ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2227.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Biologics in UC; drug efficacy in UC; drug survival in UC
Online: 31 May 2023 (10:46:31 CEST)
Background & Aim: Drug sustainability (DS) is a surrogate marker for treatment efficacy. We aimed to compare the DS of two main biologics used to treat moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis (UC), infliximab (IFX) and vedolizumab (VDZ), in a real-world setting. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study at a tertiary medical center in Israel. We included patients treated between Dec 1st, 2017, and May 1st, 2021, who were followed for up to 300 weeks. DS was defined as corticosteroid, surgical, and hospitalization-free treatment. Results: 217 patients with UC were included. VDZ had a significantly longer median DS of 265.6 weeks compared to IFX's 106.5 weeks (p=0.001) in treatment-naïve patients, even when adjusting for disease severity (HR 0.55 95 CI 0.3-0.98, p=0.042). In treatment-experienced patients, DS was comparable between IFX and VDZ (p=0.593). Conclusion: VDZ showed significantly longer DS in treatment-naïve patients with UC compared to IFX, also when adjusted for disease severity. There was no difference in DS between VDZ and IFX in treatment-experienced patients and patients switching from one drug to another. VDZ may be a suitable first-line treatment for biologic-naïve patients with moderate-to-severe UC.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2178.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: mortality; sepsis; shock; heat shock protein 27
Online: 31 May 2023 (07:15:28 CEST)
Is HSP-27 an emerging marker of good prognosis in septic shock patients – a pilot study Objective To estimate the value of serum changes of C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, presepsin, heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in assessing the prognosis in patients with septic shock (SS) treated in intensive care unit. Methods The SS was diagnosed and treated in accordance with the guidelines of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign. 37 selected adult patients with SS were included. Serum concentrations of biomarkers were measured at admission and daily for 4 consecutive days (time points T0,T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively). The mortality rate was determined 28 days after admission. Patients were divided into survivor and non-survivor groups according to their mortality. The differences between the levels of biomarkers at the T0 and T4 time points were analyzed. Results The mean value of the SOFA score on admission was 11.7 ± 2.7, and the APACHE II scale 29.9 ± 6.85. Nine patients died. Univariate logistic analysis revealed that changes between T0 and T4 time points of presepsin, procalcytonin, and HSP27 were associated with prognosis. A multivariate Cox analysis showed that an increase in HSP27 on T4 was the only independent predictor of good prognosis in SS patients. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for HSP27 was 0.785. Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that the mortality was lower (p=0.014) in patients who had an increase in HSP27 on T4 compared to those whose serum HSP27 did not increase on T4. Conclusions The increase of HSP27 level on the 4th day predicts favorable outcome in SS patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1876.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: amniotic membrane allografts; cryopreserved amniotic membrane; lyophilization; freeze-dried amniotic membrane; N-acylethanolamines; palmitoylethanolamide; tissue banking; mass spec-trometry
Online: 26 May 2023 (07:29:40 CEST)
To compare concentrations of endogenous N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) lipid mediators pal-mitoylethanolamide (PEA), oleoylethanolamide (OEA), and anandamide (AEA) in fresh, decon-taminated, cryopreserved and freeze-dried amniotic membrane (AM) allografts. Thereby deter-mining whether AM's analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficiency related to NAEs persists during storage. The concentrations of NAEs were measured using ultra-high-performance liquid chro-matography-tandem mass spectrometry. Indirect fluorescent immunohistochemistry was used to detect the PEA PPARα receptor. The concentrations of PEA, OEA, and AEA were significantly higher after decontamination. A significant decrease was found in cryopreserved AM compared to decontaminated tissue for PEA but not for OEA and AEA. However, significantly higher val-ues for all NAEs were detected in cryopreserved samples compared to fresh tissue before decon-tamination. The freeze-dried AM had similar values to decontaminated AM with no statistically significant difference. The nuclear staining of PPARα receptor was clearly visible in all specimens. The stability of NAEs in AM after cryopreservation was demonstrated under tissue bank storage conditions. However, a significant decrease, but still higher concentration of PEA compared to fresh not decontaminated tissue was found in cryopreserved, but not frieze-dried AM. Results in-dicate that NAEs persist during storage in levels sufficient for the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of AM allografts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1766.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: hypoxia-ischemia brain injury; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; neurological complication; neu-romonitoring; outcome.
Online: 25 May 2023 (08:26:02 CEST)
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), in conjunction with its life-saving benefits, carries a significant risk of acute brain injury (ABI). Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI) is one of the most common types of ABI in ECMO patients. Various risk factors such as history of hypertension, high day 1 lactate level, low pH, cannulation technique, large peri-cannulation PaCO2 drop (∆PaCO2), and early low pulse pressure, have been associated with the development of HIBI in ECMO patients. The pathogenic mechanisms of HIBI in ECMO are complex and multifactorial, attributing to the underlying pathology requiring initiation of ECMO and the risk of HIBI associated with ECMO itself. HIBI is likely to occur in the peri-cannulation or peri-decannulation time secondary to underlying refractory cardiopulmonary failure before or after ECMO. Current therapeutics target pathological mechanisms, cerebral hypoxia and is-chemia, by employing targeted temperature management in the case of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (eCPR), and optimizing cerebral O2 saturations and cerebral perfusion. This review describes the pathophysiology, neuromonitoring, and therapeutic techniques to improve neurological outcomes in ECMO patients so as to prevent and minimize the morbidity of HIBI. Further studies aimed at stand-ardizing the most relevant neuromonitoring techniques, optimizing cerebral perfusion, and minimizing the severity of HIBI once it occurs will improve long-term neurological outcomes in ECMO patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1738.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Dysbacteriosis; pathobionts; nutrients; metabolites
Online: 25 May 2023 (05:15:50 CEST)
Microbiota and the metabolites they produce within the large intestine interact with the host epithelia under the influence of a range of host-derived metabolic, immune, and homeostatic factors. This complex host-microbe interaction affects intestinal tumorigenesis but established microbial or metabolite profiles predicting colorectal cancer (CRC) risk are missing. Here we describe alterations in fecal bacteria and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in healthy (Non-Adenoma, NA) versus CRC prone (High-Risk Adenoma, HRA) individuals. Analyzing samples from 117 participants undergoing routine colonoscopy we highlight the higher abundance of Proteobacteria and Parabacteroides distasonis, and the lower abundance of Lachnospiraceae species, Roseburia faecis, Blautia luti, Fusicatenibacter saccharovorans, Eubacterium rectale and Phascolarctobacterium faecium, in the fecal samples of HRA individuals. Volatolomic analysis reveals higher concentration in the feces of HRA individuals of 5 compounds, isobutyric acid, methyl butyrate, methyl propionate, 2-hexanone and 2-pentanone. Interestingly, there is a level of complexity revealed by assessing fecal bacteria-VOC associations and another one by assessing differences in these associations between NA and HRA individuals. For example, isobutyric acid corelates positively with the Lachnospiraceae incertae sedis and Bacteroides genera in NA individuals, and negatively in HRA individuals. In contrast, Coprococcus and Colinsella genera correlate negatively with isobutyric acid in NA individuals, and positively in HRA individuals. The described differences in the fecal microbiota and VOC profiles and their associations in NA versus HRA individuals indicate the significance of multiple levels of combinatorial analysis towards the identification of testable CRC risk biomarkers.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1694.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Womens Health; Data Science; Data Methods; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 24 May 2023 (04:48:58 CEST)
Abstract ObjectivesThe aim of this perspective is to report the use of synthetic data as a viable method in women’s health given the current challenges linked to obtaining life-course data within a short period of time and accessing electronic healthcare data. Methods We used a 3-point perspective method to report an overview of data science, common applications, and ethical implications. Results There are several ethical challenges linked to using real-world data, consequently, generating synthetic data provides an alternative method to conduct comprehensive research when used effectively. The use of clinical characteristics to develop synthetic data is a useful method to consider. Aligning this data as closely as possible to the clinical phenotype would enable researchers to provide data that is very similar to that of the real-world. Discussion Population diversity and disease characterisation is important to optimally use data science. There are several artificial intelligence techniques that can be used to develop synthetic data. ConclusionSynthetic data demonstrates promise and versatility when used efficiently aligned to clinical problems. Therefore, exploring this option as a viable method in women’s health, in particular for epidemiology may be useful.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1680.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Chronic kidney disease; Pentraxin-3; Renal Replacement Therapies; Inflammaging.; innate immunity
Online: 24 May 2023 (03:59:18 CEST)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is actually considered a public health priority according to the increasing number of patients affected by this condition: this casuistry is not only related to specific glomerular, tubular or autoimmune diseases or a consequence of acute kidney injury (AKI) episodes leading to organ failure, but it is tied to the progression of life expectancy and the impact of comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. CKD and its comorbidities promote low grade inflammatory status with an impact on patients’ clinical conditions, reducing their possibility for kidney transplantation or graft survival and their survival when receiving renal replacement therapies such as hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). CKD is often referred to as an ageing accelerator: innate immune system dysregulation, in the uraemic proinflammatory milieu, is involved in this accelerated senescence phenomena and pentraxins, particularly Pentraxin-3 (PTX-3), are of particular interest in the development of kidney disease. A complete understanding of the mechanism of CKD progression, innate immune system involvement and a proper definition of PTX-3 role in kidney disease, could redefine the approach for diagnosis and a more centered patients’ management to slow down CKD progression over time and reduce its clinical and social impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1603.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Cryptococcal infection; Sepsis; qSOFA; blood culture; HIV; Africa
Online: 23 May 2023 (07:47:20 CEST)
Cryptococcosis is a leading cause of death among people with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Limited diagnostic and therapeutic options significantly impair treatment options in Africa. We investigated the burden of cryptococcosis and related mortality among people with HIV and suspected sepsis in Ethiopia. We conducted a prospective cohort at 1) Adama Hospital Medical College and 2) Asella Referral and Teaching Hospital from September 2019 to November 2020. We enrolled adult HIV-infected patients presenting with suspected sepsis and assessed 28-day survival. We performed blood cultures and cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) testing. In total, 82 participants were enrolled with a median age of 35 years and 61% being female. Overall, 11(13%) had positive CrAg tests, of which 5 had Cryptococcus detected in blood cultures. Despite high-dose fluconazole (1200mg/d) monotherapy in patients with positive CrAg tests, the 28-day mortality was 64%(7/11), being significantly higher than in CrAg-negative patients (9%(6/71); p<0.001). Cryptococcosis is the leading cause of mortality among HIV-infected sepsis patients. CrAg screening in HIV-infected patients attending emergency department can minimize the cryptococcosis missing case irrespective of CD4 count and viral load. These findings warrant the need of a bundle approach for diagnosis of HIV-infected persons presenting with sepsis in low- and middle-income countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1570.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: metabolic syndrome; endothelial dysfunction; omega-3 fatty acid
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:45:24 CEST)
Aim: Evaluation of role of supplementation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on endothelial function in patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods: Total of 80 patients with metabolic syndrome were enrolled to two groups. We evaluated endothelial function in subjects before and after three-month treatment with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in dose 2.4g daily (800mg 3 times a day) vs placebo. Using the Endo-PAT2000 device (Itamar Medical Ltd. Caesarea, Israel), reactive hyperemia index – a parameter of endothelial function and augmentation index– a parameter of arterial stiffness were measured. Plasmatic level of glutation peroxidase, homocysteine, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein (a) were also evaluated. Results: The average values of reactive hyperemia index before the treatment with n-3PUFA was 1.62 ± 0.42 , whereas 1.96 ± 0.62 at the end of the study (p<0.005). Augmentation index changed from 14.66 ± 19.55 to 9.21 ± 15.64 after the treatment (p=0.003). We also observed statistically significant decrease of apolipopotein B (0.94 ± 0.36 vs 1.13 ± 0.35, p = 0.001) and homocysteine (19.31 ± 5.29 vs. 13.78 ± 3.05, p = 0.001) and increase of the glutathion perxidase plasma levels (41.65 ± 8.90 vs. 45.20 ± 8.01), p=0.001. Conclusion: We have observed significant improvement of the endothelial function in subjects with metabolic syndrome treated with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in dose 2.4g daily.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1487.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: biomarkers; COVID-19; epidemiology; laboratory; long COVID; pathogenesis; post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-19 infection (PASC); post COVID; post-COVID syndrome (PCS)
Online: 22 May 2023 (09:41:11 CEST)
Long COVID (LC) encompasses a constellation of long-term symptoms experienced by at least 10% of people after the initial SARS-CoV-2 infection, and so far has affected about 65 million people. The etiology of LC remains unclear; however, many pathophysiological pathways may be involved, including viral persistence; chronic, low grade inflammatory response; immune dysregulation and defective immune response; reactivation of latent viruses; autoimmunity; persistent endothelial dysfunction and coagulopathy; gut dysbiosis; hormonal dysregulation, mitochondrial dysfunction; and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. There are no specific tests for the diagnosis of LC, and clinical features including laboratory findings and biomarkers may not specifically relate to LC. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to develop and validate biomarkers that can be employed for the prediction, diagnosis and prognosis of LC and its therapeutic response. Promising candidate biomarkers that are found in some patients are markers of systemic inflammation including acute phase proteins, cytokines and chemokines; biomarkers reflecting SARS-CoV-2 persistence, reactivation of herpesviruses and immune dysregulation; biomarkers of endotheliopathy, coagulation and fibrinolysis; microbiota alterations; diverse proteins and metabolites; hormonal and metabolic biomarkers; as well as cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. At present, there are only two reviews summarizing relevant biomarkers; however, they do not cover the entire umbrella of current biomarkers or their link to etiopathogenetic mechanisms, and the diagnostic work-up in a comprehensive manner. Herein, we aim to appraise and synopsize the available evidence on the typical laboratory manifestations and candidate biomarkers of LC, their classification based on main LC symptomatology in the frame of the epidemiological and pathogenetic aspects of the syndrome, and furthermore assess limitations and challenges as well as potential implications in candidate therapeutic interventions.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1138.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: lymphangioma; lymphatic malformation; cervical mass.
Online: 16 May 2023 (09:34:36 CEST)
Neck lymphangiomas are rare, benign congenital malformations that predominate in childhood. Most present before the age of two. There are no risk factors related to sex, ethnic origin or predominance on either side, and they can occur in any anatomical location, although the most frequent is in the head and neck. The clinical presentation depends on its location. The most frequent symptom is the existence of a painless mass that grows slowly. Available therapeutic tools include surgery, systemic treatment, and injection of sclerosing agents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0910.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Myopia; peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitation; Peripapillary staphyloma; gamma peripapillary atrophy; border tissue; optic nerve sheaths; biomechanics
Online: 12 May 2023 (09:00:13 CEST)
Peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitation (PICC) is a yellow-orange lesion, located at the outer border of the myopic conus. First described as a localized detachment of the retinal pigment epithelium, its intrachoroidal location was later disclosed, justifying its current name. PICC is related to other myopic complications like posterior staphyloma, but its pathogenesis is not clear to date. Although it has been considered a benign condition, most eyes with PICC show visual field defects, leading to diagnostic uncertainty as these deficits resemble those observed in glaucoma. Furthermore, eyes with PICC can develop macular detachment with retinoschisis. Finally, misdiagnosis of PICC as a metastatic choroidal tumor may lead to unnecessary and anxiety-provoking investigation. Advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging have improved the visualization of ocular structures, contributing to the understanding of PICC. Recently high optic nerve sheaths traction forces during eye movements in highly myopic eyes have been suggested as promoters of PICC, renewing interest around this condition. However, a review of PICC is still lacking. Therefore, we aimed to provide a concise yet comprehensive overview of the current state of the art, focusing on OCT documentation, pathophysiology and potential future perspectives based on biomechanics of the optic nerve.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0579.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: leg pneumatic compression; total hip arthroplasty; lower limb edema
Online: 9 May 2023 (05:44:53 CEST)
Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most successful orthopedic procedures and is highly effective in improving function and quality of life. However, after discharge patients commonly experience edema, which can lead to health consequences and lower quality of life. For these rea-sons, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific intermittent leg pneumatic compression on lower limb edema and physical outcomes in patients after total hip arthroplasty, compared to standard conservative treatment. A total of 47 patients were enrolled and randomly allocated into two groups: the pneumatic compression group (PG=24) and the control group (CG=23). We evaluated thigh and calf circumferences, knee and ankle range of motion, pain and walking autonomy. Our results showed a greater reduction in thigh and calf circumference for PG (p<0.001), while other outcomes were similar for the two groups (p>0.05). The combination of standard therapy with pneumatic leg compression was more effective in reducing lower limb edema, thigh, and calf circumferences compared to the use of standard treatment. Our results suggest that pressotherapy treatment is a valuable and efficient option for managing lower limb edema and preventing VTE after THA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0455.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: COVID-19 Coagulopathy; hormonal contraception; COVID-19; venous thromboembolism; pulmonary embolism; thrombolysis
Online: 8 May 2023 (05:29:27 CEST)
Coronavirus 19 disease (COVID-19) may be complicated by thrombotic events, particularly venous thromboembolism (VTE), which have been reported both in critically ill hospitalized patients and in individuals with mild symptoms. It is known that the chronic use of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) is associated with higher risk of VTE. To date, there are only few reports concerning the association of OCPs and VTE/pulmonary embolism (PE) in COVID-19 patients. Given that during the convalescent phase of disease, a state of endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulability and a low-grade inflammation may be persistent, the occurrence of thromboembolic events following acute COVID-19 infection may be not surprising. Herein, we report a case of high-risk PE detected in a post-COVID-19 young woman under hormonal contraception, which required thrombolytic treatment. A number of prothrombotic phenomena, such as overweight, hormonal contraceptive therapy, recent COVID-19 infection and prolonged immobilization, might have synergically contributed to the development of a sublethal thromboembolic event.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0408.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: acute lung injury; endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition; milk fat globule factor 8; Smad1/5/Smad4
Online: 6 May 2023 (09:54:26 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Acute lung injury (ALI) is an inflammatory response in the lung caused by bacteria, viruses, trauma and other factors that results in lack of alveolar surfactant and subsequently respiratory distress. Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) is closely related to ALI-induced pulmonary fibrosis development and progression. This study examined the effect of milk fat globulin factor 8 (MFGE8) knockdown and overexpression on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced EndoMT. Methods: Total MFGE8 activity in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and healthy volunteers was assessed using a colorimetric kit. In vitro, cell morphology was observed by microscopy, and invasion and migration were tested by Transwell and scratch assays. Specific siRNAs were transfected into HLMECs to downregulate MFGE8, and CD31 and α-SMA protein expression was detected by fluorescence microscopy and FCM. MFGE8, BMP, Smad 1, Smad4, Smad5, Snail, CD31 and α-SMA protein and gene expression was assessed by western blotting (WB) and qRT‒PCR. In vivo, the changes in cell morphology and alveolar septum in the lung of mice (C57BL/6, aged 7-8 weeks, male) were observed by H&E staining. In addition, ECM deposition in lung tissue was detected by Masson staining. CD31 and α-SMA protein expression in lung tissue was measured by WB. Results: The serum level of MFGE8 was lower in the ARDS group than in the control group. MFGE8 was identified as a protective factor associated with hospital survival. In vitro, the treatment of human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMECs) with LPS for 96 h clearly changed the cells from the typical cobblestone shape of ECs to spindle-like fibroblasts. The scratch and Transwell assay results indicated that endothelial cell migration and invasion were enhanced in the LPS group compared with the control group. Fluorescence microscopy, FCM, WB and PCR showed that LPS greatly inhibited CD31 (endothelial marker) expression and increased α-SMA (mesenchymal marker) expression. These data showed that LPS could induce EndoMT in HLMECs. Notably, siRNA-treated HLMECs yielded the same results. The administration of rhMFGE8 to HLMECs in the LPS or LPS+siRNA group ameliorated the changes in cell morphology and decreased cell migration and invasion. rhMFGE8 attenuated the effect of LPS or LPS+siRNA on EndoMT induction by increasing CD31 and decreasing α-SMA protein and gene expression. Moreover, activation of BMP/Smad1/5-Smad4 signalling in response to LPS and Snail (related to EndoMT transcription factors) expression were increased by MFGE8 knockdown but inhibited by rhMFGE8. In vivo, H&E staining revealed a thickened alveolar septum in the LPS group, and the thickness increased over time; in contrast, rhMFGE8 reversed this effect. ECM deposition occurred early in ALI induced by LPS and increased over time, and the administration of rhMFGE8 reversed this effect. WB showed that LPS inhibited CD31 protein expression and increased α-SMA protein expression in lung tissue. Conclusions: rhMFGE8 exerts a protective effect early in LPS-induced EndoMT through BMP/Smad1/5/Smad4 signalling and could be a therapeutic target in ALI.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0028.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: antioxidants; arterial aging; airway inflammation; -Klotho; ROS; hydrogen peroxide; SOD; heart rate variability
Online: 1 May 2023 (11:23:19 CEST)
Oxidative stress driven by several environmental and local airway factors associated with chronic obstructive bronchiolitis, a hallmark feature of COPD, plays a crucial role in the disease pathomechanism. Unbalance between oxidants and antioxidant defense mechanisms not only amplifies the local inflammatory processes, but it also worsens cardiovascular health and contribute to the COPD related cardiovascular dysfunctions and mortality. The current review summarizes recent developments in our understanding of different mechanisms contributing to oxidative stress and its countermeasures with special attention to those that link local and systemic processes. Major regulatory mechanisms orchestrating these pathways are also introduced together with some suggestions for further research on the field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1085.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; pandemic; children infection; respiratory failure
Online: 28 April 2023 (03:02:24 CEST)
Background: Children suffering from COVID-19 constitute about 10% of the entire population infected with the virus. In most of them, we observe asymptomatic or mild course; however, about 1% of affected children require a stay in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) due to the severe life-threatening course. The risk of respiratory failure, as in adults, is associated with the coexistence of concomitant diseases. The aim of our study was to analyze patients admitted to PICUs due to severe course of SARS-CoV-19 infection. Methods: A retrospective multi-center study, the analysis covered all children with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 virus infection, who were admitted to PICUs, in the period from November 2020 to August 2021. We studied epidemiological and laboratory parameters, and the endpoint – survival or death. Results: The study analyzed 45 patients (0.075% of all children hospitalized in Poland due to COVID-19 at that time). Mortality calculated in the entire study group was 40% (n=18). Statistically significant differences between the compared groups (survived and died) concerned the parameters of the respiratory system, Lung Injury Score and Pediatric Sequential Organ Failure Assessment . A significant correlation between disease severity and the patient's prognosis was shown by the liver function parameter AST (p=0.028). Analyzing patients requiring mechanical ventilation and assuming survival as the primary outcome, a significantly higher oxygen index on the first day of hospitalization, lower pSOFA scores and lower AST levels (p: 0.007; 0.043; 0.020; 0.005; 0.039, respectively) were found. Conclusions: As in adults, children with comorbidities are most frequently at risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. Increasing symptoms of respiratory failure, the need for mechanical ventilation and persistently high values of aspartate aminotransferase are indicators of poor prognosis.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1068.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Key words: arterial blood gas analysis (ABG); partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2); partial pressure PaCO2 (PaCO2); serum bicarbonate (HCO3); Hasselbach; acid/base
Online: 27 April 2023 (10:04:38 CEST)
Blood gas analysis is a diagnostic tool to evaluate the partial pressures of gas in blood and acid-base content. The use of blood gas analysis enables to clear understanding the respiratory, circulatory, and metabolic disorders. The arterial blood gas (ABG) explicitly analyzes blood taken from an artery, assessing the patient's partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), carbon dioxide (PaCO2) pH (acid/base). PaO2 indicates the oxygenation status, and PaCO2 indicates the ventilation status (chronic or acute respiratory failure). PaCO2 is affected by hyperventilation characterized by rapid or deep breathing, and hypoventilation characterized by slow or shallow breathing. The acid-base balance tested by the ABG procedure measures the pH and PaCO2 directly while the use of the Hasselbach equation gives the serum bicarbonate (HCO3) and base deficit or excess. The measured HCO3is based on strong alkali that frees all CO2 in serum, including dissolved CO2, carbamino compounds, and carbonic acid the calculation uses a standard chemistry analysis giving the amount of "total CO2", the difference will amount to around 1.2 mmol/L. Though ABG is frequently ordered in emergency medicine contests for acute conditions it may also be needed in other clinical settings. The ABG analysis shows to be an exceptional diagnostic tool including the group of those diseases known as acid-base diseases (ABDs) which include a great variety of conditions as such severe sepsis, septic shock, hypovolemic shock, diabetic ketoacidosis, renal tubular acidosis, chronic respiratory failure, chronic heart failure, and diverse metabolic diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1014.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: HAQ; Rheumatoid Arthritis; PROM`s; DMARD; DAS28
Online: 27 April 2023 (03:29:35 CEST)
Several studies have shown that tapering or stopping disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in sustained remission is feasible. However, tapering/stopping bears the risk of decline in physical function as some patients may relapse and face increased disease activity. Here we analysed the impact of tapering or stopping DMARD treatment on the physical function of RA patients. The study was a posthoc analysis of physical functional worsening for 282 patients with RA in sustained remission tapering and stopping DMARD treatment in the prospective randomized RETRO study. HAQ and DAS-28 scores were determined in baseline samples of patients continuing DMARD (arm 1), tapering their dose by 50% (arm 2), or stopping after tapering (arm 3). Patients were followed over 1 year, and HAQ and DAS-28 scores were evaluated every 3 months. The effect of treatment reduction strategy on functional worsening was assessed in a recurrent-event Cox regression model with a study-group (control, taper, taper/stop) as the predictor. 282 patients were analysed. In 58 patients, functional worsening was observed. The incidences suggest a higher probability of functional worsening in patients tapering and/or stopping DMARDs, which is likely due to higher relapse rates in these individuals. At the end of the study, however, functional worsening was similar among the groups. Point estimates and survival curves show that functional decline after tapering or stopping DMARDs in RA patients with stable remission is small and related to relapses but to on overall functional decline.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0796.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Sepsis Treatment; Mitochondria; Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP); Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and thiamine; Glycolysis; Glucose and insulin.
Online: 23 April 2023 (08:39:15 CEST)
Sepsis is a major health problem and accounts for 20 per cent of deaths worldwide. It is the most expensive condition treated in United States hospitals at $27 billion per year or about $20,000 per patient. Treatment consisting largely of fluid resuscitation and antibiotics has only marginal impact. Mortality is about 27 per cent for hospitalized patients and about 42 per cent for patients in intensive care.There are two phases of sepsis – a hyper inflammatory phase and a subsequent hypo inflammatory phase.During the hyper inflammatory phase the metabolic rate increases associated with an increase in body temperature and a rapid escalation of immune system functioning including increased numbers of leucocytes and migration of those leucocytes to infected and damaged tissues and an increased supply and consumption of glucose to fuel this immune system.During the subsequent hypo inflammatory phase the metabolic rate declines and this is associated with a decrease in body temperature and a generalized decrease in the physiological activity of many organs including the immune system akin to hibernation. The activated immune system has priority for the available glucose over most other organs and physiological functions during such potentially life threatening circumstances. Thus adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production by mitochondria (the source of energy at the cellular level for the organism as a whole) also has a lower priority for the available glucose relative to the activated immune system. If glucose availability is threatened then mitochondrial production of ATP is partially or substantially suppressed in favor of glycolysis because glycolysis can rapidly produce large quantities of ATP that are necessary for immune cell function in infected, anaerobic, ischemic, or damaged tissues.However, glycolysis is only a temporary fix as it cannot produce the quantities of ATP necessary on an ongoing basis for the normal functioning of the healthy animal. Mitochondrial production of ATP must be recommenced for full recovery.It appears that the partial or substantial suppression of mitochondrial production of ATP by activation of the immune response becomes relatively fixated in some patients leading to a substantial ATP deficit. This is the fundamental issue of sepsis.This paper reviews the metabolism of glucose and insulin during sepsis and concludes that high dose insulin with mild hyper glycaemia in conjunction with the intravenous administration of thiamine, an inhibitor of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase enzymes, to re-establish physiological ATP production by mitochondria, administered early in the hypo metabolic (hypo inflammatory) phase of sepsis should significantly improve survival.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0749.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: parietal thinning; measurement reliability; bone defects; magnetic resonance imaging; computer tomography; osteology; rheumatology; rare disease
Online: 23 April 2023 (03:42:25 CEST)
Quantification of bone loss for follow-up comparisons has not been routinely performed in patients with parietal thinning so far. This study compares different methodological approaches including both 2- and 3-dimensional methods in computerized tomographies of a single patient. The 2-dimensional method provides accurate measurements of bone thickness, while the 3-dimensional method allows for a more comprehensive view of the bone's structure, including parameters like shape, size, and thickness. The techniques provided valuable data for the treating physician and suggest a possible effect of corticosteroids in this individual patient. The study concludes that 3-dimensional reconstruction of computerized tomographies with subsequent 2-dimensional analyses appears justified for routine radiological practice to increase clinical awareness of the size of the parietal bone defects and allow for quantification of bone loss during long-term follow-ups. Further validation of the proposed analytical approaches is warranted in larger studies to investigate patterns of bone thinning across the skull and changes in bone volumes over time, with specialized software to be approved for such analyses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0687.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; HIV; COVID-19 pandemic; holistic care; PLWH
Online: 21 April 2023 (08:29:01 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic and associated lockdown measures have been associated with substantial disruptions to health care services, including screening for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and management of people living with HIV (PLWH). Methods: Data from 3265 patients were examined in a retrospective cohort study. We compared outpatient follow-up for PLWH, the number of new patients, treatment adherence, hospitalizations, and deaths during the “pandemic period” (March 2020 to February 2021) to the “pre-pandemic period” (the equivalent timeframe in 2019) and the “post-pandemic period” (March to September 2021). Results: During the pandemic period, the number of new patients seen at the HIV clinic (116), as well as the requested viral load tests (2414), decreased significantly compared to the pre-pandemic (204 and 2831, respectively) and post-pandemic periods (146 and 2640, respectively)(p<0.01 for all the comparisons). However, across the three study periods, the number of drug refills (1385, 1330, 1411, respectively), the number of patients with undetectable viral loads (85%, 90%, 93%, respectively), and the number of hospital admissions among PLWH remained constant. Conclusions: Despite the COVID-19 pandemic impact, our findings show stability in the retention of clinical care, adherence to treatment, and viral suppression of PLWH, with no significant impact on hospitalization rates and all-cause mortality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Fatty liver disease; NAFLD; coronavirus disease 2019; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 4 April 2023 (09:31:42 CEST)
The global population is currently experiencing the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, which has caused the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. By our profound comprehension of COVID-19, encompassing the involvement sequence of the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal system, and cardiovascular apparatus, the multiorgan symptoms of this infectious disease have been discerned. Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a pervasive public health concern, intricately linked with metabolic dysregulation and estimated to afflict one-fourth of the global adult population. The burgeoning focus on the association between COVID-19 and metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is justified by the potential role of the latter as a risk factor for both SARS-CoV-2 infection and the subsequent emergence of severe COVID-19 symptoms. Investigations have suggested that changes in both innate and adaptive immune responses among metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) patients may play a role in determining the severity of COVID-19. The remarkable similarities observed in the cytokine pathways implicated in both diseases imply the existence of shared mechanisms governing the chronic inflammatory responses characterizing these conditions. The effect of metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) on the severity of COVID-19 illness remains uncertain, as indicated by conflicting results in cohort investigations.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0306.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: acute lymphoblastic leukemia; Philadelphia chromosome; relapse; allogeneic stem cell transplantation
Online: 16 March 2023 (11:33:44 CET)
Relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) represents a continuous challenge for the clinician. Despite recent advances in treatment, the risk of relapse remains significant. The clinical, biological, cytogenetic, and molecular characteristics may be different at the time of relapse. Current comprehensive genome sequencing studies suggest that most relapsed patients, especially those with late relapses, acquire new genetic abnormalities, usually within a minor clone that emerges after ALL diagnosis. We report the case of a 23-year-old young woman diagnosed with Philadelphia chromosome negative B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The patient underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) after complete remission. Although having favorable prognostic factors at diagnosis, the disease relapsed early after allo-HSCT. The cytogenetic and molecular exam at relapse was positive for the Philadelphia chromosome, respectively for the bcr-abl transcript. What exactly led to the relapse of this disease in a more aggressive cytogenetic and molecular form, although there were no predictive elements in the diagnosis of this relapse?
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0215.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Lean in emergencies; Emergency room overcrowding; Lean Healthcare; Health services management; Hospital management
Online: 13 March 2023 (04:33:42 CET)
Objective: To describe the methodology used and the results found in the implementation of Lean in Emergencies in the Emergency sector of the Hospital de Clínicas of the Federal University of Uberlândia (HC-UFU), verifying the difficulties and particularities that involved the process, as well as the result obtained. Material and methods: For the comparison between the periods before (T1), contemporary (T2) and after (T3) the implementation of Lean, hospital data were used , and the indicators corresponding to 10 variables were analyzed: Male Hospitalization and Female Hospitalization; High Male and High Female; Male Transfer and Female Transfer, Male Death <24h and Female Death <24h; Male Death >24h and Female Death >24h and general occupancy rate. All raw data related to the 36 months of evaluation were provided by the HC-UFU Statistics sector in spreadsheets without identifying patients. The indicators were compared to each other in the three analyzed periods, with the study directed as follows: Previous stage - Pre -intervention (T1): considered between the months of April 2017 to March 2018, completing 12 months before the implementation of Lean; Intra-intervention stage - contemporary (T2): considered between the months of April 2018 to March 2019, in a total of 12 months which was the implementation period; Post-Intervention Stage (T3): later: considered between the months of April 2019 to March 2020, completing 12 months after the implementation of Lean. The Lean in Emergencies scores (NEDOCS and LOS) were only recorded during the period that the implementation team was able to record and were used only to demonstrate trend over time. Comparison of the indicators with those found in other hospital units that also implemented Lean was carried out based on bibliographical research. Results and Discussion: The analysis of the behavior of the indicators did not demonstrate effectiveness related to the implementation of the system in the emergency sector. The failure to obtain better indicators can be attributed to discontinuity in monitoring the project, the lack of involvement of the clinical staff and alignment with the needs of the staff training academy, the difficulty of understanding the project by local and regional public entities. geographical location where the hospital is located, and by users of the health system who were not properly informed about the development of the project. These aspects should be considered in future management projects that may be implemented in the hospital. Despite the result of the implementation of Lean in the emergency sector not having reached the expected goals, the attempt showed windows of opportunity for future action on points that can improve the hospital management process and that should be tested in the next experiences. Conclusion: The methodology followed for the implementation of Lean in Emergencies in the emergency sector of the hospital did not produce improvement in hospital indicators.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0354.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Albumin; Covid; Albumin Binding Disease; insulin; diabetes; fluid therapy; saline; plasma; blood volume; nutrition; cellular
Online: 21 February 2023 (08:24:48 CET)
Human serum albumin (HSA) is the ultimate, homeostatic determinant of fluid volume (FV) in all compartments of the body. The ability to change the pressure and flow of nutrient medium to cellular structures selectively has clinical significance in almost all areas of clinical medicine. We have shown that present fluid therapy (FT) using either colloid or saline dilutes nutrients. HSA binds and delivers nutrients, a lack of HSA binding causes Albumin Binding Disease (ABD) changing both colloidal pressure and nutrients leading to symptoms of sepsis. A reduction in HSA binding can be through lack of HSA or external ligands taking up binding sites on HSA. Many diseases cause ABD when immunoglobulins, infectious particles and by products bind to HSA including COVID-19 and other bacterial diseases like streptococcus as well as metabolic and cardiac disease due to incorrect pressure and nutrients. To raise HSA binding potential and remove vulnerabilities to these diseases we propose raising HSA. We show how present methods of fluid therapy (FT) are inefficient in that control of both pressure and nutrients forms initial equilibrium in the liver. HSA production and binding to nutrients is maintained at a level by the pressure in hepatocytes with the pancreatic and adrenal hormones moderating. Glucose and Ke-tone production are critical in the management of HSA binding and control of blood, colloidal pressure, and health of cells. Ketones provide a distinct mechanism of liver to lungs-heart metabolism during hypoglycaemia and activity. This known chain of nutrition becomes critical during disease like acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) when ketones may be overproduced. HSA must therefore be infused into the liver to raise HSA levels safely. We investigated the control of HSA as a product of the actions of pressure in hepatocytes and changes in pancreatic and adrenal hormones. We found that in addition to pressure during glucose abundancy HSA is re-leased with ketones on administration of insulin and consider that this mechanism retains HSA moderation. HSA can therefore be increased by increasing insulin in the presence of glucose in the correct amounts. We suggest a protocol to increase FV, blood, lymph volume by infusion of HSA, insulin, and glucose direct to the liver so that the level of HSA stabilises. We suggest this will raise all other nutrients in the new FV, blood, lymph culminating in the creation of new blood cells. We propose that in a clinical situation maintaining this protocol will alleviate the symptoms of ABD and decrease the likelihood of serious illness and death.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0294.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Smokefree laws; COPD; asthma; particle exposure; sensors; outside areas
Online: 17 February 2023 (03:26:53 CET)
Objective To measure, exposure to PM2.5 particles in outdoor smoking areas and changes in breathing rates in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Setting Sixty venues in Czechia, Ireland and Spain, in an open, non-randomised, clinical trial. Participants We studied 60 patients-30 asthma patients (Female 63.3%), with a mean age (+/-standard deviation [SD]) of 47.4 (19.0 SD), and 30 COPD patients (Female 51.6%), mean age 63.5 (10.1 SD), smokers, non-smokers or ex-smokers, recruited through medical clinics. Intervention Patients wore a PM2.5 particle monitor (AirSpeck), and a breath monitor (RESpeck) for 24 hours to determine changes in breathing rates (Br) at rest and during a visit to an outside smoking area. Spirometry and breath CO were measured before and the day after visiting an outdoor smoking area. Results PM2.5 levels in the 60 venues were highly variable, in 1 premises levels of PM2.5 were sustained for at least 15 minutes at ≥ 2,000 µg/m3, in 4 premises, ≥ 500 (range 1,933-539) µg/m3, in 8 premises, ≥ 200(range 480-203) µg/m3, in 9 premises, ≥ 100 (range 170-108) µg/m3, in 8 premises, ≥ 40 (range 80.5- 40.1) µg/m3, in 9 premises, ≥ 25 µg/m3, in 10 premises, ≥ 10 µg/m3, in 8 premises, and ≤10 µg/m3 in only 3 premises, with a single wall. The overall breathing rates/minute (Br)did not change significantly but in 28 patients mean Br increased from 21.47 (1.74 SD) to 22.8 (2.29 SD), change of -1.35 (-1.80-0.91 C.I), p value 0.00 and mean in 29 patients Br decreased from 21.95(2.43 SD) to 20.38(2.79 SD), 1.57(1.03-2.12 C.I), p value 0.00. Conclusion Exposure to high levels of PM2.5, and associated alteration of patients’ breathing rates occurred in outdoor smoking areas despite national comprehensive smokefree laws. These exposure levels support the abolition of such areas. (Words 295) ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03074734 Ethics: Approval Number: Ref: 15-103
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: inferior vena cava filter; randomized study
Online: 17 January 2023 (06:36:43 CET)
The purpose of this study is to compare IVC Celect and ALN filters in regard to their efficacy, retrievability, and 1-year follow-up after retrieval. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective randomized study, conducted in three centers between April 2020 and May 2021. A total of 115 participants were randomized, of which 15 participants were excluded for various reasons. Each group of 50 participants was finally assigned a type of filter (Celect n= 50 and ALN= 50). Tilt angles at placement and retrieval together with rates of overall filter retrieval, complications, complex retrieval, and clinical follow-up at 12 months were compared. Results: One hundred participants (59 men and 41 women) were included. The mean age was 62.4±13.3 with no significant differences between both groups (p 0.503). The mean of dwelling time was 44.7±93 days. (p 0.520) Filter retrieval was successful in all participants (100%). The main complication in CT prior to removal was inclination > 15º (31%) and filter tip embedment (16%). No significant differences were observed in the type of retrieval (standard or complex) between both filters (p 0.24); however, fluoroscopy time was significantly longer in the complex removal of the Celect filter 29.1±12 min vs 17.5±10.3 (p 0.005). After one year, no recurrent pulmonary embolism was observed in both types of filters. Conclusion: The ALN filter had a significantly lower rate of tip and filter tip embedding with no differences in complexity or removal success rate. There were significant differences in the fluoroscopy time consumed for standard and complex retrievals between both filters with less time in the ALN filter
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0202.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Alpha synchronisation; Working memory; Auditory processing; Modulation detection threshold
Online: 12 January 2023 (01:48:00 CET)
Background: Despite hearing aids adequately compensate for hearing loss, a substantial proportion of the population leave their hearing difficulties untreated. Even though this is a well-known clinical issue, the optimal approach to address this issue during the hearing rehabilitation process is still unclear. Purpose: The present study aims to characterise behavioural and neurophysiological auditory and cognitive processing skills in experienced hearing aid users versus those with normal hearing, aimed at providing clinicians with the evidence required to adequately manage the expectations of their clients, thus indirectly reinforcing hearing-aid adoption within the adult population with hearing loss. Research design: Behavioural tests included auditory, cognitive, and speech-in-noise tasks; and neurophysiological testing included cortical auditory evoked potentials evoked by a /da/ stimulus presented at 65 dB SPL. The tests were selected based on previous literature supporting specific speech-understanding skills. Study sample: Ten participants (7 female, 21—68 years) with bilateral, mild-moderate to moderately-severe sensorineural hearing loss (HL), and 10 with clinically normal hearing (NH, 8 female, 19—62 years) participated in the study. Data collection and analysis: Behavioural data was analysed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and neurophysiological analysis used measurements such as independent t-test, time-frequency analysis and inter-trial phase coherence. Results: The NH and HL groups presented similar scores in all the behavioural tasks. Time-frequency analysis revealed a statistically significantly reduction in alpha (8–12 Hz) synchronisation at the centro-frontal electrodes in the HL group – a brain activity pattern that has been associated with listening effort, inhibition and selective attention. Conclusions and significance: Results support the conclusion that hearing aids are effective in compensating for the audibility of their users, enabling them to perform at similar levels than their normal-hearing peers. However, the reduced alpha synchronisation observed in the HL population indicates that adequate audibility does not extend to improved neural responses. Future studies need to investigate the induced activity in speech understanding paradigms to explore the auditory processing differences at cortical level. The results are only from a small sample size but the findings have the potential to support clinicians in managing adequately the expectations of their clients in regards the benefits of hearing aid technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0410.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Heart rate variability; COVID-19; post-COVID-19 condition; long COVID; autonomic dysfunction; vagal nerve activity; symptomatology; lung function
Online: 22 December 2022 (03:13:53 CET)
Persistence of symptoms beyond three months after COVID-19 infection, often referred to as post-COVID-19 condition (PCC), is commonly experienced. It is hypothesized that PCC results from autonomic dysfunction with decreased vagal nerve activity, which can be indexed by low heart rate variability (HRV). The aim of this study was to assess the association of HRV upon admission with pulmonary function impairment and number of reported symptoms beyond three months after initial hospitalization for COVID-19 between February and December 2020. Follow-up took place three to five months after discharge and included pulmonary function tests and the assessment of persistent symptoms. HRV analysis was performed on one 10s electrocardiogram obtained upon admission. Analyses were performed using multivariable and multinomial logistic regression models. Among 171 patients who received follow-up, and with an electrocardiogram at admission, decreased diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) (41%) was most frequently found. After a median of 119 days (IQR 101-141), 81% of the participants reported at least one symptom. HRV was not associated with pulmonary function impairment or persistent symptoms three to five months after hospitalization for COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0273.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: intellectual disability; KAT6A syndrome; Lysine acetyltransferase 6 A; pantothenate; L-carnitine; histone acetylation
Online: 15 November 2022 (04:14:12 CET)
Autism Spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) are the most frequent develop-mental disorders with a prevalence between 3% and 5% of the population. In addition, both ASD and ID can be found in the same patient. Mutations in several genes involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression have been linked to different ID associated with ASD features including alterations of the ly-sine-acetyltransferase 6A (KAT6A) gene in KAT6A syndrome. KAT6A enzyme participates in a wide range of critical cellular functions such as chromatin remodeling, gene expression, protein synthesis, cell metabolism, and replication. In this manuscript, we examined the pathophysiolog-ical alterations in fibroblasts derived from three patients harboring KAT6A mutations. We ad-dressed survival in stress medium, histone acetylation, protein expression patterns and tran-scriptome analysis as well as cell bioenergetics. In addition, we evaluated the therapeutic effec-tiveness of epigenetic modulators and mitochondrial boosting agents such as pantothenate and L-carnitine in correcting the mutant phenotype. Pantothenate and L-carnitine treatment increased histone acetylation and corrected protein and transcriptomic expression patterns in mutant KAT6A cells. Furthermore, cell bioenergetics of mutant cells was significantly improved. Our results suggest that pantothenate and L-carnitine can significantly correct the mutant phe-notype in cellular models of KAT6A syndrome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0079.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Biomarkers; COVID-19; Common Prognostic Biomarkers
Online: 3 November 2022 (12:08:08 CET)
Abstract: Background: COVID-19 is a respiratory disease that eventually became pandemic with 300 million people infected around the world. Alongside the improvement in COVID-19 management and vaccine development, identifying biomarkers for COVID-19 has recently reported to help in early prediction and managing severe cases which might improve outcome. The Aim of our study was to find out if there is any correlation between clinical severity and elevated hematological and biochemical markers in Covid-19 patients and its effect on the outcome Methods: We have collected data retrospectively of socio-demographic, medical history, biomarkers, and diseases outcome from five hospitals and health institutions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Results: Pneumonia was the most common presentation of COVID 19 in our cohort. All biomarkers (D-Dimer, CRP, troponin, LDH and ferritin) except for the mean lowest white blood cells were found to have significant correlation (p<0.05) with worse COVID-19 disease outcomes. There was a sig-nificant association between the inflammatory biomarkers and the disease severity of COVID 19 patients (p<0.001). Patients with evidence of severe respiratory disease particularly who required mechanical ventilation (MV) had higher biomarkers, when compared to those with stable respiratory condition (p<0.001). Conclusion: Identifying biomarkers predicts outcome for COVID-19 patients and may significantly help in the management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0218.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Bactericidal; Bacteriostatic; Antibiotic(s); Antimicrobial Therapy; Narrative review
Online: 17 October 2022 (02:05:28 CEST)
Sepsis is a serious and life-threatening medical emergency associated with dysregulated host immune responses to infection. Like cerebral vascular or acute cardiovascular incidents, sepsis is considered a time-dependent condition having severe and long-term consequences on human health. Apart from organ support, prompt administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy is crucial to limit the burden of complications related to sepsis in ICU patients. The management of septic patients requires comprehensive and multi-disciplinary strategies for an adequate diagnosis. Most of the ICU population receives empirical antibiotic therapy without having a confirmed diagnosis. The misuse of antibiotics in intensive care units may increase the possibility of developing multidrug resistance along with considerable ecological side effects. The first doses of empirical anti-microbial therapy are slightly higher, regardless of the presence or absence of organ dysfunction, which may upregulate the production of circulating pro-and-anti-inflammatory mediators, having negative effects on the general well-being of the patients. This notion supports the introduction of individualized antimicrobial approaches based on local patterns of resistance to ensure the appropriate dosage of empirical therapy, as well as to limit the emergence of multidrug resistance in advanced-care patients. The adequacy and treatment duration must be viewed at regular intervals for effective de-escalation, and novel diagnostic approaches must be introduced to improve the quality of care in the ICU population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0326.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: multidrug resistance organism; sepsis; adequate empirical antibiotics; source of infection; APACHE II; ICU length stay; predictors; risk factors; mortality
Online: 21 September 2022 (10:45:23 CEST)
Background: Multi-drug resistance organisms (MDRO) often cause increased morbidity, mortality, and length of stays (LOS). However, there is uncertainty whether the infection of MDRO increase the morbidity, mortality, and ICU-LOS. Objective: This study performed to determine the prevalence of MDRO in ICU, site of infection and the association of MDRO or site of infection with mortality. Secondary outcome was determined by ascertaining the association of MDRO or site of infection with (ICU-LOS). Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed with adult sepsis patients in ICU. Univariate and multivariate (MVA) logistic regression with cox regression modeling were performed to compute the association of MDRO on ICU-mortality. MVA modelling was performed for ICU-LOS predictors. Results: Out of 228 patients, the isolated MDRO was 97 (42.5%) of which 78% were gram-negative bacteria. The mortality rate among those with MDRO was 85 (37.3%). The hospital acquired infection (HAI) was significantly predictor for ICU-LOS in univariate linear regression (R² = 0.034, P=0.005). In MVA linear regression, both Enterococcus faecalis infection and acinetobacter baumannii (AC) -MDRO were predictors for ICU-LOS with (R² = 0.478, P<0.05). In the univariate cox regression, only the infection with AC- MDRO was a risk factor for ICU-mortality with [ HR =1.802 (95% CI: 1.2 – 2.706; P = 0.005)]. Conclusions: Identifying risk factors for MDRO highlight the appropriate administration of empirical antibiotics and effectively control of source of infection which would reduce mortality and ICU-LOS. The usage of broad- spectrum antibiotics should be limited for those having substantial risk factors to acquire MDRO.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0289.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: chronic fatigue syndrome; post-COVID syndrome; postural orthostatic tachycardia; microcirculation; immune system
Online: 20 September 2022 (03:37:00 CEST)
A Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating chronic disease of unknown aetiology under growing interest now in view of the increasingly recognized post-COVID syndrome as a new entity with similar clinical presentation. We performed the first cross-sectional study of ME/CFS in community population in Russia and then described and compared some clinical and pathophysiological characteristics of ME/CFS and post-COVID syndrome as neuroimmune disorders. Of the cohort of 76 individuals who suggested themselves suffering from ME/CFS 56 subsequently were confirmed as having CFS/ME according to ≥1 of the 4 most commonly used case definition. Of the cohort of 14 individuals with post-COVID-19 syndrome 14 met diagnostic criteria for ME/CFS. The prevalence of clinically expressed and subclinical anxiety and depression in ME / CFS and post-COVID ME/CFS did not differ significantly from that in healthy individuals. Severity of anxiety / depressive symptoms did not correlate with the severity of fatigue neigther in ME / CFS nor in post-COVID ME/CFS, but the positive correlation was found between the severity of fatigue and 20 other symptoms of ME / CFS related to the domains of “post-exertional exhaustion”, “immune dysfunction”, “sleep disturbances”, "dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system", "neurological sensory / motor disorders" and "pain syndromes". Immunological abnormalities were identified in 12/12 patients with ME / CFS according to the results of laboratory testing. The prevalence of postural orthostatic tachycardia assessed by the active standing test was 37.5% in ME / CFS and 75.0% in post-COVID ME/CFS (the latter was higher than in healthy controls, p = 0.02) There was a more pronounced increase in heart rate starting from the 6th minute of the test in post-COVID ME/CFS compared with the control group. Assessment of the functional characteristics of microcirculation by laser doppler flowmetry revealed obvious and very similar changes in ME/CFS and post-COVID ME/CFS compared to the healthy controls. The identified pattern corresponded to the hyperemic form of microcirculation disorders, usually observed in acute inflammatory processes or in deficiency of systemic vasoconstriction influences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0262.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Lymphocytes; liver function biomarkers; WBCs; and CRP
Online: 19 September 2022 (05:28:34 CEST)
Abstract Aim: The study aimed to evaluate the clinical laboratory features of moderate and severe COVID-19 patients among a cohort of the Egyptian population. The study also aimed to assess the accuracy—sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) of various detected parameters in predicting the severity of COVID-19 infection. Patients and methods: One hundred diagnosed COVID-19 patients and fifty healthy participants in total were involved in current study. COVID-19 patients were categorized based on how severe their symptoms into two groups. Estimates were made for serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as well as white blood cells (WBCs) count, lymphocytes count, and hemoglobin content (Hb) content. Results: COVID-19 patients displayed increased serum levels of liver enzymes and CRP as well as WBCs count when compared to healthy individuals. On the other hand, Hb content, lymphocytes count, and albumin level fell in all COVID-19 patients. The severe group showed a statistically significant rise in liver enzymes, WBCs, and CRP levels, compared with moderate group. WBCs and lymphocytes counts were closely correlated with age, ALT, LDH, and CRP in all cases. WBCs and lymphocytes counts also had a negative correlation with albumin Level. Additionally, WBCs count, lymphocytes count, LDH activity and CRP level have higher AUC in severe than in moderate cases. WBCs count, LDH activity and CRP level have AUC above 0.80 in the severe group. Conclusion: The current investigation found a significant correlation between WBCs count, lymphocytes count, CRP level and liver injury in COVID-19 patients. WBCs count, lymphocytes count, LDH activity and CRP level were effective indicators for determining the severity of COVID-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0316.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: ANCA-associated vasculitis; Proteinase 3; Myeloperoxidase; Clinical Phenotype; Outcome
Online: 17 August 2022 (09:58:51 CEST)
The traditional nomenclature system for classifying Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV), based on clinical phenotype, described Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA), Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (EGPA) and Microscopic Polyangiitis (MPA) as distinct clinical entities. This classification has proved its expedience in clinical trials and every day clinical practice, yet, a substantial overlap in clinical presentation still exists, and often causes difficulties in prompt definition and clinical distinction. Additionally, new insights into the AAV pathogenesis point out that PR3 and MPO-AAV may not represent expressions of the same disease spectrum but rather two distinct disorders, as they display significant differences. Thus, it is supported that a classification based on ANCA serotype (PR3-ANCA, MPO-ANCA or ANCA-negative), could be more accurate and also closer to the nature of the disease, instead of the phenotype-based one. This review aims to elucidate the major differences between PR3 and MPO-AAV, in terms of epidemiology, pathogenesis, histological and clinical manifestations, and response to therapeutic approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0295.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; pleural effusion; hemothorax; chylothorax; pericardial effusion
Online: 20 July 2022 (05:57:21 CEST)
Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a mystery in many respects. The importance of less common life-threatening diseases is still unclear. Therefore, in this study, it was attempted to determine the frequency of nontraumatic hemothorax, chylothorax, pleural, and pericardial effusion (PCE) in patients who underwent thoracic computed tomography during the pre-pandemic and pandemic period. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included 147 patients over the age of 18 who were admitted to the emergency department between January 1st, 2019, and December 31st, 2020. The year 2019 was taken as the pre-pandemic period and the year 2020 was the pandemic period. Comorbidity, survival, and laboratory parameters of the patients were evaluated. Results: The mean age of the 147 patients included in the study was 66.41 ± 12.81 years, 54 (36.7%) were female, and the age range was 22–88 years. The mean plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level of the patients was 373.97 ± 115.77 U/L, plasma protein was 5.45 ± 1.00 gr/dL, fluid LDH was 229.37 ± 125.73 U/L, fluid/plasma LDH was 0.60 ± 0.23, fluid/plasma protein was 0.55 ± 0.29, and the amount of fluid discharged was 562.11 ± 243.01 mL. Bilateral lung involvement was present in 72 (49%) patients, and coagulation use was present in 59 (40.1%) patients. Pleural effusion (PE) was found in 43 (76.8%) of the hospitalized patients, hemothorax in 11 (19.6%) patients, and chylothorax in 4 (7.1%) patients. However, PCE was more common in the 16 (42.1%) patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (P < 0.001). While 38 (25.9%) of the patients were admitted to the ICU, mortality was observed in 30 (20.4%) patients. Conclusion: Although PE, nontraumatic hemothorax, chylothorax, and PCE are rare in COVID-19 patients, they can cause severe inflammation and poor prognosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0101.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Ayurveda research; good research; hypothesis generation; hypothesis testing; managing bias and sample size
Online: 7 June 2022 (09:45:11 CEST)
Ayurveda as a healthcare system has survived for thousands of years but continues to be dogged by reported lack of efficacy of the treatments in clinical trials. The reported lack of efficacy could be due to a real lack of efficacy (which then contradicts the survival of Ayurveda as a functional medical system enjoying considerable public patronage) or could be attributed to inadequacies in the efforts towards evidence generation or in a larger context the overall scientific conduct of research in Ayurveda. In an effort towards better evidence generation, there is an immediate need for standardizing the design, conduct and reporting of clinical trials of Ayurveda but it is a daunting task. For this effort to benefit the scientific endeavors of Ayurveda researchers, it should allow the researchers to be able to apply Ayurveda’s multi-component, individualized and inherently holistic approach. Statistical principles can benefit this effort. Statistical hypothesis testing (SHT) is central to these statistical principles and also aligns well with conventional scientific principles of evidence generation. Although there are challenges with SHT, good practitioners engaged in it do much more than just apply the mathematical theory behind it. As a particular example, lot of time in clinical trial designing is spent in addressing biases and designing trials prudently by minimizing the effect of such biases. SHT can benefit such an effort objectively. There is a need for Ayurveda researchers to engage deeply and mindfully about biases in study design in order to gain scientific validity and acceptability. The article highlights issues that arise in Ayurveda research, and discusses few ways of dealing with these issues using statistical principles.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0294.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: general anesthesia; redox; inflammation; antioxidants; hypermetabolism; microRNAs; biomarkers; oxidative stress; Vitamin C
Online: 6 June 2022 (05:09:14 CEST)
Worldwide, the prevalence of surgery under general anaesthesia has increased significantly, on one hand because of modern anaesthetic and pain control techniques, and on the other hand because of better diagnosis and increased complexity of surgical technique. Together with the development of new concepts in the surgical field, the attention of researchers and clinicians turned to minimizing the impact of surgical trauma and offering minimal invasive procedures. This fact is due to the recent discoveries in the field of cellular and molecular mechanisms, that have revealed a systemic inflammatory and pro-oxidative impact that not only lasts in the perioperative period, but also impacts the long term, contributing to more difficult recovery, increased morbidity, and mortality, and finally a negative financial impact. Detailed molecular and cellular analysis have shown an overproduction of inflammatory and pro-oxidative species, that are responsible for an augmentation of the systemic inflammatory status and more difficult postoperative recovery. Moreover, it was shown that there are a series of changes in certain epigenetic structures, the most important being the microRNAs. Based on these findings, a series of modern, targeted therapeutic approaches have been proposed, with the final goal of blocking these mechanisms and reducing the redox state. Recent studies carried out had a positive clinical impact regarding antioxidant therapy and have shown that it can be used in the perioperative period with beneficial clinical impact. This review describes and details the most important molecular and cellular mechanisms that impact the surgical patient undergoing general anaesthesia, and it presents a series of antioxidant therapies that can reduce systemic inflammation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0350.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: lyme disease; clinical decision-making; medical history taking; physician-patient relation; primary health care; qualitative research
Online: 31 May 2022 (09:14:56 CEST)
Background: Media coverage of Lyme disease (LD) has led to an increase in consultations for presumed LD in Europe. However, LD is confirmed in only 10-20% of patients, with a significant number remaining in a diagnostic dead-end. Objectives: To reach a deeper understanding of how patients themselves contribute to the diagnostic process. To describe the genesis of the LD hypothesis in care pathways. Methods: In 2019, 30 patients from a prospective cohort consulting in the infectious diseases department at University Hospital in Marseille for presumed LD were recruited for semi-structured interviews. The inclusion criteria were : suffering from subjective symptoms for 6 months, no clinical or paraclinical argument suggesting current LD. The patients’ medical trajectories were collected using a biographical approach. Results: The diagnosis of Lyme disease was primarily triggered by identification with personal testimonies found on the internet. Most of patients were leading their own diagnostic investigation. The majority of participants were convinced they had LD despite the lack of medical evidence and the scepticism of their referring GP. Conclusion: GPs should first systematically explore patients’ etiologic representations in order to improve adherence to the diagnosis especially in the management of medically unexplained symptoms. Long COVID-19 syndrome challenge offers an opportunity to promote active patient involvement in diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0202.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Clinical handover; Patient Handoff; Patient transfer; Referral and Consultation; Medical Records Systems; Computerized; Patient Safety; Risk Management; Attitude; Institutional Practice
Online: 31 May 2022 (07:14:42 CEST)
Background: Handover is a critical process for ensuring quality and safety in healthcare. Considerable research suggests that poor handover results in significant morbidity, mortality, dissatisfaction, and excess financial costs. Despite this, little formal attention, education, and evaluation has been given to handover. There is also paucity of data on the opinions of practitioners on the safety of handover.Objectives: The aim of this study was to measure the perceived risk, degree of patient harm and the systems used to support handover, and to understand how this varied by care setting, type of clinical practice, location, or level of experience. Methods: An open, anonymous and confidential online questionnaire covering: (a) respondent characteristics; (b) peer-to-peer handover; (c) internal referrals; (d) discharges and transfers between organisations; and (e) leading and improving handover was conducted with healthcare practitioners and managers from various settings. Results: We gathered a total of 432 completed responses from 26 countries. The average reported performance of handover was rated as 3.9 out of 5.For each type of handover, 12 - 14% reported errors occurring more than weekly. Of those that knew the outcome of such errors, between 29% and 34% reported that they had witnessed moderate or severe harm. 12% and 17% of respondents believed that handover was high or very high risk (See table 4). These respondents were more likely to have witnessed moderate or severe harm, or to be more senior.A wide combination of handover systems was utilised by respondents. 28% - 32% relied exclusively on EPRs (with or without face-to-face contact). 21% used Office documents such as Word and Excel for peer-to-peer handover, and over 30% used hand-written or manual systems. Conclusions: This study suggests the need to do more — and go further — to improve communication and reduce risk during all types of handovers. Clinical leaders should find ways to train and support handover with effective systems, with less experienced staff being the primary focus. More research is needed to demonstrate the interventions that improve the safety of handover.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0213.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Toxicity; Diagnosis; Personal care; Patient encounter; Patient-based medicine
Online: 16 May 2022 (14:06:25 CEST)
Clinicians are key in reclaiming the medical arts ceded to clinically irrelevant technology and thereby aligning patient with fast-changing biological realities. Narrowing the chasm between virtual and real perceptions of health hazards requires: 1) becoming acutely aware of the habitat loss aggravating the pervasive dissemination of chemicals via conventional food, air, and consumer products and the proliferation of non-ionizing radiation; and 2) making strategic use of slow, system 2 thinking so as to respond wisely to the rampant epidemics of chronic low-dose toxicity disregarded or misdiagnosed for half a century. To respond adaptively, take a moment during each patient encounter to add chronic ambient poisoning to the differential diagnosis and investigate subtle symptoms and signs of irritation in vulnerable organ systems. Enacting adaptive response across our profession could ease the suffering of millions, help avert the sixth extinction, and contribute to continuation of evolved life as we know it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0219.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Supervised Machine Learning; Kinematics; Head rotation test; Neck pain
Online: 15 March 2022 (14:30:51 CET)
Understanding neck pain is an important societal issue. Kinematic data from sensors may help to gain insight on the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with neck pain through a quantitative sensorimotor assessment of one patient. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential usefulness of artificial intelligence with several Machine Learning (ML) algorithms in assessing neck sensorimotor performance. Angular velocity and acceleration measured by an inertial sensor placed on the forehead during the DidRen laser test in thirty-eight acute and subacute non-specific neck pain (ANSP) patients were compared to forty-two healthy control participants (HCP). Seven supervised ML algorithms were chosen for the predictions. The most informative kinematic features were computed using Sequential Feature Selection methods. The best performing algorithm is the Linear Support Vector Machine with an accuracy of 82% and Area Under Curve of 84%. The best discriminative kinematic feature between ANSP patients and HCP is the first quartile of head pitch angular velocity. This study has shown that supervised ML algorithms could be used to classify ANSP patients and identify discriminatory kinematic features potentially useful for the clinicians in the assessment and monitoring of the neck sensorimotor performance in ANSP patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Tadalafil; prostate cancer; aromatase; adipocytes; bone; androgen receptors; obesity; osteoporosis
Online: 7 March 2022 (14:53:13 CET)
Tadalafil is a selective phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE5) inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of men with erectile dysfunction (ED) and/or benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) associated symptoms. Besides its classical actions on PDE5 within the genitourinary tract, where the specific enzyme expression is maximal, it may exert different systemic effects. This is mainly due to the pleiotropic distribution of PDE5 enzyme throughout human (and animal) body, where it can exert protective effects in different clinical conditions. Recently, it has been demonstrated that tadalafil may display novel actions on androgen receptor (AR) expression and activity, cytochrome P19a1 (Cyp19a1) and estrogen receptor β (ERβ) expression in different in vitro systems, such as adipose, bone and prostate cancer cells where it can act as a selective modulator of steroid hormone production. This may determine novel potential mechanism(s) of control in pathophysiologic pathways. In this review we summarize basic research and translational results applicable to the use of tadalafil in the treatment of different clinical conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: alanine aminotransferase; aspartate aminotransferase; AST/ALT ratio; mortality; artificial intelligence; older people
Online: 4 March 2022 (11:17:44 CET)
Low serum alanine aminotransferase activity and high aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/ALT ratio may be associated with high mortality in older people. We aimed to confirm this in an 8-year retrospective cohort study. Clinical data for 5,958 people aged 67–104 years were analyzed for their relationships with all-cause mortality using artificial intelligence (AI; Prediction One [Sony Network Communications Inc.]) and conventional statistical analysis (SAS Enterprise Guide [SAS Institute Inc.]). In total, 1,413 (23.7%) participants died during the study. Auto-AI analysis with five rounds of cross-validation showed that AST/ALT ratio was the third largest contributor to mortality, following age and sex. Serum albumin concentration and body mass index were the fourth and fifth largest contributors, and the individual serum ALT and AST activities were the seventh and tenth largest contributors. Conventional survival analysis showed that ALT, AST, and AST/ALT ratio as continuous variables were all associated with mortality (adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals): 0.98 (0.97–0.99), 1.02 (1.02–1.03), 1.46 (1.32–1.62), respectively; all p <0.0001). In conclusion, both AI and conventional analysis suggest that of the conventional biochemical markers, high AST/ALT ratio is most closely associated with all-cause mortality in older people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0055.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Varicose veins; Recurrent varicose veins; Angiogenesis; Endoglin
Online: 3 March 2022 (07:47:09 CET)
Abstract: Background: Surgery on varicose veins (crossectomy and stripping) leads to recurrence and has clinical and socio-economic repercussions. Their etiopathogenesis has yet to fully under-stood. Objective: Study the expression of endoglin and other molecules involved in the neovascu-larisation process in patients suffering from this disease. Methods: 43 patients that have undergone surgery for varicose veins (24 primary and 19 recurrent). They were identified on the venous wall (proximal -saphenofemoral junction- and distal), via real-time RT-PCR, and in serum, via ELISA: Endoglin (Eng), Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF-A), its receptors 1 and 2 (VEGFR1 or FLT1), (VEGFR2 or FLK), and the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF-1A). All the patients signed a con-sent form. Results: The recurrent group recorded a higher expression of Eng, VEGF-A, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 at the level of proximal venous wall compared to the primary group. HIF-1A did not record any differences. As regards the determination of the distal venous wall, no markers recorded differ-ences between the groups. Among the serum determinations, only sFLT1 recorded a significant drop among the patients with recurrent varicose veins. Conclusions: Patients with recurrent vari-cose veins record a higher expression of endoglin and other markers of angiogenesis in proximal veins. Endoglin in the blood (sEng) has not proven to be of any use in recurrent varicose veins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0378.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: staphylococcus aureus; infective endocarditis; clinical prediction rules; echocardiography
Online: 25 January 2022 (10:41:47 CET)
Background. It is unclear whether the use of clinical prediction rules is sufficient to rule out infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) without an echocardiogram evaluation, either transthoracic (TTE) and/or transesophageal (TEE). Our primary purpose was to test the usefulness of PREDICT, POSITIVE and VIRSTA scores to rule out IE without echocardiography. Our secondary purpose was to evaluate whether not performing an echocardiogram evaluation is associated with higher mortality. Methods. We conducted a unicentric retrospective cohort including all patients with a first SAB episode from January 2015 to December 2020. IE was defined according to modified Duke criteria. We predefined threshold cut-off points to consider that IE was ruled out by means of the mentioned scores. To assess 30-day mortality, we used a multivariable regression model considering performing an echocardiogram as covariate. Results. Out of 404 patients, IE was diagnosed in 50 (12.4%). Prevalence of IE within patients with negative PREDICT, POSITIVE and VIRSTA scores was: 3.6% (95% CI 0.1-6.9%), 4.9% (95% CI 2.2-7.7%), and 2.2% (95% CI 0.2-4.3%), respectively. Patients with negative VIRSTA and negative TTE had an IE prevalence of 0.9% (95% CI 0-2.8%). Performing an echocardiogram was independently associated with lower 30-day mortality (OR 0.24 95%CI 0.10-0.54, p=0.001). Conclusion. PREDICT and POSITIVE scores were not sufficient to rule out IE without TEE. In patients with negative VIRSTA score, it was doubtful if IE could be discarded with a negative TTE. Not performing an echocardiogram was associated with worse outcomes, which might be related to presence of occult IE. Further studies are needed to assess the usefulness of clinical prediction rules in avoiding echocardiographic evaluation in SAB patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0294.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Mucormycosis; Zygomycosis; Epidemiology; Incidence; Clinical; Spain.
Online: 20 October 2021 (15:48:58 CEST)
Background: Mucormycosis is a worldwide angio-invasive fungal infection that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. A few European studies have focused on the epidemiology. Methodology: A retrospective longitudinal descriptive study was performed with inpatients diagnosed with mucormycosis (ICD-9-CM, code 117.7, cases 1997-2015; and ICD-10, code B46, cases 2016-2018; along with length of hospital stay) in Spanish public hospitals between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2018. Data were obtained from the Minimum Basic Data Set (CMBD in Spanish). Principal findings: A total of 962 patients were recorded; 665 were men. The mean age (±SD) was 55±18.8 years. The annual incidence rate increased from 0.74 to 1.24 cases per million person-years. The lethality rate was 31.3%. Renal failure (41.6%) and hematological malignancy (36.3%) were the main factors involved. Conclusions: Mucormycosis is a rare infectious disease in Spain, but it has had a significantly increased incidence in the last two decades. Being an adult male and having diabetes, neoplasm or renal failure are the main factors associated. High mortality is usually associated mainly with hematological malignancy and renal failure. CMBD studies could be an efficient tool for assessing changes in the epidemiology of mucormycosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0235.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Spinal Cord Stimulation; rescue therapy; salvage therapy; new waveforms; paresthesia-free waveforms; High-Frequency stimulation; Burst stimulation; spatial neural targeting; temporal neural targeting; SCS programming; adapter; mapping software; paresthesia coverage; patient outcome; salvage algorithm
Online: 18 October 2021 (10:04:52 CEST)
While paresthesia-based spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been proven effective to treat chronic neuropathic pain, initial benefits may lead to the development of “Failed SCS Syndrome’ (FSCSS) defined as decrease over time related to Loss of Efficacy (LoE) with or without Loss of Coverage (LoC). Development of technologies associating new paresthesia-free stimulation waveforms and implanted pulse generator adapters provide opportunities to manage patients with LoE. The main goal of our study was to investigate salvage procedures, through neu-rostimulation adapters, in patients already implanted with SCS and experienced LoE. We retro-spectively analyzed a cohort of patients who were offered new SCS programs/waveforms through an implanted adapter between 2018 and 2021. Patients were evaluated before, and at 1, 3, 6 and 12-month follow-up. Outcomes included pain intensity rating with Visual Analog Scale (VAS), pain/coverage mappings and stimulation preferences. Last follow-up evaluations (N=27) showed significant improvement in VAS (p = 0.0001), ODI (p = 0.021) and Quality of Life (p=0.023). In the 11/27 patients with LoC, SCS efficacy on pain intensity (36.89%) was accompa-nied by paresthesia coverage recovery (55.57%) and pain surface decrease (47.01%). At 12-month follow-up, 81.3% preferred to keep tonic stimulation in their waveform portfolio. SCS conver-sion using adapters appears promising as a salvage solution, with an emphasis on paresthesia recapturing enabled by spatial retargeting. In light of these results, adapters could be integrated to SCS rescue algorithms or should be considered in SCS rescue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0115.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: intracranial compliance; intracranial pressure; intracranial hypertension; acute brain injury
Online: 7 October 2021 (10:54:26 CEST)
We validated a new noninvasive tool (B4C) to assess intracranial pressure waveform (ICPW) morphology in a set of neurocritical patients, correlating the data with ICPW obtained from invasive catheter monitoring. Materials and Methods: Patients undergoing invasive intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring were consecutively evaluated using the B4C sensor. Ultrasound-guided manual internal jugular vein (IJV) compression was performed to elevate ICP from the baseline. ICP values, amplitudes, and time intervals (P2/P1 ratio and time-to-peak [TTP]) between the ICP and B4C waveform peaks were analyzed. Results: Among 41 patients, the main causes for ICP monitoring included traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and stroke. Bland-Altman’s plot indicated agreement between the ICPW parameters obtained using both techniques. The strongest Pearson’s correlation for P2/P1 and TTP was observed among patients with no cranial damage (r = 0.72 and 0.85, respectively) in detriment of those who have undergone craniotomies or craniectomies. P2/P1 values of 1 were equivalent between the two techniques (area under the receiver operator curve [AUROC], 0.9) whereas B4C cut-off 1.2 was predictive of intracranial hypertension (AUROC 0.9, p < 000.1 for ICP > 20 mmHg). Conclusion: B4C provided biometric amplitude ratios correlated with ICPW variation morphology and is useful for noninvasive critical care monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0031.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: spinal cord stimulation (SCS); peripheral nerve field stimulation (PNfS); SubQ-stimulation; hybrid stimulation; multidimensional pain assessment; pain mapping; pain software; persistent spinal pain syndrome - T2 (PSPS-T2); failed back surgery syndrome; failed spinal cord stimulation syndrome (FSCSS); salvage therapy; salvage algorithm
Online: 1 September 2021 (18:16:10 CEST)
While Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) provides satisfaction to almost 2/3 of Persistent Spinal Pain Syndrome-Type 2 (PSPS-T2) patients implanted for refractory chronic back and/or leg pain when not adequately addressed the back pain component, leaves patients in a therapeutic cul-de-sac. Peripheral Nerve field Stimulation (PNfS) has shown interesting results addressing back pain in the same population. Far from placing these two techniques in opposition, we suggest that these approaches could be combined to better treat PSPS-T2 patients. We designed a RCT (CUMPNS), with a 12-month follow-up, to assess the potential added value of PNfS, as a salvage therapy, in PSPS-T2 patients experiencing a “Failed SCS Syndrome” in the back pain component. Fourteen patients were included in this study and randomized into 2 groups (“SCS + PNfS” group/n=6 vs “SCS only” group/n=8). The primary objective of the study was to compare the percentage of back pain surface decrease after 3 months, using a computerized interface to obtain quantitative pain mappings, combined with multi-dimensional SCS outcomes. Back pain surface decreased significantly greater for the ”SCS+PNfS” group (80.2% ± 21.3%) compared to the “SCS only” group (13.2% ± 94.8%) (p=0.012), highlighting the clinical interest of SCS+PNfS, in cases where SCS fails to address back pain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0527.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: PSPS; FBSS; chronic pain; health-related quality of life; mixture models analysis; personalized pain management; chronic pain after spinal surgery
Online: 27 August 2021 (15:23:27 CEST)
Persistent Spinal Pain Syndrome Type 2 (PSPS-T2), (Failed Back Surgery Syndrome), dramatically impacts on patient quality of life, as evidenced by Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) assessment tools. However, the importance of functioning, pain perception and psychological status in HRQoL can substantially vary between subjects. Our goal was to extract patient profiles based on HRQoL dimensions in a sample of PSPS-T2 patients and to identify factors associated with these profiles. Two classes were clearly identified using a mixture of mixed effect models from a clinical data set of 200 patients enrolled in “PREDIBACK”, a multicenter observational prospective study including PSPS-T2 patients with 1-year follow-up. We observed that HRQoL was more impacted by functional disability for first class patients (n=136) and by pain perception for second class patients (n=62). Males that perceive their work as physical were more impacted by disability than pain intensity. Lower education level, lack of adaptive coping strategies and higher pain intensity were significantly associated with HRQoL being more impacted by pain perception. The identification of such classes allows for a better understanding of HRQoL dimensions and opens the gate towards optimized health-related quality of life evaluation and personalized pain management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0398.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs); Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF); Real-world experience
Online: 19 August 2021 (10:32:56 CEST)
The aim is to evaluate a program for direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) management in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients, according to patient profiles, appropriateness of dosing, patterns of crossover, effectiveness and safety. This is an observational and longitudinal retrospective study in a cohort of patients attended in daily clinical practice in a single regional hospital in Spain with a systematic follow-up plan for up to 3 years for patients initiating dabigatran, rivaroxaban or apixaban between JAN/2012-DEC/2016. We analyzed 490 episodes of treatment (apixaban 2.5 mg: 9.4%, apixaban 5 mg: 21.4%, dabigatran 75 mg: 0.6%, dabigatran 110 mg: 12,4%, dabigatran 150 mg: 19.8%, rivaroxaban 15 mg: 17.8% and rivaroxaban 20 mg: 18.6%) in 445 patients. 13.6% of patients on dabigatran, 9.7% on rivaroxaban, and 3.9% on apixaban, switched to other DOACs or changed dosing. Apixaban was the most frequent DOAC switched to. The most frequent reasons for switching were toxicity (23.8%), bleeding (21.4%) and renal deterioration (16.7%). Inappropriateness of dose was found in 23.8% of episodes. Patients taking apixaban 2.5 mg were older, had higher CHA2DS2VASc score and lower creatinine clearance. Patients taking dabigatran 150 mg and rivaroxaban 20 mg were younger, had lower CHA2DS2VASc and higher creatinine clearance. Rates of stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) were 1.64/0.54 events/100 patients-years, while rates of major, clinically relevant non-major (CRNM) bleeding and intracranial bleeding where 2.4, 5, and 0.5 events/100 patients-years. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary bleeding were the most common type of bleeding events (BE). On multivariable analysis, prior stroke (RR: 4.2; CI: 1.5-11.8; p=0.006) and age (RR: 1.2; CI: 1.1-1.4; p=0.006) were independent predictors of stroke/TIA. Concurrent platelet inhibitors (RR: 7.1; CI: 2.3-21.8; p=0.001), male gender (RR: 2.1; CI: 1.2-3.7; p=0.0012) and age (RR: 1.1; CI: 1.02-1.13; p=0.005) were independent predictors of BE. This study complements the scant data available on the use of DOACs in NVAF patients in Spain, confirming a good safety and effectiveness profile
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0395.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Organizing pneumonia; Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia; Secondary organizing pneumonia
Online: 19 August 2021 (10:22:38 CEST)
Organizing pneumonia (OP) can be diagnosed pathologically, and cryptogenic OP (COP) and secondary OP (SOP) have been classified by cause and underlying context. Because it is clinically difficult to differentiate between COP and SOP, this study investigated characteristics that could distinguish between COP and SOP. The medical records of patients who underwent lung biopsy from 2016 to 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Eighty-five patients had pathologically proven OP, including 16 diagnosed with COP and 69 diagnosed with SOP. The most common cause of SOP was infectious pneumonia, observed in 57 (82.6%) of the 69 patients. Median time from symptom onset to hospital admission is shorter (P=0.006) and fever was more common (P=0.021) in the SOP. Some laboratory results differed significantly between the two groups. Lymphocyte in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were higher in the COP (P=0.012). Radiologic findings showed that effusion was more common in the SOP (P=0.043). There were no between-group differences in steroid use, 30 day and in-hospital mortality rates, and rates of OP outcomes and recurrences. Infection is the main cause of SOP. Symptom onset is more rapid in patients with SOP. Pleural effusion was more common in the SOP but there were no differences in clinical course.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0343.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Agreement analysis; Bland-Altman method; Clinical tolerance limits; Limits of agreement; Nonparametric approach; Robust method
Online: 16 August 2021 (13:53:22 CEST)
Clinical agreement between two quantitative measurements on a group of subjects is generally assessed with the help of the Bland-Altman (B-A) limits. The interpretation regarding agreement is based on whether B-A limits are within the pre-specified clinical tolerance. Thus, clinical tolerance limits are necessary for this method. We argue in this communication that such limits of clinical tolerance can be directly used for assessing agreement and plead that this nonparametric approach is simple and robust to the distribution pattern and outliers. Such direct use of clinical tolerance limits has more flexibility, and it is more effective in assessing the extent of agreement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Spinal Cord Injury; Oxidative stress; Antioxidants, Pain
Online: 2 July 2021 (09:05:08 CEST)
Introduction:In this study we evaluated the connivance of oxidative and antioxidative parameters in the pathogenesis of spinal cord injury (SCI). Although the etiology and pathogenesis of SCI remain to be fully understood, it has been suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of SCI. Furthermore, there is little information available in scientific literature about oxidative and antioxidative parameters in SCI patients. Methods:Oxidative stress was determined by measuring the levels of Lipid Peroxides (LPO) and Protein carbonyl in plasma and antioxidative parameters like Glutathione Reductase (GR), catalase and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in lysate in 40 SCI patients and 40 healthy subjects without SCI. However, pain was measured by McGill pain questionnaire. Results: Concentrations of catalase (p<0.01), GR (p<0.01) and GPx (p<0.01) were significantly lower in patients with SCI than in controls, and levels of oxidative stress parameters, LPO (p<0.01), Protein carbonyl (p<0.01) were significantly higher in patients than in controls. A significant positive correlation was found between LPO and pain score among SCI patients group. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was also found between Protein carbonyl and pain score among SCI patients group than in control group. Conclusion: The present results indicate that SCI patients are exposed to oxidative stress and this escalated oxidative stress may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease. Moreover, our results also show that increased oxidative stress parameters are more strongly amalgamated with pain in SCI patients.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0597.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Peri-implantitis; Implacure® Protocol; Platelet-rich Fibrin
Online: 23 December 2020 (16:12:26 CET)
Peri-implant diseases are defined as pathological inflammatory reactions in the tissue surrounding the osseointegrated implants. They are classified into two categories: mucositis - defined as peri-implant soft tissue inflammation and peri-implantitis - bone loss in the peri-implant region. A clinical case of a 61-years-old woman with an implant in the 46 anatomical position and a 5-year follow-up is presented. A probe depth of 5mm and a bone defect length of 35% was observed. The Implacure® Protocol was applied, with the main objective of eliminating the biofilm present on the exposed implant surface. There are multiple approaches to treat peri-implant diseases. While non-surgical treatment is essential for mucositis control, the treatment of peri-implantitis surgical treatment should be considered. Regenerative bone reconstruction promotes bone repair in the defect area and reduces bleeding during probing. To achieve that, autologous fibrin combined with Cerasorb M® was used. The proposed approach in the exposed clinical case involves the application of Implacure® Protocol, whose combination of the physical decontamination technique, together with the use of chlorhexidine and orthophosphoric acid, added with the combination Piperacillin + Tazobactam together with hyaluronic acid, provide a base that allows to regenerate bone using platelet-rich fibrin with Cerasorb M® and increase the survival time of the implant.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0193.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Cell therapy, Peripheral arterial disease, Bone marrow, Adipose tissue, Mesenchymal stem cells, Exosome, Critical limb ischemia.
Online: 4 November 2020 (12:37:47 CET)
Background: The treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is focused on improving perfusion and oxygenation in the affected limb. Standard revascularization methods include bypass surgery, endovascular interventional procedures, or hybrid revascularization. Cell-based therapy can be an alternative strategy for patients with no-option critical limb ischemia who are not eligible for endovascular or surgical procedures. Aims: This review offers an up-to-date critical overview of the knowledge and data of evidence-based medicine on the position of cell therapy in the treatment of PAD. It provides an overview of current evidence and appraises the future perspectives of cell-based therapy, emphasizing the potential of exosomal cell-free approaches in patients with critical limb ischemia. Results: Meta-analyses focused on cell therapy problems in PAD treatment confirm a significantly greater chance of limb salvage in the first year after the cell therapy administration. The opportunity of defect healing is at least two times higher when compared with the standard conservative therapy. Secondary endpoints of the available meta-analyses are also included in this review. Improvement of perfusion and oxygenation parameters in the affected limb, pain regression, and claudication interval prolongation are discussed. Conclusions: The available evidence-based medicine data show that this technique is safe, associated with minimum complications or adverse events, and effective.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0234.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: myostatin inhibition; Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy; skeletal muscle; muscle development; clinical trials; translation
Online: 12 October 2020 (12:07:43 CEST)
Myostatin inhibition therapy has held much promise for the treatment of muscle wasting disorders. This is particularly true for the fatal myopathy, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Following on from promising pre-clinical data in dystrophin-deficient mice and dogs, several clinical trials were initiated in DMD patients using different modality myostatin inhibition therapies. All failed to show modification of disease course as dictated by the primary and secondary outcomes measures selected: the myostatin inhibition story thus far, is a failed clinical story. These trials have recently been extensively reviewed and reasons why pre-clinical data collected in animal models has failed to translate into clinical benefit to patients has been purported. However, the biological mechanisms underlying translational failure need to be examined to ensure future myostatin inhibitor development endeavors do not meet with the same fate. Here, we explore the biology which could explain the failed translation of myostatin inhibitors in the treatment of DMD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0532.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: adipose derived regenerative cells; ADRCs; efficacy; point of care treatment; stem cells; stromal vascular fraction; tendon healing without scar formation; tendon regeneration
Online: 23 September 2020 (03:49:36 CEST)
Current clinical treatment options for symptomatic rotator cuff tear offer only limited potential for true tissue healing and improvement of clinical results. In animal models, injections of adult stem cells isolated from adipose tissue into tendon injuries evidenced histological regeneration of tendon tissue. However, it is unclear whether such beneficial effects could also be observed in a human tendon treated with autologous, adipose derived regenerative cells. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, a comprehensive histological and immunohistochemical analysis of the biopsy of a supraspinatus tendon of a 66-year-old subject with traumatic rotator cuff injury, taken ten weeks after local injection of fresh, uncultured, autologous, adipose derived regenerative cells (UA-ADRCs), prepared at the point of care. Our analysis demonstrated clear evidence towards regenerative healing of the injured supraspinatus tendon. Of note, no formation of adipocytes was observed. These findings indicate that injected autologous, unmodified stem cells can indeed form new tendon tissue and regenerate an injured human tendon.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0346.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Sepsis; SIRS; oxic sulphidic oscillator; risk prediction; multiorgan failure; chemocline
Online: 16 September 2020 (04:07:17 CEST)
Life evolved in an euxinic world with subsequent oxic 'invasion' leading to two parallel but interconnected biospheres, hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exemplify these worlds respectively. Their concentration gradients have informational value in meromictic lakes. Similarly, it is posited, there exists a whole body chemocline in humans in which the two molecules form an inversely coupled oxic/sulphidic oscillator (OSO). The OSO is hormetic and characterised by a range of amplitudes and frequencies in health. Deviations from its baseline profile heralds the onset of SIRS before the appearance of clinical signs. Loss of oscillator status and transition to a steady state causes widespread intercellular and inter-organ communication failure presaging multi-organ dysfunction. The salient clinico-pathophysiological features of SIRS of any aetiology are emergent phenomena related to the OSO profile. Extent of recovery of organ function will mirror the recovery of the OSO profile thereby providing a tool to predict outcomes in SIRS.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: tuberculosis; epidemiology; drug-treatment; resistance; analysis
Online: 13 September 2020 (11:20:13 CEST)
Randomized clinical trials represent the gold standard in therapeutic research. Nevertheless, observational cohorts of patients treated for multidrug-resistant (MDR) or rifampin-resistant (RR) tuberculosis (TB) also play an important role in generating evidence to guide MDR/RR TB Generally, summary exposure classifications (e.g., ‘ever versus never’, ‘exposed at baseline’) have been used to characterize drug exposure, in the absence of detailed longitudinal data on MDR-TB regimen These summary classifications, along with an absence of data on covariates that change throughout the course of treatment, constrain researchers’ ability to answer the most relevant questions while accounting for known This paper highlights the importance of regimen changes in improving inference from observational studies of longer MDR-TB treatment regimens and offers an overview of the data and analytic strategies required to do
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0104.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: attitudes; clinicians; hospital; in-patient; obesity; perceptions
Online: 4 September 2020 (12:27:25 CEST)
While obesity is recognized as a key global public health issue, there has been no research to date on the perceptions of care for people with this condition held by individuals in positions of organizational power. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the perceptions and experiences of clinical leaders and managers of providing care to inpatients with obesity at a metropolitan public health service. This study applied an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) approach to qualitative research, conducting interviews with 17 participants. Their perceptions of care for inpatients with obesity encompassed both their personal understanding as an individual, and their observations about the organizational, patient and carer perspectives. Three overall themes were identified: 1) The problem of inpatients with obesity, 2) Inpatients with obesity as sources of risk and 3) Personal and professional perceptions of inpatients with obesity. While clinical leaders and managers were aware of potential impact of stigma and weight bias on the care given to this cohort, elements of implicit bias, stereotyping, ‘othering’ and ambivalence were frequently present in the data. Ongoing efforts to improve care for patients with obesity must therefore include efforts to address perceptions and attitudes at all organisational levels of the workforce.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Lyme disease; Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome (PTLDS); dapsone combination therapy (DDS CT); double dose dapsone combination therapy (DDD CT); babesiosis; persistent infection
Online: 1 September 2020 (11:30:52 CEST)
Three patients with multi-year histories of relapsing and remitting Lyme disease and associated co-infections despite extended antibiotic therapy were each given double dose dapsone combination therapy (DDD CT) for a total of 7-8 weeks. At the completion of therapy, all three patients major Lyme symptoms remained in remission for a period of 25-30 months. In conclusion, Double dose dapsone therapy could represent a novel and effective anti-infective strategy in chronic Lyme disease/PTLDS, especially in those individuals who have failed regular dose dapsone combination therapy (DDS CT) or standard antibiotic protocols. A randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial is warranted to evaluate the efficacy of DDD CT in those individuals with chronic Lyme disease/PTLDS.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0519.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, ARDS, Famotidine, Celecoxib
Online: 24 August 2020 (09:46:15 CEST)
Celecoxib as adjuvant therapy has been shown in a small randomized trial for Covid-19 to prevent clinical deterioration and rapidly improve thoracic computerized axial tomography (CT-chest)1. Multiple descriptive trials of high dose famotidine (both inpatient and outpatient) have demonstrated clinical response2,3,4. We describe the rapid clinical responses after increasing the celecoxib dosage to 400mg bid with high dose famotidine 80mg qid in both a critical inpatient who on baseline required 40 liters per minute high flow nasal insufflation and an outpatient who declined admission but had critical Covid-19 biomarkers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0277.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: statin; arthroplasty; revision; failure; osseointegration; osteolysis; loosening
Online: 20 August 2020 (09:32:07 CEST)
Osteoarthritis is a painful, disabling condition which is increasing in prevalence as a result of an ageing population. With no recognised disease limiting therapeutics, arthroplasty of the hip and knee is the most common and effective treatment for lower limb osteoarthritis, however lower limb arthroplasty has a finite life-span and a proportion of patients will require revision arthroplasty. With increasing life expectancy and an increasing proportion of younger (<65 years) patients undergoing arthroplasty, the demand for revision arthroplasty after implant failure is also set to increase. Statins are cholesterol modulating drugs widely used for cardiovascular risk reduction which have been noted to have pleiotropic effects including potentially influencing arthroplasty survival. In vitro studies have demonstrated pleiotropic effects in human bone cells, including enhancement of osteoblastogenesis following simvastatin exposure, and in vivo studies have demonstrated that intraperitoneal simvastatin can increase peri-implant bone growth in rats following titanium tibial implant insertion. There is evidence also that statins may also influence osseointegration, enhancing bone growth at the bone-implant interface, subsequently improving the functional survival of implants. Data from the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Registry and Clinical Practice Research Datalink in the UK suggest a reduction in the risk of lower limb revision arthroplasty in statin ever-users vs never users, and a time dependent effect of statin administration on reduction in risk of revision. In this article we review the clinical and scientific evidence linking statins and risk of revision arthroplasty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0444.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: stroke; thrombolysis; thrombectomy
Online: 19 July 2020 (20:57:58 CEST)
Background & Motivation: Stroke outcomes following revascularization therapy (intravenous thrombolysis, IVT, and/or mechanical thrombectomy, MT) depend critically on time from stroke onset to treatment. Different service configurations may prioritise time to IVT or time to MT. In order to evaluate alternative acute stroke care configurations, it is necessary to estimate clinical outcomes given differing times to IVT and MT. Method: Model using an algorithm coded in Python. This is available at https://github.com/MichaelAllen1966/stroke_outcome_algorithm. Results: We demonstrate how the code may be used to estimate clinical outcomes given varying times to IVT and MT. Conclusion: Python code has been developed and shared to enable estimation of clinical outcome given times to IVT and MT. Here we share pseudocode and links to full Python code.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0327.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Obstructive sleep apnea; Metabolomics; Triglycerides; Phosphocholines; Ceramides; Apnea Hypopnea Index; Polysomnography; Lipid metabolism; Multilevel Sleep Surgery
Online: 15 July 2020 (09:19:05 CEST)
Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is caused by partial or complete obstruction of the upper airways. Corrective surgeries aim at removing obstructions in the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx. OSA is associated with increased risk of various metabolic diseases. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of surgery on the plasma metabolome. Methods: This study included 39 OSA patients who underwent Multilevel Sleep Surgery (MLS). Clinical and anthropometric measures were taken at baseline and 5 months after surgery. Results: The mean Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) significantly dropped from 22.0 ± 18.5 events/hour to 8.97 ± 9.57 events/hour (p-Value <0.001). The Epworth’s sleepiness Score (ESS) dropped from 12.8 ± 6.23 to 2.95 ± 2.40 (p-Value <0.001) indicating success of the surgery in treating OSA. Plasma levels of metabolites, phosphocholines (PC) PC.41.5, PC.42.3, ceremide (Cer) Cer.44.0, and triglyceride (TG) TG.53.6, TG.55.6 and TG.56.8 were decreased (p-Value<0.05) whereas lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC) 20.0 and PC.39.3 were increased (p-Value<0.05) after surgery. Conclusion: This study highlights the success of MLS in treating OSA. Treatment of OSA resulted in improvement in metabolic status that was characterized by decreased TG, PCs and Cer metabolites post-surgery indicating that the success of the surgery positively impacted the metabolic status of these patients.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: brain injuries; traumatic brain injury; children; diversity; student-led; participant-focused; recruitment; sample; methods
Online: 7 July 2020 (04:42:39 CEST)
The advancement of the pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) knowledge base requires biospecimens and data from large samples. This study seeks to describe a novel clinical research modality to establish best practices for enrolling a diverse pediatric TBI population and quantifying key information on enrollment into biobanks. Screening form responses were standardized and cleaned through Google Sheets. Data was used to analyze total individuals at each enrollment stage. R was utilized for final analysis, including chi-square goodness of fit and proportion statistical tests, to determine further significance and relationships. Issues throughout data cleaning shed light on limitations of the consent modality. Results suggest that through a diverse research team, the recruited sample exceeds traditional measures of representation (e.g. sex, race, ethnicity). Sex demographics of the study are representative of the local population. Screening for candidates is critical to the success of the consent modality. The consent modality may be modified to increase diversity of study population and accept bilingual candidates. Researchers must implement best practices, including increasing inclusivity of bilingual populations, utilizing technology, and improving participant follow-up, to improve health disparities for understudied clinical populations.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0269.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: HIV; COVID-19
Online: 21 June 2020 (11:59:21 CEST)
Understanding the clinical conditions and outcomes of Covid-19 infected patients with immunodeficiency like HIV will be an information for improving management and treatment modalities. It was reported a patient of HIV plus clinical confirmed Covid-19 in this presentation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0345.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; venous thrombosis; pulmonary embolism; venous thromboembolism; anticoagulants; mortality
Online: 19 April 2020 (13:08:16 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to systemic coagulation activation and thrombotic complications. We investigated the incidence of objectively confirmed venous thromboembolism (VTE) in 198 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in a single-center cohort study. Seventy-four patients (37%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). At time of data collection, 58 (29%) were still hospitalized and 14% had died. During a median follow-up of 5 days (IQR, 3-9), 33 patients (17%) were diagnosed with VTE of whom 22 (11%) had symptomatic VTE, despite routine thrombosis prophylaxis. The cumulative incidences of VTE at 7 and 14 days were 15% (95% CI, 9.3-22) and 34% (95% CI, 23-46), respectively. For symptomatic VTE, these were 11% (95% CI, 5.8-17) and 23% (95% CI, 14-33). VTE appeared to be associated with death (adjusted HR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.02-8.0). The cumulative incidence of VTE was higher in the ICU (25% at 7 days 95% CI, 15-36, and 48% at 14 days, 95% CI, 33-61) than on the wards (any VTE and symptomatic VTE 6.5 % at 7 days (95% CI, 1.5-17) and 10% at 14 days (95% CI, 2.9-24)).The observed risk for VTE in COVID-19 is high, particularly in ICU patients, which should lead to a high level of clinical suspicion and low threshold for diagnostic imaging for DVT or PE. Future research should focus on optimal diagnostic and prophylactic strategies to prevent VTE and potentially improve survival.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0361.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; pathogenicity model; diagnosis; progression prediction; poikilosis
Online: 24 March 2020 (14:43:24 CET)
A novel strategy is presented for reliable diagnosis and progression prediction of diseases with special attention to COVID-19 pandemy. A plan is presented for how the model can be implemented worldwide in healthcare and how novel treatments and targets can be detected. The idea is based on poikilosis, pervasive heterogeneity and variation at all levels, systems and mechanisms. Poikilosis in diseases can be taken account in pathogenicity model, which is based on distribution of three independent condition measures – extent, modulation and severity. Pathogenicity model is a population or cohort-based description of disease components. Evidence-based thresholds can be applied to the pathogenicity model and used for diagnosis as well as for early detection of patients in risk of developing the most severe forms of the disease. Analysis of patients with differential course of disease can help in detecting biomarkers of diagnostic and prognostic significance. A practical and feasible plan is presented how the concepts can be implemented in practice. Collaboration of many actors, including the World Health Organization and national health authorities, will be essential for success.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: humans; infection control; therapy; coronavirus; immunoglobulins; drug therapy; therapeutic use; corticosteroid
Online: 8 March 2020 (17:04:19 CET)
Background: The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has spread globally with more than 80,000 people infected, and nearly 3000 patients died. Currently, we are in an urgent need for effective treatment strategy to control the clinical deterioration of COVID-19 patients. Methods: The clinical data of 10 COVID-19 patients receiving short-term moderate-dose corticosteroid (160mg/d) plus immunoglobulin (20g/d) were studied in the North Yard of The First Hospital of Changsha, Hunan from January 17th to February 27th, 2020. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, radiological findings were analyzed. Results: After treatment with combination of low-dose corticosteroid (40-80mg/d) and immunoglobulin (10g/d), patients’ lymphocyte count (0.88±0.34 vs 0.59±0.18, P<0.05), oxygenation index including SPO2 (94.90±2.51 vs 90.50±5.91, P<0.05) and PaO2/FiO2 (321.36±136.91 vs 129.30±64.97, P<0.05) were significantly lower than pre-treatment, and CT showed that the pulmonary lesion deteriorated in all patients. While after treatment of short-term moderate-dose corticosteroid plus immunoglobulin, patients’ APACHE Ⅱ score (9.10±6.15 vs 5.50±9.01, P<0.05), body temperature (37.59±1.16 vs 36.46±0.25, P<0.05), lymphocyte count (0.59±0.18 vs 1.36±0.51, P<0.05), Lactate dehydrogenase (419.24±251.31 vs 257.40±177.88, P<0.05), and C-reactive protein (49.94±26.21 vs 14.58±15.25, P<0.05) significantly improved compared with post-treatment with low-dose therapy. In addition, oxygenation index including SPO2 (90.50±5.91 vs 97.50±1.18, P<0.05), PaO2 (60.47±14.53 vs 99.07±34.31, P<0.05), and PaO2/FiO2 (129.30±64.97 vs 340.86±146.72, P<0.05) significant improved. Furthermore, CT showed that pulmonary lesions obviously improved in 7 patients. After systematic therapy, 4 out of 10 COVID-19 patients recovered and discharged. Conclusions: Short-term moderate-dose corticosteroid plus immunoglobulin is effective for reversing the continued deterioration of COVID-19 patients who failed to respond to the low-dose therapy. Funding: This work was supported by the Innovative Major Emergency Project Funding against the New Coronavirus Pneumonia in Hunan Province (Dr. Ji-Yang Liu, number 2020SK3014; Dr. Yuan-Lin Xie, number 2020SK3013).
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Micro Hand S surgical robot system; robot-assisted complete mesocolic excision; colon cancer; safety; feasibility
Online: 1 March 2020 (02:54:29 CET)
Background: The Micro Hand S robot is the first domestically produced surgical robot that has entered clinical use in China, and this is the first report of its application in colon cancer. Objective: This study aimed to validate the safety and efficacy of the domestically produced Chinese minimally invasive Micro Hand S surgical robot system in complex surgery, such as robotic complete mesocolic excision (R-CME). Methods: From March 2018 to December 2018, 30 patients with right hemicolon cancer underwent R-CME with the Micro Hand S robot system. The operative findings, morbidities, oncological findings and unique characteristics were summarizedwere analyzed. Result: 12 patients with right hemicolon cancer and 18 patients with sigmoid colon cancer underwent RCME with the Micro Hand S robot system. During the study period, the median operative duration was 209 (range, 180-255) min, and the median estimated blood loss volume was 35 (range, 25-75) ml. The median number of lymph nodes harvested was 42 (21-77), and the median postoperative hospital stay was 5 (range, 4-7) days. According to the Clavien-Dindo classification, there were no severe complications except for 7 cases of grade I complications and 5 cases of grade II complications. The conversion rate for all operations was 0%. There were no cases of 30-day readmission or 30-day mortality. Conclusion: Clinical application of domestically produced Chinese minimally invasive surgical robot system “Micro Hand S ” in selected colon cancer patients is technically feasible and safe.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0451.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: systematic review; ADR assessment; elderly; aged-care facilities; medications monitoring; nursing home; drug review
Online: 29 February 2020 (03:41:22 CET)
Aim: this scoping review was designed to identify studies that assess the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) for older people in Australian aged-care facilities. This review critically evaluated each published study to identify the risk of, or actual adverse drug events in older people. Inclusion criteria: This review considered any clinical studies that examined the adverse effects of medications in older people who were living in aged-care facilities. This review considered qualitative studies, analytical studies, RCTs, descriptive cross-sectional studies, and analytic observational studies that explored the use of medications and their adverse effects on older people in clinical settings (including aged care facilities). Methods: An initial search of the PubMed, OvidSP, EBSCOHost, MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Wiley Online, SAGE, and SCOPUS databases, with full text was performed, followed by an analysis of the article’s title and abstract. Additionally, MeSH was used to describe the article. The initial round of the database search was based on inclusion criteria from studies that assessed tools or protocols aiming to identify the adverse effects of medications on the elderly population suffering chronic conditions or multiple co-morbidities. Two reviewers screened the retrieved papers for inclusion. The data presented in this review are in tabular forms and a narrative summary which aligns with the review’s objectives. Results: Seven studies were identified, and the extracted data from these studies were grouped according their characteristics and the auditing results of each study. Conclusion: There was no comprehensive or broadly adverse drug reaction assessment tool derived from Australian data that has been used on the elderly in an Australian healthcare setting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0427.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: adipose derived regenerative cells; ADRCs, efficacy; point of care treatment; randomized controlled trials; safety; stem cells; stromal vascular fraction
Online: 28 February 2020 (12:12:23 CET)
It has become practically impossible to survey the literature on cells derived from adipose tissue with the aim to apply them in regenerative medicine. The aim of this review is to provide a jump start to understanding the potential of UA-ADRCs (uncultured, unmodified, fresh, autologous adipose derived regenerative cells isolated at the point of care) in regenerative medicine. We show that serious and adequate clinical research demonstrates that tissue regeneration with UA-ADRCs is safe and effective. ADRCs are neither 'fat stem cells' nor could they exclusively be isolated from adipose tissue, as ADRCs contain the same adult (depending on the definition) pluripotent or multipotent stem cells that are ubiquitously present in the walls of small blood vessels. Of note, the specific isolation procedure used has significant impact on the number and viability of the cells and hence on safety and efficacy of UA-ADRCs. Furthermore, there is no need to further separate adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) from ADRCs if the latter were adequately isolated from adipose tissue. Most importantly, UA-ADRCs have the physiological capacity to adequately regenerate tissue without need for manipulating, stimulating and/or (genetically) reprogramming the cells for this purpose. Tissue regeneration with UA-ADRCs fulfills the criteria of homologous use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0209.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: good clinical practice; clinical trials; quality; investigator training; clinical investigator
Online: 19 January 2020 (04:46:48 CET)
Background: Good clinical practice (GCP) training is the industry standard for ensuring the quality conduct of registrational clinical trials. However, concerns have been raised about whether the current structure and delivery of GCP training sufficiently prepares clinical investigators and their delegates to conduct clinical trials. Methods: We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with 13 clinical investigators and 10 research sponsors to 1) examine characteristics of the quality conduct of sponsored clinical trials, including critical tasks and concerns perceived as essential for trial quality, 2) identify key knowledge and skills required to perform critical tasks, and 3) identify gaps and redundancies in GCP training and areas of improvement to ensure the quality conduct of clinical trials. We used applied thematic analysis to analyze the data. Results: The top three tasks identified as critical for the quality conduct of clinical trials were obtaining informed consent, ensuring protocol compliance, and protecting participants’ health and safety. Respondents acknowledged that GCP principles address each of these critical tasks; however, they described many challenges and burdens of GCP training, including high training frequency and repetitive content. Respondents suggested moving beyond GCP training as a mere check-box activity by making it more effective, engaging, and interactive. They also emphasized that applying GCP principles in a real-world, skills-based environment would increase the relevance of GCP training to investigators and their delegates. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that although investigators and sponsors recognize that GCP training addresses critical tasks necessary to the quality conduct of clinical trials, they articulated the need for significant improvement in the design, content, and presentation of GCP training.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0203.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: mobile technology; patient engagement; mobile clinical trials; virtual trials; digital trials; hybrid trials; site engagement; site support; mobile devices
Online: 16 December 2019 (02:44:52 CET)
In order to harness the potential of mobile technologies to enhance the quality of clinical research, it is critical to first understand how to engage patients and research sites when planning and conducting mobile clinical trials. The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative has developed the first comprehensive, evidence-based set of recommendations for incorporating patient and site perspectives in mobile clinical trials, which can aid in engaging stakeholders, addressing site challenges, and maximizing value for participants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: lung transplantation; body mass index; nutrition; body composition; lean body mass; muscle mass; leptin; sarcopenia; creatinine-height index
Online: 1 November 2019 (13:02:51 CET)
Lung transplantation offers patients with end stage lung disease an opportunity for a better quality of life, but with limited organ availability it is paramount that selected patients have the best opportunity for successful outcomes. Nutrition plays a central role in post-surgical outcomes and historically, body mass index (BMI) has been used as the de facto method of assessing a lung transplant candidate’s nutritional status. Here we review the historical origins of BMI in lung transplantation, summarize the current BMI literature, and review studies of alternative/complementary body composition assessment tools, including lean psoas area, creatinine-height index, leptin, and dual x-ray absorptometry. These body composition measures quantify lean body mass versus fat mass and may provide a more comprehensive analysis of a patient’s nutritional state than BMI alone.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: acupuncture; dysphagia; post-acute stroke; overview; systematic reviews; meta-analyses; rehabilitation
Online: 12 October 2019 (03:31:46 CEST)
Background: Many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews (SRs) on acupuncture treatment for post-acute stroke dysphagia have been published. Due to conflicting results an overview of SRs to summarize and assess the quality of this evidence to determine whether acupuncture is effective for this disease was conducted. Methods: Seven databases were searched for SRs and/or Meta-analysis of RCTs and quasi-RCTs on acupuncture for post-acute stroke dysphagia. Two authors independently identified SRs and meta-analyses, collected data to assess the quality of included SRs and meta analyses according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and the revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR 2). Results: 31 SRs were identified. Quality of 22 SRs was critically low, 5 SRs were low, and 4 Cochrane SRs were moderate when evaluated by AMSTAR2. 17 SRs reported 85.2-96.3% items of PRISMA. Five SRs included explanatory RCTs, 16 SRs included pragmatic RCTs, and 10 SRs included both. Conclusion: Currently evidence on the effectiveness of acupuncture on post-acute stroke dysphagia is low quality. Type of study appeared to have no direct influence on the result, but the primary outcome measures showed a relationship with the quality of SRs. High quality trials with large sample sizes should be the focus of future research. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019134163
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: clinical trials; investigator qualification; good clinical practice; investigator training
Online: 8 October 2019 (05:18:34 CEST)
The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (CTTI) Investigator Qualification Project addresses the need for a more efficient and effective means of identifying qualified clinical investigators and delegates. Selection of investigators and delegates who are qualified by training and experience to conduct clinical trials is essential to safeguarding protections for study participants and ensuring data quality and integrity. Sponsors generally document investigator qualification through training on the principles of good clinical practice (GCP), as defined by the International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH), adopted by regulatory authorities in the US, Japan and the European Union. Although these GCP principles provide an important foundation for promoting the conduct of quality clinical trials, the industry standard “one-size-fits-all” GCP training may not fully prepare investigators and delegates for conducting quality clinical trials. Routine GCP training alone may not be sufficient to prepare an inexperienced member of a site team, while repeating such training is unlikely to enhance the qualifications of an experienced researcher. The CTTI project team used findings from qualitative research activities, as well as input from an expert meeting with multiple stakeholders, to identify gaps and redundancies in the current training of investigators and their delegates and recommend practical, action-based solutions. CTTI provides recommendations on how to implement a more efficient and effective means of qualification for investigators and delegates, determine whether a site team is a good fit for a particular protocol, and improve the quality of clinical trial conduct.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: creatine; statin; myopathy; muscle; myalgia; prevention; treatment; pathogenesis; pathophysiology; mitochondria
Online: 11 September 2019 (04:43:37 CEST)
Statins prevent cardiovascular diseases, yet their use is limited by the muscle disturbances they cause. Rarely, statin-induced myopathy is autoimmune, but more commonly it is due to direct muscle toxicity. Available evidence suggests that statin-induced creatine deficiency may be a major cause of this toxicity, and that creatine supplementation prevents it. Statins inhibit guanidinoacetate methyl transferase (GAMT), the last enzyme in the synthesis of creatine, thus they decrease its intracellular content. Such decreased content could cause mitochondrial impairment, since creatine is the final acceptor of the phosphate group of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) at the end of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Decreased cellular synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) would follow. Accordingly, ATP synthesis is decreased in statin-treated cells. In vitro, creatine supplementation prevents the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore caused by statins. Clinically, creatine administration prevents statin myopathy in statin-intolerant patients. Additional research is warranted to hopefully confirm these findings. However, creatine is widely used by athletes with no adverse events, and has demonstrated to be safe even in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of elder individuals. Thus, it should be trialed, under medical supervision, in patients who cannot assume statin due to the occurrence of muscular symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0303.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: ventilatory assessment; physiotherapy; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Online: 29 August 2019 (04:52:15 CEST)
Background and objective: Addressing the global morbidity associated with pulmonary disease is an important need for the respiratory community. However, there is also a growing momentum to show the efficacy of new tools of diagnosis. Despite this, there are few physiotherapeutic tools that help identify and categorize these conditions. The aim was to analyze the variables of physiotherapy index of the ventilatory workload (PIVW) in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) during stability and exacerbation in an outpatient setting. Material and Methods: Analyzed retrospectively of 198 clinical records were reviewed. The PIVW was extracted in stability and exacerbation of these patients with COPD. After applying the exclusion and inclusion criteria; 54 patients were classified. Through the statistical analysis of chi-square, a significant association was reported for each of the variables and the total PIVW score. Results: when analyzing the baseline with the peak of PIVW, there was a significant increase in patients COPD exacerbation. Similarly, the variables that constitute the loads, translations and supports underwent a significant increase from baseline to exacerbation (p<0.0001), except for the additional oxygen contribution, where the frequency of patients was the same in basal and exacerbation as well. Conclusions: the PIVW, serves to determine ventilatory problemas in outpatients, characterizing the specific changes of loads, translators or assistance.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: constipation; obstructed defecation syndrome; rectocele; defecography; rectal mucosal prolapse; transanal repair; TRREMS
Online: 10 July 2019 (08:12:26 CEST)
Background The aim of this literature review was to make future guidelines for clinical tretment and next study about preoperative and postoperative clinical and functional evaluation of symptoms after transanal repair of rectocele and rectal mucosectomy with a single circular stapler(TRREMS procedure),used for treatment of obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS) caused by rectocele and rectal mucosal prolpase (RMP). Since anorectocele is usually associated with mucosa prolapse and/or rectal intussusceptions, it was developed a stapled surgical technique using one circular stapler. Methods An organized search of Medline/PubMed and medical Database of Clinical Trials was performed, from 1996 to 2016 using the key words „rectal prolapse”,”rectocele”, „ODS”,”Defecography”,”STARR”, „TRREMS”.Results The results of clinical studies are good for improving the quality of life of patients who underwent transanal repair of rectocele and rectal mucosectomy with a single circular stapler(TRREMS). The method can be considered as safe. Clearly to be implemented in our practice, for specific indications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0183.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: sepsis; community-acquired pneumonia; very old, pneumonia
Online: 19 June 2019 (10:00:15 CEST)
Background: Little is known about risk and prognostic factors in very old patients developing sepsis secondary to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study of data prospectively collected at the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona over a 13-year period. Consecutive patients hospitalized with CAP were included if they were very old (≥80 years) and divided into those with and without sepsis for comparison. Sepsis was diagnosed based on the Sepsis-3 criteria. The main clinical outcome was 30-day mortality. Results: Among the 4,219 patients hospitalized with CAP during the study period, 1,238 (29%) were very old. The prevalence of sepsis in this aged group was 71%. Male sex, chronic renal disease, and diabetes mellitus were independent risk factors for sepsis, while antibiotic therapy before admission was independently associated with a lower risk of sepsis. Thirty-day and intensive care unit (ICU) mortality did not differ between patients with and without sepsis. In CAP-sepsis group, chronic renal disease and neurological disease were independent risk factors for 30-day mortality. Conclusion: In very old patients hospitalized with CAP, in-hospital and 1-year mortality rates were increased if they developed sepsis. Antibiotic therapy before hospital admission was associated with a lower risk of sepsis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0048.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Ambulation, Ischemic stroke, pre-stroke depression, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA)
Online: 6 June 2019 (10:37:13 CEST)
Background. Specific clinical risk factors that may be associated with ambulatory outcome following thrombolysis therapy in ischemic stroke patients with pre-stroke depression is not fully understood. This was investigated. Methods. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of functional ambulatory outcomes. Patient demographics and clinical risk factors served as predictive variables, while improvement or no improvement in ambulatory outcome was considered as the primary outcome. Results. A total of 595 of these patients received rtPA of which 310 patients presented with pre-stroke depression, 217 had no improvement in functional outcome, while 93 patients presented with an improvement in functional outcome. Carotid artery stenosis (OR= 11.577, 95% CI, 1.281 – 104.636, P=0.029) and peripheral vascular disease (OR= 18.040, 95% CI, 2.956-110.086, P=0.002) were more likely to be associated with an improvement in ambulation. Antihypertensive medications (OR= 7.810, 95% CI, 1.401 –43.529, P=0.019),previous TIA (OR= 0.444, 95% CI, 0.517 –0.971, P=0.012), and congestive heart failure (OR= 0.217, 95% CI, 0.318 –0.402, P=0.030) were associated with a no improvement in ambulation. Conclusion. After adjustment for covariates, more clinical risk factors were associated with no improvement when compared with improvement in functional outcome following thrombolysis therapy in an acute ischemic stroke population with pre-stroke depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: adipose-derived; bone regeneration; cartilage regeneration; clinical application; clinical studies; differentiation; hair loss; induced pluripotent stem cells; maxillary sinus augmentation; osteoarthritis; pluripotency; regenerative
Online: 17 April 2019 (11:25:14 CEST)
Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving attention from basic scientists and clinicians as they hold certain promise for regenerative medicine. This paper is intended to clarify and facilitate the understanding, development and adoption of regenerative medicine in general and specifically of therapies based on unmodified, autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells (UA-ADRCs). To this end, results of landmark experiments on stem cells and stem cell therapy performed in the labs of the authors are summarized, the most intriguing of which are the following: (i) vascular associated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from different organs (adipose tissue, heart, skin, bone marrow and skeletal muscle) and differentiated into ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm, providing significant support for the hypothesis of the existence of a small, ubiquitously distributed, universal vascular associated stem cell with full pluripotency; (ii) the orientation and differentiation of MSCs are driven by signals of the respective microenvironment; and (iii) these stem cells irrespective of the tissue origin exhibit full pluripotent differentiation potential without any prior genetic modification or the need for culturing. They can be obtained from a small amount of adipose tissue when using the appropriate technology for isolating the cells, and can be harvested from and re-applied to the same patient at the point of care without the need for complicated processing, manipulation, culturing, expensive equipment, or repeat interventions. These findings demonstrate the potential of UA-ADRCs for triggering the development of an entire new generation of medicine for the benefit of patients and of healthcare systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0162.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: ankylosing spondylitis; obstructive sleep apnea; population-based cohort study
Online: 17 January 2019 (04:52:29 CET)
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients in a nationwide population. Methods: We conducted a nationwide cohort study between 2003 and 2013 using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The AS cohort included 2210 patients who were newly diagnosed between 2003 and 2013. Randomly selected non-AS controls were matched at a 1:4 ratio based on age, sex and index date. The endpoint of OSA was occurrence or the end of 2013. Cumulative incidences, hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated after adjusting for age, gender, comorbidities and co-medications. Multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards model. Due to violation of the proportionality assumption, landmark analysis was conducted to explore the risk of OSA during specific follow-up periods. Results: The adjusted HR (aHR) of OSA for the AS group was 2.826 (95% C.I. = 1.727–4.625) compared to the control group. On landmark analysis, aHR was 7.919 (95% C.I. = 3.169–19.792) for AS group 0–24 months from index date, and decreased to 1.816 (95% C.I. = 0.944–3.494) at ≥ 24 months from index date. On subgroup analyses increased risks of OSA in AS group compared to the control group were found for both males and females (aHRs were 4.533 (95% C.I. = 1.441–14.262) and 2.672 (95% C.I. = 1.522–4.692) for females and males, respectively). On age stratified analysis, there was significant risk only for the 40–59 age group with aHR of 3.913 (95% C.I. = 1.890–8.102). Conclusions: A higher risk of developing OSA was found among newly diagnosed AS cohort during the 12-year follow-up period, especially within 2 years after AS index date and in the 40–59 age group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0170.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: CKD, ESKD, Death, anti-RAS, hyperkalemia, competing risk
Online: 7 November 2018 (14:48:30 CET)
Hyperkalemia burden in non-dialysis CKD under nephrology care is undefined. We prospectively followed 2443 patients with two visits (referral and control with 12-month interval) in 46 nephrology clinics. Patients were stratified in four categories of hyperkalemia (sK≥5.0 mEq/L) by sK at visit 1 and 2: Absent (no-no), Resolving (yes-no), New Onset (no-yes), Persistent (yes-yes). We assessed competing risks of ESKD and death after visit 2. Age was 65±15 y, eGFR 35±17 mL/min/1.73 m2, proteinuria 0.40 (0.14-1.21) g/24h. In the two visits sK was 4.8±0.6 and levels ≥6 mEq/L were observed in 4%. Hyperkalemia was absent in 46%, resolving 17%, new onset 15% and persistent 22%. Renin-angiotensin-system inhibitors (RASI) were prescribed in 79% patients. During 3.6-year follow-up, 567 patients reached ESKD and 349 died. Multivariable competing risk analysis [sub-hazard ratio-sHR, 95%Confidence Interval-CI] evidenced that new onset [sHR 1.34, 95%CI 1.05-1.72] and persistent [sHR 1.27, 95%CI 1.02-1.58] hyperkalemia predicted higher ESKD risk versus absent, independently from main determinants of outcome including eGFR change. Conversely, no effect on mortality was observed. Results were confirmed by testing sK as continuous variable. Therefore, in CKD under nephrology care, mild-to-moderate hyperkalemia status is common (37%) and predicts per se higher ESKD risk but not mortality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0392.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: albumin; mortality; necrotizing fasciitis
Online: 17 October 2018 (17:18:59 CEST)
Background: Hypoalbuminemia is known to be associated with adverse outcome in critical illness. In this study, we attempted to identify if hypoalbuminemia on emergency department (ED) arrival a reliable predictor for in-hospital mortality in necrotizing fasciitis (NF). patients. Method: A retrospective cohort study of hospitalized patients with NF was conducted in a tertiary teaching hospital in Taiwan between March 2010 and March 2018. Blood samples were collected in the ED upon arrival, and serum albumin levels were determined. we evaluated the predictive value of serum albumin level at ED presentation for in-hospital mortality. All collected data were statistically analyzed. Result: Of the 707 NF patients, 40 (5.66%) died in the hospital. The mean serum albumin level was 3.1 ± 0.9 g/dL and serum albumin levels were significantly lower in the non-survivor group than in the survivor group (2.8± 0.7 g/dL vs. 3.5 ± 0.8 g/dL). In the multivariable logistic regression model, albumin was associated with in-hospital mortality significantly (odds ratio[OR] 0.92, 95% confidential interval (CI) 0.88–0.96, P <0.001). The area under-the-receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC) for in-hospital survival was 0.77 (95% CI 0.72–0.82) and corresponding sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive and negative likelihood ratio were 66%, 74%, 33%, 88%, 2.25 and 0.48, respectively. High sensitivity (96%) was shown at albumin level of 4.0 g/dL and high specificity (91%) was shown at level of 2.5 g/dL. Conclusion: Initial serum albumin levels were independently associated with in-hospital mortality among adult patients with necrotizing fasciitis and demonstrated fair discriminative performance in the prediction of in-hospital mortality. NF patients with hypoalbuminemia on ED arrival should be closely monitored for signs of deterioration and consider early and aggressive intervention to prevent mortality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0220.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: RASA1; CM-AVM; capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation; constitutional mosaicism
Online: 10 October 2018 (12:31:54 CEST)
Introduction: Capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM; MIM#608354) is caused by germline RASA1 and EPHB4 alterations. RASA1 intralesional second hits have also been reported. Constitutional mosaicism, defined as the presence of a mosaic variant in all cell types of an individual, is detected in clinical practice as mosaic variants in multiple tested samples from one individual or as mosaic variants in blood samples in a disorder affecting another cell/tissue types. Here we report RASA1 constitutional mosaicism in CM-AVM. Subjects and methods: A custom high-throughput sequencing panel was used to search for RASA1 pathogenic variants in blood samples from two unrelated patients with a clinical diagnosis of CM-AVM. An affected tissue sample from one of the patients was also analyzed. Results: Both patients showed different nonsense RASA1 variants in mosaic in blood samples and in the corresponding affected tissue sample from one of the patients. The mosaicism ranged between 7% and 21,5%. Conclusions: We report for the first time the presence of RASA1 constitutional mosaicism in CM-AVM. Constitutional mosaicism has implications for accurate molecular diagnosis and recurrence risk, and helps to explain the great phenotypic variability in CM-AVM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0357.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Performance, Sports, Aortic Valve, Sinus of Valsalva, Echocardiography, Sudden cardiac death
Online: 18 September 2018 (14:40:43 CEST)
Aortic rupture is known as one of the potential causes of sudden cardiac death in athletes. Nevertheless, adaptation strategies for aortic root dilation in athletes vary. The purpose of this study was to investigate aortic root adaptation to physical workload and to determine if aortic root’s and left ventricle sizes are contingent upon the physical workload. Echocardiography was applied to 151 subjects to measure the aortic root at aortic valve annulus (AA) and at sinus of Valsalva (VS). 122 were athletes (41 females and 81 males) and 29 were non-athletes (14 females and 15 males). Of the 41 female athletes, 32 were endurance athletes, and 9 strength athletes. From 81 male athletes, 56 were endurance athletes, and 25 were strength athletes. AA and VS mean values for the body surface area were presented as rAA and rVS. Left ventricle (LV) meaures incuded LV end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD), interventricular septum thickness in diastole (IVSTd), LV posterior wall thickness in diastole (LVPWTd), LV mass (LVM), LV mass index, LV end-diastolic diameter index (LVEDDI). Results indicated that VS was higher in female athletes (28.9±2.36mm) than in non-athletes (27.19±2.87mm, p=0.03). On the other hand, rAA was higher in strength athletes (12.19±1.48mm/m2) than in endurance athletes (11.12±0.99mm/m2, p=0.04). Additionally, rVS and rAA were higher in female strength athletes (17.19±1.78mm/m2, 12.19±1.48mm/m2) than female basketball players (15.49±1.08mm/m2, p=0.03, 10.75±1.06 mm/m2, p=0.02). Statistically significant positive moderate correlations were found between VS and LVEDD, LVM, IVSTd, LVPWTd, rVS and LVEDDI parameters in all athletes. The diameter of Valsalva sinus was greater in female athletes compared to non-athletes. The rAA mean value for body surface area was greater in female athletes practising strength sports as compared to their counterparts who were practising endurance sports. The diameter of the aortic root at sinuses positively correlated with the LV size in all athletes. Trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03656861, September 3, 2018 (retrospectively registered).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0056.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: heat-related illness; international classification; heat cramp; syncope; heat exhaustion; heat stroke; novel classification
Online: 3 August 2018 (03:51:27 CEST)
The Japanese Association for Acute Medicine Committee recently proposed a novel classification system for the severity of heat-related illnesses. The illnesses are simply classified into three stages based on symptoms and management or treatment. Stages I, II, and III broadly correspond to heat cramp and syncope, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke, respectively. Our objective was to examine whether this novel severity classification is useful in the diagnosis by healthcare professionals of patients with severe heat-related illness and organ failure. A nationwide surveillance study of heat-related illnesses was conducted between June 1 and September 30, 2012, at emergency departments in Japan. Among the 2130 patients who attended 102 emergency departments, the severity of their heat-related illness was recorded for 1799 patients, who were included in this study. In the patients with heat cramp and syncope or heat exhaustion (but not heat stroke), the blood test data (alanine aminotransferase, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and platelet counts) for those classified as stage III were significantly higher than those of patients classified as stage I or II. There were no deaths among the patients classified as stage I. This novel classification may avoid underestimating the severity of heat-related illness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0540.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A inhibitors; Sepsis
Online: 27 July 2018 (13:07:17 CEST)
Background: Most sepsis patients died during their first episode and the long-term survival post discharge was low. Major adverse cardiovascular events and repeated infections were regarded as the major causes in such conditions. No definite medications were proven to effectively improve the long-term outcome. We aimed to examine the benefit of statins on the long-term outcome of survived sepsis patients. Methods: Between 1999 and 2013, a total of 220,082 patients with the first episode of sepsis hospitalization were included and 134,448 ones (61.09%) survived to discharge. The survived patients who subsequently had statins use of >30 cumulative defined daily doses (cDDDs) post discharge were defined as the statin users. After propensity score matching of 1:5, a total of 7,356 and 36,780 survived patients were retrieved as the study (statin-users) and comparison cohort (non-statin users), respectively. The main outcome was the long term survival post discharge. HR with 95% CI was calculated using the Cox regression model to evaluate the effectiveness of statins with further stratification analyses according to cDDDs. Results: The study cohort, that is, the statin users had an adjusted HR of 0.29 (95% CI, 0.27-0.31) in long term mortality rate compared with the comparison cohort. For statin users with the cDDDs of 30–180, 180–365, and >365, the adjusted HRs were 0.32, 0.22, and 0.16, respectively, (95% CI, 0.30-0.34, 0.19-0.26, and 0.12-0.23, respectively) compared with the non-statin users (defined as statins use <30 cDDDs post discharge), and the P for trend <.0001. In the sensitivity analysis, after excluding the survived patients who died within three and six months post discharge, the adjusted HR of statins use remained significant (0.35, 95% CI 0.32-0.37 and 0.42, 95% CI 0.39-0.45, respectively). Conclusions: Statins decreased the long-term mortality post sepsis. Further randomized control trial deserved to be conducted to confirm this observation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0216.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Diagnosis delay; rare diseases; undiagnosed programs; standardized phenotype; phenotype ontologies; whole exome analysis; international data sharing
Online: 13 June 2018 (15:41:21 CEST)
One of the IRDiRC goals for 2017-2027 is to achieve definitive diagnosis for rare undiagnosed diseases within one year, as diagnosis delay remains one of the pending issues in the rare diseases field. The Spanish Undiagnosed Rare Diseases Program (SpainUDP) was created in response to this challenging scenario to cover patients’ needs and after seeing the success of the UDP in USA. SpainUDP offers a multidisciplinary approach to those patients who have long sought a diagnosis without any success. During a first phase of the protocol, undiagnosed cases are sent to SpainUDP by individual patients, patient organizations or hospitals. After a carefully analysis of phenotype, data from sequencing experiments (WES) is processed with a standard pipeline and a detailed standardized phenotypic information (mapped to HPO) is connected to genetic data. In addition, the participation of SpainUDP in international initiatives such as the European projects RD-Connect and Solve RD, the Undiagnosed Diseases Network International (UDNI), and the MatchMaker Exchange platform, allows the establishment of a global data sharing strategy across multiple projects submitting data to these international initiatives. From the official beginning of the program (at the end of 2015) until early 2018, 147 cases were accepted in SpainUDP. During this time, 37 cases (25 %) dropped out the program due to several reasons. The remaining 110 cases are distributed as follows: phenotypic and genotypic (WES) characterization was finished in 30 cases, of which 20 (67 %) were diagnosed; 21 cases are pending on variants validation by Sanger; in 25 cases, WES is ongoing and 34 cases are in a deep phenotypic characterization. As a conclusion, SpainUDP aims to achieve a diagnosis following two recommendations of the IRDiRC: the patients’ diagnosis in a period of time as short as possible and the promotion of data sharing (especially genomic) at the international level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0471.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: genomics; genomic medicine; health outcomes; evidence; standards; eMERGE; ClinGen; precision public health
Online: 31 May 2018 (11:27:23 CEST)
Genomic medicine is moving from research to the clinic. There is a lack of evidence about the impact of genomic medicine interventions on health outcomes. This is due in part to a lack of standardized outcome measures that can be used across different programs to evaluate the impact of interventions targeted to specific genetic conditions. The eMERGE Outcomes working group (OWG) developed measures to collect information on outcomes following the return of genomic results to participants for several genetic disorders. These outcomes were compared to outcome intervention pairs for genetic disorders developed independently by the ClinGen Actionability working group (AWG). In general, there was concordance between the defined outcomes between the two groups. The ClinGen outcomes tended to be higher level and the AWG scored outcomes represented a subset of outcomes referenced in the accompanying AWG evidence review. eMERGE OWG outcomes were more detailed and discrete, facilitating collection of relevant information from health records. This paper demonstrates that common outcomes for genomic medicine interventions can be identified. Further work is needed to standardize outcomes across genomic medicine implementation projects and make these publicly available to enhance dissemination and assist in making precision public health a reality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0174.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: e-portfolio; clinical skills; competences; medicine
Online: 11 May 2018 (04:45:11 CEST)
Clinical training in medical schools in Spain is performed by rotations in university hospitals. During these internships, students are expected to acquire and master basic procedural skills. However, the assessment tools available rarely check whether these skills are completely acquired by the students. We have used an e-portfolio to determine the optimal number of times the students need to repeat a procedure to be able to perform it independently. The results were compared with the actual performance during the internships. An e-portfolio collected qualitative information about the internships. Quantitative information was also requested about the number of times each clinical skill was performed. Later, a survey asked these students and their teachers the optimal number of times each skill should be repeated before it could be considered fully acquired. The questionnaire was answered by 98.6% of the students and 70.3% of their teachers. Out of the 21 clinical skills and procedures selected, both students and their tutors agreed in a similar optimal value in 16 of them; only in five of them, teachers thought that students needed a greater number of times than that selected by the students. When these optimal values were compared with the actual values recorded in the portfolio during the internships, it was found that about half of the clinical skills were carried out less frequently than expected, thus providing an important feedback about the internships. Quantitative information collected in portfolios reveals a moderate mismatch between students and tutors perceptions of their training needs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0086.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: low-level laser therapy (LLLT); photobiomodulation; male infertility; sperm motility; assisted reproductive technology (ART)
Online: 8 April 2018 (08:35:22 CEST)
Infertility affects approximately 15% of couples worldwide, an estimated 30% of which is related to male factor infertility. Application of low level laser therapy (LLLT) to improve fertility status is a rapidly growing discipline in medicine. Laser therapy triggers a variety of biological processes through interaction with primary cellular photoacceptors. The present review aims at evaluating the literature available in the MEDLINE/ PubMed on cellular and molecular mechanisms of photobiomodulation in the domains of reproductive and veterinary medicine. We primarily focused on the clinical application of laser treatment on seminal quality, in particular its role in promoting spermatozoa motility, as well as the role of phototherapy in modulating assisted reproduction (ART). Additionally, we investigated the strength of evidence in support of the positive impact of photobiomodulation on facilitating ART.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: intra-abdominal pressure; abdominal compartment syndrome; pressure sensor; negative pressure wound therapy; open abdomen;
Online: 11 January 2018 (09:17:10 CET)
1) Introduction: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a frequently applied open abdomen (OA) treatment. There are only a few experimental data supporting this method and describing the optimal settings and pressure distribution in the abdominal cavity during this procedure. The aim of our study was to evaluate pressure values at different points of the abdominal cavity during NPWT in experimental abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) animal model. 2) Methods: In this study (permission Nr. 13/2014/UDCAR) 27 Hungahib pigs (15.4- 20.2 kg) were operated. ACS was generated by implanting a plastic bag in the abdomen through mini-laparotomy and filled with 2100- 3300 ml saline solution (37 C°) to an intraabdominal pressure (IAP) of 30 mmHg. After 3 hours, NPWT (Vivano Med ® Abdominal Kit, Paul Hartmann AG, Germany) or Bogota bag was applied. NPWT group was divided into -50, -100 and 150 mmHg suction group. Pressure distribution to the abdominal cavity was monitored at 6 different points of the abdomen via a multichannel pressure monitoring system. 3) Results: The absolute pressure levels were significantly higher above than below the layer. The values of the pressure were similar in the midline than laterally. Amongst the bowels, the pressure values changed periodically between 0 and -12 mmHg which might be caused by the peristaltic movements. 4) Conclusions: The porcine model of the present study seems to be well applicable for investigating ACS and NPWT. It was possible to provide valuable for clinicians. The pressure was well distributed by the protective layer to the lateral parts of the abdomen and this phenomenon did not change considerably during the therapy.