REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Electric Vehicle; internal combustion engine; greenhouse gas; optimization techniques; Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV); Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV); Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV); Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV).
Online: 10 May 2017 (17:44:51 CEST)
Electric vehicles (EV) are getting more commonplace in the transportation sector in recent times. As the present trend suggests, this mode of transport is likely to replace the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in near future. Each of the main EV components has a number of technologies that are currently in use or can become prominent in the future. EVs can cause significant impacts on the environment, power system, and other related sectors. The present power system can face huge instabilities with enough EV penetration; but with proper management and coordination, EVs can be turned into a major contributor to the successful implementation of smart grid. There are possibilities of immense environmental benefits as well, as the EVs can extensively reduce the greenhouse gas emission from the transportation sector. However, there are some major obstacles for EVs to overcome before replacing the ICE vehicles totally. This paper is focused on reviewing all the useful data available on EV configurations, energy sources, motors, charging techniques, optimization techniques, impacts, trends, and possible directions of future developments. Its objective is to provide an overall picture of the current EV technology and ways of future development to assist in future researches in this sector.
Mon, 2 October 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0008.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: : microstrip antenna, vertical slots , adaptive network-based fuzzy Inference system , resonant frequency, artificial neural networks
Online: 2 October 2017 (09:16:02 CEST)
This paper attempts at applying adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for analysis of the resonant frequency of a microstrip rectangular patch antenna with two equal size slots which are placed on the patch vertically. The resonant frequency is calculated as the position of slots is shifted to the right and left sides on the patch. As a result , the antenna resonates at more than one frequency . Commonly, machine algorithms based on artificial neural networks are employed to recognize the whole resonant frequencies. However ,they fail to estimate the resonant frequencies correctly as in some cases variations are not very sensible and the resonant frequencies overlap each other . It can be concluded that artificial neural networks could be replaced in such designs by the adaptive network-based fuzzy Inference system due to its high approximation capability and much faster convergence rate.
Thu, 19 March 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0300.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: coronavirus; COVID-19; diagnosis; deep features; SVM
Online: 19 March 2020 (13:49:49 CET)
The detection of coronavirus (COVID-19) is now a critical task for the medical practitioner. The coronavirus spread so quickly between people and approaches 100,000 people worldwide. In this consequence, it is very much essential to identify the infected people so that prevention of spread can be taken. In this paper, the deep learning based methodology is suggested for detection of coronavirus infected patient using X-ray images. The support vector machine classifies the corona affected X-ray images from others using the deep feature. The methodology is beneficial for the medical practitioner for diagnosis of coronavirus infected patient. The suggested classification model, i.e. resnet50 plus SVM achieved accuracy, FPR, F1 score, MCC and Kappa are 95.38%,95.52%, 91.41% and 90.76% respectively for detecting COVID-19 (ignoring SARS, MERS and ARDS). The classification model ResNet50 plus SVM is superior compared to other classification models. The result is based on the data available in the repository of GitHub, Kaggle and Open-i as per their validated X-ray images.
Wed, 25 July 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0318.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Solar PV, Green Energy, Hybrid Power Source, Mobile Cellular Base Station, OPEX, Solar Irradiance
Online: 25 July 2018 (14:30:45 CEST)
Over the years, sustainability, impact on the environment, as well as the operation expenditure have been a major concern to the deployment of mobile cellular base stations worldwide. This is because the mobile cellular base stations are known to consume a high percentage of power within the mobile cellular network. Such energy consumption contributes to the emission of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) through the use of conventional diesel generating a set. As a result, the mobile cellular operators are faced with the dilemma of minimising the power consumption, GHG emission, and the operation cost, while improving the Quality of Service of the networks. In attempting to find a solution, this study presents the feasibility and simulation of a solar photovoltaic (PV) with battery hybrid power system (HPS) as a predominant source of power for a specific mobile cellular base station site situated in Soshanguve area of the city of Pretoria, South Africa. It also presents the technical development, showed the environmental advantage and cost benefits of using a solar PV-battery HPS to power a base station site of a 24 hrs daily load of 241.10 kWh/d and the peak load of 20.31 kW as compared to using the HPS of solar PV-diesel generating set-battery. The solar resource pattern for the city of Pretoria was collected from The National Aeronautics and Space Administration and modelled statistically. Thus, the statistical modelling done using solar radiation resource exposure characteristic patterns of Pretoria, South Africa, revealed an average annual daily solar radiation of 5.4645 Wh/m2/d and 0.605 clearness index. The simulation and the design were done using the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables and Matlab/Simulink software. The simulation finding shows that the HPS of solar PV-battery combination has about 59.62 % saving on Net Present Cost, Levelized Cost of Energy, and 80.87% saving on Operating cost as against conventional BS powered with Gen Set-Battery.
Fri, 28 July 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0084.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: CMOS inverter; NMOS transistor; PMOS transistor; voltage transfer characteristic (VTC), threshold voltage; voltage critical value; noise margins; NMOS transconductance parameter; PMOS transconductance parameter
Online: 28 July 2017 (12:44:55 CEST)
The objective of this paper is to research the impact of electrical and physical parameters that characterize the complementary MOSFET transistors (NMOS and PMOS transistors) in the CMOS inverter for static mode of operation. In addition to this, the paper also aims at exploring the directives that are to be followed during the design phase of the CMOS inverters that enable designers to design the CMOS inverters with the best possible performance, depending on operation conditions. The CMOS inverter designed with the best possible features also enables the designing of the CMOS logic circuits with the best possible performance, according to the operation conditions and designers’ requirements.
Wed, 26 September 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0516.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Harmonics; Hybrid power filter; Active power filter; Power quality; Total harmonic distortion.
Online: 26 September 2018 (14:26:22 CEST)
This paper deals with the design, simulation and implementation of shunt hybrid compensator to maintain the power quality in 3-phase distribution networks feeding different types balanced and unbalanced nonlinear loads. The configuration of the compensator consists of a selective harmonic elimination passive filter, a series connected conventional 6-pulse IGBT inverter, acting as the active filter terminated with a dc link capacitor. The theory and modelling of the compensator based on current harmonic components at the load end and their decomposition in d-q axis frame of reference are utilized in the reference current generation algorithm. Accordingly, the source current waveform is made to follow the reference current waveform using a high frequency carrier based controller. Further, this inner current control loop is supported by a slower outer voltage control loop for sustaining desirable dc link voltage. Performance of the compensator is evaluated through MATLAB simulation covering different types of loads and reduction of harmonic currents and THD at the supply side along with excellent regulation of dc link voltage are confirmed. The performance of a hybrid compensator designed and fabricated using the above principles is evaluated and corroborated with the simulation results.
Wed, 23 May 2018
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0313.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: network simulators; NS-3; simulation; network
Online: 23 May 2018 (06:39:42 CEST)
Network Simulators is typically used to study services and applications in complex scenarios due to the infeasibility of deploying real testbeds. Many problems can be solved by using network simulators such as NS-3. With this in mind, the aim of this article is to introduce new NS-3 users through detailed information. It is sometimes difficult to handle by new users the traditional manuals developed by NS-3 project official website. In this article, NS-3 for communication network and Eclipse Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for powerful programming language are integrated step-by-step, explaining the main features of these open source software packages and concluding with an example simulation. Our effort is to make it easy for a beginner to be part of the NS-3 research community and to maintain an open environment of knowledge.
Tue, 2 October 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0025.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Key Words: PV-Wind-Hydro Hybrid Power System, Dynamic Modeling, Load Profile, Grid Extension, smart micro grid, fuzzy logic controller, and mat lab/Simulink
Online: 2 October 2018 (14:03:38 CEST)
ABSTRACT Ethiopia is a developing country, where majority of the population lives in rural areas without access to electricity. 83% of the total population of the country use traditional biomass energy as a basic source of energy. In contrast, the country is endowed with sufficient renewable energy resources which can be used as a standalone electric energy supply system for electrifying remote areas of the country. These resources are mainly micro hydropower and wind which can be used individually or the best combination of one another. The application of hybrid renewable energy system has become an important alternative solution for rural electrification program. The Modeling and control of a hybrid PV-Wind-Hydro DG system is also addressed. Dynamic models for the major system components, namely, wind energy conversion system, PV energy conversion system, hydro, inverter, and overall fuzzy logic controller units are developed. Then, a simulation model for the proposed hybrid power system has been developed using MATLAB /Simulink environment. This is done by creating subsystem sets of the major dynamic component models and then assembling into a single aggregate model. The overall power management strategy for coordinating and/or controlling the different energy sources is also presented in the thesis work. Generally there are 800 households with total electric demand of 71.6KW.To satisfy this demand 52%, 35% and 13% is to be contributed from wind/hydro/solar respectively. To use the power economically fuzzy logic controller is used. The controller monitors the demand and the available sources and then switches to the appropriate power supply according to the written rules. Simulations have been carried out to verify the system dynamic performance using a practical load profile and weather data. The result shows that the overall power management strategy is effective and the load demand is balanced. To complete this work, a grid extension from the closest substation has been compared with hybrid system. Cost of the grid extension is estimated based on the data obtained from EEP office. This is done in order to compare the cost of the designed hybrid power system against the cost of grid extension. The result shows that breakeven grid extension distance to be 23.9km which indicates that grid extension is preferable.
Sat, 23 July 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0071.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: phased array radar; embedded computing; serial RapidIO, MPAR
Online: 23 July 2016 (10:43:50 CEST)
This paper investigates the feasibility of a backend design for real-time, multiple-channel processing digital phased array system, particularly for high-performance embedded computing platforms constructed of using general purpose digital signal processors. Frist, we obtained the lab-scale backend performance benchmark from simulating beamforming, pulse compression, and Doppler filtering based on MicroTCA chassis using Serial RapidIO protocol in backplane communication. Next, a field-scale demonstrator of a multifunctional phased array radar is emulated by using the similar configuration. Interestingly, the performance of a barebone design is compared to that of emerging tools that systematically take advantage of parallelism and multicore capabilities, including Open Computing Language.
Thu, 31 May 2018
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0484.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: deep learning; deep convolutional neural networks; dcnn; convolutional neural networks; cnn; robot learning; transfer learning; robotic grasping; robotic grasp detection; human-robot collaboration
Online: 31 May 2018 (17:27:23 CEST)
In order for robots to attain more general-purpose utility, grasping is a necessary skill to master. Such general-purpose robots may use their perception abilities in order to visually identify grasps for a given object. A grasp describes how a robotic end-effector can be arranged on top of an object to securely grab it between the robotic gripper and successfully lift it without slippage. Traditionally, grasp detection requires expert human knowledge to analytically form the task-specific algorithm, but this is an arduous and time-consuming approach. During the last five years, deep learning methods have enabled significant advancements in robotic vision, natural language processing, and automated driving applications. The successful results of these methods have driven robotics researchers to explore the application of deep learning methods in task generalised robotic applications. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art in regards to the application of deep learning methods to generalised robotic grasping and discusses how each element of the deep learning approach has improved the overall performance of robotic grasp detection. A number of the most promising approaches are evaluated and the most successful for grasp detection is identified as the one-shot detection method. The availability of suitable volumes of appropriate training data is identified as a major obstacle for effective utilisation of the deep learning approaches, and the use of transfer learning techniques is identified as a potential mechanism to address this. Finally, current trends in the field and future potential research directions are discussed.
Fri, 13 January 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0070.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance machine; power factor; torque ripple; efficiency; demagnetization; finite element analysis
Online: 13 January 2017 (11:04:02 CET)
In this paper, a novel permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance machine (PMASynRM) with rare-earth PMs and ferrite magnets is proposed. The performance of PMASynRM is discussed with respected to the different magnet ratio of rare-earth PMs and ferrite magnets. Some characteristics including the flux density, output torque, cogging torque, output power, power factor, torque ripple, loss, efficiency, and demagnetization are calculated by 2-D finite element analysis (FEA). The analysis results show that the excellent performance can be obtained by using hybrid magnet of rare-earth PMs and ferrite magnets with the suitable magnet ratio, and provide some desirable cost-performance trade-off.
Mon, 19 June 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0088.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: power control; power electronics; pwm inverters; disturbance observer; grid connected system; grid stability; distorted voltage
Online: 19 June 2017 (16:35:26 CEST)
Penetration of grid connected inverters (GCI) has arisen in power systems due to increasing integration of renewable sources. However, restrictive grid codes require that renewable sources connected to the grid with power electronic systems must be properly connected and appropriate currents must be injected to support stability of the grid under grid faults. Simultaneous injection of symmetrical positive and negative sequence currents is mandatory to support stabilization of grid at the instant of grid faults. Conventional synchronously rotating frame dq current controllers are insufficient under grid faults due to low bandwidth of PI controllers. This paper proposes a new grid current control strategy for grid connected voltage source inverters under unbalanced grid voltage conditions. A proportional current controller with a first order low pass filter disturbance observer (DOb) is proposed which establishes positive sequence power requirements and independently control negative sequence current components under unbalanced voltage conditions. The method does not need any parameter, since it estimates nonlinear terms with low pass filter DOb. Simulations are implemented in Matlab/Simulink platform demonstrating the effectiveness of proposed method.
Fri, 28 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0184.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: SiC bidirectional AC-DC converter; inverter; variable frequency; PLL; LCL filter
Online: 28 April 2017 (05:06:38 CEST)
The paper presents the design stages of a single-phase Silicon Carbide bidirectional DC-AC converter. This includes the LCL filter design responsible to meet grid connection requirements. A 3kW laboratory prototype of the power converter is built employing a low-cost phase locked loop and its results are presented. The design of the low-cost phase locked loop and its implementation are depicted in some detail.
Thu, 15 March 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: deep Kalman filter; simultaneous sensor integration and modelling (SSIM); GNSS/IMU integration; recurrent neural network; deep learning; long-short term memory (LSTM)
Online: 15 March 2018 (07:10:32 CET)
The Bayes filters, such as Kalman and particle filters, have been used in sensor fusion to integrate two sources of information and obtain the best estimate of the unknowns. Efficient integration of multiple sensors requires deep knowledge of their error sources and it is not trivial for complicated sensors, such as Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). Therefore, IMU error modelling and efficient integration of IMU and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations has remained a challenge. In this paper, we develop deep Kalman filter to model and remove IMU errors and consequently, improve the accuracy of IMU positioning. In other words, we add modelling step to the prediction and update steps of Kalman filter and the IMU error model is learned during integration. Therefore, our deep Kalman filter outperforms Kalman filter and reaches higher accuracy.
Wed, 3 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0028.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Solar Power; Flyback Converter; Duty Cycle; Coupling Inductor
Online: 3 August 2016 (08:32:45 CEST)
In this paper, a method of charging lead acid battery with solar power by flyback converter is proposed. The basic system consists of a buffer circuit, auxiliary power circuit, control circuit, voltage feedback circuit and current feedback circuit. The system is capable of monitoring battery voltage and the current, charging the coupling inductor and automatic control of output duty cycle, overcharging and over-discharging protection. The experiment proves that the charging efficiency is improved by about 83% at full load.
Thu, 18 May 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0136.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: generalized integrator; grid connected inverters; phase locked loops; renewable energy; symmetrical components; unbalanced voltage
Online: 18 May 2017 (04:40:16 CEST)
Frequency, amplitude and phase information of the grid voltage are of great importance in constructing a robust controller structure for grid connected inverter systems. This paper presents a simple and robust approach for the instantaneous estimation of positive and negative sequence voltage components under distorted voltage conditions. A second order generalized integrator (SOGI) is used to filter the distorted voltage and to generate orthogonal voltage components for each of the three phases. These filtered and orthogonal components are used for instantaneous calculation of symmetrical components. The implemented method is frequency adaptive; the method is demonstrated and compared to a conventional phase locked loop (PLL) technique with both MATLAB/Simulink simulations and experiments utilizing the dSPACE ds1103 digital controller.
Thu, 25 January 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0242.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Rotating electrical machines; winding design; symmetrical winding; star of slots.
Online: 25 January 2018 (12:18:58 CET)
Winding design methods have been a subject of research for many years of the past century. Many methods have been developed, each one characterized by some advantages and some drawbacks. Nowadays, the star of slots is the most widespread design tool for electrical machine windings. In this context, this paper presents a simple and effective procedure to determine the distribution of the EMF stars and of the winding configuration in all possible typologies of electrical machines equipped with symmetrical windings. Moreover, this procedure can also be easily implemented in a computer program in order to perform automated winding designs for rotating electrical machines. Several examples are provided in order to validate the proposed procedure.
Thu, 20 July 2017
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0057.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators; Wind Energy Conversion System; Finite Element Analysis; Soft computing Techniques
Online: 20 July 2017 (08:53:41 CEST)
The Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) plays an inevitable role across the world. In particular, the attention for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators (PMSGs) connected with wind farm is popular. This paper deals with the literature review that describes the recent advances, progresses and innovatory trends on PMSGs for WECS. Comparison between geared and direct-driven conversion systems and the classification of electrical machines used in WECS are discussed. A detailed analysis on the design aspects considering various topologies of PMSGs are encompassed in the literature. The PMSG design and optimization problems are solved by field computation techniques and optimized by using Soft Computing (SC) techniques .The three-dimensional, finite element software platform for the analysis and design of PMSGs is discussed. This paper also deals with the interdisciplinary modeling, analysis, and optimization of PMSG using Finite Element Analysis (FEM) and SC techniques. Finally, PMSGs are reviewed and compared for further exploration.
Mon, 15 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0148.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: ac–dc power converters; battery chargers; dual active bridge; DAB; optimal design; power MOSFETs; single-stage
Online: 15 August 2016 (11:06:09 CEST)
The growing attention for plug-in electric vehicles, and the associated high-performance demands, have initiated a development trend towards highly efficient and compact on-board battery chargers. These isolated ac-dc converters are most commonly realized using two conversion stages, combining a non-isolated power factor correction (PFC) rectifier with an isolated dc-dc converter. This, however, involves two loss stages and a relatively high component count, limiting the achievable efficiency and power density and resulting in high costs. In this paper a single-stage converter approach is analyzed to realize a single-phase ac-dc converter, combining all functionalities into one conversion stage and thus enabling a cost-effective efficiency and power density increase. The converter topology consists of a quasi-lossless synchronous rectifier followed by an isolated dual active bridge (DAB) dc-dc converter, putting a small filter capacitor in between. To show the performance potential of this bidirectional, isolated ac-dc converter, a comprehensive design procedure and multi-objective optimization with respect to efficiency and power density is presented, using detailed loss and volume models. The models and procedures are verified by a 3.7 kW hardware demonstrator, interfacing a 400 V dc-bus with the single-phase 230 V, 50 Hz utility grid. Measurement results indicate a state-of-the-art efficiency of 96.1% and power density of 2.2 kW/dm3, confirming the competitiveness of the investigated single-stage DAB ac-dc converter.
Tue, 27 September 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0108.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: distributed energy resources; meter reading; microgrids; NB-PLC; noise
Online: 27 September 2016 (15:44:03 CEST)
Distributed Energy Resources might have a severe influence on Power Line Communications, as they can generate interfering signals and high frequency emissions or supraharmonics that may cause loss of metering and control data. In this paper, the influence of various energy resources on Narrowband Power Line Communications is described and analyzed through several test measurements performed in a real microgrid. Accordingly, the paper describes the effects on smart metering communications through MAC layer analysis. Results show that the commutation frequency of inverters and the presence of battery chargers are remarkable sources of disturbance in low voltage distribution networks. In this sense, the results presented can contribute to efforts towards standardization and normative of emissions at higher frequencies higher, such as CENELEC EN 50160 and IEC/TS 62749.
Wed, 15 March 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0103.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: radar 3D imaging; synthetic aperture radar; millimeter wave radar; remote sensing; compressed sensing; inverse Radon transform; portable
Online: 15 March 2017 (08:44:25 CET)
In this paper, a new millimeter wave 3D imaging radar is proposed. The user just needs to move the radar along a circular track, a high resolution 3D imaging can be generated. The proposed radar uses the movement of itself to synthesize a large aperture in both the azimuth and elevation directions. It can utilize inverse Radon transform to resolve 3D imaging. To improve the sensing result, compressed sensing approach is further investigated. The simulation and experimental result further illustrated the design. Because a single transceiver circuit is needed, a light, affordable and high resolution 3D mmWave imaging radar is illustrated in the paper.
Mon, 12 September 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0042.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: insulator; pollution flashover; equivalent salt deposit density (ESDD); soluble constituent; flashover voltage gradient
Online: 12 September 2016 (10:47:42 CEST)
Natural polluted insulator surfaces are always coated with various kinds of soluble constituents, and those constituents affect flashover performance differentially. Currently this fact is not considered either in laboratory experiments or field pollution degree measurements, causing the existing insulation selection method to be deficient. In this paper a systematical research on insulator flashover voltage gradient correction involving types of soluble pollution constituents was presented. Taking typical type glass insulator as the sample, its flashover tests polluted by typical soluble chemicals NaCl, NaNO3, KNO3, NH4NO3, MgSO4, Ca(NO3)2 and CaSO4 were carried out. Then the flashover gradient correction was made combining the flashover performance of each soluble constituent, the ESDD contribution of the seven constituents, as well as the saturation performance of CaSO4. The correction was well verified with the flashover test results of insulator polluted by three types of soluble mixture. Research results indicate that the flashover gradient correction method proposed by this paper performs well in reducing the calculating error. It is recommended to carry out component measurements and flashover gradient correction to better select outdoor insulation configuration.
Wed, 1 March 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0003.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: neutral-point-clamped inverter; buck-boost inverter; single stage conversion; photovoltaic inverter
Online: 1 March 2017 (09:31:28 CET)
This paper proposes a novel single-stage buck-boost three-Level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter with two independent dc sources coupled for the grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) application, which can effectively solve the unbalanced operational conditions generally appeared between two coupled independent PV sources induced by the unequal irradiation and temperature distribution. The proposed control scheme can simultaneously guarantee the maximum power point (MPP) operation of both PV sources and maintain the output waveform quality. Compared to the traditional two-stage PV inverter, the proposed NPC inverter could reduce the PV array voltage requirement and dc-link capacitors’ voltage rating, meanwhile show the advantage in operational efficiency. MATLAB simulations and the captured experimental results are presented to show the performance of the proposed three-level inverter.
Thu, 27 October 2016
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0092.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: communication standards; cyber security; intrusion detection system; smart grid; topology control; Wireless sensor networks
Online: 27 October 2016 (11:26:10 CEST)
An existing power grid is going through a massive transformation. Smart grid technology is a radical approach for improvisation in prevailing power grid. Integration of electrical and communication infrastructure is inevitable for the deployment of Smart grid network. Smart grid technology is characterized by full duplex communication, automatic metering infrastructure, renewable energy integration, distribution automation and complete monitoring and control of entire power grid. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are small micro electrical mechanical systems which are accomplished to collect and communicate the data from surroundings. WSNs can be used for monitoring and control of smart grid assets. Security of wireless sensor based communication network is a major concern for researchers and developers. The limited processing capabilities of wireless sensor networks make them more vulnerable to cyber-attacks. The countermeasures against cyber-attacks must be less complex with an ability to offer confidentiality, data readiness and integrity. The address oriented design and development approach for usual communication network requires a paradigm shift to design data oriented WSN architecture. WSN security is an inevitable part of smart grid cyber security. This paper is expected to serve as a comprehensive assessment and analysis of communication standards, cyber security issues and solutions for WSN based smart grid infrastructure.
Fri, 15 March 2019
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0164.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: smart garments; e-textiles; biosignals; sensors; dry electrode; signal-to-noise ratio (SNR); internet-of-things (IoT); knitted fabrics
Online: 15 March 2019 (11:59:47 CET)
This paper presents an overview of the smart electro-clothing systems (SeCSs) targeted at health monitoring, sports benefits, fitness tracking, and social activities. Technical features of the available SeCSs, covering both textile and electronic components, are thoroughly discussed and their applications in the industry and research purposes have been highlighted. In addition, it also presents the developments in the associated areas of wearable sensor systems and textile-based dry sensors. As it became evident during the literature research, such a review on SeCSs covering all relevant issues has not been presented before. This paper will be particularly helpful for new generation researchers investigating the design, development, function and comforts of the sensor integrated clothing materials.
Thu, 8 September 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0032.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: channel state information; energy harvesting; amplify-and-forward; time power switching relaying; throughput
Online: 8 September 2016 (11:59:56 CEST)
Wireless Powered Communication Networks (WPCN), which has attracted much attention of researchers, also been recently recommended in 5th generation (5G) wireless networks. With the help of the WPCN, the reliability and battery life of wireless low-power devices can be improved. In this paper, we investigate throughput and ergodic capacity in WPCN-assisted amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying system, considering two transmission modes including delay-tolerant and delay-limited. As important achievement, we propose symmetric energy harvesting protocol, namely time power switching relaying (TPSR) in order to find maximal throughput. In particular, both time switching and power switching coefficients in this schemes are considered. Unlike most of the previous works, we further focus on impact of outdated channel state information (CSI) in this WPCN. In order to evaluate information processing efficiency, the performance can be substantially improved by optimally harvesting time and power coefficients of the received signal at relay node for energy and information extraction, and by deploying several scenarios. By deploying Monte Carlo simulation, it is confirmed that the system performance is more sensitive to CSI estimation error, noise variance, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and resulting in other reasonable computations of TPSR need be deployed to obtain QoS requirement.
Thu, 12 January 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0062.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: piezoelectric cantilever energy harvester 1; autonomous 2; adaptive 3; self-powered 4; voltage doubler interface circuit 5; closed loop control 6; feed-forward 7; multi-shot technology 8
Online: 12 January 2017 (10:45:23 CET)
The abundant mechanical vibration energy in bridge road environment can be converted into electric energy by using the piezoelectric energy harvest technology, which could be an efficient way to provide energy required by the wireless sensor network in the bridge condition monitoring system. An autonomous energy harvesting system has been designed based on cantilever beams for sensing and acquiring the bridge vibration energy. After the analysis of the dynamic properties of the piezoelectric cantilever beam in the energy conversion, three kinds of interface circuits were compared through simulation and experimental results. It was shown that the VD interface circuit has less power loss. Furthermore, the proposed closed loop control method based on the VD circuit was simple, adaptive, and self-powered, which is suitable for the road energy harvesting application. Finally, the energy harvesting system based on VD circuit was realized with harvested power of around 0.8mW.
Tue, 17 January 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0078.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: input current ripple-free; boost converter; coupled-inductor; voltage-doubler cell; passive lossless clamp circuits; high voltage gain; renewable energy
Online: 17 January 2017 (11:10:36 CET)
Abstract: High step-up voltage gain nonisolated DC-DC converter have attracted much attention in photovoltaic, fuel cells and other renewable energy system applications. In this paper, by combining input current ripple-free boost cell with coupled-inductor voltage-doubler cell, an input current ripple-free high voltage gain nonisolated converter is proposed. In addition, passive lossless clamp circuit is adopted to recycle the leakage inductor energy and to reduce the voltage spike across the power switch. By utilizing voltage-doubler cell consisting of diode and capacitor, the voltage stress of switch is further reduced and the resonance between the leakage inductor and the stray capacitor of the output diode is eliminated. A low switch-on-resistance low-voltage-rated MOSFET can therefore be employed to reduce the conduction loss and cost. The reverse recovery loss of output diode is reduced, and the efficiency of converter can be improved. Furthermore, the proposed converter can achieve nearly zero input current-ripple and make the design of electromagnetic interference (EMI) filter easy. Steady state analysis and operation mode of the converter is performed. Finally, experimental results are presented to verify the analysis results of the proposed converter.
Wed, 31 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0233.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: micro-Doppler; FMCW radar; through-the-wall; classification
Online: 31 August 2016 (09:02:32 CEST)
The ability to detect the presence as well as classify the activities of individuals behind visually obscuring structures is of significant benefit to police, security and emergency services in many situations. This paper presents the analysis from a series of experimental results generated using a through-the-wall (TTW) Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) C-Band radar system named Soprano. The objective of this analysis was to classify whether an individual was carrying an item in both hands or not using micro-Doppler information from a FMCW sensor. The radar was deployed at a standoff distance, of approximately 0.5 m, outside a residential building and used to detect multiple people walking within a room. Through the application of digital filtering, it was shown that significant suppression of the primary wall reflection is possible, significantly enhancing the target signal to clutter ratio. Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) signal processing techniques were then applied to the micro-Doppler signatures from different individuals. Features from the SVD information have been used to classify whether the person was carrying an item or walking free handed. Excellent performance of the classifier was achieved in this challenging scenario with accuracies up to 94%, suggesting that future through wall radar sensors may have the ability to reliably recognize many different types of activities in TTW scenarios using these techniques.
Thu, 2 March 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0016.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: hybrid ADC; sigma-delta ADC; cyclic ADC; pseudo-differential OTA; X-ray sensor
Online: 2 March 2017 (08:37:48 CET)
This paper presents a two-stage ADC based on pseudo-differential operational transconductance amplifier (OTA), which is designed for the readout circuit of X-ray linear array sensor. This hybrid ADC employs an incremental sigma-delta ADC and a cyclic ADC, achieving a good trade-off between accuracy and conversion speed. The two stages share the same hardware to reduce power consumption and die area. A common-mood feedback module is used to suppress the influence of charge injection, and the effectiveness is demonstrated by detailed theoretical analysis. A test chip of 14-bit ADC is fabricated in 0.35μm CMOS technology. The measured root mean square (RMS) value of DNL is 0.254 LSB, and the maximum value of INL is -0.776/+1.56 LSB. The measured effective number of bits (ENOB) is 13.43 bits.
Sun, 5 May 2019
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: forgery detection; GAN; contrastive loss; deep learning; pairwise learning
Online: 5 May 2019 (11:13:55 CEST)
Recently, generative adversarial networks (GANs) can be used to generate the photo-realistic image from a low-dimension random noise. It is very dangerous that the synthesized or generated image is used on inappropriate contents in social media network. In order to successfully detect such fake image, an effective and efficient image forgery detector is desired. However, conventional image forgery detectors are failed to recognize the synthesized or generated images by using GAN-based generator since they are all generated but manipulation from the source. Therefore, we propose a deep learning-based approach to detect the fake image by combining the contrastive loss. First, several state-of-the-art GANs will be collected to generate the fake-real image pairs. Then, the contrastive will be used on the proposed common fake feature network (CFFN)to learn the discriminative feature between the fake image and real image (i.e., paired information). Finally, a smaller network will be concatenated to the CFFN to determine whether the feature of the input image is fake or real. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method significantly outperforms other state-of-the-art fake image detectors.
Wed, 2 May 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0019.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: energy efficiency; combined cycle power plant; energy losses
Online: 2 May 2018 (10:12:31 CEST)
Natural gas combined cycle power plants (CCPPs) are widely used to meet peak loads in electric energy production. Continuous monitoring of the output electrical power of CCPPs is a requirement for power performance. In this study, the role of ambient temperature change having the greatest effect on electric production is investigated for a natural gas CCPP. The plant has generated electricity for fourteen years and setup at 240 MW in Aliağa, İzmir, Turkey. Depending on the seasonal temperature changes, the study data were obtained from each gas turbine (GT), steam turbine (ST) and combined cycle blocks (CCBs) in the ambient temperature range of 8-23°C. It has been found that decreases of the electric energy in the GTs because of the temperature increase and indirectly diminishes of the electricity production in the STs. As a result, the efficiency of each GT, ST and CCB reduced, although the quantity of fuel consumed by the controllers in the plant was decreased. As a result of this data, it has been recommended and applied that additional precautions have been taken for the power plant to bring the air entering the combustion chamber to ideal conditions and necessary air cooling systems have been installed.
Mon, 15 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0151.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Nanoscale silicon, optical waveguides, Mach-zehnder interferometer, directional coupler, thermal sensor, optical switches
Online: 15 August 2016 (11:26:43 CEST)
A compact Mach-zehnder interferometer with a novel design of directional couplers and a phase shifter has been presented as a thermo-optical sensor. With the aim of reducing device size to micro and nano dimension silicon-on-insulator technology was employed. That allowed miniaturization of device size through the reduction of its cross sectional area to 0.066 µm2 and the radius of curvature of both the arms of the directional coupler and S-bends of the phase shifter to 5 µm and C-bends to 3 µm. These nano size device dimensions made it possible to reduce the coupling gap to 0.2 µm, which resulted in a significant reduction in the coupling length. The device geometry and its performance characteristics were analyzed and optimized using coupled mode analysis and finite difference time domain simulation tools, respectively. The wavelength dependent transmission loss of the device was measured at different temperature to verify and validate its performance characteristics. Tested devices showed a remarkable temperature dependent transmission characteristic offering significant changes in transmission loss band – with as low as 0.45 0C change in substrate temperature. The extinction ratio and the free spectral range of the device were 26 dB and 0.26 nm respectively in the wavelength range of 1549.5 nm – 1550.5 nm. These results imply that the devices presented here can be used as compact and highly sensitive thermal sensors and optical switches.
Fri, 14 June 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0131.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: phase-shifted full-bridge; resonant converter; photovoltaics; zero voltage switching; power loss
Online: 14 June 2019 (10:01:32 CEST)
This paper presents the design of a high frequency zero voltage switching (ZVS) full-bridge converter with a phase-shifted driving signal for photovoltaic applications. The resonant power converter can provide high-power capacity under high-frequency operation. The proposed power converter can also reduce the size of the transformer under the same power rating. The high-frequency transformer was developed by using the resonant and switching frequencies of the power converter to reduce the switching loss and to improve the system efficiency. Phase-shifted modulation was selected to drive the switches of a full-bridge power converter based on the switching loss minimization method. The desired output voltage was controlled using a closed-loop controller under a loop gain stability margin. The simulation results showed that the output voltage can be controlled to the desired constant when the input voltage changes from 30 VDC to 60 VDC. The desired output voltage of power converter is constant at 400 VDC. The power converter can transfer the DC supply to a 220 VAC household via grid-connected inverter. Therefore, the proposed study showed the effectiveness of the phase-shift ZVS full-bridge power converter with high-frequency transformer. This power converter can control the operation of the desired voltage system and has a small sizing of power converter system, low switching loss, and high system efficiency.
Fri, 22 July 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0067.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Energy Harvester, Neutrality, Perpetual, COTS, Health Monitoring WSN
Online: 22 July 2016 (15:14:29 CEST)
This paper investigates an Energy Neutral System using Micro Energy Harvesters for a Health Monitoring Wireless Sensor Node (HM-WSN). We have implemented HM-WSN consisting of a solar cell energy harvester, a Power Management Unit (PMU) and the ucontroller, sensor and transmitter acting as load. A battery extender and a switching logic circuit for sensor node is designed to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed system. The HM-WSN senses body temperature with improvement in lifetime of coincell. The HM-WSN is built using commercially available off the shelf (COTS components and consumes 47.2uW for data being updated every 134s. It can be operated for approximately 1.32 years only on a coincell. Furthermore, the HM-WSN can be operated with solar energy at 200lux, achieving 96.36 years with a combination of a coincell with an additional capacitor of 2.2mF. It attains 4.07 years to 16.87 years lifetime with the load capacitor varying from 1mF to 1.5mF at 350lux lighting condition. With the same ambient condition and a 2mF load capacitor, HM-WSN attains complete energy autonomy.
Tue, 9 January 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0077.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: UAVs sensor fusion; EKF; real data analysis; system design
Online: 9 January 2018 (07:47:45 CET)
This paper presents a methodology to design sensor fusion parameters using real performance indicators of navigation in UAVs based on PixHawk flight controller and peripherals. This methodology and the selected performance indicators allows to find the best parameters for the fusion system of a determined configuration of sensors and a predefined real mission. The selected real platform is described with stress on available sensors and data processing software, and the experimental methodology is proposed to characterize sensor data fusion output and determine the best choice of parameters using quality measurements of tracking output with performance metrics not requiring ground truth.
Fri, 2 September 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0005.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: multi-type loads; active power dispatch optimization; simulated-annealing Q-learning
Online: 2 September 2016 (11:23:55 CEST)
An active power dispatch method for a microgrid (MG) with multi-type loads, renewable energy sources (RESs) and distributed energy storage devices (DESDs) is the focus of this paper. The MG operates in a grid-connected model, and distributed power sources contribute to the service for load demands. The outputs of multiple DESDs are controlled to optimize the active power dispatch. Our goal with optimization is to reduce the economic cost under time-of-use (TOU) price, and to adjust the excessively high or low load rate of distributed transformers (DTs) caused by the peak-valley demand and load uncertainties. To simulate a practical environment, the stochastic characteristics of multi-type loads are formulated. The transition matrix of system state is provided. Then, a finite-horizon Markov decision process (FHMDP) model is established to describe the dispatch optimization problem. A learning-based technique is adopted to search the optimal joint control policy of multiple DESDs. Finally, simulation experiments are performed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, and the fuzzification analysis of the method is presented.
Fri, 23 September 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: textile wearable technologies; flexible electronics; mHealth
Online: 23 September 2016 (04:02:38 CEST)
In this article we present the design and development of T-Shirt prototypes that embed novel textile sensors for the capture of cardio and respiratory signals. The sensors are connected through textile interconnects to either an embedded custom designed data acquisition and transmission unit or to snap fastener terminals for connection to external monitoring devices. Prototypes with diverse approaches of integration are presented. The performance of the wearable systems is addressed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio amplitude and signal interference caused by baseline wander and motion artifacts, through laboratorial tests with subjects in standing and walking conditions. Performance tests were also conducted in Hospital environment using a T-Shirt prototype connected to a commercial 3-channel Holter monitoring device. The textile sensors and interconnects were realized with the assistance of an industrial 6-needle digital embroidery tool and their resistance to wear addressed with normalized tests of laundering and abrasion. The main aspects of the system´s design leading to major improvements and failure factors are discussed. Pathways and methods for the overall system´s optimization are highlighted.
Mon, 8 May 2017
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0052.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: MEMS; microelectrodes; neural interface; conducting polymer; nanotechnology
Online: 8 May 2017 (08:39:35 CEST)
With the rapid development of MEMS (Micro-electro-mechanical Systems) fabrication technologies, manifolds microelectrodes with various structures and functions have been designed and fabricated for applications in biomedical research, diagnosis and treatment through electrical stimulation and electrophysiological signal recording. The flexible MEMS microelectrodes exhibit multi-aspect excellent characteristics beyond stiff microelectrodes based on silicon or SU-8, which comprising: lighter weight, smaller volume, better conforming to neural tissue and lower fabrication cost. In this paper, we mainly reviewed key technologies on flexible MEMS microelectrodes for neural interface in recent years, including: design and fabrication technology, flexible MEMS microelectrodes with fluidic channels and electrode-tissue interface modification technology for performance improvement. Furthermore, the future directions of flexible MEMS microelectrodes for neural interface were described including transparent and stretchable microelectrodes integrated with multi-aspect functions and next-generation electrode-tissue interface modifications facilitated electrode efficacy and safety during implantation. Finally, the combinations among micro fabrication techniques with biomedical engineering and nanotechnology represented by flexible MEMS microelectrodes for neural interface will open a new gate to human lives and understanding of the world.
Fri, 15 July 2016
LETTER | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0042.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Thevenin; Norton; voltage source; current source
Online: 15 July 2016 (11:46:17 CEST)
A power conservative Thevenin-Norton and Norton-Thevenin transformations are proposed in this letter. The transformations introduce a voltage and a current generators for which parameters depend on the loading impedance value.
Fri, 1 June 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: support vector machine; classification analysis; power transformer condition assessment; oil immersed paper insulation; dga; dielectric characteristics, furanic compounds
Online: 1 June 2018 (05:58:18 CEST)
Oil immersed paper insulation condition is a crucial aspect of power transformer’s life condition diagnostic. The measurement testing database collected over the years made it possible for researchers to implement classification analysis to in-service power transformer. This article presents classification analysis of transformer oil-immersed paper insulation condition. The measurements data (dielectric characteristics, dissolved gas analysis, and furanic compounds) of 149 transformers with primary voltage of 150 kV had been gathered and analyzed. The algorithm used for developing classification model is Support Vector Machine (SVM). The model has been trained and tested using different datasets. Different models have been created and the best chosen, resulting in 90.63% accuracy in predicting the oil-immersed paper insulation condition. Further implementation was executed to classify oil-paper condition of 19 Transformers which Furan data is not available. The classification results combined, reviewed, and compared to conventional assessment methods and standards, confirming that the model developed has the ability to do classification of current oil-paper condition based on Dissolved Gasses and Dielectric Characteristics.
Thu, 4 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0044.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: grating coupler; silicon photonics; optical interconnects; fiber interface; nanophotonics
Online: 4 August 2016 (12:00:43 CEST)
A single mode waveguide grating coupler based on multiple Si-SiO2 pairs onto Si substrate has been designed. Numerical analysis has been carried out to calculate optimum thickness of the layers of Si-SiO2 that ensures the constructive interference between reflected waves and actual guided wave for high coupling efficiency. Based on the results, an optimal design is developed and modeled by using a 2-D finite difference time domain (2-D FDTD) simulator that dictates a coupling efficiency of as much as 78% (-1.07 dB) at the wavelength of 1550 nm, and a 1-dB bandwidth of 77 nm. The numerical method will be useful to calculate the optimum thicknesses of the layers for any reflector based grating coupler of different materials.
Mon, 19 June 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0089.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Closed Loop Control; Cuk Converter; Sliding Mode Control; Robustness; Active Hysterisis Control
Online: 19 June 2017 (16:52:57 CEST)
This paper introduces a sliding mode control (SMC) based equivalent control method to a novel high output gain Cuk converter. An additional inductor and capacitor improves the efficiency and output gain of the classical Cuk converter. Classical PI controllers are widely used in DC-DC converters. However, it is a very challenging task to design a single PI controller operating in different load and disturbances. SMC based equivalent control method which achieves a robust operation in a wide operation range is also proposed. Switching frequency is kept constant in appropriate interval in different loading and disturbance conditions by implementing a dynamic hysteresis control method. Numerical simulations conducted on Matlab/Simulink confirm the accuracy of analytical analysis of high output gain modified Cuk converter. In addition, proposed equivalent control method is validated in different perturbations to demonstrate the robust operation in wide operation range.
Sat, 14 July 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0252.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Smart home electricity management system; bidirectional DC-AC converter; high power quality; high efficiency.
Online: 14 July 2018 (20:25:57 CEST)
The management of the electrical energy still raises a huge interest for end-users at the household level. Home electricity management systems (HEMS) have recently emerged both to warrant uninterruptible power and high power quality, and to decrease the cost of electricity consumption, by either shifting it in off peak time or smoothing it. Such a HEMS requires a bidirectional DC-AC converter, specifically when an energy transfer is required between a storage system and the AC-grid, and vice versa. This article points out the relevance of an innovative topology based on sinusoidal waveforms from the generation of sine half-waves. Such a topology is based on a DC-DC stage equivalent to an adjustable output voltage source and a DC-AC stage (H-bridge) which are in series. The results of a complete experimental procedure prove the feasibility to improve the power quality of the output signals in terms of total harmonic distortion (THD-values about 5%). The complexity of the proposed converter is minimized in comparison with multilevel topologies. Finally, wide band-gap semiconductor devices (SiC MOSFETs) are helpful both to warrant the compactness and the high efficiency (about 96%) of the bidirectional converter, whatever its operation mode (inverter or rectifier mode).
Sat, 13 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0140.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: silicon pressure sensor; shield layer; stability
Online: 13 August 2016 (10:47:16 CEST)
This paper presents a piezoresistive pressure sensor with a shield layer for improved stability. Compared with the conventional piezoresistive pressure sensors, p-type piezoresistors are covered by an n-type shield layer, which is formed by ion implantation. The proposed pressure sensors have been successfully fabricated by bulk micromachining techniques. The impact of electrical field on piezoresistors is studied by simulation. The temperature drift of the pressure sensor has been investigated by both simulation and experimental measurement. Characteristics of developed pressure sensors are tested from -40 C to 125 C. A sensitivity of 0.022 mV/V/KPa and a maximum non-linearity of 0.085% FS are measured for the fabricated sensor in a pressure range of 1 MPa. The temperature coefficients of resistance of shielded piezoresistors are found to be smaller than those of un-shielded ones. It is demonstrated that the shield layer is able to reduce the drift caused by electrical field and ambient temperature variation.
Tue, 14 August 2018
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0240.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: tea leaves; microcontroller-based RF reflectometer; large open-ended coaxial probe; reflected voltage; moisture content
Online: 14 August 2018 (04:13:50 CEST)
This paper presents tea leaves moisture monitoring system based on RF reflectometry techniques. The system was divided into two parts which are the sensor and reflectometer parts. The large coaxial probe was used as a sensor of the system. The reflectometer part plays a role as signal generator and also data acquisition. The reflectometer-sensor system was operated with a graphical user interface at 1.529 GHz at room temperature. The system was able to measure the moisture content of tea leaves ranging 0% m.c to 50% m.c on a wet basis. In this study, up to five kinds of tea leaves bulk were tested. The mean of absolute errors in the moisture measurement for tea leaves was ±2.
Fri, 11 November 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0064.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Active acoustics; Multi Beam Sonar; Dual-beam Sonar; Environmental monitoring; Offshore renewable energy
Online: 11 November 2016 (15:24:32 CET)
Marine renewable energy is emerging as one of the fast-growing industry in the last decades, as modern society pushes for technologies that can convert energy contained from winds, waves, tides and stream flows. The implementation of renewable energy technologies impose high demands on both structural and environmental engineering, as the energy converters have to work under extreme conditions where parameters such as sea-bottom configuration, water transparency and depth, sea-states and prevailing winds are harsh. Constant monitoring of the marine environment is crucial in order to keep this sector reliable. Active acoustics is becoming a standard tool to collect multi-dimensional data from physical, geological and biological properties of the marine environment. The Div. of Electricity of Uppsala University have been developing an environmental monitoring platform based on sonar systems. This platform aims to monitor the installation, operation and decommissioning of marine renewable energy converters. The focus will be given the observations of behaviors of marine animals in vicinity of energy converters but also structural inspection and monitoring of MRETs. This paper describes how this multifunctional environmental monitoring platform come to existence from the design to the deployment phase.
Sun, 18 September 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0059.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: steady state analysis; Modelica; active distribution network
Online: 18 September 2016 (10:01:38 CEST)
Open source software such as OpenDSS has given a lot of help to distribution network researchers and educators. With high penetration of distributed renewable energy resources into distribution network, tradition distribution steady state analysis software such as OpenDSS is faced with difficulty in handling distributed generators. Three-phase distributed generators are often modeled in sequence frame while unbalanced distribution network are usually modeled in phase frame. So a load flow in sequence-phase coupled frame is proposed to handle models described in both frames. Voltage controlled DGs which are difficult to cope with in OpenDSS are handled in proposed program. The steady state analysis platform is programmed with open source Modelica language and the main aim of this paper is to introduce an open source platform for active distribution network steady analysis include load flow and short circuit analysis which can be easily adopted and improved by other educators and researchers.
Fri, 28 September 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0554.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: slope compensation; coupled inductors; current mode control; boost-flyback converter
Online: 28 September 2018 (05:50:01 CEST)
Power converters with coupled inductors are very promising due to the high efficiency and high voltage gain. Apart from the aforementioned advantages, the boost-flyback converter reduces the voltage stress on the semiconductors. However, to obtain good performance with high voltage gains, the controller must include two control loops (current and voltage), and a compensation ramp. One of the most used control techniques for power converters is the peak current-mode control with compensation ramp. However, in the case of a boost-flyback converter there is no mathematical expression in the literature, to compute the slope of the compensation ramp. In this paper, a formula to compute the slope of the compensation ramp is proposed in such a way that a stable period-1 orbit is obtained. This formula is based on the values of the circuit parameters, such as inductances, capacitances, input voltage, switching frequency and includes some assumptions related to internal resistances, output voltages, and some other electrical properties related with the physical construction of the circuit. The formula is verified numerically using the saltation matrix and experimentally using a test circuit.
Tue, 19 July 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0059.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: multi-slope sliding-mode control (MSSMC); single-phase inverter; multi-slope function (MS)
Online: 19 July 2016 (04:54:06 CEST)
In this paper, a new approach to the sliding-mode control of single-phase inverters under linear and non-linear loads is introduced. The main idea behind this approach is to utilize a non-linear, flexible and multi-slope function in controller structure. This non-linear function makes the controller possible to control the inverter by a non-linear multi-slope sliding surface. In general, this sliding surface has two parts with different slopes in each part and the flexibility of the sliding surface makes the multi-slope sliding-mode controller (MSSMC) possible to reduce the total harmonic distortion, to improve the tracking accuracy, and to prevent overshoots leading to undesirable transient-states in output voltage which are occurred when the load current sharply rises. In order to improve the tracking accuracy and to reduce the steady-state error, an integral term of the multi-slope function is also added to the sliding surface. The improved performance of the proposed controller is confirmed by simulations and finally, the results of the proposed approach are compared with a conventional SMC and a SRFPI controller.
Thu, 6 December 2018
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0072.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: gallium nitride (GaN); silicon carbide (SiC); silicon (Si); converters; power devices; power electronics
Online: 6 December 2018 (05:16:44 CET)
Power semiconductor devices are essential from the operation point of view, size, efficiency and cost, these components are used in a myriad of applications, providing features that make them an important part of the system in which they are operating. This document analyzes and compares the basic structure, properties, design aspects, as well as temperature performance, stability and switching losses, present in devices on silicon (Si), silicon carbide (SiC) and new generation devices fabricated in gallium nitride (GaN) applied in renewable energy systems. The main objective is determinate the viability of the new generation components, which present a superior performance in view of an increase in efficiency, conductivity, decreases in switching losses, lower resistances and parasitic capacitances as well as higher operating frequency range. Therefore demonstrating the GaN components are a strong and viable candidate to solve some of the problems present in renewable energy systems.
Tue, 14 February 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0050.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Digital Lock-in Amplifier (DLIA); Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA); Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS); Hardware Description Language (HDL); Light Emitting Diode (LED); Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM); Microprocessors
Online: 14 February 2017 (09:11:38 CET)
Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) systems for e-health applications usually suffer of poor signal detection mainly due to a low end-to-end signal to noise ratio of the electronics chain. Lock-In Amplifiers (LIA) historically represent a powerful technique helping to improve performances in such circumstances. In this work it has been designed and implemented a digital LIA system, based on a Zynq® Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), trying to explore if this technique might improve fNIRS system performances. More broadly, FPGA based solution flexibility has been investigated, with particular emphasis applied to digital filter parameters, needed in the digital LIA, and it has been evaluated its impact on the final signal detection and noise rejection capability. The realized architecture was a mixed solution between VHDL hardware modules and software ones, running within a softcore microprocessor. Experimental results have shown the goodness of the proposed solutions and comparative details among different implementation will be detailed. Finally a key aspect taken into account throughout the design was its modularity, allowing an ease increase of the input channels while avoiding the growth of the design cost of the electronics system.
Thu, 15 September 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0206.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: impulse radar; ultra-wideband (UWB); noncontact; short-range; healthcare; respiration; heartbeat; SNR; ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD); continuous-wavelet transform (CWT)
Online: 15 September 2016 (11:24:00 CEST)
The radar sensor described realizes healthcare monitoring capable of detecting subject chest-wall movement caused by cardiopulmonary activities, and wirelessly estimating the respiration and heartbeat rates of the subject without attaching any devices to the body. No conventional Doppler only can capture Doppler signatures because of a lack of bandwidth information with noncontact sensors. In contrast, we take full advantages of impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) radar to achieve low power consumption and convenient portability, with a flexible detection range and desirable accuracy. A noise reduction method based on improved ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and a vital sign separation method based on continuous-wavelet transform (CWT) are proposed jointly to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in order to acquire accurate respiration and heartbeat rates. This noncontact healthcare sensor system proves the commercial feasibility and considerable accessibility of using compact IR-UWB radar for emerging biomedical applications. Compared with traditional contact measurement devices, experimental results utilizing a 2.3 GHz bandwidth transceiver, demonstrate 100% similar results.
Fri, 7 October 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0018.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: residual generation filter; finite memory structure; Kalman filter; fast detection
Online: 7 October 2016 (12:29:33 CEST)
In the current paper, a residual generation filter with finite memory structure is proposed for sensor fault detection. The proposed finite memory residual generation filter provides the residual by real-time filtering of fault vector using only the most recent finite observations and inputs on the window. It is shown that the residual given by the proposed residual generation filter provides the exact fault for noise-free systems. The proposed residual generation filter is specified to the digital filter structure for the amenability to hardware implementation. Finally, to illustrate the capability of the proposed residual generation filter, numerical examples are performed for the discretized DC motor system having the multiple sensor faults.
Thu, 29 September 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0119.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: short-term load forecasting; radial basis function neural network; support vector regression; particle swarm optimization; adaptive annealing learning algorithm
Online: 29 September 2016 (12:22:20 CEST)
A reinforcement learning algorithm is proposed to improve the accuracy of short-term load forecasting (STLF) in this article. The proposed model integrates radial basis function neural network (RBFNN), support vector regression (SVR), and adaptive annealing learning algorithm (AALA). In the proposed methodology, firstly, the initial structure of RBFNN is determined by using SVR. Then, an AALA with time-varying learning rates is used to optimize the initial parameters of SVR-RBFNN (AALA-SVR-RBFNN). In order to overcome the stagnation for searching optimal RBFNN, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) is applied to simultaneously find promising learning rates in AALA. Finally, the short-term load demands are predicted by using the optimal RBFNN. The performance of the proposed methodology is verified on the actual load dataset from Taiwan Power Company (TPC). Simulation results reveal that the proposed AALA-SVR-RBFNN can achieve a better load forecasting precision as compared to various RBFNNs.
Thu, 14 December 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Floating PV Systems (FPV); Floating PV Module (FPVM)
Online: 14 December 2017 (12:10:02 CET)
Rapid reduction in the $/Wp prices of photovoltaic (solar PV) energy has been proceeded recently, resulting in near exponential deployments with an annual capacity of 200 GW expected by 2020. Achieving high efficiency is necessary for many solar manufacturers to break even. In addition, new innovative installation methods are emerging to complement the improvement of system performance. The floating PV (FPV) solar market space has emerged over the past decade as a method for utilizing the cool ambient environment of the FPV system near the water surface to boost the power output performance of the PV module and ultimately the yield of the PV system. PV module temperature, which is the most critical factor affecting efficiency, ultimately governs the effective performance of solar cells, module, and all semiconductor materials in general. We propose the first ever electrical efficiency equations ( and ) for an FPV module installed on water based on two new predictions of FPV temperature operation models (Tm1 and Tm2), whose coefficients are derived from FPV site data with MATLAB. The theoretical prediction of module temperature shows respective errors of 2% and 4% when compared to the FPVM measured data.
Mon, 29 May 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0195.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: precision agriculture, electronic insect traps, internet of things
Online: 29 May 2017 (10:02:26 CEST)
Τhe concept of remote insect surveillance at large spatial scales for a number of serious insect pests of agricultural and medical importance is introduced in a series of our papers. We augment typical, low-cost plastic traps for many insect pests with the necessary optoelectronic sensors to guard the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and –in relevant cases- identify the species of the incoming insect from their wingbeat. For every important crop pest there are monitoring protocols to be followed in order to decide when to initiate a treatment procedure before a serious infestation occurs. Monitoring protocols are mainly based on specifically designed insect traps. Traditional insect monitoring suffers in that the scope of such monitoring: is curtailed by its cost, requires intensive labor, is time consuming, an expert is often needed for sufficient accuracy and can sometimes raise safety issues for humans. These disadvantages reduce the extent to which manual insect monitoring is applied and therefore its accuracy, which finally results in significant crop loss due to damage caused by pests. With the term ‘surveillance’ we intend to push the monitoring idea to unprecedented levels of information extraction regarding the presence, time-stamping detection events, species identification and population density of targeted insect pests. Insect counts as well as environmental parameters that correlate with insect’s population development are wirelessly transmitted to the central monitoring agency in real time, are visualized and streamed to statistical methods to assist enforcement of security control to insect pests. In this work we emphasize on how the traps can be self-organized in networks that collectively report data at local, regional, country, continental, and global scales using the emerging technology of the Internet of Things (IoT). This research is necessarily interdisciplinary and falls at the intersection of entomology, optoelectronic engineering, data-science and crop science and encompasses the design and implementation of low-cost, low-power technology to help reduce the extent of quantitative and qualitative crop losses by many the most significant agricultural pests. We argue that smart traps communicating through IoT to report in real-time the level of the pest population from the field straight to a human controlled agency can, in the very near future, have a profound impact on the decision making process in crop protection and will be disruptive of existing manual practices. In the present study, three cases are investigated : monitoring Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) using a) Picusan and b) Lindgren trap, and c) monitoring various stored grain beetle pests using the pitfall trap.
Fri, 11 January 2019
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0106.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: error model; new model; NS-3; VANET; 802.11p
Online: 11 January 2019 (07:59:28 CET)
Nowadays, network simulators are very useful to model a communications system. In this technical note we will focus in the creation of a new error model in NS-3 network simulator. This note describes the main steps to create or modify an Wi-Fi error model in this network simulator. In our case, we have created a new error model to included the approach of  to compute PER (Packet Error Rate) for vehicular environments.
Fri, 19 August 2016
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0180.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: UAV; Drone; monitoring; Multisensor; platform; software framework; beacons
Online: 19 August 2016 (10:42:58 CEST)
This paper present a platform for airborne sensor applications using low-cost, open-source components carried by an easy-to-fly unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV). The system, available in open-source , is designed for researchers, students and makers for a broad range of their exploration and data-collection needs. The main contribution is the extensible architecture for modularized airborne sensor deployment and real-time data visualisation. Our open-source Android application provides data collection, flight path definition and map tools. Total cost of the system is below 800 dollars. The flexibility of the system are illustrated by mapping the location of Bluetooth beacons (iBeacons) on a ground field and by measuring water temperatures in a lake.
Wed, 10 August 2016
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0109.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Synthetic Aperture Radar; UAVSAR; levee; classification; radar polarimetry; classification
Online: 10 August 2016 (11:37:16 CEST)
The dynamics of surface and sub-surface water events can lead to slope instability resulting in anomalies such as slough slides on earthen levees. Early detection of these anomalies by a remote sensing approach could save time versus direct assessment. We have implemented a supervised Mahalanobis distance classification algorithm for the detection of slough slides on levees using complex polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (polSAR) data. The classifier output was followed by a spatial majority filter post-processing step which improved the accuracy. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated using fully quad-polarimetric L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s (JPL’s) Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR). The study area is a section of the lower Mississippi River valley in the southern USA. Slide detection accuracy of up to 98 percent was achieved, although the number of available slides examples was small.
Thu, 26 January 2017
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: high speed maglev; long-stator synchronous motor; propulsion inverter control system position estimator
Online: 26 January 2017 (08:58:39 CET)
In the case of long-stator linear drive, unlike rotative drives for which speed or position sensors are a single unit attached to the shaft, these sensors extend along the guideway. The position signals transmitted from maglev vehicle can’t meet the need of the real-time propulsion control in the on-ground inverter power substations. In this paper the design of the propulsion inverter control system with a position estimator for driving long-stator synchronous motor in high speed maglev train is proposed. The experiments have been carried out at the 150m long guideway in O-song test track. To investigate the performance of the position estimator, the propulsion control system with and without the position estimator are compared. The result confirms that the proposed strategy can meet the dynamic property need of propulsion inverter control system for driving long-stator linear synchronous motors
Mon, 22 May 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0160.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: active power control; battery charging; dual active bridge; energy storage system; hardware-in-loop
Online: 22 May 2017 (07:43:32 CEST)
Grid energy storage system for PV Applications is connected with three different power sources i.e. PV Array, Battery and the Grid. It is advisable to have Isolation between these three different sources to provide safety for the equipment. The configuration proposed in this paper provides the complete isolation between the three sources. A Power Balancing Control (PBC) for this configuration is proposed to operate the system in three different modes of operation. Control of a dual active bridge (DAB) based battery charger which provides a galvanic isolation between batteries and other sources is explained briefly. Various modes of operation of a Grid energy storage system are also presented in this paper. Hardware-In-Loop (HIL) Simulation is carried out to check the performance of the system and the PBC algorithm. Power circuit (comprises of inverter, dual active bridge based battery charger, grid, PV cell, batteries, contactors and switches) is simulated and the controller hardware and user interface panel are connected as HIL with the simulated power circuit through Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS). HIL simulation results are presented to explain the control operation, steady state performance in different modes of operation and the dynamic response of the system.
Thu, 10 November 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0057.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: multi-focus image, image fusion, region mosaic, contrast pyramid
Online: 10 November 2016 (07:34:22 CET)
This paper proposes a new approach for multi-focus images fusion based on Region Mosaicing on Contrast Pyramids (REMCP). A density-based region growing method is developed to construct a focused region mask for multi-focus images. The segmented focused region mask is decomposed into a mask pyramid, which is then used for supervised region mosaicking on a contrast pyramid. In this way, the focus measurement and the continuity of focused regions are incorporated and the pixel level pyramid fusion is improved at the region level. Objective and subjective experiments show that the proposed REMCP is more robust to noise than compared algorithms and can fully preserves the focus information of the multi-focus images meanwhile reducing distortions of the fused images.
Thu, 11 May 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0097.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: multi-phase; synchronous frame; induction generator; PWM inverter; seven phase rectifier; PLL; grid
Online: 11 May 2017 (08:01:17 CEST)
The evolving multiphase induction generators (MPIG) with more than three phases are receiving prominence in high power generation systems. This paper aims at the development of a comprehensive model of the wind turbine driven seven-phase induction generator (7PIG) along with necessary the power electronic converters and controller for grid interface. The dynamic model of the system is developed in Maltlab/Simulink. Synchronous reference frame phase-locked loop (SRFPLL) system is incorporated for grid synchronization. The modeling aspects are detailed and the system response is observed for various wind velocities. The effectiveness of seven phase induction generator is demonstrated with the fault tolerant capability and high output power with reduced phase current when compared to conventional 3-phase wind generation scheme. The response of the PLL is analyzed and the results are presented.
Thu, 14 December 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0088.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: D2D communications; 5G systems; energy efficiency
Online: 14 December 2017 (09:38:21 CET)
Device-to-device (D2D) communication is an essential part of the future fifth generation (5G) system that can be seen as “network of networks”, consisting of multiple seamlessly integrated radio access technologies (RATs). Public safety communications, autonomous driving, social-aware networking, and infotainment services are example use cases of D2D technology. High data rate communications and use of several active air interfaces in the described network create energy consumption challenges for both base stations and the end user devices. In this paper, we review the status of 3GPP standardization and define a set of application scenarios. We use the recent models of 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) and WiFi interfaces in analyzing the power consumption both from the infrastructure and user device perspectives. The results indicate that the number of active interfaces should be minimized.
Wed, 10 August 2016
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0078.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: MIMO system Model; 2N–MIMO system model; Outage Probability; Channel Capacity Ratio (CCR)
Online: 10 August 2016 (10:11:12 CEST)
Finding a good MIMO system model also major issue in Wireless Communication system. It is facing with so many problem, one of the major problem is finding good system model in terms of capacity and transmitting antenna system. In this paper, we analyze the channel capacity of various MIMO system model with some constant SNR level and outage probability. We establish a novel idea for MIMO system models as consider as 2N- MIMO system model and find-out change in channel capacity when different transmitting antennas with constant SNR and outage probability. The channel capacity ratio CCR is presented here on the basis of 2N- MIMO channel capacity model. Number of transmitted antenna presented in MIMO system is increases is well-known however paper shows change in capacity in simple form.
Mon, 15 January 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: hot spot temperature; transformer oil-paper insulating system; reliability assessment; dynamic correction; dissolved gas analysis; grey target theory
Online: 15 January 2018 (09:09:34 CET)
This paper develops a novel dynamic correction method for the reliability assessment of large oil-immersed power transformers. First, with the transformer oil-paper insulation system (TOPIS) as the target of evaluation and the winding hot spot temperature (HST) as the core point, an HST-based static ageing failure model is built according to the Weibull distribution and Arrhenius reaction law, in order to describe the transformer ageing process and calculate the winding HST for obtaining the failure rate and life expectancy of TOPIS. A grey target theory based dynamic correction model is then developed, combined with the data of Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) in power transformer oil, in order to dynamically modify the life expectancy calculated by the built static model, such that the corresponding relationship between the state grade and life expectancy correction coefficient of TOPIS can be built. Furthermore, the life expectancy loss recovery factor is introduced to correct the life expectancy of TOPIS again. Lastly, a practical case study of an operating transformer has been undertaken, in which the failure rate curve after introducing dynamic corrections can be obtained for the reliability assessment of this transformer. The curve shows a better ability of tracking the actual reliability level of transformer, thus verifying the validity of the proposed method and providing a new way for transformer reliability assessment. This contribution presents a novel model for the reliability assessment of TOPIS, in which the DGA data, as a source of information for the dynamic correction, is processed based on the grey target theory, thus the internal faults of power transformer can be diagnosed accurately as well as its life expectancy updated in time, ensuring that the dynamic assessment values can commendably track and reflect the actual operation state of the power transformers.
Wed, 21 November 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0531.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Internet of things; sensor node; LPWAN; attacks; vulnerabilities; IoT; analysis; risk; assessment; low power.
Online: 21 November 2018 (15:55:11 CET)
LoRa and its upper layers definition LoRaWAN is one of the most promising LPWAN technologies for implementing the Internet of Things (IoT). Although being a popular technology, several works in the literature have revealed various weaknesses regarding the security of LoRaWAN v1.0 (the official 1st draft). By using all these recommendations from the academia and industry, the LoRa-Alliance has worked on the v1.0 to develop an enhanced version and provide more secure and trustable architecture. The result of these efforts ended-up with LoRaWAN v1.1, which was released on Oct 11, 2017. This manuscript aims at demystifying the security aspects and provide a comprehensive Security Risk Analysis related to latest version of LoRaWAN. Besides, it provides several remedies to the recognized vulnerabilities. To the best of authors’ knowledge, this work is one of its first kind by providing a detailed security analysis related to latest version of LoRaWAN. According to our analysis, end-device physical capture, rogue gateway and replay attacks are found to be threating for safety operation of the network. Eventually, v1.1 of LoRaWAN is found to be less vulnerable to attacks compared to v1.0, yet possesses several security implications that need to be addressed and fixed for the upcoming releases.
Thu, 18 May 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0137.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: sliding mode control; constant power load; negative incremental impedance; robustness analysis; chattering reduction; microgrid stability; noise rejection
Online: 18 May 2017 (04:45:56 CEST)
To implement renewable energy resources, microgrid systems have been adopted and developed into the technology of choice to assure mass electrification in the next decade. Microgrid systems have a number of advantages over the conventional utility grid systems, however, it faces severe instability issues due to continually increasing constant power loads. To improve the stability of the entire system, load side compensation technique is chosen because of its robustness and cost effectiveness. In this particular occasion, a sliding mode controller is developed for microgrid system in the presence of CPL to assure certain control objective of keeping the output voltage constant at 480V. After that, the robustness analysis of the sliding mode controller against parametric uncertainties is presented. The sliding mode controller robustness against parametric uncertainties, frequency variations, and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) are illustrated in this paper. Later, the performance of the PID and sliding Mode controller is compared in case of nonlinearity, parameter uncertainties, and noise rejection to justify the selection of Sliding Mode controller over PID controller. All the necessary calculations are reckoned mathematically and results are verified in the virtual platform such as MATLAB/Simulink with the appreciable outcome.
Tue, 27 December 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0130.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: power transformer; coupled inductor; electro-magnetic modeling
Online: 27 December 2016 (09:43:52 CET)
In power systems there are complex transformer structures, whose accurate analysis is not possible using the techniques available today. This paper presents a systematic data driven analysis method for coupled inductors of arbitrary complexity. The method first establishes a winding matrix N mapping the windings to the limbs of the transformer. A permeance matrix P is created from the reluctance network of the magnetic core. A generalized inductance matrix L mapping currents in the transformer windings to the induced voltages is generated based on the winding (N) and permeance (P) matrices. The inductance matrix representation of a coupled inductor is then transformed to an admittance matrix, which can be integrated to the nodal analysis of the electrical circuit surrounding the coupled inductor. The method presented is validated by simulations with real transformer structures using electromagnetic transient program (EMTP/ATP).
Fri, 17 March 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0140.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Energy Harvesting; energy management circuit; kinetic energy; vibratory transducer
Online: 17 March 2017 (16:58:48 CET)
Since the requirements in terms of power of the electronic applications range wide, the developed Energy Harvesting (EH) systems limit their availability to the less power demanding applications. However, this paper focuses on increasing the energy levels collected in the EH system so that it can be included in more demanding applications in terms of power. Therefore, an electronic system capable of grouping many single harvesting channels into one single system is analyzed in this paper. This multi-harvester electronic system is able to manage efficiently the energy collected by multiple vibratory transducers. The paper includes a comparison of its performance against some of the State-of-the-Art EH energy management circuits that interface the transducers. The method employed to demonstrate the intrinsic efficiency of each of the electronic circuits tested was based on experimental tests, where the average power transferred from several identical and simultaneous electric sources to a single storage element was measured. It was found out that only one energy management circuit was able to increase the transferred energy in a linear way while new input electric sources were added.
Wed, 7 December 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0040.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: fractal array antenna; density tapering; side lobe level
Online: 7 December 2016 (11:14:31 CET)
Fractal array antennas are multiband arrays having ultra wide band and space filling facility. But Side lobe levels and large number of antenna elements are the major designing challenges of these arrays. In this paper, design and analysis of octagonal fractal array antenna is investigated with Morse-Thue fractal density tapering technique (MTFDT). Due to the proposed technique, a remarkable improvement has observed in Side lobe levels and thinning of the elements can also be attained at the various iterations of octagonal fractal array antenna. These arrays are analyzed and simulated by MATLAB-15 programming.
Tue, 30 May 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0205.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: GFETs; TNT explosive; sensor; TNT peptide receptor; graphene sheet
Online: 30 May 2017 (06:02:40 CEST)
Smart sensors based on graphene field effect transistor and biologically receptors are regarded as a promising nanomaterial that could be the basis for future generations of selective real-time monitoring of target analytes and smaller electronics. So the purpose of this paper is to provide details a real-time and selective explosive sensor based on GFETs and PDA-based lipid membranes coupled with biologically inspired TNT peptide receptors. Following an introduction, this paper describes the way of fabrication of the GFETs device by investigation methods for transferring graphene sheet from Cu substrates to target substrates, which is functionalized by the TNT peptide receptors, in order to offer a system which has the capability of answering the presence of related target molecules. Field effet transistor was fabricated using graphene as a channel and monitored by the source-drain current and back-gate voltage curves in the measurement. The transport property changed compared to that of the FET made by intrinsic graphene, that is, the Dirac point position moved from positive Vg to negative Vg, indicating the transition of graphene from p-type to n-type after annealing in TNT, and GFET sensor show good sensitivity and selectivity response.
Thu, 29 December 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0143.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Band-gap voltage reference; voltage reference; circuit design
Online: 29 December 2016 (15:47:33 CET)
By using 0.35-um CMOS process, this work achieves a design of analogous band-gap reference voltage circuit with low temperature coefficient. The proposed circuit operates at 3V and generates a reference current of 44 uA. The HSPICE simulation results show the temperature coefficient of this circuit is 23 ppm/℃ at range of -10 ℃ to 100 ℃, and the line regulation (the ratio of output current variation to supply voltage variation) is estimated as 1.95 uA/V from supply voltage variation of 3 V to 5 V. The experimental chip is fabricated and measured. The circuit provides adjustable capability for output voltage among temperature variation of -10 - 100 ℃. The chip area is 534 × 695 um^2. In this new design, the operational amplifier is not necessary. The chip design effort can be great reduced.
Mon, 10 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0047.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC-DC; self biased; magnetic component free; multistage; step-up; photovoltaic application
Online: 10 April 2017 (06:14:16 CEST)
This article presents a self balanced multistage DC-DC step-up converter for photovoltaic applications. Proposed converter topology is designed for unidirectional power transfer and provides a doable solution for photovoltaic applications where voltage is required to be stepped up without magnetic components (Transformer-less and Inductor-less). The output voltage obtained from renewable sources will be low and must be stepped up by using a DC-DC converter for photovoltaic applications. K diodes and K capacitors along with two semiconductor control switch are used in the K-stage proposed converter to obtain an output voltage which is (K+1) times the input voltage. The conspicuous features of proposed topology are i) Magnetic components free (Transformer-less and Inductor-less). ii) Continuous input current iii) Low voltage rating semiconductor devices and capacitors iv) Modularity v) Easy to add a higher number of levels to increase voltage gain vi) Only two control switches with alternating operation and simple control. The proposed converter is compared with recent existing transformer-less and Inductor-less power converter in term of voltage gain, number of devices and cost. The application of proposed circuit is discussed in detail. The proposed converter has been designed with rated power of 60W, input voltage is 24V, output voltage is 100V and switching frequency is 100 kHz. The performance of the converter is verified through experimental and simulation results.
Thu, 10 November 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0206.v3
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) radar; noncontact; short-range; vital signs; ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD); continuous-wavelet transform (CWT)
Online: 10 November 2016 (07:13:01 CET)
The radar sensor described realizes healthcare monitoring capable of detecting subject chest-wall movement caused by cardiopulmonary activities, and wirelessly estimating the respiration and heartbeat rates of the subject without attaching any devices to the body. Conventional single-tone Doppler radar can only capture Doppler signatures because of a lack of bandwidth information with noncontact sensors. In contrast, we take full advantage of impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) radar to achieve low power consumption and convenient portability, with a flexible detection range and desirable accuracy. A noise reduction method based on improved ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and a vital sign separation method based on the continuous-wavelet transform (CWT) are proposed jointly to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in order to acquire accurate respiration and heartbeat rates. Experimental results illustrate that respiration and heartbeat signals can be extracted accurately under different conditions. This noncontact healthcare sensor system proves the commercial feasibility and considerable accessibility of using compact IR-UWB radar for emerging biomedical applications.
Thu, 16 February 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0060.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: microgrid; multi-microgrid; measured admittance; protection scheme
Online: 16 February 2017 (09:17:26 CET)
Multi-microgrid has many new characteristics, such as bi-directional power flows, flexible operation modes and variable fault currents with different control strategy of inverter interfaced distributed generations (IIDGs). All these featuring aspects pose challenges to multi-microgrid protection. In this paper, current and voltage characteristics of different feeders are analyzed when fault occurs in different positions of multi-microgrid. Based on the voltage and current distribution characteristics of the line parameters, a new protection scheme for the internal fault of multi-microgrid is proposed, which takes the change of phase difference and amplitude of measured bus admittance as the criterion. This scheme with high sensitivity and reliability, has a simple principle and is easy to be adjusted. PSCAD/EMTDC is used in simulation analysis, and simulation results have verified the correctness and effectiveness of the protection scheme.
Tue, 9 May 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0083.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: state estimation; model reference; sliding mode; real-time; parameter detuning
Online: 9 May 2017 (11:01:45 CEST)
The purpose of this work is to present an adaptive sliding mode luenberger state observer with improved disturbance rejection capability and better tracking performance under dynamic conditions. The sliding hyperplane is altered by incorporating the estimated disturbance torque with the stator currents. Also, the effects of parameter detuning on the speed convergence is observed and compared with the conventional disturbance rejection mechanism. The entire drive system is first built in simulink environment. Then, the simulink model is integrated with RT-Lab blocksets and implemented in a relatively new real-time environment using OP4500 real-time simulator. Real-time simulation and testing platforms have succeeded offline simulation and testing tools due to their reduced development time. The real-time results validate the improvement in the proposed state observer and also correspond to the performance of the actual physical model.
Tue, 6 December 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0030.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: microgrid; classification; simulation; optimization; renewable energy sources; storage; electric vehicles
Online: 6 December 2016 (07:52:50 CET)
The expansion of renewable energies is progressing strongly. The influence on the power supply networks by the volatility of the infeed must be met with new concepts. In this paper we investigate the possibilities of integrating microgrids as a cooperating unit in the power supply network to support further expansion of RES power plants. In this paper a differentiation of microgrids from similar network structures is established, a classification of proposed groups is made. Then, after the description of simulation of components in a microgrid, with practical advice, an example model is shown, which aids the dimensioning of the components within a microgrid to achieve a specified goal.
Tue, 17 January 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: accessibility; offshore; operation and maintenance; weather condition; Markov chain; data visualization
Online: 17 January 2017 (11:17:32 CET)
For offshore wind power generation, accessibility is one of the main factors that has great impact on operation and maintenance due to constraints on weather conditions for marine transportation. This paper presents a framework to explore the accessibility of an offshore site. At first, several maintenance types are defined and taken into account. Next, a data visualization procedure is introduced to provide an insight into the distribution of access periods over time. Then, a rigorous mathematical method based on finite state Markov chain is proposed to assess the accessibility of an offshore site from the maintenance perspective. A five-year weather data of a marine site is used to demonstrate the applicability and the outcomes of the proposed method. The main findings show that the proposed framework is effective in investigating the accessibility for different time scales and is able to catch the patterns of the distribution of the access periods. Moreover, based on the developed Markov chain, the average waiting time for a certain access period can be estimated. With more information on the maintenance of an offshore wind farm, the expected production loss due to time delay can be calculated.
Tue, 18 October 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0074.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: high voltage gain; switch-clamp capacitor; DC–DC converter; renewable energy
Online: 18 October 2016 (09:45:49 CEST)
A high step-up DC-to-DC converter that integrates an isolated transformer and a switched-clamp capacitor is presented in this study. The voltage stress of the main power switch should be clamped to 1/4 V by using the turn ratio and switched-clamp capacitor of an isolated transformer to achieve a high voltage gain. In addition, a passive clamp circuit is employed reduce voltage stress on the main power switch. The energy of the leakage inductor can be recycled by the clamp capacitor because of the passive clamp circuit, thereby improving the power converter efficiency. The converter consists of one isolated transformer, one main switch, three capacitors, and four diodes. Operating principle and steady-state analyses are also discussed. Finally, a 24-V-input voltage to 200-V-output voltage and a 150 W output power prototype converter are fabricated in the laboratory. The maximum efficiency of the converter is 95.1 at 60 W.
Wed, 5 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC earth electrode; electro-thermal coupling; abnormal resistance region (ARR); shell theory, finite element method
Online: 5 April 2017 (15:04:47 CEST)
During HVDC earth return operation systems, a high magnitude current will be injected into soil through earth electrode, the potential on the surface would change widely and produce unfavorable effects on the AC systems around. This paper presents an effective finite element method (FEM) coupling electric field with thermal field to evaluate the electrical field induced by the injected DC current. Firstly, owe to the characteristic of FEM, this method can consider arbitrary soil and earth electrode structure. Secondly, by setting the electrical and thermal parameters of soil as a function of temperature at the same time, the dynamic coupling process of electric field and thermal field is simulated accurately. Thirdly, to deal with the singular point in FEM subdivision and the huge computation in traditional three-dimensional FEM, the FEM coupling 2-D earth electrode with 3-D soil based on "shell" theory is introduced. Finally, based on the suggested method, the effect of abnormal resistance region (ARR) near DC earth electrode on electric field distribution is analyzed.
Fri, 12 January 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0113.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: microgrid; real-time simulation; multiagent system; energy management system
Online: 12 January 2018 (07:53:44 CET)
This paper deals with the problem of real-time management of Smart Grids. For this sake, the energy management is integrated with the power system through a telecommunication system. The use of Multiagent Systems leads the proposed algorithm to find the best-integrated solution, taking into consideration the operating scenario and the system characteristics. The proposed technique is tested with the help of an academic microgrid, so the results may be replicated.
Wed, 9 May 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0140.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: fly-back converter; zero-voltage-switching (ZVS); Variable-frequency-controller (VFC); single-stage
Online: 9 May 2018 (07:43:25 CEST)
This paper proposes a single-stage asymmetrical half-bridge fly-back (AHBF) converter with resonant mode using dual-mode control. The presented converter has an integrated boost converter and asymmetrical half-bridge fly-back converter and operates in resonant mode. The boost-cell always operates in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) to achieve high power factor. The presented converter operates simultaneously using a variable-frequency-controller (VFC) and pulse-width-modulation (PWM) controller. Unlike the conventional single-stage design, the intermediate bus voltage of this controller can be regulated depending on the main power switch duty ratio. The asymmetrical half-bridge fly-back converter utilizes a variable switching frequency controller to achieve the output voltage regulation. The asymmetrical half-bridge fly-back converter can achieve zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) operation and significantly reduce the switching losses. Detailed analysis and design of this single-stage asymmetrical half-bridge fly-back converter with resonant mode is described. A wide AC input voltage ranging from 90 to 264 Vrms and output 19 V/ 120 W prototype converter was built to verify the theoretical analysis and performance of the presented converter.
Wed, 26 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0165.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: synthetic aperture radar; features extraction; saliency detection; image fusion
Online: 26 April 2017 (06:06:19 CEST)
Saliency detection in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image is a difficult problem. This paper proposed a multitask saliency detection (MSD) model for the saliency detection task of SAR image. Firstly, we extract four features of SAR image as the input of the MSD model, which include the intensity, orientation, uniqueness and global contrast. Then, the saliency map is generated by the multitask sparsity pursuit (MTSP) which integrates the multiple features collaboratively. Subjective and objective evaluation of the MSD model verifies its effectiveness. Based on the saliency maps of the source images, an image fusion method is proposed for the SAR and color optical image fusion. The experimental results of real data show the proposed image fusion method is superior to the presenting methods in terms of several universal quality evaluation indexes, as well as in the visual quality. The salient areas in the SAR image can be highlighted and the spatial and spectral details of color optical image can also be preserved in the fusion result.
Tue, 25 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0160.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: wireless communication; energy harvesting; electrical machines maintenance; induction motor control systems; rotor temperature
Online: 25 April 2017 (16:12:00 CEST)
With the widespread use of electric machines there is a growing need to extract information from the machines to optimize their control systems and maintenance management. The present work shows the development of an embedded system to perform the monitoring of an squirrel cage induction motor rotor physical variables. The system comprises: circuit to acquire desirable rotor variable(s) value(s) and send it to the computer; a rectifier and power storage circuit that besides converting an alternating current in continuous also store energy for a certain amount of time to wait the motor engine shutdown; and magnetic generator that harvest energy from rotating field to power the circuits mentioned above. The embedded system is set on the rotor, making it difficult to power the system because it is rotating, problem solved with the construction of the magnetic generator eliminating the need of using batteries or collector rings and send data to the computer using a wireless NRF24L01 module. For the proposed system validation a temperature sensor (DS18b20) was used, variable known as the most important when identifying the need for maintenance and control systems. Tests were made getting satisfactory results proving the viability of using sensors on the rotor.
Mon, 17 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: radar; polynomial phase signal; least squares unwrapping; extended Kalman filter
Online: 17 April 2017 (05:26:33 CEST)
The parameter estimation problem for polynomial phase signals (PPSs) arises in a number of fields, including radar, sonar, biology, etc. In this paper, a fast algorithm of parameter estimation for monocomponent PPS is considered. We propose the so-called LSU-EKF estimator, which combines the least squares unwrapping (LSU) estimator and the extended Kalman filter (EKF). First, the coarse estimates of the parameters of PPS are obtained by the LSU estimator using a small number of samples. Subsequently, these coarse estimates are used to initial the EKF. Monte-Carlo simulations show that the computation complexity of the LSU-EKF estimator is much less than that of the LSU estimator, with little performance loss. Similar to the LSU estimator, the proposed algorithm is able to work over the entire identifiable region. Moreover, in the EKF stage, the accurate estimated results can be output point-by-point, which is useful in real applications.
Thu, 16 March 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: electric vehicle (EV); charging station (CS); state of charge (SOC); structured query language (SQL); personal home page (PHP)
Online: 16 March 2017 (06:36:11 CET)
The enormous growth in the penetration of electric vehicles (EVs), has laid the path to advancements in the charging infrastructure. Connectivity between charging stations is an essential prerequisite for future EV adoption to alleviate users’ “range anxiety”. The existing charging stations fail to adopt power provision allocation and scheduling management. To improve the existing charging infrastructure data based on real-time information and availability of reserves at charging stations could be uploaded to the users to help them locate the nearest charging station for an EV. This research article focuses on an a interactive user application developed through SQL and PHP platform to allocate the charging slots based on estimated battery parameters, which uses data communication with charging stations to receive the slot availability information. The proposed server-based real-time forecast charging infrastructure avoids waiting times and its scheduling management efficiently prevents the EV from halting on road due to battery drain out. The proposed model is implemented using a low-cost microcontroller and the system etiquette tested.
Mon, 18 September 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0074.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: recommendation system; context awareness; location based services; mobile computing, cloud-based computing
Online: 18 September 2017 (08:54:04 CEST)
The ubiquity of mobile sensors (such as GPS, accelerometer and gyroscope) together with increasing computational power have enabled an easier access to contextual information, which proved its value in next generation of the recommender applications. The importance of contextual information has been recognized by researchers in many disciplines, such as ubiquitous and mobile computing, to filter the query results and provide recommendations based on different user status. A context-aware recommendation system (CoARS) provides a personalized service to each individual user, driven by his or her particular needs and interests at any location and anytime. Therefore, a contextual recommendation system changes in real time as a user’s circumstances changes. CoARS is one of the major applications that has been refined over the years due to the evolving geospatial techniques and big data management practices. In this paper, a CoARS is designed and implemented to combine the context information from smartphones’ sensors and user preferences to improve efficiency and usability of the recommendation. The proposed approach combines user’s context information (such as location, time, and transportation mode), personalized preferences (using individuals past behavior), and item-based recommendations (such as item’s ranking and type) to personally filter the item list. The context-aware methodology is based on preprocessing and filtering of raw data, context extraction and context reasoning. This study examined the application of such a system in recommending a suitable restaurant using both web-based and android platforms. The implemented system uses CoARS techniques to provide beneficial and accurate recommendations to the users. The capabilities of the system is evaluated successfully with recommendation experiment and usability test.
Thu, 21 December 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0157.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Coregistration; pansharpening; multi-sensor fusion; multitemporal images; deep learning; normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)
Online: 21 December 2017 (17:10:23 CET)
Sensitivity to weather conditions, and specially to clouds, is a severe limiting factor to the use of optical remote sensing for Earth monitoring applications. A possible alternative, is to resort to weather-insensitive synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. However, in many real-world applications, critical decisions are made based on some informative spectral features, such as water, vegetation or soil indices, which cannot be extracted from SAR images. In the absence of optical sources, these data must be estimated. The current practice is to perform linear interpolation between data available at temporally close time instants. In this work, we propose to estimate missing spectral features through data fusion and deep-learning. Several sources of information are taken into account - optical sequences, SAR sequences, DEM - so as to exploit both temporal and cross-sensor dependencies. Based on these data, and a tiny cloud-free fraction of the target image, a compact convolutional neural network (CNN) is trained to perform the desired estimation. To validate the proposed approach, we focus on the estimation of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), using coupled Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 time-series acquired over an agricultural region of Burkina Faso from May to November 2016. Several fusion schemes are considered, causal and non-causal, single-sensor or joint-sensor, corresponding to different operating conditions. Experimental results are very promising, showing a significant gain over baselines methods according to all performance indicators.
Thu, 6 September 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0362.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Cognitive Computing; Deep Learning; Intelligent Cognitive Assistants (ICA); Neuromorphic System-on-a-Chip (NeuSoC); NVRAM; RRAM; Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs).
Online: 6 September 2018 (10:53:42 CEST)
The ongoing revolution in Deep Learning is redefining the nature of computing that is driven by the increasing amount of pattern classification and cognitive tasks. Specialized digital hardware for deep learning still holds its predominance due to the flexibility offered by the software implementation and maturity of algorithms. However, it is being increasingly desired that cognitive computing occurs at the edge, i.e. on hand-held devices that are energy constrained, which is energy prohibitive when employing digital von Neumann architectures. Recent explorations in digital neuromorphic hardware have shown promise, but offer low neurosynaptic density needed for scaling to applications such as intelligent cognitive assistants (ICA). Large-scale integration of nanoscale emerging memory devices with Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) mixed-signal integrated circuits can herald a new generation of Neuromorphic computers that will transcend the von Neumann bottleneck for cognitive computing tasks. Such hybrid Neuromorphic System-on-a-chip (NeuSoC) architectures promise machine learning capability at chip-scale form factor, and several orders of magnitude improvement in energy efficiency. Practical demonstration of such architectures has been limited as performance of emerging memory devices falls short of the expected behavior from the idealized memristor-based analog synapses, or weights, and novel machine learning algorithms are needed to take advantage of the device behavior. In this work, we review the challenges involved and present a pathway to realize ultra-low-power mixed-signal NeuSoC, from device arrays and circuits to spike-based deep learning algorithms, with ‘brain-like’ energy-efficiency.
Mon, 17 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: motion parameters estimation, wideband LFM radar, cross-correlation.
Online: 17 April 2017 (05:00:46 CEST)
In wideband radar systems, the performance of motion parameters estimation can significantly affect the performance of object detection and the quality of inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging. Although the traditional motion parameters estimation methods can reduce the range migration (RM) and Doppler frequency migration (DFM) effects in ISAR imaging, the computational complexity is high. In this paper, we propose a new fast non-searching motion parameters estimation method based on cross-correlation of adjacent echoes (CCAE) for wideband LFM signals. A cross-correlation operation is carried out for two adjacent echo signals, then the motion parameters can be calculated by estimating the frequency of the correlation result. The proposed CCAE method can be applied directly to the stretching system, which is commonly adopted in wideband radar systems. Simulational results demonstrate that the new method can achieve better estimation performances, with much lower computational cost, compared with existing methods. The experimental results on real radar data sets are also evaluated to verify the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method compared to the state-of-the-art existing methods.
Mon, 8 July 2019
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0099.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: virtual power plant; distributed energy sources; smart grid
Online: 8 July 2019 (04:00:00 CEST)
This article presents an in-depth review of Virtual Power Plant (VPP), its organization in the energy system and its prospects in the face of the promising future of the increasing bidirectional complexity exposed in the current scenario. A new paradigm for the operations of modern power distribution and transmission systems requires greater grid flexibility that is accompanying an extensive change in the structure of electricity markets, the fruit of the development of the renewable industry and of the growing photovoltaic systems popularized, but in contrast due to the intermittent nature cause variable uncertainties in the power system. Innovative concepts like VPP are becoming a reality, establishing an efficient and effective mechanism. The objectives and components are described in a comprehensive way, and some of the most important are pointed out and presented in detail to contribute with a description of the energy systems and the implicit research needed for sustainability and resilience in the eminent energy scenario with this technology. In addition, the literature and studies of this technology already indicate a direction of this new tool as a promising solution to manage the uncertainties of the renewable energies.
Tue, 17 January 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0080.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: wind turbine; failure detection; SCADA data; feature extraction; mutual information; copula
Online: 17 January 2017 (11:21:58 CET)
More and more works are using machine learning techniques while adopting supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for wind turbine anomaly or failure detection. While parameter selection is important for modelling a wind turbine’s health condition, only a few papers have been published focusing on this issue and in those papers interconnections among sub-components in a wind turbine are used to address this problem. However, merely the interconnections for decision making sometimes is too general to provide a parameter list considering the differences of each SCADA dataset. In this paper, a method is proposed to provide more detailed suggestions on parameter selection based on mutual information. Moreover, after proving that Copula, a multivariate probability distribution for which the marginal probability distribution of each variable is uniform is capable of simplifying the estimation of mutual information, an empirical copula based mutual information estimation method (ECMI) is introduced for an application. After that, a real SCADA dataset is adopted to test the method, and the results show the effectiveness of the ECMI in providing parameter selection suggestions when physical knowledge is not accurate enough.
Wed, 15 March 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: MIMO radar; MIMO imaging; Near-field imaging; Height difference between T/R arrays; Grating lobes
Online: 15 March 2017 (00:48:12 CET)
MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) radar provides much more flexibility than the traditional radar for its ability to realize far more observation channels than the actual number of T/R (transmit and receive) elements. Designing the array of MIMO imaging radar, the commonly used virtual array theory generally assumes that all elements are placed on the same line. However, due to the physical size of the antennas and coupling effect between T/R elements, a certain height difference between T/R arrays is essential, resulting in the defocusing of edge points of the scene. On the other hand, the virtual array theory implies far-field approximation, leading to inevitable high grating lobes in the imaging result of near-field edge points of the scene observed by common MIMO array. To tackle these problems, this paper derives the relationship between target’s PSF (point spread function) and pattern of T/R arrays, by which the design criterion of near-field imaging MIMO array is presented. Firstly, the proper height between T/R arrays is designed to focus the near-field edge points well. Secondly, the far-field array is modified to suppress the grating lobes in the near-field area. Finally, the validity of the proposed methods is verified by simulations and an experiment.
Tue, 18 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0114.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: indoor localization; crowdsourcing; received signal strength; graph-based semi-supervised learning; linear regression; compressed sensing.
Online: 18 April 2017 (12:33:47 CEST)
Indoor positioning based on the received signal strength (RSS) of the WiFi signal has become the most popular solution for indoor localization. In order to realize the rapid deployment of indoor localization systems, solutions based on crowdsourcing have been proposed. However, compared to conventional methods, crowdsourced RSS values are more erroneous and can result in large localization errors. To mitigate the negative effect of the erroneous measurements, a graph-based semi-supervised learning (G-SSL) method is used to exploit the correlation between the RSS values at nearby locations to estimate an optimal RSS value at each location. Before using the G-SSL method, the Linear Regression (LR) algorithm is proposed to solve the device diversity problem in crowdsourcing system. Since the spatial distribution of the APs is sparse, the Compressed Sensing (CS) method is applied to precisely estimate the location of the APs. Based on the location of the APs and a simple signal propagation model, the RSS difference between different locations is calculated and used as an additional constraint to improve the performance of G-SSL. Furthermore, to exploit the sparsity of the weights used in the G-SSL, we use the CS method to reconstruct these weights more accurately and make a further improvement on the performance of the G-SSL. Experimental results show improved results in terms of the smoothness of the radio map and the localization accuracy.
Tue, 24 October 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0155.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: electrical machine; field weakening; IEM-formula; wind energy; iron loss; synchronous generator; equivalent circuit; harmonic loss
Online: 24 October 2017 (04:52:15 CEST)
During flux weakening operation time (FWOT), the total iron loss rises and affects the accuracy of loss prediction and efficiency especially if a large range of FWOT exists. Iron loss prediction is widely employed in investigations for a fast electrical machine analysis using 2-D FEA. This paper studies harmonic loss analytically by a steady-state equivalent circuit. Consideration of skin effects and iron saturation are utilized in order to examine the accuracy through the relative error distribution in the frequency domain of each model from 50 to 700 Hz. Additionally, this comparative study presents a torque-frequency-flux density calculation over each single term of the modified IEM-formula. The analytical calculation is performed using 2-D FEA for a classic and modified IEM-formula along with experimental verifications on a surface-mounted PMSG for a wind generation application.
Thu, 17 November 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0088.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: fiber Bragg grating; photonic crystal fiber; photosensitivity; FBG magnetic field sensor; olive oil; optical adhesive
Online: 17 November 2016 (10:44:44 CET)
In this project, four of fibers Bragg gratings were fabricated by injecting different volumes of liquids (star line Glass Mechanix optical adhesive material, olive oil diluted with ethanol) into the hollow core fiber. The amplitude splitting interferometric technique with a high resolution specially designed translation stage was used for the fabrication process. The fabrication was done using ultraviolet laser operated at wavelength 405nm. The fabricated Bragg length of the four fibers is equal to 3.8 cm. The results presented fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with successful fabrication at 653.3 nm Bragg reflected wavelength.
Thu, 3 May 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: decentralized access control; Internet of Things (IoT); blockchain protocol; smart contract; federated delegation; capability-based access control
Online: 3 May 2018 (13:06:09 CEST)
While the Internet of Things (IoT) technology has been widely recognized as the essential part of Smart Cities, it also brings new challenges in terms of privacy and security. Access control (AC) is among the top security concerns, which is critical in resource and information protection over IoT devices. Traditional access control approaches, like Access Control Lists (ACL), Role-based Access Control (RBAC) and Attribute-based Access Control (ABAC), are not able to provide a scalable, manageable and efficient mechanism to meet the requirements of IoT systems. Another weakness in today's AC is the centralized authorization server, which can be the performance bottleneck or the single point of failure. Inspired by the smart contract on top of a blockchain protocol, this paper proposes BlendCAC, which is a decentralized, federated capability-based AC mechanism to enable an effective protection for devices, services and information in large scale IoT systems. A federated capability-based delegation model (FCDM) is introduced to support hierarchical and multi-hop delegation. The mechanism for delegate authorization and revocation is explored. A robust identity-based capability token management strategy is proposed, which takes advantage of the smart contract for registering, propagating and revocating of the access authorization. A proof-of-concept prototype has been implemented on both resources-constrained devices (i.e., Raspberry PI node) and more powerful computing devices (i.e., laptops), and tested on a local private blockchain network. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the BlendCAC to offer a decentralized, scalable, lightweight and fine-grained AC solution for IoT systems.
Tue, 9 May 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0081.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: optimization; simulated annealing; genetic algorithm; power losses; power consumption
Online: 9 May 2017 (10:45:49 CEST)
In this paper a variable’s involved in assessing the quality of a distributed generation system are reviewed, aiming to minimize the electric power losses (unused power consumption) and optimize the voltage profile. To provide this assessment, several experiments have been made to the IEEE 34-bus test case and various actual test cases with the respect of multiple DG units. The possibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for optimal placement and sizing of DG in distribution systems have been verified. Finally, four algorithms were trailed: simulated annealing (SA), hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA), genetic algorithm (GA) and variable neighbourhood search. The HGA algorithm was found to produce the best solution at a cost of longer processing time.
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