ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0269.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: wind energy; wind turbines; SCADA; retrofitting; performance evaluation
Online: 20 April 2018 (14:11:15 CEST)
Full-scale wind turbine technology has been widely developing in the recent years and condition monitoring techniques assist at the scope of making 100\% technical availability a realistic perspective. In this context, several retrofitting techniques are being used for further improving the efficiency of wind kinetic energy conversion. This kind of interventions is costly and, furthermore, the estimation of the energy enhancement is commonly provided under the hypothesis of ideal conditions, as for example absence of wakes between nearby turbines. A precise quantification of the energy gained by retrofitting is therefore precious in real conditions, that can be very different from ideal ones. In this work, three kinds of retrofitting are studied through the operational data of test case wind farms: improved start-up through pitch angle adjustment near the cut-in, aerodynamic blade retrofitting by means of vortex generators and passive flow control devices, extension of the power curve by raising cut-out and high wind speed cut-in. SCADA data are employed and reliable methods are formulated for estimating the energy improvement from each of the above retrofitting. Further, an insight is provided about wind turbine functioning under very stressing regimes, as for example high wind speeds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0140.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Vertical Axis Wind Turbine; Wind Energy; Helical Blade; CFD
Online: 7 December 2020 (12:00:17 CET)
The global energy crisis has lead researchers explore other sources of energy like wind, resulting in a wide acceptance of wind turbines. Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) more suitable for small scale application in urban conditions than their horizontal-axis counterparts. A Helical bladed VAWT would reduce the ripple effect when compared to Straight bladed VAWT. The effect of the blade helix angle on the aerodynamic performance of VAWT using 3D numerical simulations is studied. Turbulence modelled using 4-Equation transition SST k-w model. Three different helix angles of 60, 90 and 120 of a 3 bladed VAWT operating across different tip speed ratios were studied. The 60 helical bladed VAWT was found to perform better than all other helical bladed and straight bladed VAWT. Standard deviation of the moment coefficient generated by a blade plotted against 360 of azimuth rotation revealed that the ripple effect on the shaft produced by cyclic loading of the straight blade is considerably reduced upon introduction of helix angle, with 120 helical blade giving lowest standard deviation. The analysis has been done for the percentage of power generated by each quartile of flow and the contribution of each section of the blade. A comparative study was also conducted between different helical bladed VAWT and straight bladed VAWT. Flow feature analysis also revealed the reasons behind secondary peaks and the performance improvement when tip speed ratio increases. Wake structure analysis and flow contours were also studied for a better understanding of the flow field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0058.v1
Online: 6 January 2022 (10:01:16 CET)
The growing need to use renewable sources and the current difficulty in spreading the electricity grid in a widespread manner raise the question of how to respond to the need for more electricity immediately. The idea behind this study is to power a horizontal axis wind turbine with the air flow generated for cooling a stationary internal combustion engine. The power extracted from this solution is significantly lower than that of the internal combustion engine (about 0.3%) and could be advantageous only in limited contexts. Installation costs are limited because many elements deriving from wind variability can be removed or simplified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0417.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: wind power; wind turbine fatigue; active yaw control
Online: 24 January 2023 (02:52:15 CET)
This study investigates the power production and blade fatigue of a three-turbine array subjected to active yaw control (AYC) in full-wake and partial-wake configurations. A framework of two-way coupled large-eddy simulation (LES) and aeroelastic blade simulation is applied to simulate the atmospheric boundary-layer (ABL) flow through the turbine array and the structural responses of the turbine blades. Mean power outputs and blade fatigue loads are extracted from the simulation results. By exploring the feasible AYC decision space, we find that (a) in the full-wake configuration, the local power-optimal AYC strategy with positive yaw angles endures less flapwise blade fatigue and more edgewise blade fatigue than the global power-optimal strategy; (b) in the partial-wake configuration, applying positive AYC in certain inflow wind directions achieves higher optimal power gains than that in the full-wake scenario and reduces the blade fatigue from the non-yawed benchmark. Through a theoretical analysis based on the blade element momentum theory, we reveal that the aforementioned differences in flapwise blade fatigue between the positively and negatively yawed turbine are due to the differences in the azimuthal distributions of the local relative velocity on blade sections, resulting from the combined effects of vertical wind shear and blade rotation. Furthermore, the difference in the blade force between the positively and negatively yawed front-row turbine induces different wake velocity and turbulence distributions, causing different fatigue loads on the downwind turbine exposed to the wake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0356.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Wind turbine; Renewable energy; Wind energy; Machine learning; Gearbox
Online: 18 January 2021 (15:12:17 CET)
Wind energy is becoming an essential source of power for countries which have the aim to reduce greenhouse gases emission and mitigate the effects of global warming. The Wind Turbines (WTs) installed around the globe is increasing significantly every year. The dramatic increase in wind power has encountered quite a few challenges, among which the major issues are availability and reliability. The unexpected failure in WTs Gearbox (GB) ultimately increases the Operation and Maintenance (O&M) cost. The identification of faults in the earlier stages before it turns to catastrophic damage to other components of WT is crucial. This research deals with the prediction of WT failures by using a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system. The main aim is to forecast the temperature of the WTs GB to predict the impending overheating of the GB at an early stage. The earlier prediction will help to optimize the maintenance period and to save maintenance expenses and, even more important, generate warnings in due time to avoid major damages or even technical disasters. In the proposed method we compared six different machine learning (ML) models based on error and accuracy of prediction. The bagging regressor is the best ML model, which results in the mean square error of 0.33 and R of 99.8 on training data. The bagging regressor is then used to predict the fault in the WT GB, which detected the anomalous behavior of WT GB 59 days earlier than the actual failure. This model also detects the extremely unusual behavior of the GB 9 days earlier than a complete failure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0484.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: CFD; unsteady BEM; floating offshore wind turbine; scaled wind turbine rotor
Online: 29 August 2018 (06:43:56 CEST)
Aerodynamic performance of a floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT) is significantly influenced by platform surging motions. Accurate prediction of the unsteady aerodynamic loads is imperative for determining the fatigue life, ultimate loads on key components such as FOWT rotor blades, gearbox and power converter. The current study examines the predictions of numerical codes by comparing with unsteady experimental results of a scaled floating wind turbine rotor. The influence of platform surge amplitude together with the tip speed ratio on the unsteady aerodynamic loading has been simulated through unsteady CFD. It is shown that the unsteady aerodynamic loads of FOWT are highly sensitive to the changes in frequency and amplitude of the platform motion. Also, the surging motion significantly influences the windmill operating state due to strong flow interaction between the rotating blades and generated blade-tip vortices. Almost in all frequencies and amplitudes, CFD, LR-BEM and LR-uBEM predictions of mean thrust shows a good correlation with experimental results.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0037.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: marine hydrokinetic turbine; wind energy; floating offshore wind turbine; mooring lines; floating platform; vertical axis turbine
Online: 4 November 2019 (05:13:32 CET)
In April 2019, a team of Keio University and Bucknell University students was assembled to participate in Ericsson Innovation Awards with a novel concept for generating renewable energy. This conceptual system consists of a vertical axis wind turbine, a crossflow marine hydrokinetic turbine, a floating platform integrated with a quadcopter system, and three to four temporary mooring lines with ship-type anchors. The proposed designed aims to offer solutions to two current problems of floating offshore wind energy: high construction cost of floating platforms and difficulties in maintenance of mooring lines. The combination of two vertical-axis turbines into a single floating platform would enable the system, namely ESwift, to extract energy from both wind and current resources. Additionally, due to the utilization of vertical axis turbines, the center of gravity of the proposed concept is significantly lower with respect to water level, compared to that of existing floating horizontal axis wind turbines, which would potentially reduce the floater's size and construction cost. Lastly, the integrated quadcopter mechanism would assist the floater in terms of stability and mobility, and enables an array of ESwifts to automatically rearrange for maximal energy generation. The authors hope that readers would find the idea described in this open access letter worth pursuing and would further develop and commercialize the ESwift concept.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0281.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Wind Energy; Wind Turbine; Drone Inspection; Damage Detection; Deep Learning; Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)
Online: 28 January 2019 (15:50:04 CET)
Timely detection of surface damages on wind turbine blades is imperative for minimising downtime and avoiding possible catastrophic structural failures. With recent advances in drone technology, a large number of high-resolution images of wind turbines are routinely acquired and subsequently analysed by experts to identify imminent damages. Automated analysis of these inspection images with the help of machine learning algorithms can reduce the inspection cost, thereby reducing the overall maintenance cost arising from the manual labour involved. In this work, we develop a deep learning based automated damage suggestion system for subsequent analysis of drone inspection images. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach could achieve almost human level precision in terms of suggested damage location and types on wind turbine blades. We further demonstrate that for relatively small training sets advanced data augmentation during deep learning training can better generalise the trained model providing a significant gain in precision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0262.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: aerodynamics; BEM; CFD; simulation; wind turbine
Online: 12 October 2018 (08:05:56 CEST)
The present studies deliver the computational investigations of a 10 MW turbine with a diameter of 205.8 m developed within the framework of the AVATAR (Advanced Aerodynamic Tools for Large Rotors) project. The simulations were carried out using two methods with different fidelity levels, namely the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and blade element and momentum (BEM) approaches. For this purpose, a new BEM code namely B-GO was developed employing several correction terms and three different polar and spatial interpolation options. Several flow conditions were considered in the simulations, ranging from the design condition to the off-design condition where massive flow separation takes place, challenging the validity of the BEM approach. An excellent agreement is obtained between the BEM computations and the 3D CFD results for all blade regions, even when massive flow separation occurs on the blade inboard area. The results demonstrate that the selection of the polar data can influence the accuracy of the BEM results significantly, where the 3D polar datasets extracted from the CFD simulations are considered the best. The BEM prediction depends on the interpolation order and the blade segment discretization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0222.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: wind turbine; LPV; DOBC; multivariable
Online: 24 January 2018 (07:03:52 CET)
This paper is concerned with bump-less transfer of parametrized disturbance observer based controller (DOBC) with Individual Pitch Control (IPC) strategy for full load operation of wind turbine. Aerodynamic cyclic loads are reduced by tuning multivariable DOBC with the objective to reduce output power fluctuation, tower oscillation and drive-train torsion. Furthermore tower shadow and wind shear effect are also mitigated using parametrized controller. A scheduling mechanism between two DOBC is developed and tested on Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence ( FAST) code model of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)’s 5 MW wind turbine. The closed-loop system performance is assessed by comparing the simulation results of proposed controller with a fixed gain and Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) DOBC with Collective Pitch Control (CPC) for full load operation. It is tested with step changing wind to see the behavior of the system under step change with wind shear and tower shadow (cyclic load) effects. Also turbulent wind is applied to see the smooth transition of the controllers. It can be concluded from the results that the proposed parametrized control DOBC with IPC shows smooth transition from one controller to another by interpolation. Moreover fatigue of the gear and tower due to wind shear and tower shadow effects are reduced considerably by the proposed controller as compared to collective pitch control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0545.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: BEM; tidal energy; turbine array; linear methodology; wind energy
Online: 30 April 2020 (17:27:21 CEST)
Tidal stream energy, due to its high level of consistency and predictability, is one of the feasible and promising type of renewable energy for future development and investment. Applicability of Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method for modeling the interaction of turbines in tidal arrays has been proven in many studies. Apart from its well-known capabilities, yet there is scarcity of research using BEM for the modeling of tidal stream energy farms considering full scale rotors. In this paper, a real geographical site for developing a tidal farm in the southern coasts of Iran is selected. Then, a numerical methodology is validated and calibrated for the selected farm by analyzing array of turbines. A linear equation is proposed to calculate tidal power of marine hydrokinetic turbines. This methodology narrows down the wide range of turbine array configurations, reduces the cost of optimization and focuses on estimating best turbine arrangements in a limited number of positions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: wind turbine; wake; atmospheric stability; actuator disk; BEM
Online: 2 July 2019 (04:11:13 CEST)
Atmospheric stability affects wind turbine wakes significantly. High-fidelity approaches such as large eddy simulations (LES) with the actuator line (AL) model which predicts detailed wake structures, fail to be applied in wind farm engineering applications due to its expensive cost. In order to make wind farm simulations computationally affordable, this paper proposes a new actuator disk model (AD) based on the blade element method (BEM) and combined with Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations (RANS) to model turbine wakes under different atmospheric stability conditions. In the proposed model, the upstream reference velocity is firstly estimated from the disk averaged velocity based on the one-dimensional momentum theory, and then is used to evaluate the rotor speed to calculate blade element forces. Flow similarity functions based on field measurement are applied to limit wind shear under strongly stable conditions, and turbulence source terms are added to take the buoyant-driven effects into consideration. Results from the new AD model are compared with field measurements and results from the AD model based on the thrust coefficient, the BEM-AD model with classical similarity functions and a high-fidelity LES approach. The results show that the proposed method is better in simulating wakes under various atmospheric stability conditions than the other AD models and has a similar performance to the high-fidelity LES approach however in much lower computational cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0082.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: wind energy; wind turbines; supervisory control and data acquisition; retrofitting; performance evaluation
Online: 6 June 2018 (10:17:12 CEST)
Wind turbine upgrades have been spreading in the recent years in the wind energy industry, with the aim of optimizing the efficiency of wind kinetic energy conversion. This kind of interventions has material and labor costs and it is therefore fundamental to estimate realistically the production improvement. Further, the retrofitting of wind turbines sited in harsh environments might exacerbate the stressing conditions to which wind turbines are subjected and consequently might affect the residue lifetime. This work deals with a case of retrofitting: the testing ground is a multi-megawatt wind turbine from a wind farm sited in a very complex terrain. The blades have been optimized by installing vortex generators and passive flow control devices. The complexity of this test case, dictated by the environment and by the features of the data set at disposal, inspires the formulation of a general method for estimating production upgrades, based on multivariate linear modeling of the power output of the upgraded wind turbine. The method is a distinctive part of the outcome of this work because it is generalizable to the study of whatever wind turbine upgrade and it is adaptable to the features of the data sets at disposal. In particular, applying this model to the test case of interest, it arises that the upgrade increases the annual energy production of the wind turbine of an amount of the order of the 2%. This quantity is of the same order of magnitude, albeit non-negligibly lower, than the estimate based on the assumption of ideal wind conditions. Therefore, it arises that complex wind conditions might affect the efficiency of wind turbine upgrades and it is therefore important to estimate their impact using data from wind turbines operating in the real environment of interest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: CFD; NACA airfoil; wind turbine; attack angle; wall pressure
Online: 1 April 2018 (11:46:52 CEST)
A numerical study of the flow over a NACA aerofoil is presented in this paper. The numerical simulations are achieved with the computer code CFX and the computational domain is created by the computer tool ANSYS ICEM CFD. The CFX code is based on the finite volume method to solve the equations of mass, momentum and energy. The purpose of this paper is to determine the pressure distribution, flow patterns and the forces acting on the airfoil. Effects of the attack angle and Reynolds number on the velocity and pressure distribution, on the lift and drag coefficients are also explored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Grid-connected wind turbine; Differential speed regulation; Power control; Simulation
Online: 6 August 2018 (09:45:04 CEST)
The differential gear train and speed regulating motor constitute the variable ratio transmission for grid-connected wind turbine with differential speed regulation. The synchronous generator in the system can accessing the power grid without frequency converter. The transmission can realize the mode of variable speed constant frequency that the wind rotor speed is varying and the generator rotor speed is constant. The power control method is studied under the different wind speed which is lower or higher than rated wind speed with using the relational expression of utilization rate of wind energy Cp, pitch angle β and the tip speed ratio λ. The SIMULINK software is used to build the 1500 kW wind turbine model with differential speed regulation. Some different wind speed is made as input. The feasibility of power control method for grid-connected wind turbine with differential speed regulation is verified by the comparison between the simulation results and the theoretical value of the key parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0080.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: wind turbine; failure detection; SCADA data; feature extraction; mutual information; copula
Online: 17 January 2017 (11:21:58 CET)
More and more works are using machine learning techniques while adopting supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for wind turbine anomaly or failure detection. While parameter selection is important for modelling a wind turbine’s health condition, only a few papers have been published focusing on this issue and in those papers interconnections among sub-components in a wind turbine are used to address this problem. However, merely the interconnections for decision making sometimes is too general to provide a parameter list considering the differences of each SCADA dataset. In this paper, a method is proposed to provide more detailed suggestions on parameter selection based on mutual information. Moreover, after proving that Copula, a multivariate probability distribution for which the marginal probability distribution of each variable is uniform is capable of simplifying the estimation of mutual information, an empirical copula based mutual information estimation method (ECMI) is introduced for an application. After that, a real SCADA dataset is adopted to test the method, and the results show the effectiveness of the ECMI in providing parameter selection suggestions when physical knowledge is not accurate enough.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0315.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: fuzzy systems; neural networks; fault diagnosis; data--driven approaces; robustness and reliability; wind turbine
Online: 13 May 2021 (17:39:44 CEST)
The fault diagnosis of safety critical systems such as wind turbine installations includes extremely challenging aspects that motivate the research issues considered in this paper. In fact, the prompt detection and the reliable diagnosis of faults in their earlier occurrence represent the key point especially for offshore installations. For these plants, operation and maintenance procedures in harsh environments would inevitably increase the cost of the energy production. Therefore, this work investigates fault diagnosis solutions that are considered in a viable way and used as advanced techniques for condition monitoring of dynamic processes. To this end, the work proposes the design of fault diagnosis strategies that exploit the estimation of the fault by means of data--driven approaches. This solution leads to the development of effective methods allowing the management of partially unknown information of the system dynamics, while coping with measurement errors, the model--reality mismatch and other disturbance effects. In mode detail, the proposed data--driven methodologies exploit fuzzy systems and neural networks in order to estimate the nonlinear dynamic relations between the input and output measurements of the considered process and the faults. To this end, the fuzzy and neural network structures are integrated with auto--regressive with exogenous input descriptions, thus making them able to approximate unknown nonlinear dynamic functions with arbitrary degree of accuracy. Once these models are estimated from the input and output data measurement acquired from the considered dynamic process, the capabilities of their fault diagnosis capabilities are validated by using a high--fidelity benchmark that simulates the healthy and the faulty behaviour of a wind turbine system. Moreover, at this stage the benchmark is also useful to analyse the robustness and the reliability characteristics of the developed tools in the presence of model--reality mismatch and modelling error effects featured by the wind turbine simulator. On the other hand, a hardware--in--the--loop tool is finally implemented for testing and comparing the performance of the developed fault diagnosis strategies in a more realistic environment and with respect to different fault diagnosis approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0175.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: wind turbine; wake; atmospheric stability; MOST; turbulence models
Online: 16 August 2019 (07:52:44 CEST)
Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) overestimates wind shear in some atmospheric stable conditions, i.e. Richardson number $R_f<0.25$. The overestimated wind shear that leads to an under-predicted friction wind speed and a lower ambient turbulence intensity for a given hub-height reference wind speed and a given roughness length, could influence wake modeling of a wind turbine. This work investigates the side effects of the breakdown of MOST on wake modeling under stable conditions and makes some modifications to the flow similarity functions to eliminate these side effects. Based on a field measurement in a wind farm, we firstly show that MOST predicts a larger wind shear for the atmospheric stability parameter $\zeta>0.1$ and proposes new flow similarity functions without constraining $R_f$ to limit the overestimated wind shear by MOST. Next, different turbulence models based on MOST and a modified one based on the new similarity functions are investigated through numerical simulations. These turbulence models are combined with the actuator disk model (AD) and Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations (RANS) to model wind turbine wakes under stable conditions. As compared to measurements, numerical results show that turbulence models based on MOST result in larger wake deficits and slower wake recovery rate with a square root of the mean-squared-error (RSME) of wake deficit in the range of 0.07-0.18. This overestimated wake effect is improved by applying the new similarity functions and the RSME of wake deficit is averagely reduced by 0.05. Finally, we check the role of the under-predicted turbulence intensity playing in the larger wake deficit predicted by models based MOST. Additional numerical simulations using the modified turbulence model are carried out, in which the roughness length is reduced to impose a hub-height ambient turbulence intensity equivalent to the MOST case. Simulation results show that reducing turbulence intensity enhances wake effects, however, it cannot reproduce the large wake deficit predicted by models based on MOST, which suggests that the overestimated wake effect by MOST could be also related to the overestimated wind shear.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0357.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Wind turbine system, wind energy conversion system, dynamic modeling, control designmodel, control system, operation management, switching behavior, nonlinear dynamics, modelreduction, comparative simulation
Online: 22 June 2018 (13:45:44 CEST)
Full-order state-space models represent the starting point for the development of advanced control methods for wind turbine systems (WTSs). Regarding existing control-oriented WTS models, two research gaps must be noted: (i) There exists no full-order WTS model in form of one overall ordinary differential equation that considers all dynamical effects which significantly influence the electrical power output; (ii) all existing reduced-order WTS models are subject to rather arbitrary simplifications and are not validated against a full-order model. Therefore, in this paper, two full-order nonlinear state-space models (of 11th and 9th-order in the (a, b, c)- and (d, q)-reference frame, resp.) for variable-speed variable-pitch permanent magnet synchronous generator WTSs are derived. The full-order models cover all relevant dynamical effects with significant impact on the system’s power output, including the switching behavior of the power electronic devices. Based on the full-order models, by a step-by-step model reduction procedure, two reduced-order WTS models are deduced: A non-switching (averaging) 7th-order WTS model and a non-switching 3rd-order WTS model. Comparative simulation results reveal that all models capture the dominant system dynamics properly. The full-order models allow for a detailed analysis covering the high frequency oscillations in the instantaneous power output due to the switching in the power converters. The reduced-order models provide a time-averaged instantaneous power output (which still correctly reflects the energy produced by the WTS) and come with a drastically reduced complexity making those models appropriate for large-scale power grid controller design.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0538.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Wind power; Fault current limiters, Doubly-fed induction generator; Fixed speed wind turbine; Series dynamic braking resistor
Online: 27 September 2018 (10:00:12 CEST)
The Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) has significant features in comparison with Fixed Speed Wind Turbine (FSWT), which has popularized its application in power system. Due to partial rated back-to-back converters in the DFIG, Fault Ride-Through (FRT) capability improvement is one of the great subjects regarding new grid code requirements. To enhance the FRT capability of the DFIG, many studies have been carried out. Fault current limiting devices as one of the techniques are utilized to limit the current level and protect switches of the back-to-back converter from over-current damage. In this paper, a review is done based on fault current limiting characteristic of the proposed fault current limiting devices Therefore, Fault Current Limiters (FCLs) and Series Dynamic Braking Resistors (SDBRs) are mainly taken into account. Operation of all configurations including their advantages and disadvantages is explained. Impedance type and the fault current limiting devices’ location are two important factors, which significantly affect the DFIG behaviour in the fault condition. These two factors are basically studied by the simulation and their effects on the key parameters of the DFIG are investigated. Finally, future works in respect to the FCL application in the FRT improvement of the DFIG have also been discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0772.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Sustainability; Urban energy systems; wind turbine; hydrokinetic turbine; blockage.
Online: 31 March 2021 (14:48:06 CEST)
Smart cities will have a strong impact on the future of renewable energies as terms like sustainability and energy saving will be more common. In this sense, both of wind and hydrokinetic compact-size turbines, can play an important role in urban communities by providing energy to nearby consumption points in an environmentally suitable way. This work presents the experimental evaluation for a vertical-axis turbine Darrieus type, operating in an open-field wind tunnel and a confined water channel. Power and characteristic curves have been obtained for all test conditions, also the effect of turbine blockage has been evaluated under blockage values ranging from 6.8% to 35%. The peak power coefficient for the confined flow condition reached a value of 0.31 which is 1.5 times higher than the peak one for the experimental open field condition at the same Reynolds number and a blockage of 20%. Finally, two blockage correction equations have been applied to the water channel tests, which gave values quite similar to the results obtained from the wind tunnel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0265.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: fault diagnosis; analytical redundancy; fuzzy prototypes; neural networks; diagnostic residuals; fault reconstruction; wind turbine simulator
Online: 24 December 2018 (03:59:45 CET)
The fault diagnosis of wind turbine systems represent a challenging issue, especially for offshore installations, thus justifying the research topics developed in this work. Therefore, this paper addresses the problem of the fault diagnosis of wind turbines, and it present viable solutions of fault detection and isolation techniques. The design of the so--called fault indicator consists of its estimate, which involves data--driven methods, as they result effective tools for managing partial analytical knowledge of the system dynamics, together with noise and disturbance effects. In particular, the suggested data--driven strategies exploit fuzzy systems and neural networks that are employed to determine nonlinear links between measurements and faults. The selected architectures are based on nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input prototypes, as they approximate the dynamic evolution of the system along time. The designed fault diagnosis schemes are verified via a high--fidelity simulator, which describes the normal and the faulty behaviour of an offshore wind turbine plant. Finally, by taking into account the presence of uncertainty and disturbance implemented in the wind turbine simulator, the robustness and the reliability features of the proposed methods are also assessed. This aspect is fundamental when the proposed fault diagnosis methods have to be applied to offshore installations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0089.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Wind turbine simulator; data-driven and model-based approaches; fuzzy identification; on-line estimation; robustness and reliability
Online: 19 September 2017 (15:47:14 CEST)
Wind turbine plants are complex dynamic and uncertain processes driven by stochastic inputs and disturbances, as well as different loads represented by gyroscopic, centrifugal, and gravitational forces. Moreover, as their aerodynamic models are nonlinear, both modelling and control become challenging problems. On one hand, high-fidelity simulators should contain different parameters and variables in order to accurately describe the main dynamic system behaviour. Therefore, the development of modelling and control for wind turbine systems should consider these complexity aspects. On the other hand, these control solutions have to include the main wind turbine dynamic characteristics without becoming too complicated. The main point of this paper is thus to provide two practical examples of development of robust control strategies when applied to a simulated wind turbine plant. Experiments with the wind turbine simulator and the Monte–Carlo tools represent the instruments for assessing the robustness and reliability aspects of the developed control methodologies when the model-reality mismatch and measurement errors are also considered. Advantages and drawbacks of these regulation methods are also highlighted with respect to different control strategies via proper performance metrics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0476.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Battery Energy Storage System; Crowbar; Fault Ride Through Capability; Vector control; Wind turbine
Online: 21 July 2021 (09:51:48 CEST)
Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) has a stator winding directly coupled with grid. Whereas, rotor winding is connected via a fault-prone back to back power converters. DFIG is known to be vulnerable to the grid faults. In early times, when a fault occurred, these generators were required to disconnect from the grid to secure the generator and power converters. However, due to the increased penetration of wind turbines into the power system, grid operators demanded that the wind turbines remain connected to the grid, as disconnecting them would further disrupt the grid. When a fault at the grid terminal occur, a high stator current is induced which further result in high rotor current. This current will trigger the DC-link voltage to rise. This high currents and DC-link voltage will cause harm to the converters. Thus, in this paper work, the crowbar protection system is employed for protecting the converters against excess energy. Furthermore, the analysis of DFIG is rendered by integrating the crowbar protection with the Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) for a much effective outcome in enhancing machine to drive the fault. MATLAB-Simulink software is used for modeling and simulation. All system parameters are obtained from ADAMA-II Wind Farm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0296.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Savonius wind turbine; Porous deflector; Porosity; Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD); Self-starting
Online: 17 August 2022 (03:54:51 CEST)
The present study explores the effect of using two porous deflectors on the performance of the Savonius wind turbine compared to only one porous deflector. The numerical simulation is performed to solve the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations using the SST k-
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: n/a; wind turbine; tidal turbine; betz limit; Betz's law; HAWT; VAWT; potential energy; kinetic energy
Online: 27 August 2021 (11:15:35 CEST)
The Betz limit sets a theoretical upper limit for the power production by turbines expressed as a maximum power coefficient of 16/27. Betz’s theory is accurate and it is based on the calculation of kinetic energy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0225.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: boundary layer transition; wind turbine; thermography; aerodynamic glove
Online: 19 April 2019 (11:58:41 CEST)
Knowledge about laminar-turbulent transition on operating multi-megawatt wind turbine blades needs sophisticated equipment like hot-films or microphone arrays. Contrarily thermographic pictures can easily be taken from the ground and temperature differences indicate different states of the boundary layer. The accuracy however, still is an open question, so that an aerodynamic glove known from experimental research on aero-planes was used to classify the boundary-layer state of a 2 megawatt wind turbine blade operating in the orthern part of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. State-of-the-art equipment for measurering static surface pressure was used for monitoring the lift distribution. To distinguish laminar and turbulent parts of the boundary layer (suction side only) 48 microphones were applied together with ground-based thermographic cameras from two teams. Additionally, an optical camera mounted on the hub was used to survey vibrations. During start-up (from 0 to 9 rpm) extended, but irregularly shaped regions of a laminar boundary layer were observed which had the same extension measured both with microphones and Thermography. When an approximately constant rotor rotation (9 rpm corresponding to approximately 6 m/s wind-speed) was achieved, a flow transition was visible at the expected position of 40 % chord length on the rotor blade, which was fouled with dense turbulent wedges and an almost complete turbulent state on the glove was detected. In all observations, quantitative determination of the flow transition positions from thermography and microphones agree well within their accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0054.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Active Front-End converter; back-to-back converter; PMSG; THD; Type-4 wind turbine; wind energy system; Opal-RT Technologies®
Online: 4 September 2018 (05:02:15 CEST)
In this paper, the active front-end (AFE) converter topology for the total harmonic distortion (THD) reduction in a wind energy system (WES) is used. A higher THD results in serious pulsations in the wind turbine (WT) output power and in several power losses at the WES. The AFE converter topology improves capability, efficiency and reliability in the energy conversion devices; by modifying a conventional back-to-back converter, from using a single voltage source converter (VSC) to use pVSC connected in parallel the AFE converter is generated. The THD reduction is done by applying a different phase shift angle at the carrier of digital sinusoidal pulse width modulation (DSPWM) switching signals of each VSC. To verify the functionality of the proposed methodology, the WES simulation in Matlab-Simulink® is analyzed, and the experimental laboratory tests using the concept of rapid control prototyping and the real-time simulator Opal-RT® Technologies is achieved. The obtained results show a type-4 WT with total output power of 6MVA, generating a THD reduction up to 5.5 times at the WES.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0133.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: anderson-vertical-axis-wind-turbine; actual-power; aerodynamic-power; blockage-factor; power-coefficient; tip-speed-ratio
Online: 11 October 2019 (11:10:59 CEST)
The basic equation for estimating the aerodynamic power captured by an Anderson Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (AVAWT) is a solution of the Navier-Stokes(N-S) equations for a baroclinic, inviscid flow. In a nutshell, the pressure difference across the AVAWT is derived from Bernoulli’s equation; an upshot of the integration of the N-S momentum equation for a baroclinic inviscid flow, Euler’s momentum equation. The resulting expression for the pressure difference across the AVAWT rotor is plotted as a function of freestream speed. Experimentally determined airstream speeds at the AVAWT inlet and outlet, coupled with corresponding freestream speeds are used in estimating the aerodynamic power captured. The aerodynamic power is subsequently used in calculating the aerodynamic power coefficient of the AVAWT. The actual power coefficient is calculated from the power generated by the AVAWT at various free stream speeds and plotted as a function of the latter. Experimental results show that, at all free stream speeds and tip speed ratios, the aerodynamic power coefficient is higher than the actual power coefficient of the AVAWT. Consequently, the power generated by the AVAWT prototype is lower than the aerodynamic power captured, given the same inflow wind condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0572.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: wind turbine system; hydroelectric plant simulator; model--based control; data--driven approach; self--tuning control; robustness and reliability
Online: 24 October 2018 (11:26:20 CEST)
The interest on the use of renewable energy resources is increasing, especially towards wind and hydro powers, which should be efficiently converted into electric energy via suitable technology tools. To this aim, self--tuning control techniques represent viable strategies that can be employed for this purpose, due to the features of these nonlinear dynamic processes working over a wide range of operating conditions, driven by stochastic inputs, excitations and disturbances. Some of the considered methods were already verified on wind turbine systems, and important advantages may thus derive from the appropriate implementation of the same control schemes for hydroelectric plants. This represents the key point of the work, which provides some guidelines on the design and the application of these control strategies to these energy conversion systems. In fact, it seems that investigations related with both wind and hydraulic energies present a reduced number of common aspects, thus leading to little exchange and share of possible common points. This consideration is particularly valid with reference to the more established wind area when compared to hydroelectric systems. In this way, this work recalls the models of wind turbine and hydroelectric system, and investigates the application of different control solutions. The scope is to analyse common points in the control objectives and the achievable results from the application of different solutions. Another important point of this investigation regards the analysis of the exploited benchmark models, their control objectives, and the development of the control solutions. The working conditions of these energy conversion systems will be also taken into account in order to highlight the reliability and robustness characteristics of the developed control strategies, especially interesting for remote and relatively inaccessible location of many installations.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Computational fluid dynamic; Long short term memory; Vortex bladeless wind turbine; Prediction; Correlation matrix.
Online: 9 June 2021 (07:38:21 CEST)
Energy harvesting from wind turbines has been explored by researchers for more than a century from conventional turbines up to the latest bladeless turbines. Amongst these bladeless turbines, vortex bladeless wind turbine (VBT) harvests energy from oscillation of a turbine body. Due to the novelty of this science and the widespread researches around the world, one of the most important issues is to optimize and predict produced power. To enhance the produced output electrical power of VBT, the fluid-solid interactions (FSI) were analyzed to collect a dataset for predicting procedure. Long short-term memory (LSTM) method has been used to predict the produced power of VBT from the collected data. The reason of choosing LSTM from various artificial neural network methods is that the parameters of VBT study are all time- dependent and the LSTM is one of the most accruable algorithms for predicting time series data. In order to find the relationship between the parameter and the variables used in this research, a correlation matrix was presented. According to the value of 0.3 for the root mean square error (RMSE), a comparative analysis between the simulation results and its prediction shows that the LSTM method is very accurate for these types of research. Furthermore, the LSTM method has significantly reduced the computation time so that the prediction time of desired values has been reduced from an average of 2 and a half hours to two minutes. Also, one of the most important achievements of this study is to suggest a mathematical relation of VBT output power which helps to extend it in a different size of VBT with a high range of parameter variations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0095.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: fatigue; design fatigue factor; offshore wind turbine foundation; corrosion fatigue; target reliability
Online: 4 September 2020 (11:00:22 CEST)
The concept of Design Fatigue Factors (DFFs) was introduced for providing desired level of safety in structural fatigue design, often associated with damage calculated from S-N curves. Calculation of fatigue damage from S-N curves can be affected by multiple factors, e.g. types of weld class, corrosion condition, loading conditions, stress concentration on different geometries etc. Each of them can be subject to different level of uncertainties. This study intends to recalibrate the DFFs from a detailed reliability analysis by investigating the probabilistic models derived from the database of S-N curves that has been most frequently used in offshore wind industry. The results of such study indicate that the DFFs can be reduced substantially for the corrosive environmental fatigue models from current standards to the same level of target reliability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0196.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: renewable energy systems; land eligibility; Onshore wind energy; technical potential; economic potential; simulation
Online: 17 December 2018 (11:12:51 CET)
Considering the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, onshore wind energy is certain to play a major role in future energy systems. This topic has received significant attention from the research community, producing many estimations of Europe's onshore wind potential for capacity and generation. Despite this focus, previous estimates have relied on distribution assumptions and simulation schemes that summarily under predict both the amount of available future wind capacity as well as its performance. Foremost in this regard is the common use of contemporary, or at least near-future, turbine designs which are not fitting for a far-future context. To fulfill this role, an improved, transparent, and fully reproducible work flow is presented for determining European onshore wind potential. Within a scenario of turbine cost and design in 2050, 13.5 TWof capacity is found to be available, allowing for 34.4 PWh of generation. By sorting the explicitly-placed potential generation locations by their expected generation cost, national relations between turbine cost and performance versus a desired capacity are exposed. In this way, it is shown that all countries possess some potential for onshore wind energy generation below 4 €ct kWh-1. and, furthermore, that it is unlikely for these costs to exceed 6 €ct kWh-1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0136.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: vertical axis wind turbine; CST parameterization; NSGA-II; airfoil; optimization; multiple streamtube model
Online: 13 August 2016 (09:15:42 CEST)
Optimizing the NACA0015 airfoil which is widely applied in small-scale vertical axis wind turbine to make it has a better aerodynamic performance. In the optimization process, using CST parameterization method to perturb the airfoil geometry, the thickness and camber of the airfoil are selected as the constraint, and the value of the maximum tangential force coefficient is chosen as the objective function, the genetic algorithm based on non-dominated sorting (NSGA-II)is selected as an optimization method, calculates the aerodynamic performance of the airfoil by applying the approach of combining XFOIL program and Viterna-Corrigan post-stall mode ,and establishes the optimizing process by the optimization software modefrontier for NACA0015 airfoil’s muti-point optimization, validate the airfoil’s performance with CFD finally. The result illustrates that, by comparing with the NACA0015 airfoil, the optimized airfoil’s lift to drag ratio is improved over a wide range of attack angles, the stall performance is more gentle. The maximum lift coefficient, the maximum lift-drag ratio and the maximum tangential force coefficient are increased by 7.5%,9 and 8.87%, respectively. The optimized airfoil has a wide variable condition performance, more suitable for the operating conditions of a vertical axis wind turbine. Finally, predict the rotor efficiency with optimized airfoil and NACA0015 airfoil for different tip speed ratios and different solidities with multiple streamtube model, the result shows the rotor with optimized airfoil has a higher efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0138.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: distributed system; power density; renewable energy; sustainability; utility scale; wind resource
Online: 11 April 2018 (06:07:49 CEST)
The physical and economic sustainability of using Built Environment Wind Turbine (BEWT) systems depends on the wind resource potential of the candidate site. Therefore, it is crucial to carry out a wind resource assessment prior to deployment of the BEWT. The assessment results can be used as a referral tool for predicting the performance and lifespan of the BEWT in the given built environment. To date, there is limited research output on BEWTs in South Africa with available literature showing a bias towards utility-scale or conventional ground based wind energy systems. This study aimed to assess wind power generation potential of BEWT systems in Fort Beaufort using the Weibull distribution function. The results show that Fort Beaufort wind patterns can be classified as fairly good and that BEWTs can best be deployed at 15m for a fairer power output as roof height wind speeds require BEWT of very low cut-in speed of at most1.2ms−1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Offshore wind energy, future turbine design, floating foundation, fixed-bottom foundation, levelized cost of electricity
Online: 13 February 2019 (15:43:22 CET)
Renewable energy sources will play a central role in the sustainable energy systems of the future. Scenario analyses of such hypothesized energy systems require sound knowledge of the techno-economic potential of renewable energy technologies. Although there have been various studies concerning the potential of offshore wind energy, higher spatial resolution, as well as the future design concepts of offshore wind turbines, has not yet been addressed in sufficient detail. Here, we aim to overcome this gap by applying a high spatial resolution to the three main aspects of offshore wind potential analysis, namely ocean suitability, the simulation of wind turbines and cost estimation. A set of constraints is determined that reveal the available areas for turbine placement across Europe’s maritime boundaries. Then, turbine designs specific to each location are selected by identifying turbines with the cheapest levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), restricted to capacities, hub heights and rotor diameters of between 3-20 MW, 80-200 m and 80-280 m, respectively. Ocean eligibility and turbine design are then combined to distribute turbines across the available areas. Finally, LCOE trends are calculated from the individual turbine costs, as well as the corresponding capacity factor obtained by hourly simulation with wind speeds from 1980 to 2017. The results of cost-optimal turbine design reveal that the overall potential for offshore wind energy across Europe will constitute nearly 8.6 TW and 40.0 PWh at roughly 7 €ct kWh-1 average LCOE by 2050. Averaged design parameters at national level are provided in an appendix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0267.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: wind turbine system; hydroelectric plant simulator; model--based control; data–driven approach; self–tuning control; robustness and reliability
Online: 26 January 2019 (10:08:46 CET)
The interest on the use of renewable energy resources is increasing, especially towards wind and hydro powers, which should be efficiently converted into electric energy via suitable technology tools. To this aim, data--driven control techniques represent viable strategies that can be employed for this purpose, due to the features of these nonlinear dynamic processes working over a wide range of operating conditions, driven by stochastic inputs, excitations and disturbances. Some of the considered methods, such as fuzzy and adaptive self--tuning controllers, were already verified on wind turbine systems, and similar advantages may thus derive from their appropriate implementation and application to hydroelectric plants. These issues represent the key features of the work, which provides some guidelines on the design and the application of these control strategies to these energy conversion systems. The working conditions of these systems will be also taken into account in order to highlight the reliability and robustness characteristics of the developed control strategies, especially interesting for remote and relatively inaccessible location of many installations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0241.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Adaptive Constrained Control; Barrier Lyapunov Function; Fault-Tolerant Control; Nussbaum-type function; power regulation; wind turbine benchmark
Online: 17 March 2022 (03:01:31 CET)
Motivated for improving the efficiency and reliability of wind turbine energy conversion, this paper presents an advanced control design that enhances the power regulation efficiency and re-liability. The constrained behaviour of the wind turbine is taken into account, by using the barrier Lyapunov function in the analysis of the Lyapunov direct method. This, consequently, guarantees that the generated power remains within the desired bounds to satisfy the grid power demand. Moreover, a Nussbaum-type function is utilized in the control scheme, to cope with the unpre-dictable wind speed. This eliminates the need for accurate wind speed measurement or estimation. Furthermore, via properly designed adaptive laws, a robust actuator fault-tolerant capability is integrated into the scheme, handling the model uncertainty. Numerical simulations are performed on a high-fidelity wind turbine benchmark model, under different fault scenarios, to verify the effectiveness of the developed design. Also, a Monte-Carlo analysis is exploited for the evaluation of the reliability and robustness characteristics against the model-reality mismatch, measurement errors and disturbance effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0297.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: doubly fed induction generator; variable speed wind turbine; power control; sliding mode control (SMC); sliding mode control (SMC) with exponential reaching law (ERL)
Online: 23 April 2018 (12:50:34 CEST)
The main objective of this paper is to continue the development of activities of basic and applied research related to wind energy and to develop methods of optimal control to improve the performance and production of electrical energy from wind. A new control technique of Double fed induction generator for wind turbine is undertaken through a robust approach tagged nonlinear sliding mode control (SMC) with exponential reaching law control (ERL). The SMC with ERL proves to be capable of reducing the system chattering phenomenon as well as accelerating the approaching process. A nonlinear case numerical simulation test is employed to verify the superior performance of the ERL method over traditional power rate reaching strategy. Results obtained in Matlab/Simulink environment show that the SMC with ERL is more robust, prove excellent performance for the control unit by improving power quality and stability of wind turbine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0283.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: wind tunnel; enlarge design; Buckingham π theorem; torque-diameter correlation; estimated power; field size; 3-D blade; stall delay
Online: 16 August 2018 (12:47:10 CEST)
A preliminary study of a wind turbine design is carried out using a wind tunnel to obtain its aerodynamic characteristics. Utilization of data from the study to develop large-scale wind turbines requires further study. This paper aims to discuss the use of wind turbine data obtained from the wind tunnel measurements to estimate the characteristics of wind turbines that have field size. The torque of two small-scale turbines was measured inside the wind tunnel. The first small-scale turbine has a radius of 0.14 m and the second small turbine has a radius of 0.19 m. Torque measurement results from both turbines were analyzed using Buckingham π theorem to obtain a correlation between torsion and diameter variations. The obtained correlation equation is used to estimate the field measurement of turbine power with a radius of 1.2 m. The resulting correlation equation can be used to estimate the power generated by the turbine by the size of the field well in the operating area of the tip speed ratio of the turbine design.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: 3D Doppler Wind Lidar; planetary boundary layer; vertical wind; wind speed; wind direction
Online: 29 April 2021 (10:33:39 CEST)
The accuracy of wind field simulation and prediction is one of the most significant parameters in the field of atmospheric science and wind energy. Limited by the observation data, there are few researches on wind energy development. A 3D Doppler wind lidar (DWL) providing the high-vertical-resolution wind data over the urban complex underlying surface in February 2018 was employed to evaluated the accuracy of vertical wind field simulation systematically for the first time. 11 PBL schemes of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) were employed in simulation. The model results were evaluated in groups separated by weather (sunny days, haze days and windy days), observation height layers, and various observation wind speeds. The test results presented that the vertical layer altitude of the observation point position was the most important factor. The simulation is fairly well at a height of 1000-2000m, as most of the relative mean bias of wind speed and wind direction are less than 20% and 6% respectively. Below 1000 m, the wind speed and direction biases are about 30%-150% m.s-1 and 6%-30% respectively. Moreover, when the observed wind speed was lower than 5 m.s-1, the bias were usually large, and the wind speed relative mean bias is up to 50-300%. In addition, the accuracy of simulated wind profile is better in 10-15m.s-1 than other speed ranges, and is better up 1000m than below 1000m in the boundary layer. We see that the WRF boundary layer schemes have different applicability to different weather conditions. The WRF boundary layer schemes have significant differences in wind field simulation with larger error under the complex topography. A PBL scheme is not likely to maintain its advantages in the long term under different conditions including altitude and weather conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0069.v1
Online: 13 December 2016 (10:01:29 CET)
Taiwan developing offshore wind power to promote green energy and self-electricity production. In this study, a Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) was set up at Chang-Hua development zone one on the sea and 10km away from the seashore. At Lidar location, WRF (3.33km & 2km grid lengths) model and WAsP were used to simulate the wind speed at various elevations. Three days mean wind speed of simulated results were compared with Lidar data. From the four wind data sets, developed five different comparisons to find an error% and R-Squared values. Comparison between WAsP and Floating Lidar was shown good consistency. Lukang meteorological station 10 years wind observations at 5m height were used for wind farm energy predictions. The yearly variation of energy predictions of traditional and TGC wind farm layouts are compared under purely neutral and stable condition. The one-year cycle average surface heat flux over the Taiwan Strait is negative (-72.5 (W/m2) and 157.13 STD), which represents stable condition. At stable condition TGC (92.39%) and 600(92.44%), wind farms were shown higher efficiency. The Fuhai met mast wind data was used to estimate roughness length and power law exponent. The average roughness lengths are very small and unstable atmosphere.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0002.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: wind prediction; wind estimation; UAS; wind shear; gust; multi-platform integration
Online: 18 January 2017 (09:44:54 CET)
This paper presents a system for identification of wind features, such as gusts and wind shear. These are of particular interest in the context of energy-efficient navigation of Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The proposed system generates real-time wind vector estimates and a novel algorithm to generate wind field predictions. Estimations are based on the integration of an off-the-shelf navigation system and airspeed readings in a so-called direct approach. Wind predictions use atmospheric models to characterize the wind field with different statistical analyses. During the prediction stage, the system is able to incorporate, in a big-data approach, wind measurements from previous flights in order to enhance the approximations. Wind estimates are classified and fitted into a Weibull probability density function. A Genetic Algorithm (GA) is utilized to determine the shaping and scale parameters of the distribution, which are employed to determine the most probable wind speed at a certain position. The system uses this information to characterize a wind shear or a discrete gust and also utilizes a Gaussian Process regression to characterize continuous gusts. The knowledge of the wind features is crucial for computing energy-efficient trajectories with low cost and payload. Therefore, the system provides a solution that does not require any additional sensors. The system architecture presents a modular decentralized approach, in which the main parts of the system are separated in modules and the exchange of information is managed by a communication handler to enhance upgradeability and maintainability. Validation is done providing preliminary results of both simulations and Software-In-The-Loop testing. Telemetry data collected from real flights, performed in the Seville Metropolitan Area in Andalusia (Spain), was used for testing. Results show that wind estimation and predictions can be calculated at 1 Hz and a wind map can be updated at 0.4 Hz. Predictions show a convergence time with a 95% confidence interval of approximately 30 s.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0067.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: wind power; wind energy; coastal regions; statistical distributions; wind turbine capacity factor
Online: 6 April 2020 (15:29:16 CEST)
Wind power output is highly dependent on the wind speed at the selected site, therefore wind-speed distribution modeling is the most important step in the assessment of wind energy potential. This study aims at accurate evaluation of onshore wind energy potential in seven coastal cities in the south of Iran. Six Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) were examined over representative stations. It has been deduced that the Weibull function, which was the most used PDF in similar studies, was only applicable to one station. Here, Gamma offered the best fit for three stations and for the other ones, Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) performed better. Considering the ranking of six examined PDFs and the simplicity of Gamma, it was identified as the effective function in the southern coasts of Iran bearing in mind the geographic distribution of stations. Besides, six turbine power curve functions were contributed to investigate the capacity factor. That was very important, as using only one function could cause under- or over-estimation. Then, stations were classified based on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory system. Last but not least, examining a range of wind turbines enabled scholars to extend this study into the practice and prioritize development of stations considering budget limits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0315.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: wind farm layout optimization problem; wind farm land-use; wind turbine wakes; wind turbine aerodynamics; tip speed ratio control
Online: 14 July 2020 (13:57:14 CEST)
The use of wind energy has been developing fast over the last years. The global cumulative wind power capacity increased by 10.5% in 2019, most of which comes from onshore wind farms. One of the consequences of this continuous increase is the use of land for onshore wind farms. There are already cases worldwide where lack of well-established plans and strategies have caused delays in projects. The need for efficiently using land for wind farms will be mandatory in the short term. In this work, we present a numerical analysis to evaluate wind farm land-use. By defining the ratio between mechanical output power over an area as a parameter called land-use ratio, this work focused on comparing several cases of aligned and staggered layouts. Mechanical output power was estimated using a validated code based on Blade Element Momentum code, and the wake velocities and wake interaction effects were estimated using a validated wind turbine CFD model. In terms of output power, staggered designs are more efficient than aligned designs. However, the results showed that even though staggered designs produced higher output power, aligned farms with tight lateral spacing could be as efficient as staggered ones in terms of land-use but using fewer turbines. In summary, tightly aligned designs should be a tendency in the future towards efficient use of land in wind farms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0039.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Holland-B Parameter; Philippine typhoons; Regional wind; Wind hazard
Online: 2 September 2022 (10:39:46 CEST)
For the Philippines, a country exposed to multiple natural hazards like severe wind, sustainable development includes resiliency. Severe wind hazard is brought by tropical cyclones in the Western Pacific, known as typhoons, that frequent the Philippines. Therefore, adequately evaluating the wind hazard and its impact is crucial for sustainable building design. Acknowledging the impacts of climate change on said hazards would require adaptation to its consequences which necessitate a deeper understanding on the changing behavior of typhoons in recent years. For this study, detailed wind information from the Japan Meteorological Agency from 1977-2021, the Holland-B parameter, and the radius of maximum wind speed for each typhoon, are determined for simulation of the regional cyclonic wind field. The analysis of the Holland-B parameters, which represent the steepness of the pressure gradient and tropical cyclone convection, suggest that the Holland-B parameters have been increasing since 2011. The regional wind fields caused by the typhoons also suggest an increasing trend in severe wind hazard. Seasonality for the location of severe wind hazard is also observed, with the Southern Philippines experiencing an increase (decrease) during the Northeast (Southwest) Monsoon season, and the Northern Philippines experiencing an increase (decrease) during the Southwest (Northeast) Monsoon season.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0256.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear & High Energy Physics Keywords: wind speed; wind power; scale factor and shape factor
Online: 12 October 2018 (05:13:33 CEST)
The research sought to investigate the long term characteristics of wind in the Kisii region (elevation 1710m above sea level, 0.68oS, 34.79o E). Wind speeds were analyzed and characterized on short term (per month for a year) and then simulated for long term (ten years) measured hourly series data of daily wind speeds at a height of 10m. The analysis included daily wind data which was grouped into discrete data and then calculated to represent; the mean wind speed, diurnal variations, daily variations as well as the monthly variations. The wind speed frequency distribution at the height 10 m was found to be 2.9ms-1 with a standard deviation of 1.5. Based on the two month’s data that was extracted from the AcuRite 01024 Wireless Weather Stations with 5-in-1 Weather Sensor experiments set at three sites in the region, averages of wind speeds at hub heights of 10m and 13m were calculated and found to be 1.7m/s, 2.0m/s for Ikobe station, 2.4m/s, 2.8m/s for Kisii University stations, and 1.3m/s, 1.6m/s for Nyamecheo station respectively. Then extrapolation was done to determine average wind speeds at heights (20m, 30m, 50m, and 70m) which were found to be 85.55W/m2, 181.75W/m2, 470.4W/m2 and 879.9W/m2 respectively. The wind speed data was used statistically to model a Weibull probability density function and used to determine the power density for Kisii region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0602.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Reliability; FMEA; wind turbines; climatic conditions; wind turbine type
Online: 30 July 2018 (22:51:32 CEST)
The wind industry is looking for ways to accurately predict the reliability and availability of newly installed wind turbines. Failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) is a technique utilized for determining the critical subsystems of wind turbines. There are several studies which applied FMECA for wind turbines in the literature, but no studies so far have considered different weather conditions or climatic regions. Furthermore, various design types of wind turbines have been analyzed applying FMECA but no study so far has applied FMECA to compare the reliability of geared and direct-drive wind turbines. We propose to fill these gaps by using Koppen-Geiger climatic regions and two different turbine models of direct-drive and geared-drive concepts. A case study is applied on German wind farms utilizing the WMEP database which contains wind turbine failure data from 1989 to 2008. This proposed methodology increases the accuracy of reliability and availability predictions and compares different wind turbine design types and eliminates underestimation of impacts of different weather conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0328.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: CFD; LES; Complex terrai; actual wind speed; wind energy
Online: 24 May 2018 (05:14:27 CEST)
This paper proposes a procedure for predicting the actual wind speed for flow over complex terrain with CFD. It converts a time-series of wind speed data acquired from field observations into a time-series of actual scalar wind speed by using non-dimensional wind speed parameters which are determined beforehand with the use of CFD output. The accuracy and reproducibility of the prediction procedure were examined by simulating the flow with CFD with the use of high resolution (5 m) surface elevation data for the Noma Wind Park in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. The errors of the predicted average monthly wind speeds relative to the observed values were less than approximately 20%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0396.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: wind lidar; Doppler lidar; bistatic; metrology; traceability; wind energy; meteorology
Online: 19 July 2021 (08:45:02 CEST)
The high-resolution bistatic lidar developed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) aims to overcome the limitations of conventional monostatic lidar technology which is widely used for wind velocity measurements in wind energy and meteorology applications. Due to the large measurement volume of a combined optical transmitter and receiver tilting in multiple directions, monostatic lidar generally has poor spatial and temporal resolution. It also exhibits large measurement uncertainty when operated in inhomogeneous flow, for instance, over complex terrain. In contrast, PTB’s bistatic lidar uses three dedicated receivers arranged around a central transmitter, resulting in an exceptionally small measurement volume. The coherent detection and modulation schemes used allow the detection of backscattered, Doppler shifted light down to the scale of single aerosols, realising the simultaneous measurement of all three wind velocity components. This paper outlines design details and the theory of operation of PTB’s bistatic lidar and provides an overview of selected comparative measurements. The results of these measurements have shown that the measurement uncertainty of PTB’s bistatic lidar is well within the measurement uncertainty of traditional cup anemometers, while being fully independent of its site and traceable to the SI units. This allows its use as a transfer standard for the calibration of other remote sensing devices. Overall, PTB’s bistatic lidar shows great potential to universally improve the capability and accuracy of wind velocity measurements, such as for the investigation of highly dynamic flow processes upstream and in the wake of wind turbines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0527.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: wind energy; vertical axis wind turbine; computational fluid dynamics; dynamic interaction; closely spaced arrangements; phase synchronization; wind farm; dryland
Online: 22 March 2021 (12:05:53 CET)
To investigate the optimum layouts of small vertical axis wind turbines, a two-dimensional analysis of dynamic fluid body interaction is performed via computational fluid dynamics for a rotor pair in various configurations. The rotational speed of each turbine rotor (diameter: D = 50 mm) varies based on the equation of motion. First, the dependence of rotor performance on the gap distance (gap) between two rotors is investigated. For parallel layouts, counter-down (CD) layouts with blades moving downwind in the gap region yield a higher mean power than counter-up (CU) layouts with blades moving upwind in the gap region. CD layouts with gap/D = 0.5–1.0 yield a maximum average power that is 23% higher than that of an isolated single rotor. Assuming isotropic bidirectional wind speed, co-rotating (CO) layouts with the same rotational direction are superior to the combination of CD and CU layouts regardless of the gap distance. For tandem layouts, the inverse-rotating configuration (IR) shows an earlier wake recovery than the CO configuration. For 16-wind-direction layouts, both the IR and CO configurations indicate similar power distribution at gap/D = 2.0. For the first time, this study demonstrates the phase synchronization of two rotors via numerical simulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0201.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: wind damage; wind disturbance; Pinus sylvestris; Picea abies; machine learning; random forest
Online: 17 February 2022 (05:06:55 CET)
Management approaches inspired by the variability of natural disturbances are expected to produce forests in the future that will be significantly more resilient and better adapted to local environmental conditions. Due to climate change, windstorms are becoming increasingly common resulting in the destruction not only of extensive forest areas but, quite often, of small-sized and scattered forest lands that can ultimately become home to insects and disease dissemination sites. In the present study, an attempt is made to identify and record areas in the northeastern forests of Greece covered by mixed stands of conifers and broadleaves that experienced massive windthrow following local storms. Based on tree-level data, local topographic features, forest characteristics and the mechanical properties of green wood, a reliable model, to be used for the prediction of similar disturbances in the future, has been created after a thorough comparative study of the most well-known intelligent machine learning algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0078.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: free wake vortex method, horizontal-axis wind turbine, floating wind energy, aerodynamics
Online: 6 August 2019 (12:48:36 CEST)
A modified free-wake vortex ring model is proposed to compute the dynamics of a floating horizontal-axis wind turbine. The model is divided into two parts. The near wake model uses a blade bound vortex model and trailed vortex model, which is developed based on vortex filament method. By contrast, the far wake model is based on the vortex ring method. The proposed model is a good compromise between accuracy and computational cost, for example when compared with more complex vortex methods. The present model is used to assess the influence of floating platform motions on the performance of a horizontal-axis wind turbine rotor. The results are validated on the 5MW NREL rotor and compared with other aerodynamic models for the same rotor subjected to different platform motions. It was found that the results from the proposed method are more reliable than the results from BEM theory especially at small angles of attack in the region of low wind speeds, on the one hand, and high wind speeds with blade pitch motions, on the other hand. And also the proposed method is less time consuming and has similar accuracy when comparing with more advanced vortex based methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0529.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Ekman currents; ocean surface currents; wind stress forcing; transfer function; wind-driven response
Online: 20 November 2020 (09:32:45 CET)
The unsteady Ekman problem involves finding the response of the near-surface currents to wind stress forcing under linearized dynamics. Its solution can be conveniently framed in the frequency domain in terms of a quantity that is known as the transfer function, the Fourier transform of the impulse response function. In this paper, a theoretical investigation of a fairly general transfer function form is undertaken with the goal of paving the way for future observational studies. Building on earlier work, we consider in detail the transfer function arising from a linearly-varying profile of the vertical eddy viscosity, subject to a no-slip lower boundary condition at a finite depth. The linearized horizontal momentum equations are shown to transform to a modified Bessel’s equation for the transfer function. Two self-similarities, or rescalings that each effectively eliminate one independent variable, are identified, enabling the dependence of the transfer function on its parameters to be more readily assessed. A systematic investigation of asymptotic behaviors of the transfer function is then undertaken, yielding expressions appropriate for eighteen different regimes, and unifying the results from numerous earlier studies. A solution to a numerical overflow problem that arises in the computation of the transfer function is also found. All numerical code associated with this paper is distributed freely for use by the community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0252.v1
Online: 18 October 2022 (05:54:22 CEST)
Wind energy is one of the most attractive renewable energy sources because of its low operating, maintenance, and production costs as well as its low environmental impact. The goal of this study is to discover the best locations in Bangladesh where wind farms can be built and operated efficiently. This study applied the GIS and AHP methodologies to examine the eight important parameters upon which the suitability of locations is highly dependent. This analysis finds that Bangladesh has large regions appropriate for wind farm installation, with 3718.76 km2 and 16631.14 km2 classified as "very high" and "high" suitability, respectively. It was also observed that wind speed, land slope, and elevation each had a height-weighted criterion of 32 %, 27 %, and 12 %, respectively, when picking suitable locations. However, the viability of this study in identifying suitable sites has been evaluated based on ROC and AUC techniques and found satisfactory as per AUC value. The knowledge gained from this study will help the sustainable and renewable energy development authority (SREDA), Bangladesh to expedite the renewable energy investment process and will ensure the great certainty. The findings of this research can be considered as baseline information in the wind energy sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0300.v1
Online: 13 July 2021 (11:24:23 CEST)
An economic and business history approach is used to show the rise and relative failure of the Spanish wind industry during the period between 2004-2015, when Spain became the fourth country after China, the US and Germany in installed capacity of renewable energies and, in relative terms, the second country after Denmark. This study is unique in that it provides an integrated vision of the reasons for the relative fall of Spain in the world ranking of wind energy producers. The methodology of the economic analysis of industrial policies makes it possible to explain the fall in the relative importance of Spain in the international panorama of wind farms. There were no reasons related to technological obsolescence or inability of the CECRE managing renewable energies to explain the fall.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0098.v1
Online: 8 July 2019 (03:37:09 CEST)
On 2013 the Villonaco wind farm (16.5 MW), the first wind farm in continental Ecuador near the city of Loja, began operations. The power generated is delivered to the National Interconnected System (SNI), which services the city. This research confronts two sets of real data, the electricity use of the urban area of Loja, and the power generated by the Villonaco Wind Farm. Electricity use follows clearly defined daily and weekly cycles, and wind power has a seasonal behaviour. The study shows that wind power integration cannot be a long-term stable power source regardless power or generation surplus. Another essential finding is that time series can be used as a statistical source to determine the need for short- (seconds) and long- (days, weeks) term energy storage. Strategies to further the energy autonomy of the urban area through the expansion of the wind farm by a factor of 2 are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0501.v1
Online: 26 July 2018 (04:22:14 CEST)
The predictability of wind information in a given location is essential for the evaluation of a wind power project. Predicting wind speed accurately improves the planning of wind power generation, reducing costs and improving the use of resources. This paper seeks to predict the mean hourly wind speed in anemometric towers (at a height of 50 meters) at two locations: a coastal region and one with complex terrain characteristics. To this end, the Holt-Winters (HW), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Hybrid time-series models were used. Observational data evaluated by the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications-Version 2 (MERRA-2) reanalysis at the same height of the towers. The results show that the hybrid model had a better performance in relation to the others, including when compared to the evaluation with MERRA-2. For example, in terms of statistical residuals, RMSE and MAE were 0.91 and 0.62 m/s, respectively. As such, the hybrid models are a good method to forecast wind speed data for wind generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0228.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Wind power; Wind turbines; Aerodynamics; Differential Geometry; Airfoils; Blade Element Momentum Theory; BEMT; BEM; HAWT; Wagner rotor
Online: 12 August 2022 (07:53:19 CEST)
Purpose – Extend the Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT) such that rotors with pronounced cone and axis angle (tilt or yaw) can be calculated. Derive an equation for the speed ratio (lambda) as a function of Tip Speed Ratio (TSR), radius, blade, cone and axis angle. This converts the BEMT into an Unsteady BEMT or UBEMT. Present the Wagner rotor as one such rotor geometry. --- Methodology – Literature review and calculations. --- Findings – The UBEMT can be used to calculate highly unconventional rotor geometries. --- Research Limitations – Although the aerodynamic coefficients used in the UBEMT are from measurements in steady flow conditions, they can be used with success. --- Practical Implications – Also conventional Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) with noticeable cone and axis angle should be calculated with the UBEMT. The accuracy of power calculations of these HAWTs can be slightly improved. --- Originality – Analytic equations for rotors with cone and axis angle have barely been discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0046.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: comparative study; full-scale measurement; wind tunnel model test; multiple-fan actively controlled wind tunnel; research scheme
Online: 9 October 2017 (06:38:40 CEST)
Full-scale/model test comparison studies to validate the traditional ABL wind tunnel simulation technique are reviewed. According to the literature review, notable discrepancies between full-scale measurement results and model test results were observed by most performed comparison studies, but the causes of the observed discrepancies were not revealed in a scientific way by those studies. In this regard, a new research scheme for future full-scale/model test comparison studies is proposed in this article, which utilizes the multiple-fan actively controlled wind tunnel simulation technique. With the new research scheme, future full-scale/model test comparison studies are expected to reasonably disclose the main problems with the traditional ABL wind tunnel simulation technique, and the technique can be improved correspondingly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0003.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Scatterometer; wind stress; surface currents; Indian Ocean
Online: 31 December 2021 (14:50:47 CET)
This study examines the effect of surface currents on the bulk algorithm calculation of wind stress estimated using the scatterometer data during 2007-2020 in the Indian Ocean. In the study region as a whole the wind stress decreased by 5.4% by including currents into the wind stress equation. The most significant reduction in the wind stress is found along the most energetic regions with strong currents such as Somali Current, Equatorial Jets and Aghulhas retroflection. A highest reduction of 11.5% is observed along the equator where the Equatorial Jets prevail. A sensitivity analysis has been carried out for the study region and for different seasons to assess the relative impact of winds and currents in the estimation of wind stress by changing the winds while keeping the currents constants and vice versa. The inclusion of currents decreased the wind stress and this decrease is prominent when the currents are stronger. This study showed that equatorial Indian Ocean is the most sensitive region where the current can impact on wind stress estimation. The results showed that uncertainties in the wind stress estimations are quite large at regional levels and hence better representation of wind stress incorporating ocean currents should be considered in the ocean/climatic models for accurate air-sea interaction studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Wind energy; Renewable resources; Black-Scholes model
Online: 11 January 2021 (12:33:54 CET)
The limitedness of the nonrenewable local energy resources in Israel, even in background of the later gas fields’ findings, continues to force the state to devote various efforts for the ‘green’ energy development. These efforts include installations both in the solar and in the wind energy, with a purpose to improve the diversity of energy sources. While the standard discounted cash flow (DCF) method using the net present value (NPV) criterion is extensively adopted to evaluate investments, the standard DCF method is inappropriate for the rapidly changing investment climate and for the managerial flexibility in investment decisions. In recent years, the real options analysis (ROA) technique is widely applied in many studies for valuation of renewable energy investment projects. Hence, we apply in this study the real options analysis approach for the valuation of wind energy turbines and apply it to the analysis of wind energy economic potential in Israel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0258.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: power quality; wind power plant; voltage fluctuations
Online: 21 May 2019 (11:19:57 CEST)
Integration of wind energy into the grid faces a great challenge regarding power quality. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)~61400-21 standard defines the electrical characteristics that need to be assessed in a Wind Turbine (WT), as well as the procedure to measure the disturbances produced by the WT. One of the parameters to be assessed are voltage fluctuations or flicker. To estimate the flicker emission of a Wind Power Plant (WPP), the standard establishes that a quadratic exponent should be used in the summation of the flicker emission of each WT. This exponent was selected based on studies carried out in WPPs with type I and II WTs. Advances in wind turbines technology have reduced their flicker emission, mainly thaks to the implementation of power electronics for the partial or total management of the power injected into the grid. This work is based on measurements from a WPP with 16 type III WTs. The flicker emission of a single WT and of the WPP were calculated. Low flicker emission values at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) of the WPP were obtained. The flicker estimation at the PCC, based on the measurement from a single WT, was analyzed using different exponents. The results show that a cubic summation performs better than the quadratic one in the estimation of the flicker emission of a WPP with type III WTs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0046.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Electricity markets; Proactive maintenance; Wind energy systems.
Online: 12 August 2017 (21:03:55 CEST)
The paper deals with the problem of choosing the best O&M strategy for wind power plants. Current maintenance theory considers just production opportunities and minimizes the maintenance costs, but with the liberalization of the electricity market also the electricity price has become an important variable to take into account in the O&M scheduling. Another important variables that is often neglected by the existing maintenance theory is the weather condition. This paper proposes a new strategy that takes into account the electricity price and weather conditions, improves the expected profit of the systems, and reduce the overall maintenance and logistic costs. The maintenance schedule is formalized as an optimization problem where the discounted cumulative profit of a wind generation portfolio in a fixed-time horizon (e.g. two years ahead), subject to the technologically-derived maintenance time constraints is optimized. Both the theoretical and computational aspects of the proposed O&M strategy are discussed. Results show that taking into account market and weather opportunities in the design of the maintenance strategy, it is possible to achieve a more complete scheduling for a given set of wind power plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0253.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Offshore Wind power; Operation and maintenance management; Intelligent operation and maintenance robot; Smart wind farm technology; 5g technology
Online: 27 April 2022 (08:57:55 CEST)
With the rapid development of global offshore wind power, the demand for offshore wind power operation and maintenance is also increasing. Wisdomization of offshore wind farms is a practical need to improve the operation level and benefit of offshore wind farms. This paper first introduces the current development situation and characteristics of global offshore wind power, and expounds the current situation and main challenges of offshore wind power operation and maintenance market. Therefore, our paper discusses the innovation of offshore wind power operation and maintenance from the aspects of operation and maintenance management of offshore wind power, monitoring and analysis technology of units, far-reaching wind field monitoring and operation and maintenance risks. Then, combined with information technology and lean management concept, a smart operation and maintenance management platform for wind farms in far-reaching sea areas is built to explore centralized and intelligent operation and maintenance management mode, improve operation and maintenance efficiency of wind farms in far-reaching sea areas, and minimize operation and maintenance costs. Finally, through the research on the characteristics of 5G technology, combined with the practical experience of operation and maintenance, and in view of the characteristics of offshore wind farms, we analyze and propose several typical application scenarios of 5G technology in the intelligent operation and maintenance of offshore wind farms, which provides a new solution for the efficient operation and maintenance of offshore wind farms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0289.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: tunnel entrance; crosswind; wind–train–track coupling dynamic model; transient response of aerodynamic load; sudden wind effect; traffic safety
Online: 24 January 2020 (15:07:07 CET)
Sudden variation of aerodynamic loads is the potential source of safety accidents of high-speed train (HST). As a follow-up investigation on the aerodynamic response of a HST that enters a tunnel under crosswind environment, this paper focuses on the transient response of a HST’s safety indices based on the train–track coupling interaction model. Firstly, a wind–train–track coupling dynamic model is proposed by introducing transient aerodynamic loads into the vehicle–track system. Secondly, the temporal evolution of safety coefficients indicates that the train’s safety risk increases during tunnel entry with crosswind. Results show that the derailment coefficients and wheel load reduction rate during tunnel entry are not only larger than those in open air but also those inside the tunnel due to the sudden disappearance of wind excitation at the tunnel entrance. In addition, the characteristic wind curve, which is the wind velocity against the train speed, is presented for application based on the current specification of the safety criteria threshold. The investigation will be useful in assessing the safety risk of a running train subjected to other aerodynamic attacks, such as the coupling effect of infrastructure scenario and crosswind in windy area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0554.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Field measurement; Typhoon; High-rise building; Strong wind
Online: 30 January 2023 (10:13:31 CET)
The overcrowding of high-rise buildings in the city adversely affects the wind environment by changing the air currents in the surrounding areas. In particular, extreme climate phenomena caused by climate change are stronger and more frequent, causing social damages in cities. To comprehensively better understand the wind properties around high-rise buildings, actual filed measurement is necessary to determine the environment assessment of wind effect. We performed the on-site measurement on LCT residential complex regions (411.6m tall) with highly concentrated high-rise buildings in coastal city Busan, South Korea under extreme weather conditions such as typhoon invasions to determine wind fluid characteristics. In the field monitoring, five anemometers were installed to analyze the wind environment around high-rise buildings when typhoon 'Hinnamnor' invaded. Compared to the nearby weather station operated by KMA(Korea Meteorological Administration), the gust was 3.7 times stronger and the max 1 min-mean wind speed was 3.1 times stronger, and the characteristics of the downward wind and the canyon wind were shown depending on the location characteristics of the point. Turbulence intensity decreased as the wind speed increased and converged to a certain value. Likewise, the gust factor also decreased as the wind speed increased and converged to 2.0, which is considered to be the parameter that best represents the intensity of the instantaneous gust caused by the skyscraper wind effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0531.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: scatterometer; sea surface wind; storm surge; atmospheric model
Online: 28 December 2022 (08:24:58 CET)
Sea surface wind forecasts in the Adriatic Sea often suffer for unadequate modelling, especially for the wind speed. This has detrimental effects on the accuracy of sea level and storm surge predictions. We present a numerical method to reduce the bias between the sea surface wind observed by the scatterometers and that supplied by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) global atmospheric model, for storm surge forecasting applications. The method, called “wind bias mitigation”, relies on scatterometer observations to determine a multiplicative factor ∆ws which modulates the standard model wind in order to decrease the bias between scatterometer and model. We compare four different mathematical approaches to this method, for a total of eight different formulations of the multiplicative factor ∆ws. Four datasets are used for the assessment of the eight different bias mitigation methods: a collection of 29 Storm Surge Events (SEVs) cases in the years 2004-2014, a collection of 48 SEVs in the years 2013-2016, a collection of 364 cases of random sea level conditions in the same period, and a collection of the seven SEVs in 2012-2016 that were worst predicted by the Centro Previsioni e Segnalazioni Maree, Comune di Venezia (Tide Forecast and Early Warning Centre of the Venice Municipality - CPSM). The statistical analysis shows that the bias mitigation procedures supplies a mean wind speed more accurate than the standard forecast, when compared with scatterometer observations, in more than 70% of the analyzed cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0018.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: airborne wind energy; optimal control; open-source software
Online: 1 December 2022 (08:54:28 CET)
In this paper we present AWEbox, a Python toolbox for modeling and optimal control of multi-aircraft systems for airborne wind energy (AWE). AWEbox provides an implementation of optimization-friendly multi-aircraft AWE dynamics for a wide range of system architectures and modeling options. It automatically formulates typical AWE optimal control problems based on these models, and finds a numerical solution in a reliable and efficient fashion. To obtain a high level of reliability and efficiency, the toolbox implements different homotopy methods for initial guess refinement. The first type of methods produces a feasible initial guess from an analytic initial guess based on user-provided parameters. The second type implements a warmstart procedure for parametric sweeps. We investigate the software performance in two different case studies. In the first case study we solve a single-aircraft reference problem for a large number of different initial guesses. The homotopy methods reduce the expected computation time by a factor of 1.7 and and the peak computation time by a factor of 8, compared to when no homotopy is applied. Overall, the CPU timings are competitive to timings reported in the literature. When the user initialization draws on expert a priori knowledge, homotopies do not increase expected performance, but the peak CPU time is still reduced by a factor of 5.5. In the second case study, a power curve for a dual-aircraft lift-mode AWE system is computed using the two different homotopy types for initial guess refinement. On average, the second homotopy type, which is tailored for parametric sweeps, outperforms the first type in terms of CPU time by a factor of 3. In conclusion, AWEbox provides an open-source implementation of efficient and reliable optimal control methods that both control experts and non-expert AWE developers can benefit from.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0628.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: DFIG; SVM; VC; Wind Turbine (WT); parameters uncertainly
Online: 16 June 2021 (12:04:39 CEST)
This paper presents the super-twisting algorithm (STA) direct power control (DPC) scheme for the control of active and reactive powers of grid-connected DFIG. Simulations of 5 KW DFIG has been presented to validate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach in the presence of uncertainties with respect to vector control (VC). The proposed controller schemes with fixed gains are effective in reducing the ripple of active and reactive powers, effectively suppress sliding-mode chattering and the effe This paper presents a comparative study of two approaches for the direct power control (DPC) of doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) based on wind energy conversion system (WECS). Vector Control (VC) and Sliding Mode Control (SMC). The simulation results of the DFIG of 5 KW in the presence of various uncertainties were carried out to evaluate the capability and robustness of the proposed control scheme. The (SMC) strategy is the most appropriate scheme with the best combination such as reducing high powers ripple, diminishing steady-state error in addition to the fact that the impact of machine parameter variations does not change the system performance. cts of parametric uncertainties not affecting system performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0513.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Economic Dispatch; Spatio-temporal kriging; Wind power; Uncertainty
Online: 26 October 2020 (11:08:13 CET)
The incorporation of wind generation introduces challenges to the operation of the power system due to its uncertain characteristics. Therefore, the development of methods to accurately model the uncertainty is necessary. In this paper, the spatio-temporal Kriging and analog approaches are used to forecast wind power generation and used as input to solve an economic dispatch problem, considering the uncertainties of wind generation. Spatio-temporal Kriging takes into account the spatial and temporal information given by the database to enhance wind forecasts. We evaluate the performance of using the spatio-temporal Kriging, and comparisons are carried out versus other approaches in the framework of the economic power dispatch problem, for which simulations are developed on the modified IEEE 3-bus and IEEE 24-bus test systems. The results show that the use of Kriging-based spatio-temporal models in the context of economic power dispatch can provide an opportunity for lower operating costs in the presence of uncertainty when compared to other approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0268.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: fatigue; thickness effect; offshore wind turbine; corrosion fatigue
Online: 12 September 2020 (09:54:28 CEST)
This paper reassesses the detrimental effect on fatigue performance due to thicker sections based on extensive fatigue strength test database, taken from research program worldwide over the past half of a century in offshore oil & gas and renewable industry. The data entries in the database have been evaluated to ensure its data integrity. Statistical analyses on these S-N data are performed with or without the thickness correction at different exposure level to corrosive environment, in order to re-evaluate the suitability of current standards in regard to the thickness effect. The study has concentrated on T-joint, transverse butt welded joint and tubular joint as these are the most commonly used joint types in the offshore wind industry. The analysis indicates general agreement of fatigue strength with the thickness effects in current standard for in air conditions but great conservatism for corrosive environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0300.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: synthetic aperture radar; sea surface wind; neural network
Online: 18 May 2020 (10:50:03 CEST)
In this paper, we presented a method of retrieving sea surface wind speed from Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) horizontal-horizontal (HH) polarization data in extra-wide mode, which have been extensively acquired over the Arctic for sea ice monitoring. In contrast to the conventional algorithm, i.e., using a geophysical model function (GMF) to retrieve sea surface wind by spaceborne SAR, we introduced an alternative method based on physical model guided neural network. Parameters of SAR normalized radar cross section, incidence angle, and wind direction are used as the inputs of the backward propagation (BP) neural network, and the output is the sea surface wind speed. The network is developed based on more than 11,000 HH-polarized EW images acquired in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) of the Arctic and their collocations with scatterometer measurements. Verification of the neural network based on the testing dataset yields a bias of 0.23 m/s and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.25 m/s compared to the scatterometer wind speed. Further comparison of the SAR retrieved sea surface wind speed with independent buoy measurements shows a bias and RMSE of 0.12 m/s and 1.42 m/s, respectively. We also analyzed the uncertainty of retrieval when the wind direction data of a reanalysis model are used as inputs to the neural network. By combining the detected sea ice cover information based on the EW data, one can expect to derive simultaneously sea ice and marine-meteorological parameters by spaceborne SAR in a high spatial resolution in the Arctic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0070.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: coastal; experiment; lidar; near-shore; offshore; wind resources
Online: 18 October 2016 (07:51:46 CEST)
We present a comprehensive database of near-shore wind observations that were carried out during the experimental campaign of the RUNE project. RUNE aims at reducing the uncertainty of the near-shore wind resource estimates from model outputs by using lidar, ocean, and satellite observations. Here we concentrate in describing the lidar measurements. The campaign was conducted from November 2015 to February 2016 at the west coast of Denmark and comprises measurements from eight lidars, an ocean buoy and three types of satellites. The wind speed was estimated based on measurements from a scanning lidar performing PPIs, two scanning lidars performing dual synchronized scans, and five vertical profiling lidars, of which one was operating offshore on a floating platform. The availability of measurements is highest for the profiling lidars, followed by the lidar performing PPIs, those peforming the dual setup, and the lidar buoy. Analysis of the lidar measurements reveals good agreement between the estimated 10-m wind speeds, although the instruments used different scanning strategies and measured different volumes in the atmosphere. The campaign is characterized by strong westerlies with occasional storms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0118.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: inertial response; internal voltage; variable speed wind turbines
Online: 29 September 2016 (11:38:53 CEST)
With the rapid development of wind power generations, the inertial response of wind turbines (WTs) are widely concerned recently, which is important for grid frequency dynamic and stability. This paper recognizes and understands the inertial response of type-3 and type-4 WTs from the view of equivalent internal voltage, in analogy with typical synchronous generators (SGs). Due to the dynamic of the equivalent inertial voltage different from SGs, the electromechanical inertia of WTs is completely hidden. The rapid power control loop and synchronization control loop is the main reasons that the WT's inertial response is disenabled. On the basis of the equivalent internal voltage's dynamic, the existing inertia control method for WTs are reviewed and summarized as three approaches from the view of WT's control, i.e. optimizing the power control or synchronization control or both. At last, the main challenges and issues of these inertia controls are attempted to explain and address.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0474.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Offshore wind farm siting; Suitability maps; Geographical Information Systems (GIS); Multi-criteria; Analytic hierarchy process (AHP); Offshore wind energy potential.
Online: 18 December 2020 (14:54:47 CET)
Current global commitments to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases encourage national targets for renewable generation. Due to its small land mass, offshore wind could help Bahrain to fulfill its obligations. However, no scoping study has yet been carried out. The methodology presented here addresses this research need. It employs Analytical Hierarchy Process and pairwise comparison methods in a Geographical Information Systems environment. Publicly available land use, infrastructure and transport data are used to exclude areas unsuitable for development due to physical and safety constraints. Meteorological and oceanic opportunities are ranked, then competing uses are analyzed to deliver optimal sites for wind farms. The potential annual wind energy yield is calculated by dividing the sum of optimal areas by a suitable turbine footprint, to deliver maximum turbine number. Ten favourable wind farm areas were identified in Bahrain’s territorial waters, representing about 4% of the total maritime area, and capable of supplying 2.68 TWh/yr of wind energy or almost 10% of the Kingdom’s annual electricity consumption. Detailed maps of potential sites for offshore wind construction are provided in the paper, giving an initial plan for installation in these locations.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: wind power forecasting; short-term prediction; hybrid deep learning; wind farm; long short term memory; gated recurrent network and convolutional layers
Online: 22 September 2020 (03:45:59 CEST)
Accurate forecasting of wind power generation plays a key role in improving the operation and management of a power system network and thereby its reliability and security. However, predicting wind power is complex due to the existence of high non-linearity in wind speed that eventually relies on prevailing weather conditions. In this paper, a novel hybrid deep learning model is proposed to improve the prediction accuracy of very short-term wind power generation for the Bodangora Wind Farm located in New South Wales, Australia. The hybrid model consists of convolutional layers, gated recurrent unit (GRU) layers and a fully connected neural network. The convolutional layers have the ability to automatically learn complex features from raw data while the GRU layers are capable of directly learning multiple parallel sequences of input data. The data sets of five-minute intervals from the wind farm are used in case studies to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model against other advanced existing models, including long short-term memory (LSTM), GRU, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and support vector machine (SVM), which are tuned to optimise outcome. It is observed that the hybrid deep learning model exhibits superior performance over other forecasting models to improve the accuracy of wind power forecasting, numerically, up to 1.59 per cent in mean absolute error, 3.73 per cent in root mean square error and 8.13 per cent in mean absolute percentage error.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0377.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: High-rise Building; Urban Ventilation; Wind Flow; CFD; Babolsar
Online: 25 January 2022 (10:28:25 CET)
In recent years, excessive heat in the urban texture has become the main problem in the humid and calm wind city of Babolsar with high density, especially in high-rise areas. Therefore, in order to create comfort in this region, it is necessary to establish and continue the wind circulation in space with an environmentally compatible and optimal configuration. The study applies combination of literature, field measurement, experimental validation of CFD simulation output, and comparative analysis. After field measurement and validation of FLOW-3D simulation software (V11.2.2), the relationship between these parameters (height, the width of passages, enclosure between buildings, and buildings' orientation) will be studied which affects the wind’s velocity and direction. The factors of the buildings' orientation and enclosure based on the passages' width have opposite reactions in the direction of the prevailing wind especially from perpendicular side. In this study, two effective factors are on wind velocity: 1- The orientation of the buildings towards the wind flow by creating permeability 2- Reducing the enclosure by increasing the width of the passage's perpendicular to the wind flow (w '= 3w, E' = 0.33E). According to the theoretical and practical study, first, the creation of permeability in the body of the block and the separation of buildings instead of aggregation has been studied, and then reducing the confinement of streets perpendicular to the wind flow has been discussed as effective solutions to improve the wind velocity and circulation between the urban environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0266.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: oil palm; modeling; climate; temperature; rainfall; sunshine; wind; humidity
Online: 11 August 2021 (15:44:03 CEST)
Oil palm is one of the most important crops in Malaysia. Lately, the production of oil palm has been reduced due to a variety of factors, including the weather and climate. Temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, sunshine, and rainfall distribution all have an impact on palm tree growth and development, which in turn has an impact on oil palm production. This paper aims to investigate the effects of some weather elements (temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, sunshine, and rainfall) on oil palm production in Peninsular Malaysia. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 20.0 version), with descriptive statistics, and multiple linear regression (MLR). The MLR model determined the strength of the relationship between oil palm yield (dependent variable) and the changing variables of temperature, sunshine, wind speed, relative humidity, and rainfall (independent variables). The findings revealed that temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, sunshine, and rainfall have a low impact on oil palm production and yield turnover. The R2 value of 0.202 shows that the independent variables explained only 20.2% of the fluctuation in palm oil production. The study recommends working within an integrated approach involving scientific research, planting, improving variety, improving regional academic leadership, and engaging private and public stakeholders, emphasized collaborative efforts with researchers in consumer countries, and strengthening the capacity of growers to best agroecological practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0594.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: transparency; suspended solids; wind effect; shallow lake; Sentinel-2
Online: 26 February 2021 (08:17:05 CET)
Wind is one of the factors that has a great influence on suspended matter in lakes, especially in shallow lagoons. In order to know how wind affects the water in Albufera of Valencia, a shallow coastal lagoon, the measured variables of turbidity and transparency have been correlated with the estimates by processing Sentinel-2 satellite images with the Sen2Cor processor. Data from four years of study show that most of them are light to gentle easterly breezes and moderate to fresh westerly breezes. The results obtained show significant correlations between the measured variables and those obtained from the satellite images for total suspended matter and water transparency and with the average daily wind speed. There is no significant correlation between wind and chlorophyll a. Moderate to fresh breezes resuspend the fine sediment reaching concentration values from 100 to 300 mg L-1 according to satellite data. However, it is necessary to obtain field data for the values of moderate and fresh winds, as for now there are no experimental data to verify the validity of the satellite estimates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0152.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Wind farm noise; Amplitude modulation; Random Forest; AM detection
Online: 7 December 2020 (12:51:54 CET)
Amplitude modulation (AM) is a characteristic feature of wind farm noise and has the potential to contribute to annoyance and sleep disturbance. This study aimed to develop an AM detection method using a random forest approach. The method was developed and validated on 6,000 10-second samples of wind farm noise manually classified by a scorer via a listening experiment. Comparison between the random forest method and other widely-used methods showed that the proposed method consistently demonstrated superior performance. This study also found that a combination of low-frequency content features and other unique characteristics of wind farm noise play an important role in enhancing AM detection performance. Taken together, these findings support that using machine learning-based detection of AM is well suited and effective for in-depth exploration of large wind farm noise data sets for potential legislative and research purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0131.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Wind Energy; Heterogeneous Land Use; Icing; Cold Climate; Forests
Online: 7 July 2020 (16:41:02 CEST)
In-cloud ice mass accretion on wind turbines is a common challenge faced by energy companies operating in cold climates. On-shore wind farms in Scandinavia are often located in regions near patches of forest, the heterogeneity length scales of which are often less than the resolution of many numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. The representation of these forests--including the cloud water response to surface roughness and albedo effects related to them--must therefore be parameterized in NWP models used as meteorological input in ice prediction systems, resulting in an uncertainty that is poorly understood and to present date not quantified. The sensitivity of ice accretion forecasts to the subgrid representation of forests is examined in this study. A single column version of the HARMONIE-AROME 3D NWP model is used to determine the sensitivity of the forecast of ice accretion on wind turbines to the subgrid forest fraction. Single column simulations of a variety of icing cases at a location in northern Sweden were examined in order to investigate the impact of vegetation cover on ice accretion in varying levels of solar insulation and wind magnitudes. In mid-winter cases, the wind speed response to surface roughness was the primary driver of the vegetation effect on ice accretion. In early season cases, the cloud water response to surface albedo effects plays a secondary role in the impact of in-cloud ice accretion, with the wind response to surface roughness remaining the primary driver for the surface vegetation impact on icing. Two different surface boundary layer (SBL) forest canopy subgrid parameterizations were tested in this study that feature different methods for calculating near-surface profiles of wind, temperature, and moisture, with the ice mass accretion again following the wind response to surface vegetation between both of these schemes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0361.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Emission; Turbulence; Roof slope; Scaled model; Wind tunnel; Dispersion
Online: 30 June 2020 (08:25:39 CEST)
The application of naturally ventilated pig buildings (NVPBs) with outdoor exercise yards is on the rise mainly due to animal welfare considerations, while the issue of emissions from the buildings to the surrounding environment is important. Since air pollutants are mainly transported by airflow, the knowledge on the airflow characteristics downwind the building is required. The objective of this research was to investigate airflow properties downwind of a NVPB with a roofed outdoor exercise yard for roof slopes of 5°, 15°, and 25°. Air velocities downwind a 1:50 scaled NVPB model were measured using a Laser Doppler Anemometer in a large boundary layer wind tunnel. A region with reduced mean air velocities was found along the downwind side of the building with a distance up to 0.5 m (i.e. 3.8 times building height), in which the emission concentration might be high. It was found that a smaller roof slope (i.e. 5° slope) resulted in a higher and shorter wake zone and thus a shorter air pollutant dispersion distance. It was concluded that a smaller roof slope could contribute to the dilution of air pollutants and a lower air pollutant concentration near the ground.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0095.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: co2 emission reduction; wind power industry; ebm; efficiency evaluation
Online: 8 November 2019 (10:42:29 CET)
In 2015, the new installed capacity of global renewable energy power generation exceeded the newly installed capacity of conventional energy power generation, marking a structural change in the construction of the global power system. With the continuous improvement of wind energy utilization technology, the global wind power industry has developed rapidly in recent years. The world's available wind energy is 20 billion kilowatts and has become one of the most economical green power. In China, wind power has become the third largest source of electricity, with the installed capacity increasing from 3.1% in 2010 to 9.2% in 2017. In 2017, China's new installed capacity was 19,660 MW, accounting for 37.45% of the world's new installed capacity. This paper evaluates and compares the efficiency of wind power industry in the four regions of eastern, central, western and northeastern China through EBM models based on radial and non-radial factors. This paper discusses the contribution of China's wind power industry to CO2 emission reduction from the relationship between installed capacity efficiency and CO2 emission reduction efficiency. The conclusions show that the overall efficiency score and ranking of wind power in 2013-2017 is the best in the eastern region, followed by the northeast region and the western and central regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0315.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: microscale wind modeling; rans modeling; complex terrain; wildland fire
Online: 28 September 2019 (00:32:30 CEST)
An open source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver has been incorporated into the WindNinja modeling framework widely used by wildland fire managers as well as researchers and practitioners in other fields, such as wind energy, wind erosion, and search and rescue. Here we describe incorporation of the CFD solver and evaluate its performance compared to the conservation of mass (COM) solver in WindNinja and previously published large-eddy simulations (LES) for three field campaigns conducted over isolated terrain obstacles of varying terrain complexity: Askervein Hill, Bolund Hill, and Big Southern Butte. We also compare the effects of two important model settings in the CFD solver and provide guidance on model sensitivity to these settings. Additionally, we investigate the computational mesh and difficulties regarding terrain representation. Two important findings from this work are: (1) the choice of discretization scheme for advection has a significantly larger effect on the simulated winds than the choice of turbulence model and (2) CFD solver predictions are significantly better than the COM solver predictions at windward and lee side observation locations, but no difference was found in predicted speed-up at ridgetop locations between the two solvers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0096.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Wind tunnel, Prandtl’s configuration, corners, vortex, turbulence, pressure loss
Online: 14 December 2018 (10:44:37 CET)
Wind tunnels are devices that enable researchers to study the flow over objects of interest, the forces acting on them and their interaction with the flow, which is nowadays playing an increasingly important role due to noise pollution. Since the first closed circuit wind tunnel with variable cross-section was built in G¨ottingen, its Prandtl configuration has little change. The wind tunnel with Prandtl configuration has four corners and vanes, more than 50% of the total pressure loss are caused by the corners and vanes. How to reduce the total pressure loss is a world class problem in the wind tunnel design. This study attempts to propose a novel configuration of wind tunnel, where the corners have been replaced by semi-circular tunnel. Sun wind tunnel 2 has only two corners and vanes, while Sun wind tunnel 1 has no corners and vanes at all. It is expected the new wind tunnel can reduce the total pressure loss from 50% to 10%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0438.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: wind turbines; reliability; criticality analysis; failure; down times; availability
Online: 19 October 2018 (07:50:09 CEST)
Failure of wind turbines is a multi-faceted problem and its monetary impact is often unpredicted. In this study, we present a novel application of survival analysis on wind turbine reliability performance that includes accounting of previous failures and history of scheduled maintenance. We investigate the operational, climatic and geographical factors which affect wind turbine failures and model the risk rate of wind turbine failures based on data from 109 turbines in Germany operating during a period of 19 years. Our analysis showed that adequately scheduled maintenance can increase the survivorship of wind turbine systems and electric subsystems up to 2.8 and 3.8 times, respectively compared to the ones without scheduled maintenance. Geared-drive wind turbines and their electrical systems were observed to have 1.2- and 1.4-times higher survivorship, respectively, compared to direct-drive turbines and their electrical systems. It is also found that survivorship of frequently-failed wind turbine components, such as switches, is worse in geared-drive than in direct-drive wind turbines. We show that survival analysis is a useful tool for guiding the reduction of operating and maintenance costs of wind turbines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0013.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: renewable energy; solar; wind; interannual variability; seasonal forecasting; teleconnections
Online: 7 July 2017 (03:55:54 CEST)
Solar and wind resources available for power generation are subject to variability due to meteorological factors. Here, we use a new global climate reanalysis product, Version 2 of the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2), to quantify interannual variability of monthly-mean solar and wind resource from 1980 to 2016 at a resolution of about 0.5 degrees. We find an average coefficient of variation (CV) of 11% for monthly-mean solar radiation and 8% for windspeed. Mean CVs were about 25% greater over ocean than over land, and, for land areas, were greatest at high latitude. The correlation between solar and wind anomalies was near zero in the global mean, but markedly positive or negative in some regions. Both wind and solar variability were correlated with values of climate modes such as the Southern Oscillation Index and Arctic Oscillation, with correlations in the Northern Hemisphere generally stronger during winter. We conclude that reanalysis solar and wind fields could be helpful in assessing variability in power generation due to interannual fluctuations in the wind and solar resource. Skillful prediction of these fluctuations seems to be possible, particularly for certain regions and seasons, given persistence or predictability of climate modes with which these fluctuations are associated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0017.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: coherent Doppler lidar; multi-Doppler lidar; WindScanner; wind energy
Online: 7 October 2016 (12:19:05 CEST)
In this paper, the technical aspects of a multi-lidar instrument, the long-range WindScanner system, will be presented accompanied by an overview of the results from several field campaigns. The long-range WindScanner system consists of three spatially separated coherent Doppler scanning lidars and a remote master computer that coordinates them. The lidars were carefully engineered to perform arbitrary and time controlled scanning trajectories. Their wireless coordination via the master computer allows achieving and maintaining lidars’ synchronization within ten milliseconds. As a whole, the long-range WindScanner system can measure an entire wind field by emitting and directing three laser beams to intersect, and then by moving the beam intersection over the points of interest. The long-range WindScanner system was developed to tackle the need for high-quality observations of wind fields from scales of modern wind turbine and wind farms. It has been in operation since 2013.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0100.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: lidar; calibration; uncertainties; nacelle-mounted; wind turbine; power performance
Online: 27 September 2016 (10:37:43 CEST)
Nacelle-based Doppler wind lidars have shown promising capabilities to assess power performance, detect yaw misalignment or perform feed-forward control. The power curve application requires uncertainty assessment. Traceable measurements and uncertainties of nacelle-based wind lidars can be obtained through a methodology applicable to any type of existing and upcoming nacelle lidar technology. The generic methodology consists in calibrating all the inputs of the wind field reconstruction algorithms of a lidar. These inputs are the line-of-sight velocity and the beam position, provided by the geometry of the scanning trajectory and the lidar inclination. The line-of-sight velocity is calibrated in atmospheric conditions by comparing it to a reference quantity based on classic instrumentation such as cup anemometers and wind vanes. The generic methodology was tested on two commercially developed lidars, one continuous wave and one pulsed systems, and provides consistent calibration results: linear regressions show a difference of ∼ 0.5 % between the lidar-measured and reference line-of-sight velocities. A comprehensive uncertainty procedure propagates the reference uncertainty to the lidar measurements. At a coverage factor of two, the estimated line-of-sight velocity uncertainty ranges from 3.2 % at 3 m s−1 to 1.9 % at 16 m s−1. Most of the line-of-sight velocity uncertainty originates from the reference: the cup anemometer uncertainty accounts for ∼ 90 % of the total uncertainty. The propagation of uncertainties to lidar-reconstructed wind characteristics can use analytical methods in simple cases, which we demonstrate through the example of a two-beam system. The newly developed calibration methodology allows robust evaluation of a nacelle lidar’s performance and uncertainties to be established in order to further be used for various wind turbines’ applications in confidence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0536.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: WRF model; Moving-nest; Fani; Bay of Bengal; Wind Speed
Online: 31 August 2022 (07:48:18 CEST)
The prediction of an extremely severe cyclonic storm (ESCS) is one of the challenging issues due to increasing intensity and its life period. In this study, an ESCS Fani that developed over Bay of Bengal region during 27 April - 4May, 2019 and made landfall over Odisha coast of India is investigated to forecast the storm track, intensity and structure. Two numerical experiments (changing two air-sea flux parameterization schemes; namely FLUX-1 and FLUX-2) are conducted with the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model by using a moving nest with fine horizontal resolution about 3 km. The high resolution (25 km) NCEP operational Global Forecast System (GFS) analysis and forecast datasets are used to derive the initial and boundary conditions, the ARW model initialized at 00 UTC 29 April 2019 and forecasted for 108 hours. The forecasted track and intensity of Fani is validated with available India Meteorological Department (IMD) best-fit track datasets. Result shows that the track, landfall (position and time) and intensity in terms of minimum sea level pressure (MSLP) and maximum surface wind (MSW) of the storm is well predicted in the moving nested domain of the WRF model using FLUX-1 experiment. The track forecast errors on day-1 to day-4 are ~ 47 km, 123 km, 96 km, and 27 km in FLUX-1 and ~54 km, 142 km, 152 km and 166 km in Flux-2 respectively. The intensity is better predicted in FLUX-1 during the first 60 h followed by FLUX -2 for the remaining period. The structure in terms of relative humidity, water vapor, maximum reflectivity and temperature anomaly of the storm is also discussed and compared with available satellite and Doppler Weather Radar observations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0184.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: wind turbine; noise annoyance; fear; worry; noise sensitivity; noise management
Online: 8 June 2022 (12:31:13 CEST)
Wind energy in Europe is aimed to grow at a steady, high pace, but opposition from residents to local wind farm plans is one of the obstacles to further growth. A large body of evidence shows that local populations want to be involved and respected for their concerns, but in practice this is a complex process that cannot be solved with simple measures such as financial compensation. The visual presence and the acoustic impact of a wind farm is an important concern for residents. Generally environmental noise management aims to reduce the exposure of the population, usually based on acoustics and restricted to a limited number of sources (such as transportation or industry) and sound descriptors (such as Lden). Individual perceptions are taken into account only at an aggregate, statistical level (such as percentage of exposed, annoyed or sleep-disturbed persons in the population). Individual perceptions and reactions to sound vary in intensity and over different dimensions (such as pleasure/fear or distraction). Sound level is in fact a weak predictor of the perceived health effects of sound. The positive or negative perception of and attitude to the source of the sound is a better predictor of its effects. This article aims to show how the two perspectives (based on acoustics and on perception) can lead to a combined approach in the management of a wind farm aimed to reduce annoyance, not primarily of sound level. An important aspect in this approach is what the sound means to people: is it associated with the experience of having no say in plans, does it lead to anxiety or worry, is it appropriate? The available knowledge will be applied to wind farm management: planning as well as operation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0123.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: wind energy; digitalisation; collaboration; co-innovation; machine learning; fault detection
Online: 10 May 2022 (03:05:25 CEST)
In the next decade, further digitalisation of the entire wind energy project lifecycle is expected to be a major driver for reducing project costs and risks. In this paper, a literature review on the challenges related to implementation of digitalisation in the wind energy industry is first carried out, showing that there is a strong need for new solutions that enable co-innovation within and between organisations. Therefore, a new collaboration method called the WeDoWind Ecosystem is developed and demonstrated. The method is centred around specific "challenges", which are defined by "challenge providers" within a topical "space" and made available to participants via a digital platform. The data required in order to solve a particular "challenge" is provided by the "challenge providers" under the confidentiality conditions they specify. The method is demonstrated via a case study, the EDP Wind Turbine Fault Detection Challenge. Six submitted solutions using diverse approaches are evaluated. Two of the methods perform significantly better than EDP’s existing method in terms of Total Prediction Costs (saving up to €120,000). The WeDoWind Ecosystem is found to be a promising solution for enabling co-innovation in wind energy, providing a number of tangible benefits for both challenge and solution providers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0023.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: consumer behavior; Google Trends; wind energy; public interest; environmental marketing.
Online: 1 February 2022 (21:39:15 CET)
The public interest towards renewable and clean energy is an important part of shaping consumer behavior and policy towards these topics. A “big data” approach towards assessing the public interest for various topics consists in using freely available search frequency data for the Google search engine, through the Google Trends service. The search data frequency can be used to assess public opinion for a variety of topics, such as medicine, climate change and environmental concerns, finance, and economics etc. A study of the public interest towards wind energy topics is reported here. Six Google search keywords (“Wind power”, “Wind energy”, “Offshore wind”, “Wind farm”, “Wind turbine” and “Wind generator”) were investigated in the 2004–2020-time range. All keywords except “Offshore wind” show a steady decrease from a 2008 – 2010 maximum up to 2015, followed by a period limited change in the 2015 – 2020 range. The interest towards offshore wind topics follows a similar trend but increases in frequency starting from 2015 and reaches a maximum in 2018. Overall, the Google Trends data show a decrease of public interests towards most wind energy topics, with the exception of “Offshore wind”, for English speaking users, in the 2004–2020-time range.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0454.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Review; Electric Field; Ionic wind; Electric assisted combustion; Soot emission
Online: 22 October 2020 (09:54:38 CEST)
Electric field assisted combustion is an important means to improve fuel combustion efficiency. This paper conducts extensive research on flame characteristics under different forms and different application methods of electric fields, emission of soot particles and simulation status. Different flame parameter measurement methods will lead to different degrees of error, and perfect numerical simulation can make simple predictions on experimental data. Most of the current numerical simulations are in two dimensions, and it is necessary to develop a complete and accurate three-dimensional model to simulate and predict the characteristics of the flame under an electric field. The emission of soot particles is also affected by the electric field, and reasonable electric field parameters can greatly reduce the emission of soot particles. It is recommended to conduct centralized measurement of different fuels under the electric field under high pressure and temperature conditions, so as to be able to develop a wider and more accurate flame dynamics and chemical model under the electric field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0413.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: geothermal energy; life cycle analysis; solar photovoltaic energy; wind energy
Online: 28 February 2020 (01:34:44 CET)
A Life Cycle Analysis was performed considering three existing power plants of comparable size operating with different sources of renewable energy: geothermal, solar and wind. Primary data were used for building the life cycle inventories. The geothermal power plant includes emissions treatment for removal of hydrogen sulfide and mercury. The scenario about the substitution of natural emissions from geothermal energy, with specific reference to the greenhouse effect, is also investigated performing a sensitivity analysis. The results are characterized employing a wide portfolio of environmental indicators employing the Recipe 2016 and the ILCD 2011 Midpoint+ methods; normalization and weighting are also applied using the Recipe 2016 method at endpoint level. The results demonstrate a good eco-profile of geothermal power plant with respect to other renewable energy systems and allow for a critical analysis to support potential improvements of the environmental performances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0390.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: proper orthogonal decomposition; wind farms; eigenspectra; counter-rotating roll cells
Online: 26 February 2020 (11:09:26 CET)
Large scale coherent structures in atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) are known to contribute to the power generation in wind farms. In the current paper, we perform a detailed analysis of the large scale structures in a finite sized wind turbine canopy using modal analysis from three dimensional proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). While POD analysis sheds light on the large scale coherent modes and scaling laws of the eigenspectra, we also observe a slow convergence of the spectral trends with the available number of snapshots. Since the finite sized array is periodic in the spanwise direction, we propose to adapt a novel approach of performing POD analysis of the spanwise/lateral Fourier transformed velocity snapshots instead of the snapshots themselves. This methodology not only helps in decoupling the length scales in the spanwise and the streamwise direction when studying the energetic coherent modes, but also provides a detailed guidance towards understanding the convergence of the eigenspectra. In particular, the Fourier-POD eigenspectra helps us illustrate if the dominant scaling laws observed in 3D POD are actually contributed by the laterally wider or thinner structures and provide more detailed insight on the structures themselves. We use the database from our previous large eddy simulation (LES) studies on finite-sized wind farms which uses wall-modeled LES for modeling the Atmospheric boundary layer laws, and actuator lines for the turbine blades. Understanding the behaviour of such structures would not only help better assess reduced order models (ROM) for forecasting the flow and power generation but would also play a vital role in improving the decision making abilities in wind farm optimization algorithms in future. Additionally, this study also provides guidance for better understanding the POD analysis in the turbulence and wind farm community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0376.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Regional climate model; wind energy; surface roughness; ERA5 reanalysis data
Online: 25 February 2020 (11:51:17 CET)
This study explores wind energy resources in different locations through the Gulf of Oman and also their future variability due climate change impacts. In this regard, EC-EARTH near-surface wind outputs obtained from CORDEX-MENA simulations are used for historical and future projection of the energy. The ERA5 wind data are employed to assess the suitability of the climate model. Moreover, the ERA5 wave data over the study area are applied to compute sea surface roughness as an important variable for converting near-surface wind speeds to those of wind speed at turbine hub height. Considering the power distribution, bathymetry and distance from the coats, some spots as tentative energy hotspots to provide a detailed assessment of directional and temporal variability and also to investigate climate change impact studies. RCP8.5 is a common climatic scenario is used to project and extract future variation of the energy in the selected sites. The results of this study demonstrate that the selected locations have a suitable potential for wind power turbine plans and constructions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0233.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: wind power; machine learning; hybrid model; prediction; whale optimization algorithm
Online: 17 February 2020 (02:22:05 CET)
Wind power as a renewable source of energy, has numerous economic, environmental and social benefits. In order to enhance and control the renewable wind power, it is vital to utilize models that predict wind speed with high accuracy. Due to neglecting of requirement and significance of data preprocessing and disregarding the inadequacy of using a single predicting model, many traditional models have poor performance in wind speed prediction. In the current study, for predicting wind speed at target stations in the north of Iran, the combination of a multi-layer perceptron model (MLP) with the Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA) used to build new method (MLP-WOA) with a limited set of data (2004-2014). Then, the MLP-WOA model was utilized at each of the ten target stations, with the nine stations for training and tenth station for testing (namely: Astara, Bandar-E-Anzali, Rasht, Manjil, Jirandeh, Talesh, Kiyashahr, Lahijan, Masuleh and Deylaman) to increase the accuracy of the subsequent hybrid model. Capability of the hybrid model in wind speed forecasting at each target station was compared with the MLP model without the WOA optimizer. To determine definite results, numerous statistical performances were utilized. For all ten target stations, the MLP-WOA model had precise outcomes than the standalone MLP model. The hybrid model had acceptable performances with lower amounts of the RMSE, SI and RE parameters and higher values of NSE, WI and KGE parameters. It was concluded that WOA optimization algorithm can improve prediction accuracy of MLP model and may be recommended for accurate wind speed prediction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0347.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: Moon; Earth; tidal locking; dipole magnetic field; solar wind; moonfall
Online: 29 May 2019 (10:30:43 CEST)
The moon always use the same side to face toward the earth, but there is a dead angle in the mainstream theory of explaining this phenomenon. That is, it cannot explain why the moon doesn't rotate around the axis which is a straight line to connect the mass centers of the earth and moon. Because the numerous meteorite impact craters on the lunar surface indicate that the moon is completely possible to obtain external momentums and rotate around this axis. This paper proposes a plain explanation, that is, the universal gravitation between the earth and moon as well as the earth's magnetic field have formed a trinity restraint mechanism on the moon. According to this explanation, the moon's rotation can be locked, and the mechanism of lunar libration has been revealed out, which can also confirm mutually with the natural phenomenon that the moon has sought a balance in the swing. In addition, with the help of all kinds of detection data from the Apollo moon landings and other circumlunar spacecraft, as well as the studies and analysis of lunar soil samples, the conclusion is that as far as a whole for the moon, it belongs to paramagnetic substances, and its relative permeability is between 1.008 and 1.03. Although the magnetic flux density of the earth on the lunar orbit has been dropped below 0.0008125 nT or lower due to the impact of the solar wind, but it can be used as a reason to lock the moon without rotating around the axis which is a straight line to connect the mass centers of the earth and moon. If another main reason to cause the existence of this fact cannot be found, even if the magnetic flux density of the geomagnetism in lunar orbit is very small, it also should not be artificially ignored. In this regard, we can artificially change the intensity of the earth's magnetic field, and carefully observe the lunar libration and in the distance between the earth and the moon, to verify the arguments in this paper.