Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Improved Hardy Cross Method for Pipe Networks

Version 1 : Received: 24 December 2018 / Approved: 25 December 2018 / Online: 25 December 2018 (09:07:02 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 28 January 2019 / Approved: 28 January 2019 / Online: 28 January 2019 (11:05:06 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Brkić, D.; Praks, P. Short Overview of Early Developments of the Hardy Cross Type Methods for Computation of Flow Distribution in Pipe Networks. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(10), 2019., https://doi.org/10.3390/app9102019. Brkić, D.; Praks, P. Short Overview of Early Developments of the Hardy Cross Type Methods for Computation of Flow Distribution in Pipe Networks. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(10), 2019., https://doi.org/10.3390/app9102019.

Journal reference: Applied Sciences 2019, 9, 2019
DOI: 10.3390/app9102019

Abstract

Hardy Cross originally proposed a method for analysis of flow in networks of conduits or conductors in 1936. His method was the first really useful engineering method in the field of pipe network calculation. Only electrical analogs of hydraulic networks were used before the Hardy Cross method. A problem with the flow resistance versus the electrical resistance makes these electrical analog methods obsolete. The method by Hardy Cross is taught extensively at faculties and it still remains an important tool for analysis of looped pipe systems. Engineers today mostly use a modified Hardy Cross method which threats the whole looped network of pipes simultaneously (use of these methods without computers is practically impossible). A method from the Russian practice published during 1930s, which is similar to the Hardy Cross method, is described, too. Some notes from the life of Hardy Cross are also shown. Finally, an improved version of the Hardy Cross method, which significantly reduces number of iterations, is presented and discussed.

Subject Areas

Hardy cross method; pipe networks; piping systems; hydraulic networks; gas distribution

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