a scale of 0 to 1). Prishtina followed with a mean efficiency of 0.80. In the production of greenhouse peppers, Prishtina was the most efficient region with a mean efficiency of 0.99. Ferizaj followed with a mean efficiency of 0.93. Conclusions about farm characteristics that explain differences in efficiency were sensitive to model specification. Nevertheless, depending on the structural and operational characteristics of the greenhouse tomato and pepper farms, there is an opportunity for the technically inefficient farms and regions to improve their use of inputs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2040077
Subject: Keywords: temperature; global warming; greenhouse gases; atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> concentration
Online: 20 October 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
It is common knowledge that increasing CO2 concentration plays a major role in enhancement of the greenhouse effect and contributes to global warming. The purpose of this study is to complement the conventional and established theory that increased CO2 concentration due to human emissions causes an increase of temperature, by considering the reverse causality. Since increased temperature causes an increase in CO2 concentration, the relationship of atmospheric CO2 and temperature may qualify as belonging to the category of “hen-or-egg” problems, where it is not always clear which of two interrelated events is the cause and which the effect. We examine the relationship of global temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration at the monthly time step, covering the time interval 1980–2019, in which reliable instrumental measurements are available. While both causality directions exist, the results of our study support the hypothesis that the dominant direction is
T → CO2. Changes in CO2 follow changes in T by about six months on a monthly scale, or about one year on an annual scale. We attempt to interpret this mechanism by involving biochemical reactions, as at higher temperatures soil respiration, and hence CO2 emission, are increasing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0041.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Children; diet; greenhouse gas emission; intervention; linear programming; optimization; sustainable development
Online: 2 September 2020 (10:37:18 CEST)
Introducing children to sustainable and healthy school meals can promote a long-term dietary shift to lower climate impact and improve population health. The aim of the OPTIMAT study was to optimize meals for minimum deviation from the current food supply while reducing greenhouse gases and ensuring nutritional adequacy without increasing cost. Optimized menus were tested in four primary schools in Sweden and effects on daily food consumption and waste evaluated. Pupils received their usual menu plan for three weeks and then the isocaloric optimized menu plan for another three weeks. Nutritional recommendations for a school lunch and a maximum of 500 grams of CO2eq/meal were applied as constraints during linear programming. Pulses, Cereals, Meat and Eggs increased, while Fats and Oils, Dairy, Sauces and Seasonings decreased. The amount of ruminant meat was reduced in favor of other meat products. The new menu was 28% lower in greenhouse gas emissions and slightly less costly than the original. No significant changes in mean food consumption or plate waste were found in interrupted time series analysis between the two periods. This pragmatic approach for combining linear optimization with meal planning could accelerate sustainable development of the meal sector in Sweden and abroad.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0401.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: gas separation; lattice dynamic; mixed gas hydrates, greenhouse gases, computer modeling
Online: 16 November 2018 (10:51:20 CET)
In this contribution, a method based on a solid solution theory of clathrate hydrate for multiple cage occupancy, host lattice relaxation and guest-guest interactions has been presented to estimate hydrate formation conditions of binary and ternary gas mixtures. We have performed molecular modeling of structure, guest distribution, and hydrate formation conditions for the CO2 + CH4, and CO2 + CH4 + N2 gas hydrates. In all considered systems with and without N2, at high and medium content of CO2 in the gas phase we have found that CO2 is more favorable to occupy clathrate hydrate cavities than CH4 or N2. Addition of N2 to the gas phase increases ratio concentration CO2 in compressing with concentration CH4 in clathrate hydrates and makes gas replacement more effective. The mole fractions of CO2 in CO2 + CH4 + N2 gas hydrate rapidly increases with the growth of its content in the gas phase. And the formation pressure of CO2 + CH4 + N2 gas hydrate rises in comparison with the formation pressure of CO2 + CH4 gas hydrate. Obtained results agree with the known experimental data for simple CH4, CO2 gas hydrates and mixed CO2 + CH4 gas hydrate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0175.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: greenhouse gasses; carbon reduction; energy efficiency; motion sensor; automatic light switch
Online: 13 April 2018 (07:40:05 CEST)
High electricity demand for consumption at current supply level in Indonesia led to the rising cost of electricity bills. This factor is compounded by the fact that many electric generators in Indonesia still use fossil fuels, which contributes to the high basic generation cost. UBL is one of the universities that aim to be a green campus. Our research explores the possibility of installing motion sensor to contribute on the energy efficiency. Although mostly common in developed countries, the use of motion sensor for energy efficiency is still rare, especially in Indonesia. despite rising cost and supply shortages, Indonesian buildings are still of high energy consumption. our experiment shows that simple installation of commercially available motion sensors can contribute to reduce the electricity bill from the increase of energy efficiency. One of the efforts to lower energy demand in consumer side is to use the electricity efficiently, such as turning off lights in a room when it's not in use. This method can be simply done by turning the light switches for office and classrooms, but difficult to do in public spaces such as toilets and corridors. Our experiment shows that simple installation of commercially available motion sensors can contribute to reduce the electricity bill from the increase of energy efficiency. Automatic light switches experimentally installed in sample toilet room prove that electricity consumption from the lamps can contribute to the reduction of total weekly energy that translates into Green House Gas emission reduction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0165.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: oil and gas production; atmospheric emissions; greenhouse gases; gas flaring; H2S
Online: 26 November 2017 (12:21:40 CET)
This paper addresses the atmospheric emissions from oil and gas extraction and production in Greece. The study was carried out in 2014 in the Kavala gulf, which currently is the only location of oil and gas production in Greece and where the exploration activities for hydrocarbons started in the late ‘60’s. This study presents the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of atmospheric emissions, in relation also to the emissions’ control management system. Particular reference is made to sulphur compounds since the existence of volcanic rocks results to increased amounts of H2S. The results shows that, currently, atmospheric emissions of pollutants during extraction and production of hydrocarbons in Greece are very low and do not have any significant effect on air quality and climate change. Since it is expected that exploitation of hydrocarbons and oil and gas extraction and production will increase in the future, appropriate measures should be taken to ensure environmental protection, such as the development of integrated monitoring systems and the use of up to date emission control technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0063.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Native shrubs; In vitro fermentation; volatile fatty acids; greenhouse gases; hill country
Online: 5 July 2022 (07:40:50 CEST)
Information on the nutritive value and in vitro fermentation characteristics of native shrubs in New Zealand is scant. This is despite their potential as alternatives to exotic trees and shrubs for sup-plementary fodder, and mitigation of greenhouse gas and soil erosion on hill country sheep and beef farms. The objectives of this study were to measure the in vitro fermentation gas production, predict parameters of in vitro fermentation kinetics and to estimate in vitro fermentation of volatile fatty acids (VFA), microbial biomass (MBM) and greenhouse gases of four native shrubs (Coprosma robusta, Griselinia littoralis, Hoheria populnea and Pittosporum crassifolium) and an exotic fodder tree species, Salix schwerinii. Total in vitro gas production was higher (p<0.05) for natives than S. schwerinii. Prediction using the single pool model resulted in biologically incorrect negative in vitro total gas production from the immediately soluble fraction of the native shrubs. However, the dual pool model better predicted in vitro total gas production and was in alignment with measured in vitro fermentation end products. In vitro VFA and greenhouse gas production from fermentation of leaf and stem material were higher (p<0.05), and MBM lower (p<0.05), for native shrubs com-pared to S. schwerinii. The lower in vitro total gas production, VFA and greenhouse gases produc-tion, and higher MBM of S. schwerinii may be explained by the presence of condensed tannins (CT), although this was not measured and requires further study. In conclusion, results from this study suggests that when consumed by ruminant livestock, the browsable native shrubs can provide adequate energy and microbial protein, and that greenhouse gas production from these species is within ranges reported for typical New Zealand pastures.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0337.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: pollutant emissions; hydrogen combustion; alternative fuels; CFD; NOx emissions; greenhouse gasses; aviation
Online: 25 February 2022 (13:37:28 CET)
The present is a study of the CFD simulations intended to simulate the emissions of pollutants that are generated after the combustion of proposed alternative aircraft fuels (Hydrogen, Ethanol and Methane) to compare with the emissions generated after the combustion of Kerosene and Benzene in a 2D cylindrical combustion chamber. Given that air traffic is a main contributor to not only 3% of man-made greenhouse effects but also of the generation of smog over heavy air traffic urban areas generating an impact on the air quality and the population of those areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0499.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: greenhouse gas balance; wood products; forest management; climate change mitigation; carbon storage
Online: 31 December 2021 (10:32:16 CET)
The global carbon neutrality challenge places a spotlight on forests as carbon sinks. However, greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of wood for material and energy use often reveal GHG emission savings in comparison with a non-wood reference. Is it thus better to increase wood production and use, or to conserve and expand the carbon stock in forests? GHG balances of wood products mostly ignore the dynamics of carbon storage in forests, which can be expressed as the carbon storage balance in forests (CSBF). For Germany, a CSBF of 0.25 to 1.15 t CO2/m³ wood can be assumed. When the CSBF is integrated into the GHG balance, GHG mitigation substantially deteriorates and wood products may even turn into a GHG source, e.g. in the case of energy wood. Here, building up the forest carbon sink would be the better option. We conclude that it is vital to include the CSBF in GHG balances of wood products if the wood is extracted from forests. Only then can GHG balances provide political decision-makers and stakeholders in the wood sector with a complete picture of GHG emissions.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: climate change; greenhouse gas emissions; methane; nitrous oxide; cow manure; anaerobic digestion
Online: 4 December 2020 (13:45:39 CET)
Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions from dairy farms are significant contributors to global warming. However much of the published work on GHG reduction is focused on either Methane (CH4) or Nitrous Oxide (N2O), with few, if any, considering the interactions that changes to farm systems can have on both gases. This paper takes the raw data from a year of activity on a 300 cow commercial dairy farm in Northern Ireland to more accurately quantify the GHG sources by use of a simple predictive model based on IPCC methodology. Differing herd management policies are examined together with the impact of integrating Anaerobic Digestion (AD) into each farm system. Whilst significant success can be predicted in capturing CH4 and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) as biogas and preventing N2O emissions, gains made can be lost in a subsequent process negating some or all of the advantage. The process of extracting value from the captured resource is discussed in the light of current farm parameters together with indications of other potential revenue streams. However, this study has concluded that despite the significant potential for GHG reduction, there is little incentive for widespread adoption of manure based farm scale AD in the UK at this time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0346.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Artificial Neural Network; Greenhouse gases; GMDH; Middle Eastern countries; Carbon dioxide emission
Online: 29 May 2019 (10:17:43 CEST)
Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emission has considerable impact on global warming and climate change. Since energy systems and their features noticeably influence on the amount of GHGs emission, it can be modeled based on the specifications of energy sources utilized by the countries. In addition, economic activity is another factor which should be considered in GHG emission modeling. In this work, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is used for estimating carbon dioxide emission, as one of the most abundant GHGs, on the basis of shares of various energy sources used as primary energy supply and GDP as an indicator for economic activities. Five countries including Iran, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates (UAE) are considered as case studies. Comparing between the estimated data by the achieved model and actual quantities showed acceptable precision of the ANN model for prediction of carbon dioxide emission. The average absolute relative error and the R-squared values of the GMDH model are approximately 2.28% and 0.9998, respectively. The obtained values for the mentioned statistical criteria show the precision of the model in forecasting the emission of Co2.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0435.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Electric Vehicles; Greenhouse Gas; Climate Change; Transportation; Energy; Renewables; Lifecycle Assessment; Electricity Grid
Online: 17 December 2020 (15:52:28 CET)
An indisputable fact about our planet is that its atmospheric temperature has risen dramatically during the past century. Combustion of fossil fuels and their subsequent greenhouse gas emissions are thought to be the main contributors to recent changes within the Earth’s ecosystem. The transportation sector and electricity generating power plants are each responsible for approximately one-third of these emissions. Shifting towards a cleaner and renewable resources to generate electricity is believed to omit a big portion of polluting substances. Improvements in vehicles’ fuel efficiency and the introduction of alternative fuels besides strategic plans to control travel demand are among the most promising approaches to alleviate emissions from the transportation sector. Recent technology advancements, however, drew much attention to the production and manufacturing of alternative fuel vehicles, electric vehicles in particular. Since these vehicles use electricity as part of or all their powertrain, assessing the amount of emissions they produce is closely tied to the cleanliness of the electricity source. In order for a valid comparison to be made between internal combustion and electric vehicles, hence, a life cycle assessment procedure needs to be followed from production stages to terminal life of vehicles. Involvement of numerous affecting factors during the lifetime of a vehicle on one hand, and the ambiguity in the exact source of electricity used to charge electric vehicles on the other hand bring about more complexities. The latter case is more commonly known as the marginal grid problem, which deals with how a combination of sources used to generate electricity can influence the life cycle emissions. There are also other concerns regarding the growth in fuel-efficient and electric vehicles. Transportation planners argue that new developments in the vehicle industry may attract more people to owning and driving cars. This phenomenon which is better known as a rebound effect not only will result in increased traffic congestion, but it can also outpace the environmental benefits from utilizing electric vehicles. Moreover, since fuel taxes comprise the majority of Highway Trust Funds, alternative ways to compensate for state and federal revenues should be devised. This paper is an attempt to review the existing literature to better elaborate on the role of the transportation sector in controlling climate change threats. More specifically, issues around the use of electric vehicles and how they can contribute to more environmentally friendly communities are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0315.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: biochar; greenhouse gas emissions; incubation; soil; corn; switchgrass; CO2; N2O; cropping system; diversity
Online: 15 October 2018 (13:10:52 CEST)
Biochar application to soil has been proposed as a means for reducing soil greenhouse gas emissions and mitigating climate change. The effects, however, of interactions between biochar, moisture and temperature on soil CO2 and N2O emissions, remain poorly understood. Furthermore, the applicability of lab-scale observations to field conditions in diverse agroecosystems remains uncertain. Here we investigate the impact of a mixed wood gasification biochar on CO2 and N2O emissions from loess-derived soils using: (1) controlled laboratory incubations at three moisture (27, 31 and 35%) and three temperature (10, 20 and 30°C) levels, and (2) a field study with four cropping systems (continuous corn, switchgrass, low diversity grass mix, and high diversity grass-forb mix). Biochar reduced N2O emissions under specific temperatures and moistures in the laboratory and in the continuous corn cropping system in the field. However, the effect of biochar on N2O emissions was only significant in the field, and no effect on cumulative CO2 emissions was observed. Cropping system also had a significant effect in the field study, with soils in grass and grass-forb cropping systems emitting more CO2 and less N2O than corn cropping systems. Observed biochar effects were consistent with previous studies showing that biochar amendments can reduce soil N2O emissions under specific, but not all, conditions. The disparity in N2O emission responses at the lab and field scales suggests that laboratory incubation experiments are not reliable for predicting the impact of biochar at the field scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0319.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: YOLOv4; Faster RCNN; Deep-SORT; pig posture detection; object tracking; greenhouse gas; animal welfare
Online: 21 October 2021 (23:06:30 CEST)
Pig behavior is an integral part of health and welfare management, as pigs usually reflect their inner emotions through behavior change. The livestock environment plays a key role in pigs' health and wellbeing. A poor farm environment increases the toxic GHGs, which might deteriorate pigs' health and welfare. In this study a computer-vision-based automatic monitoring and tracking model was proposed to detect short-term pigs' physical activities in a compromised environment. The ventilators of the livestock barn were closed for an hour, three times in a day (07:00-08:00, 13:00-14:00, and 20:00-21:00) to create a compromised environment, which increases the GHGs level significantly. The corresponding pig activities were observed before, during, and after an hour of the treatment. Two widely used object detection models (YOLOv4 and Fast-er R-CNN) were trained and compared their performances in terms of pig localization and posture detection. The YOLOv4, which outperformed the Faster R-CNN model, coupled with a Deep-SORT tracking algorithm to detect and track the pig activities. The results showed that the pigs became more inactive with the increase in GHG concentration, reducing their standing and walking activities. Moreover, the pigs also shortened their sternal-lying posture increasing the lateral lying posture duration at higher GHG concentration. The high detection accuracy (mAP: 98.67%) and tracking accuracy (MOTA: 93.86% and MOTP: 82.41%) signify the models’ efficacy in monitoring and tracking pigs' physical activities non-invasively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0176.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: soil health; soil organic matter; greenhouse gases; climatic change scenarios; Chernozems; long-term experiment
Online: 8 September 2020 (06:11:53 CEST)
Organic carbon (OC) accumulation in soil mitigates greenhouse gases emission and improves soil health. We aimed to quantify the dynamics of OC stock in soils and to justify technologies that allow annual increasing OC stock in the arable soil layer by 4‰. We based the study on a field experiment established in 1936 in the 9-field crop rotation with a fallow on Chernozem in European Russia. The RothC version 26.3 was used for the reproducing and forecasting OC dynamics. In all fertilizer applications at FYM background, there was a decrease in the OC stock with preferable loss of active OC, except the period 1964-71 with 2-5‰ annual OC increase. The model estimated the annual C input in the arable soil layer as 1,900 kg·ha-1. For increasing OC stocks by 4‰ per year, one should raise input to 2400 kg·ha-1. Simulation was made for 2016-2090 using climate scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Crop rotation without fallowing provided an initial increase of 3‰ and 6‰ of stocks in the RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios accordingly, followed by a loss in accumulated OC. Simulation demonstrates difficulties to increase OC concentration in Chernozems under intensive farming and potential capacity to rise OC stock through yield management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0508.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: craft brewery, greenhouse gas accounting, carbon regulation, carbon footprint, cap and trade, institutional theory
Online: 22 October 2018 (15:40:11 CEST)
A growing number of companies in the brewery industry have made commitments to measure and reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, many brewers, particularly craft brewers with relatively low rates of production, have struggled to meet these commitments. The purpose of this research was to investigate the challenges and benefits of measuring and reducing GHG emissions in the craft brewery industry. The research was conducted in Ontario, Canada, which has seen strong recent growth in the craft brewery industry. A case study and semi-structured interviews among Ontario Craft Brewers were conducted. The case study found that indirect (scope 3 emissions under the WBCSD & WRI GHG Protocol) GHG sources accounted for 46.4% of total GHGs, with major sources from barley agriculture, malted barley transportation, and bottle production. Direct emissions (scope 1) accounted for only 14.9% of GHGs, while scope 2 emissions, comprised mainly of energy consumption, accounted for 38.7% of GHGs. The case study and interviews found that the main challenges in calculating brewery GHGs are secondary data availability, technical knowledge, and finances. The study also found that the main benefits for Ontario breweries to measure their GHGs include sustainability marketing and preserving the environment. The interviews also found a poor understanding of carbon regulation among Ontario Craft Brewers, which is interesting considering that Ontario implemented a provincial cap and trade program in 2017.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0382.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: environmental assessment; novel LCEA model; electricity generating supply systems; lifecycle greenhouse gas grid emission factor
Online: 25 June 2018 (11:03:05 CEST)
Environmental assessment is a concept that has been designed to facilitate the present generation to meet their needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs as well. Thus, this concept has drawn significant attention from various scholars, researchers and industrial practitioners around the world over the past three decades. Life Cycle Environmental Assessment (LCEA) is a widely metric used to assess the potential ecological impacts, which can be caused by electricity generating supply systems or by other systems than power production plants. However, the current LCEA model is biased and ineffective. Because, its omits factors that are increasingly contributing to the ecological degradation. This study has identified the omitted factors through a critical analysis of a set of previous journal articles conducted in the energy sector. In light of this, this study has developed a novel LCEA framework addressing those blind spots. The framework developed in this study is holistic in nature including all the life cycle stages of a power supply system such as Extraction of the Raw Material (ERM), Transport of Raw Material (TRM), Conversion of Raw into Electricity (CRE), and Transmission and Distribution of Electricity (TDE) to the end users. The novel developed LCEA model has been tested and applied to nine power generation plants such as coal, gas, nuclear, biomass, geothermal, hydro, solar thermal, wind onshore and wind offshore. The results have demonstrated that of conventional technologies including coal, gas, and nuclear, coal energy generating source has got the highest life cycle greenhouse gas Grid Emission Factor (GEF) of 2866 kg CO2e/MWh, followed by gas with 728 kg CO2e/MWh, and nuclear has got the least GEF of 35 kg CO2e/MWh. Whereas of renewable energy sources biomass has got the highest GEF of 1508 kg CO2e/MWh, followed by solar thermal with 46.6 kg CO2e/MWh, hydro 39 kg CO2e/MWh, wind offshore 25.25 kg CO2e/MWh, wind onshore 10.1 kg CO2e/MWh, and geothermal closes the ranking with 6.23 kg CO2e/MWh.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0496.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids; high tunnel; greenhouse; plant factory; non-dormant; substrate; container; evergreen; high density
Online: 24 August 2020 (02:56:10 CEST)
Southern highbush blueberry plantations have been expanded into worldwide non-traditional growing areas with elite cultivars and improved horticultural practices. This article presents a comprehensive review of current production systems – alternatives to traditional open field production – such as production in protected environments, high-density plantings, evergreen production, and container-based production. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each system and compare their differences to the open field production. In addition, potential solutions have been provided for some of the disadvantages. We also highlight some of the gaps existing between academic studies and production in industry, providing a guide for future academic research. All these alternative systems have shown the potential to produce high yields with high quality berries. Alternative systems, compared to the field production, require higher establishment investments and thus create an entry barrier for new producers. Nevertheless, with their advantages, alternative productions have potential to be profitable.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Azerbaijan sustainable development; water electric heating; energy efficiency; green buildings; fuzzy logic temperature control; greenhouse gas emission.
Online: 12 April 2021 (15:13:45 CEST)
This paper discusses domestic problem of waiting hot water for the shower use till it reaches satisfactory temperature, which result a lot of wastage in fresh water. The outcome from research survey shows that there is no satisfactory solution till now as all solutions were either expensive or with no effective results. Local small inline electric heater equipped with fuzzy logic controller is proposed in this paper to be installed just before the showerhead to measure the water temperature and flow before the showerhead, as control input-variables, and decide the operating voltage of the heater, as control output-variable (MISO). MATLAB Simulink is used to model the proposed system. Different test cases are simulated to prove the performance and the safe operation of the system. Techno-economic study is carried out to determine the “Direct Benefits” and “Indirect Benefits” that can be achieved if such system is implemented in wide range. Azerbaijan data is taken as an example to calculate the economic benefits. The results show important benefits not only for economy but also for climate and the reduction of CO2 gas emission. Different economic indices are provided to be an easy reference for decision makers and project managers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0367.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: daily light integral (DLI) maps; LED grow lights; greenhouse integrated PV; adaptive lighting control; year-round cultivation; agrivoltaics
Online: 21 September 2021 (14:31:23 CEST)
High efficacy LED lamps combined with adaptive lighting control and greenhouse integrated photovoltaics (PV) could enable the concept of year-round cultivation and become a feasible option even in the harsh climate of the Nordic countries. Meteorological satellite data of this region was analyzed in a parametric study to evaluate the potential of these technologies. The generated maps showed monthly average temperatures fluctuating from -20°C to 20°C throughout the year. The natural photoperiod and light intensity also changed drastically, resulting in monthly average daily light integral (DLI) levels ranging from 45-50 mol·m-2·d-1 in summer and contrasting with 0-5 mol·m-2·d-1 during winter. To compensate, growth room cultivation independent from outdoor conditions could be used in winter. Depending on the efficacy of the lamps, the electricity required for sole-source lighting at 300 µmol·m-2·s-1 for 16 hours would be between 1.4 and 2.4 kWh·m-2·d-1. Greenhouses with supplementary lighting could help start the cultivation earlier in spring and extend it further into autumn. The energy required for lighting highly depends on several factors such as the natural light transmittance, the light threshold settings and the lighting control protocol, resulting in electric demands between 0.6 and 2.4 kWh·m-2·d-1. Integrating PV on the roof or wall structures of the greenhouse could offset some of this electricity, with specific energy yields ranging from 400 to 1120 kWh·kWp-2·yr-1 depending on the region and system design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0175.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Sub-Saharan Africa; FTIR spectroscopy; fertilizer microdosing; African leafy vegetables; greenhouse gas mitigation; sustainability; tropical agriculture; soil fertility
Online: 17 January 2020 (04:23:44 CET)
Fertility management techniques being promoted in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) seek to grow indigenous vegetables economically and sustainably. This study was conducted in a phytotron chamber and compared yield, soil carbon (C) speciation and greenhouse gas (nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2)) emissions from SSA soils of two ecoregions; the dry savanna (lna, Republic of Benin) and rainforest (Ife, Nigeria) cultivated with local amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) under manure (5 t/ha) and/or urea (80 kg N/ha) fertilization. Vegetable yield ranged from 1753 kg/ac to 3198kg/ac in the rainforest, RF, soils and 1281 kg/ac to 1951 kg/ac in the dry savanna, DS, soils. Yield in the urea treatment was slightly higher compared to the manure+urea treatment, but the difference was not statistically significant. Cumulative CO2 emissions over 21 days ranged from 497.06 to 579.47 g CO2 in the RF, and 322.96 to 624.97 g CO2 in the DS, while cumulative N2O emissions ranged from 60.53 to 220.86 mg N2O in the RF, and 24.78 to 99.08 mg N2O in the DS. In the RF samples, the combined use of manure and urea reduced CO2 and N2O emissions but led to an increase in the DS samples. ATR-FTIR analysis showed that the combined use of manure and urea increased the rate of microbial degradation in the soils of the DS, but no such effect was observed in soils of the RF. We conclude that combining manure and urea fertilization has different effects on soils of the two ecoregions, and that RF farmers can reduce agricultural emissions without compromising soil productivity and yield potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0015.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Cement Industry; Homer Pro Optimization; Techno-Economic Analysis; Sensitivity Analysis; Net Present Cost; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Levelized Cost of Electricity
Online: 1 August 2022 (08:56:53 CEST)
Cement manufacturing is one of the most energy-intensive industries in the world. Most of the cost of producing cement is accounted by fuel consumption and power expenditures. Thermal power plants are the major source of electricity in Pakistan. But they are not efficient and environmentally friendly. This study simulates four different models for five cement plants of Pakistan on Homer Pro software and compares the optimal solutions based on the net present cost (NPC), levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Model-1 consists of solar panels, electrolyzer, hydrogen tank, hydrogen generator and converter. Model-2 has only a diesel generator and acts as a base case in this study. Model-3 has solar panels and a battery-converter system. In Model-4, diesel generators, solar panels and converters are considered. Based on NPC, the most optimal model is Model-4, having a 0.249 $/KWh LCOE in islanded systems. The NPC and operating costs are US$540 million and US$ 32.5 million per year, respectively, with a 29.80% reduction in CO2 emissions when compared to the base case. Based on GHG emissions, Model-1 and Model-3 are the best models with 0% GHG emissions. Sensitivity analyses is also performed using the parameters of load, inflation rate and discounted rate. The results prove that the proposed hybrid micropower systems (HMS) can sustainably provide electricity for 24 hours a day to the sites under consideration with minimum objectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0614.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: air quality; air pollution; sustainable animal production; livestock and poultry; waste management; odor, ammonia; hydrogen sulfide; greenhouse gases; volatile organic compounds
Online: 26 October 2020 (09:33:12 CET)
Environmental impact associated with odor and gaseous emissions from animal manure is one of the challenges for communities, farmers, and regulatory agencies. Microbe-based manure additives treatments are marketed and used by farmers for mitigation of emissions. However, their performance is difficult to assess objectively. Thus, comprehensive, practical, and low-cost treatments are still in demand. We have been advancing such treatments based on physicochemical principles. The objective of this research was to test the effect of the surficial application of a thin layer (¼"; 6.3 mm) of biochar on the mitigation of gaseous emissions (as the percent reduction, % R) from swine manure. Two types of biochar were tested: highly alkaline and porous (HAP) biochar made from corn stover and red oak (RO), both with different pH and morphology. Three 30-day trials were conducted with a layer of HAP and RO (2.0 & 1.65 kg∙m-2, respectively) applied on manure surface, and emissions of ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), greenhouse gases (GHG), and odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured. The manure and biochar type and properties had an impact on the mitigation effect and its duration. RO significantly reduced NH3 (19-39%) and p-cresol (66-78%). H2S was mitigated (16~23%), but not significantly for all trials. Significant (66~78%) reductions for p-cresol were observed for all trials. The phenolic VOCs had relatively high % R in most trials but not significantly for all trials. HAP reduced NH3 (4~21%) and H2S (2~22%), but not significantly for all trials. Significant % R for p-cresol (91~97%) and skatole (74~95%) were observed for all trials. The % R for phenol and indole ranged from (60~99%) & (29~94%) but was not significant for all trials. The impact on GHGs, isobutyric acid, and the odor was mixed with some mitigation and generation effects. However, larger-scale experiments are needed to understand how biochar properties and the dose and frequency of application can be optimized to mitigate odor and gaseous emissions from swine manure. The lessons learned can also be applicable to surficial biochar treatment of gaseous emissions from other waste and area sources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0292.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: environmental monitoring; greenhouse gases; multi-sensor system; combined fiber optic sensors; fiber Bragg grating; addressed fiber Bragg structure; Fabry-Perot resonator; Carunen-Loeff transforms
Online: 21 June 2022 (10:26:11 CEST)
The design and usage of the addressed combined fiber-optic sensors (ACFOS) and the multisensory control systems of the greenhouse gas concentration on their basis are investigated. The main development trend of the combined fiber-optic sensors (CFOS), consisting of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and the Fabry-Perot resonator (FPR), which are successively formed at the optical fiber end, is highlighted. The addressed fiber Bragg structures (AFBS) usage instead of the FBG in the CFOS leads not only to significant cheapening of the sensor system due to microwave photonics interrogating methods, but also to increasing its metrological characteristics. The structural scheme of the multisensory gas concentration monitoring system is suggested. The suggested scheme allows detecting four types of the greenhouse gases (СО2, NO2, CH4, OX) depending on the material and thickness of the polymer film, which is the FPR sensitive element. The usage of Karunen-Loeff transform (KLT), which allows separating each component contribution to the reflected spectrum according to its efficiency, is proposed. In the future, it allows determining the gas concentration at the AFBS address frequencies. The estimations have shown that the ACFOS design in the multisensory system allows measuring the environment temperature in the range of −60…+300 °C with an accuracy of 0.1–0.01 °C, and the gas concentration in the range of 10…90% with the accuracy of 0.1–0.5%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0399.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Renewable energy; Life cycle analysis; Wind energy; Life cycle assessment; Wind turbine; Carbon footprint; Water consumption; Greenhouse gases; non-conventional renewable sources; Carbon and water footprints.
Online: 27 October 2021 (11:00:58 CEST)
Wind technology is considered to be among the most promising types of renewable energy sources, and due to high oil prices and growing concerns about climate change and energy security, it has been the subject of extensive considerations in recent years, including questions related to the relative sustainability of electricity production when the manufacturing, assembly, transportation and dismantling processes of these facilities are taken into account. The present article evaluates the environmental impacts, carbon emissions and water consumption, derived from the production of electric energy of the Villonaco wind farm, located in Loja-Ecuador, during its entire life cycle, using the Life Cycle Analysis method. Finally, it is concluded that wind energy has greater environmental advantages, since it has lower values of carbon and water footprints than other energy sources. Additionally, with the techniques Cumulative Energy Demand and Energy Return on Investment, sustainability in the production of electricity from wind power in Ecuador is demonstrated; and, that due to issues of vulnerability to climate change, the diversification of its energy mix is essential considering the inclusion of non-conventional renewable sources such as solar or wind, this being the only way to reduce both the carbon footprint and the water supply power.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Electric Vehicle; internal combustion engine; greenhouse gas; optimization techniques; Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV); Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV); Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV); Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV).
Online: 10 May 2017 (17:44:51 CEST)
Electric vehicles (EV) are getting more commonplace in the transportation sector in recent times. As the present trend suggests, this mode of transport is likely to replace the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in near future. Each of the main EV components has a number of technologies that are currently in use or can become prominent in the future. EVs can cause significant impacts on the environment, power system, and other related sectors. The present power system can face huge instabilities with enough EV penetration; but with proper management and coordination, EVs can be turned into a major contributor to the successful implementation of smart grid. There are possibilities of immense environmental benefits as well, as the EVs can extensively reduce the greenhouse gas emission from the transportation sector. However, there are some major obstacles for EVs to overcome before replacing the ICE vehicles totally. This paper is focused on reviewing all the useful data available on EV configurations, energy sources, motors, charging techniques, optimization techniques, impacts, trends, and possible directions of future developments. Its objective is to provide an overall picture of the current EV technology and ways of future development to assist in future researches in this sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0012.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: Building Information Modelling (BIM); Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA); Building process; Level of Development (LOD); Embodied environmental impacts; Greenhouse Gas emissions (GHG); LCA databases; LCA values; LCA benchmarks; cost estimation structure
Online: 1 March 2020 (13:16:52 CET)
The building sector has a big potential to reduce the material resource demand needed for building construction and therefore, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Digitalisation can help to make use of this potential and improve sustainability throughout the entire building’s life cycle. One way to address this potential is through the integration of Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) into the building process by employing Building Information Modelling (BIM). BIM can reduce the effort needed to carry out an LCA and therefore facilitate the integration into the building process. A review of current industry practice and scientific literature shows two main approaches to address BIM-LCA integration. Either the LCA is performed in a simplified way at the beginning of the building process, or it is done at the very end when all the needed information is available, but it is too late for decision-making. One reason for this is the lack of methods, workflows and tools to implement BIM-LCA integration over the entire building process. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to develop an integrated BIM-LCA workflow implemented into a method for the whole building process using an existing structure for cost estimation. A tool is created and used in a case study in Switzerland to test the developed approach. The results of this study show that LCA can be performed continuously in each building phase over the entire building process using existing BIM modelling techniques. The main benefit of this approach is that the re-work caused by the need for re-entering data and the usage of many different software tools that characterise most of the current LCA practices is minimised. Furthermore, decision-making, both at the element and building levels, is supported.