ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0057.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: groundwater; Haiti; filtration; water treatment; developing country; point of use treatment; household treatment
Online: 3 August 2018 (04:03:22 CEST)
Water resources, especially safe, potable water, are limited for many Haitians. In areas where shallow groundwater is available, many household water needs such as laundry, bathing, and cooking are supplied by hand-dug wells. In order to better understand the water quality and prevalence of these household wells, 35 hand-dug wells were surveyed and sampled near the Hôpital Albert Schweitzer (HAS) in Deschapelles, Haiti. Water samples were collected and tested for fecal coliform and E. coli using the IDEXX Colilert-18 method. Of the samples collected, 89 percent were determined unsafe to use as a drinking water source based on the World Health Organization standard of 1.0 colony-forming unit (cfu) Escherichia Coli (E. coli) per 100 mL. 66 percent of the wells exceeded recreational/body contact standards for the state of Michigan (130 cfu/100 mL). Some of these wells were deemed suitable for conversion to a new well type called In-Situ Filtration (ISF) wells. ISF wells are installed with an internal sand filter pack, PVC casing, pump, and cap which seals the well from surface contamination and provides additional water treatment as water is pumped. Previous ISF installations have reduced E. coli to safe drinking water levels within 90 days.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Cancer treatment, resistance to treatment, evolution of resistance, background extinctions
Online: 1 February 2019 (10:29:06 CET)
We propose the traditional goal of cancer therapists to develop a single drug or drug combination that can, by itself, eliminate all cancer cells within a host has neglected potential treatments that may achieve curative outcomes by strategically combining agents that are individually effective but non-curative. We derive basic principles for such an approach from the eco-evolutionary dynamics of background extinctions in which a “first strike” reduces the size and heterogeneity of the initial population and is followed immediately by demographic and ecological “second strikes” that push the population below an extinction threshold. This proposed strategy appears identical to the empirically-derived curative therapy in childhood Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0395.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: African swine fever; pathogenesis; biomarkers; serum; saliva; virus inactivation; detergent treatment; heat treatment; impact of treatment on biomarkers
Online: 30 May 2022 (11:22:19 CEST)
African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable viral disease of domestic and wild suids. Despite intensive re-search efforts, the pathogenesis of the disease is still far from being understood. Analysis of biomarkers in different body fluids may supplement traditional pathogenesis studies. As reliable protocols are often es-tablished in laboratories with lower biosafety, reliable inactivation of samples is crucial. The objective of this study was to find a procedure that inactivates the virus while preserving the biomarkers for down-stream analyses. To this means, three different inactivation protocols were employed, namely Tergitol-type NP-40 (NP-40) and polyoxyethylene-p-t-octylphenol (Triton X-100), respectively, and one with 95 °C heating. It could be demonstrated that all samples treated with 0.5% (v/v) concentration of both deter-gents showed absence of virus infectivity. The same was true for heated samples. However, heated serum was not suitable for analyses. Next, the treatment impact on biomarker readouts was assessed. While all protocols had an impact on the detection of biomarkers, correlation was retained. Especially NP-40 could be the desired detergent for more accurate measurements while achieving efficient virus inactivation. Based on these studies, samples can be reliably inactivated for most biomarker analyses and thus broader interdisciplinary cooperation is possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0008.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: aggressive treatment; Liver transplant; nonaggressive treatment; Primary Hepatic Angiosarcoma; tumor resection
Online: 1 December 2021 (10:57:24 CET)
Background and Aims: Of all primary liver tumors, primary hepatic angiosarcoma (PHA) is a rare and aggressive malignant vascular tumor. The standard therapeutic care for hepatic angiosarcoma remains unclear. This study compared the survival outcomes of aggressive treatment (resection and liver transplant) and nonaggressive treatment (chemotherapy, transarterial chemoembolization [TACE], and conservative treatments) for patients with PHA and analyzed the prognostic factors influencing survival. Materials and Methods: Data of patients diagnosed as having PHA at our facility were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was survival time. The secondary outcome was calculated baseline characteristics. Results: We included a total of 19 patients, who were divided into 2 treatment groups: aggressive (8 patients had undergone resection or transplants) and nonaggressive (11 patients had undergone TACE, chemotherapy, or conservative treatment). The mean survival time was 233.1 ± 189.7 days in the aggressive treatment group and 146.5 ± 115.8 days in the nonaggressive treatment group. A Kaplan-Meier plot revealed no significant difference in survival time between the 2 treatment groups (P = .3256). Conclusions: The survival time of patients receiving aggressive treatment was longer than that of those receiving nonaggressive treatment. The long term survival time in some selective cases of aggressive treatment will be achieved. Thought a difference was not significant between the groups. Because the number of patients was limited, more cases are required to confirm these findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0362.v2
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: VarroMed®; Varroa destructor; winter treatment; summer-autumn treatment; queen caging; brood interruption
Online: 30 August 2021 (12:52:30 CEST)
VarroMed® is a soft acaricide registered for honey bees on the European Union market since 2017 for Varroa control. Researchers involved were partners of different countries of the Varroa control task force of COLOSS Association. Our goal was to evaluate performances (acaricide efficacy and toxic effects on honey bees) of VarroMed® in different climatic conditions. Our results in the tested apiaries showed an efficacy ranging from 71.2 to 89.3 % in summer/autumn, and from 71.8 % to 95.6 % in winter. No toxic effects on bees were observed, except in one apiary, where severe cold climatic conditions played a crucial role. The treatment could be efficiently applied in brood right as well as in broodless colonies. Integrated pest management (IPM) recommendations for bee-keepers are provided in order to apply the best Varroa control protocol.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0036.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Monkeypox; prevention; treatment; endemic; transmission
Online: 2 June 2022 (16:18:05 CEST)
Monkeypox virus was named so because of its detection in monkeys in 1958. It belongs to the same family as smallpox and chickenpox viruses. There had been numerous outbreaks of this malady initially in the African continent and other parts of the world. The simultaneous spread in nineteen countries in 2022 has raised some serious concerns.Monkeypox is no more a rare disease and has the potential for bioweapon use. We discuss the various ways to prevent its spread, treatment options available, diagnosis, and differentiation from other closely related diseases. We also discuss if the present outbreak could be a bioattack or if this disease is here to stay.The literature suggests that we can effectively manage Monkeypox because of the availability of drugs and vaccination against smallpox. There is also a need for active surveillance against the new resistant recombinant viral strains. The possibility of this outbreak being a bioattack seems remote, although there are questions about the transmission which still need to be answered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0105.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: Diamond; Magnetic order; Laser treatment
Online: 7 December 2021 (13:32:45 CET)
In this work, we demonstrate that cutting diamond crystals with a laser (532 nm wavelength, 0.5 mJ energy, 200 ns pulse duration at 15 kHz) produces a ≲20nm thick surface layer with magnetic order at room temperature. We have measured the magnetic moment with a SQUID magnetometer of six natural and six CVD diamond crystals of different size, nitrogen content and surface orientations. A robust ferromagnetic response at 300 K is observed only for crystals that were cut with the laser along the (100) surface orientation. The magnetic signals are much weaker for the (110) and negligible for the (111) orientations. We attribute the magnetic order to the disordered graphite layer produced by the laser at the diamond surface. The ferromagnetic signal vanished after chemical etching or after moderate temperature annealing. The obtained results indicate that laser treatment of diamond may pave the way to create ferromagnetic spots at its surface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0159.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: electrophoresis; protein; mechanical treatment; quantification
Online: 6 July 2021 (14:54:12 CEST)
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) is widely used for studying proteins and protein-containing objects. However, it is employed most frequently as a qualitative method rather than a quantitative one. In this paper, we show the feasibility of routine digital image acquisition and mathematical processing of electrophoregrams for protein quantification. Both the well-studied model protein molecules (bovine serum albumin) and more complex real-world protein-based products (casein-containing isolate for sports nutrition), which were subjected to mechanical activation in a planetary ball mill to obtain samples characterized by different protein denaturation degrees, were used as study objects. Protein quantification in the mechanically activated samples was carried out. The degree of destruction of individual protein was shown to be higher compared to that of protein-containing mixture after mechanical treatment for an identical amount of time. The methodological approach used in this study can serve as guidance for other researchers who would like to use electrophoresis for protein quantification both in individual form and in protein mixtures. The findings prove that photographic imaging of gels followed by mathematical data processing can be applied for analyzing the electrophoretic data.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0598.v1
Online: 25 May 2021 (09:58:47 CEST)
One of the biggest threats we face globally is the emergence of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria, which runs in parallel with a lack in the development of new antimicrobials. Among these AMR bacteria, pathogens belonging to the ESKAPE group can be highlighted (Enterococcus spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp) due to their profile of drug resistance and virulence. Therefore, innovative lines of treatment must be developed for these bacteria. In this review, we summarize the different strategies for the treatment and study of molecular mechanisms of AMR in the ESKAPE pathogens based on the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins' technologies: loss of plasmid or cellular viability, random mutation or gene deletion as well directed mutations that lead to a gene's loss of function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0140.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: culturability; antibiotic resistance; wastewater treatment
Online: 4 March 2021 (08:20:47 CET)
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a growing global concern, threatening human and environ-mental health, particularly among urban populations. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are thought to be “hotspots” for antibiotic resistance dissemination. The conditions of WWTPs, in conjunction with the persistence of commonly used antibiotics, may favor the selection and trans-fer of resistance genes among bacterial populations. WWTPs provide an important ecological niche to examine the spread of antibiotic resistance. We used heterotrophic plate count methods to identify phenotypically resistant cultivable portions of these bacterial communities and charac-terized the composition of the culturable subset of these populations. Resistant taxa were more abundant in raw sewage and wastewater before the biological aeration treatment stage. While some antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) were detectable downstream of treated wastewater re-lease, these organisms are not enriched relative to effluent-free upstream water, indicating effi-cient removal during treatment. Combined culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses revealed a stark difference in community composition between culturable fractions and the envi-ronmental source material, irrespective of culturing conditions. Higher proportions of the envi-ronmental populations were recovered than predicted by the widely accepted 1% culturability paradigm. These results represent baseline abundance and compositional data for ARB commu-nities for reference in future studies addressing the dissemination of antibiotic resistance associ-ated with urban wastewater treatment ecosystems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0046.v1
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:10:51 CET)
Application of native PGPR as bio inoculant is an alternative sustainable agricultural practice to enhance crop productivity, grain quality, and soil fertility. In this view, a study was to examine the effect of either individual or consortium PGPR inoculation on growth, yield, and grain nutrient uptake of two teff varieties. The pot experiment was carried out in (CRD) three replication and 10 treatments. The PGPR inoculants used in this study were Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype G, Enterobacter cloacae ss disolvens, and Serratia marcescens ss marcescen and their consortium. Dukem and Magna varieties were used in this study. The results of the analysis of variance showed significant differences (P ≤ 0.001) among the treatment and most of the agronomic traits except number of fertile tillers and also significant different (P ≤ 0.01) for grain P and N uptake. The variety was significantly affected grain Mg, Zn and Fe uptake at 5 % probability level and did not significantly influence all agronomic traits of the two varieties. Furthermore, interaction effects of two factors (TM*VT) were significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for plant height and panicle length. Individual treatments mean comparison results showed that inoculation of native PGPR consortium significantly affected most of the PGP traits at (P ≤ 0.05). The maximum traits like plant height (189cm), panicle length (66.7cm), shoot dry biomass (9.98g), root dry biomass (2.90g) and grain yield per plant (4.55g) were observed from Dz-01-196. It could be concluded that the consortium of native PGPR inoculants for plant growth, yield and grain nutrient uptake improvement performed better than their individual strain.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0315.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Duodenum, gastrointestinal stromal tumor; treatment
Online: 26 December 2018 (12:25:28 CET)
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the mostly seen mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal system. This rare tumor in duodenum is seen 5%. The diagnosis and treatment is hard because of its rarity and location. Case: A 63-year-old man with a solid mass at the third part of the duodenum, and local segmental resection of the tumor was performed. The histopathology was reported as gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the duodenum with negative surgical margins. Discussion: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors at the duodenum are seen rarely. They can be asymptomatic or may involve symptoms of upper GI bleeding and abdominal pain at presentation. Because of the misleading clinical presentation the differential diagnosis may be difficult. Tumors less than 2 cm can be followed by endoscopic ultrasound. Local segmental resection with 1cm clear margin is the treatment choice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0062.v1
Online: 9 November 2017 (09:17:37 CET)
Introduction In sacubitril-valsartan (sacub/v), the effects of an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) exerted by valsartan are strengthened by the addition of sacubitril, an inhibitor of neutral endopeptidases. PARADIGM - HF study proved this association to be superior to enalapril in reducing both all-cause death and cardiovascular mortality, as well as heart failure (HF) hospitalizations in patients with cardiac insufficiency and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction( HFREF) belonging to NYHA class II-IV. To test whether even in our experience sacub/v is associated with favorable outcomes concerning mortality and morbidity, an outpatient small population of HFREF patients was retrospectively studied, of whom one third was treated with sacub/v instead of conventional therapy with ACE -inhibitors or ARBs. Methods A retrospective cohort study was carried out to assess the effects of sacub/v in addition to beta-blocker and mineral receptor antagonist (MRA) in a group of HFREF patients in NYHA classes II-III compared with conventional therapy (comprising ACE inhibitor or ARB added to beta-blocker plus a MRA) administered in a second group of HFREF patients with comparable clinical features retrospectively enrolled as controls. In the two groups, the therapeutic regimen was established in accordance with the preferences of the treating physician. Additionally, in both groups, evidence-based drug therapy was supplemented by the adjunct of a loop diuretic, usually furosemide, at variable doses. The primary outcomes of interest were all-cause death and HF hospitalizations. Safety outcomes were symptomatic hypotension, angioedema, hyperkalemia and worsening renal function. Results Mortality at six months was 6.8% in patients under therapy with sacub/v versus 34% in those treated with conventional therapy (odds ratio[OR] = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.04-0.49). Moreover, HF hospitalizations in the observation period considered were 4.5% in sacub/v group versus 59% in the conventional therapy group (OR = 0.03; 95% CI: 0.01–0.14). Safety outcomes included in our study (angioedema, hyperkalemia, hypotension and worsening renal function) showed a comparable profile in the two groups, with evidence of good tolerability of sacub/v , except for the side - effect " hypotension" (PAS < 100 mm Hg) , found in 15.9% of patients under sacub/v versus 5.7% reported in controls (OR = 3.14; 95% CI: 0.94–10.55). Conclusions In our experience, sacub/v has yielded a strong protection against both all-cause death and HF hospitalizations at six months , in the absence of significant noxious side effects. Nevertheless, considering the retrospective character of the study and the relatively exiguous sample size, further post marketing observational studies would be desirable . In particular, studies aiming at exploring safety of the new pharmacologic principle, namely mainly focusing on hypotension and angioedema, are warranted, in order to validate further this very efficacious molecule for therapy of chronic HF, especially stable HFREF in NYHA classes II-III.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0019.v1
Online: 4 April 2017 (09:44:42 CEST)
Thin film transistors (TFTs) using In-Ga-Zn Oxide (IGZO) as active layer and the gate insulator was treated with NH3 plasma and N2O plasma, respectively, which is fabricated on flexible PI substrate in this work. The performance of IGZO TFTs with different plasma species and treatment time are investigated and compared. The experiment results show that the plasma species and treatment time play an important role in the threshold voltage, field-effect mobility, Ion/Ioff ratio, sub-threshold swing (SS) and bias stress stability of the devices. The TFT with a 10 seconds NH3 plasma treatment shows the best performance; specifically, threshold voltage of 0.34 V, field-effect mobility of 15.97 cm2/Vs, Ion/Ioff ratio of 6.33×107, and sub-threshold swing of 0.36 V/dec. The proposed flexible IGZO-TFTs in this paper can be used as driving devices in the next-generation flexible displays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0116.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: suicide; network analysis; symptoms; personalized treatment
Online: 13 February 2017 (11:04:49 CET)
Although suicide is a major public health issue worldwide, we understand little of the onset and development of suicidal behavior. Suicidal behavior is argued to be the end result of the complex interaction between psychological, social and biological factors. Epidemiological studies resulted in a range of risk factors for suicidal behavior, but we do not yet understand how their interaction increases the risk for suicidal behavior. A new approach called network analysis can help us better understand this process as it allows to visualize and quantify complex association between many different symptoms or risk factors. A network analysis of data contain information on suicidal patients can help us understand how risk factors interact and how their interaction is related to suicidal thoughts and behaviour. A network perspective has been successfully applied to the field of depression and psychosis, but not yet to the field of suicidology. In this theoretical article, I will introduce the concept of network analysis to the field of suicide prevention, and offer directions for future applications and studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0154.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: post-stroke aphasia; pharmacotherapy; cholinergic treatment
Online: 11 July 2022 (08:58:05 CEST)
Despite the relative scarcity of studies focusing on pharmacotherapy in aphasia, there is evidence in the literature indicating that remediation of language disorders via pharmaceutical agents could be a promising aphasia treatment option. Among the various agents used to treat chronic aphasic deficits, cholinergic drugs have provided interesting results. In the current review, we focused on published reports investigating the impact of acetylcholine on language and further cognitive disturbances. It has been suggested that acetylcholine plays an important role in neuroplasticity and is related to several aspects of cognition, such as memory and attention. Moreover, cholinergic input is diffused to a wide network of cortical areas, which have been associated with language sub-processes. This could be a possible explanation for the positive reported outcomes of cholinergic drugs in aphasia recovery, and specifically in distinct language processes, such as naming and comprehension, as well as overall communication competence. However, evidence with regard to functional alterations in specific brain areas after pharmacotherapy is rather limited. Finally, despite the positive results derived from the relevant studies, cholinergic pharmacotherapy treatment in post-stroke aphasia has not been widely implemented. The present review aims to provide an overview of the existing literature in cholinergic pharmacotherapy interventions in post-stroke aphasia, following an integrated approach by converging evidence from neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neuropsychology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0260.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: canine; fecal microbiota transplantation; treatment; mechanism
Online: 20 June 2022 (05:49:24 CEST)
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging therapeutic option for a variety of diseases, which is characterized as transferring fecal microorganisms from a healthy donor into the intestinal tract of a diseased receipt. In human clinics, FMT has been used for treating diseases for decades with promising results. In recent years, veterinary specialists adapted FMT in canine patients, however, compared to humans, canine FMT is more inclined to research purposes than practical applications in most cases due to safety concerns. Therefore, in order to facilitate the application of fecal transplant therapy in dogs, in this paper, we aimed to review recent application of FMT in canine clinical treatments as well as possible mechanisms that are involved in the process of therapeutic effect of FMT.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0328.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: male; breast; cancer; diagnosis; treatment; prognosis
Online: 24 May 2022 (09:34:47 CEST)
Male breast cancers are uncommon, as men account for less than 1 percent of all breast carcinomas. Among the predisposing risk factors for male breast cancer, the following appear to be significant: a) breast/chest radiation exposure, b) estrogen use, diseases associated with hyper-estrogenism, such as cirrhosis or Klinefelter syndrome, and c) family health history. Furthermore, there are clear familial tendencies, with a higher incidence among men who have a large number of female relatives with breast cancer and d) major inheritance susceptibility. Moreover, in families with BRCA mutations, there is an increased risk of male breast cancer, although the risk appears to be greater with inherited BRCA2 mutations than with inherited BRCA1 mutations. Due to diagnostic delays, male breast cancer is more likely to present at an advanced stage. A core biopsy or a fine needle aspiration must be performed to confirm suspicious findings. Infiltrating ductal cancer is the most prevalent form of male breast cancer, while invasive lobular carcinoma is extremely uncommon. Male breast cancer is almost always positive for hormone receptors. A worse prognosis is associated with a more advanced stage at diagnosis for men with breast cancer. And randomized controlled trials which recruit both female and male patients should be developed in order to gain more consistent data on the optimal clinical approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0785.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Trypanosomosis; Treatment; DTPa; Bordetella pertussis 3
Online: 30 April 2021 (10:40:55 CEST)
Salivarian trypanosomes are extracellular parasites causing anthroponotic and zoonotic infections. Anti-parasite vaccination in considered the only sustainable method for global trypanosomosis control. Unfortunately, not a single field applicable vaccine solution has been successful so far. Active destruction of the host’s adaptive immune system by trypanosomes is believed to contribute to this problem. Here we show Trypanosome brucei brucei infection results in the lasting obliteration of immunological memory, including vaccine-induced memory against non-related pathogens. Using the well-established DTPa vaccine model in combination with a T. b. brucei infection and diminazene diaceturate anti-parasite treatment scheme, our result demonstrate that while the latter ensured the full recovery from the T. b. brucei infection, it failed to restore an efficacious anti-pertussis vaccine recall response. DTPa vaccine failure coincided with a shift in the IgG1/IgG2a anti-pertussis antibody ratio in favor of the latter, and a striking impact on all spleen immune cell populations. Interestingly, an increased plasma IFNy level in DTPa vaccinated trypanosome infected mice did result in a temporary antibody-independent improvement of early-stage trypanosomosis control. In conclusion, our results are the first to show that trypanosome inflicted immune damage is permanent, and is not restored by successful anti-parasite treatment.
Online: 13 September 2020 (11:20:13 CEST)
Randomized clinical trials represent the gold standard in therapeutic research. Nevertheless, observational cohorts of patients treated for multidrug-resistant (MDR) or rifampin-resistant (RR) tuberculosis (TB) also play an important role in generating evidence to guide MDR/RR TB Generally, summary exposure classifications (e.g., ‘ever versus never’, ‘exposed at baseline’) have been used to characterize drug exposure, in the absence of detailed longitudinal data on MDR-TB regimen These summary classifications, along with an absence of data on covariates that change throughout the course of treatment, constrain researchers’ ability to answer the most relevant questions while accounting for known This paper highlights the importance of regimen changes in improving inference from observational studies of longer MDR-TB treatment regimens and offers an overview of the data and analytic strategies required to do
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0283.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Adverse drug reaction; COVID-19 treatment
Online: 12 August 2020 (11:12:41 CEST)
BACKGROUND: From March to April 2020, Spain was the center of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, particularly Madrid with approximately 30% of the cases in Spain. The aim of this study is to report the suspected serious adverse drug reactions (SADRs) in COVID-19 patients versus non-COVID-19 patients detected by the prospective pharmacovigilance program based on automatic laboratory signals (ALSs) in the hospital (PPLSH) during that period. We also compared the results with the suspected SADRs detected during the same period for 2019. METHODS: All ALSs that reflected potential SADRs (including neutropenia, pancytopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, eosinophilia, leukocytes in cerebrospinal fluid, hepatitis, pancreatitis, acute kidney injury, rhabdomyolysis and hyponatremia were prospectively monitored in hospitalized patients during the study periods. We analyzed the incidence and the distribution of causative drugs for the COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: The incidence rate of SADRs detected in the COVID-19 patients was 760.63 (95% CI 707.89–816.01) per 10,000 patients, 4.75-fold higher than the SADR rate for non-COVID-19 patients (160.15 per 10,000 patients,95% CI 137.09–186.80), and 5.84-fold higher than the SADR rate detected for the same period in 2019 (130.19 per 10,000 patients, 95% CI 109.53–154.36). The most frequently related drugs were tocilizumab (59.84%), dexketoprofen (13.93%), azithromycin (8.43%), lopinavir-ritonavir (7.35%), dexamethasone (7.62%), and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (6.91%). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rate of SADRs detected by the PPSLH in patients with COVID-19 was 4.75-fold higher than that of the non-COVID-19 patients. Caution is recommended when using medications for COVID-19 patients, especially drugs that are hepatotoxic, myotoxic, and those that induce thromboembolic events.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0355.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: microplastics; analysis; waste treatment; food; diet
Online: 23 May 2020 (04:58:22 CEST)
This preprint is focused in the presence of plastics and microplastics in food. We will discuss how many we eat, and how they arrive to the food, and why. We will treat many other things, such as the waste treatment in Europe and in Spain, with updated data; how much plastic waste is generated; what are microplastics and how they are analyzed, I will tell about the experience we have at the University of Alicante (UA); how they can be removed and we will estimate how many we eat over the course of a year.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0348.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: hydroxychloroquine; COVID-19; pneumonia; prophylaxis; treatment
Online: 12 May 2020 (08:06:55 CEST)
According to current literature and preliminary data, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) seems potentially effective in the treatment of patients with Covid-19 pneumonia. The concentrations of HCQ in lungs might be well above that of plasma. Most likely, this property of HCQ provides effective drug concentrations in lungs. HCQ has a gradual onset of action in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. This could be valid for the treatment of Covid-19 pneumonia. It was suggested that regular HCQ administration in animals for a certain time might result in gradual accumulation of HCQ in tissues. Reduced perfusion, somewhat distorted architecture of lung tissue, edema and, suggested gradual accumulation of HCQ in lung tissue might cause reduced HCQ concentrations in pneumonic areas of the lungs in Covid-19 pneumonia. Patients with Covid-19 pneumonia and extensive lung involvement might have less HCQ concentrations in their lungs than patients having limited lung involvement. Furthermore, patients with Covid-19 pneumonia and extensive lung involvement might have more viral load than patients having limited lung involvement. That’s why treatment of patients with advanced Covid-19 pneumonia using HCQ might result in treatment failure, however HCQ might be effective in the treatment of patients with mild and moderate Covid-19 pneumonia. Using HCQ in Covid-19 pneumonia prophylaxis seems logical since providing enough accumulation of HCQ in the healthy lungs, before the arrival of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, might prevent Covid-19 pneumonia. However, the purpose of this paper is not to recommend using or not using HCQ for the treatment or for the prophylaxis of Covid-19 pneumonia. The purpose of this paper is only to try to bring a new perspective on the role of HCQ in the treatment or in the prophylaxis of Covid-19 pneumonia. This paper proposes only hypotheses, which need further researches to be confirmed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0207.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Chinese Guidelines; COVID-19; pharmaceutical treatment
Online: 13 April 2020 (03:43:37 CEST)
Background and Objective: China has managed to control the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) with confinement measurements and treatment strategies, while other countries are struggling to contain the spread. This study discusses the guidelines related to COVID-19 in China in order to provide important references for other countries in the fight against COVID-19. Methods: Chinese guidelines relevant to COVID-19 were systematically searched via the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, YiMaiTong database, and World Health Organization (WHO) COVID-19 database on March 20th, 2020. Guideline information was extracted, including date of publication, source, objectives and the target population. Guidelines specific to the pharmacological treatment of COVID-19 were further investigated to identify the types of antivirus drugs recommended and to report on how treatment recommendations for COVID-19 have evolved overtime. Results: A total of 114 guidelines were identified, of which 87 were national guidelines and 27 were regional guidelines. The scope of included guidelines consisted of: the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19, the management of hospital departments and specific diseases during the outbreak of COVID-19. Sixty-four of the included guidelines targeted all COVID-19 patients, while the remaining guidelines concentrated on special patient populations (i.e., geriatric population, pediatric population, and pregnant population) or patients with coexisting diseases. Twenty-three guidelines focused on the pharmacological treatments for all COVID-19 patients. Interferon, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Ribavirin, Chloroquine, and Umifenovir represented the most recommended antivirus drugs. With the emergence of encouraging results from preclinical and preliminary clinical studies, Chloroquine Phosphate was recommended in the national Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (6th version) on February 19th, 2020. Thereafter, more detailed guidelines regarding the adjustment of dosage regimens and the monitoring of adverse events of Chloroquine Phosphate were published. To date, 8 Chinese guidelines have recommended Chloroquine Phosphate or Hydroxychloroquine as mainstream antivirus drug for the treatment of COVID-19. Conclusions: China has generated a plethora of guidelines covering almost all aspects of COVID-19. Chloroquine, as one widely affordable treatment, holds great potential to become the gold standard choice as more clinical evidence is shared by researchers from China as well as other countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0138.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: inflammation; Schizophrenia; treatment resistance; neurocognition; neuroimmunomodulation
Online: 13 January 2020 (04:15:01 CET)
Background: Activation of the immune-inflammatory response system (IRS) and the compensatory immune-regulatory system (CIRS) play a key role in SCZ and treatment resistant SCZ. There are only few data on immune and endogenous opioid system (EOS) interactions in SCZ and treatment resistant SCZ.Aim of the study: We examined serum β-endorphin, endomorphin-2 (EM2), mu-opioid (MOR) and kappa-opioid (KOR) receptors, and interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 in 60 non responders to treatment (NRTT), 55 partial RTT (PRTT) and 43 normal controls.Results: Serum EM2, KOR, MOR, IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly increased in SCZ as compared with controls. β-endorphin, EM2, MOR and IL-6 were significantly higher in NRTT than in PRTT. There were significant correlations between IL-6, on the one hand, and β-endorphin, EM2, KOR, and MOR, on the other, while IL-10 was significantly correlated with MOR only. A large part of the variance in negative symptoms, psychosis, hostility, excitation, mannerism, psychomotor retardation and formal thought disorders was explained by the combined effects of EM2 and MOR with or without IL-6 while increased KOR was significantly associated with all symptom dimensions. Increased MOR, KOR, EM2 and IL-6 were also associated with neurocognitive impairments including in episodic, semantic and working memory and executive functions.Conclusion: The EOS contributes to SCZ symptomatology, neurocognitive impairments and a non-response to treatment. In SCZ, EOS peptides/receptors may exert CIRS functions, whereas increased KOR levels may contribute to the pathophysiology of SCZ and EM2 and KOR to a non-response to treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0079.v1
Online: 9 January 2020 (09:44:35 CET)
Implementation of waterflood is with injected pressured water to reservoir to escalation oil production. Produced water is the dominated result from oil and gas mechanism in this world meanwhile 65% of water is injected back to the well for pressure maintenance, 30% for discharge aquifier condition and surface. For shaly sand, produced water usually bring coarse and suspended sand to the surface. Therefore, this sand level is needed to declining to avoid plugging in injection well until certain economic condition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0282.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: pancreatitis; epidemiology; diagnosis; complications; treatment; prognosis.
Online: 29 March 2019 (12:13:17 CET)
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory condition of the pancreas and is one of the most common ailments of the gastrointestinal system that results in significant morbidity and mortality. The main etiologic causes of AP are alcohol consumption, gallstones, hypertriglyceridemia, and biliary stones. The clinical signs and symptoms, and diagnostic criteria of AP are well established in the literature and multiple studies. Multiple scoring systems have been used to predict the severity, prognosis, and mortality associated with AP. The present review of the literature brings to light the significant and recent contributions in the etiology, risk factors, epidemiology, diagnosis, complications, prognosis and newest modalities in treatment that could be beneficial in the management of AP.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0316.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Stomach, giant, gastrointestinal stromal tumor; treatment
Online: 26 December 2018 (12:29:23 CET)
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the mostly seen mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal system and mostly seen at the stomach. We report a case of giant gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach in a 71-year-old woman. The physical examination and radiological findings revealed that a giant mass occupied most of the abdominal cavity. The patient underwent an en-block resection of this giant mass with partial resection of the distal stomach and transverse colon and, reconstruction with gastro-jejunostomy and end-to end colo-colic anatomoses. The histopathologic diagnosis was revealed as gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach. We suggest that complete surgical resection is the only effective radical treatment approach for giant gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0073.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: wastewater treatment; microbial fuel cells; bioenergy
Online: 6 June 2018 (05:38:03 CEST)
Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) representing a promising technology for the extract of energy and resources through wastewater and it also offer an economic solution to the problem of environment effluent and energy crisis in near future. The advance device is rather appealing, due its potential benefits, its practical application is, however hindered by several drawbacks, such an internally competing microbial reaction, and low power generation. This report is an endeavor to address various design connected to the MFCs application to wastewater treatment, in particular cost effective bioelectricity from waste water are reviewed and discussed with a multidisciplinary approach. The conclusions drawn herein can be of practical interest to all new researchers dealing with effluent wastewater treatment using MFCs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0315.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Neisseria gonorrhoeae; antibiotic resistance; gonorrhea; treatment
Online: 23 May 2018 (07:46:34 CEST)
Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease with a high morbidity burden. Incidence of this disease is rising due to the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains. Neisseria gonorrhoeae has shown an extraordinary ability to develop resistance to all antimicrobials introduced for its treatment. In fact, it was recently classified as a “Priority 2” microorganism in the WHO Global Priority List of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria to Guide Research, Discovery and Development of New Antibiotics. Seeing as there is no gonococcal vaccine, control of the disease relies entirely on prevention, diagnosis and, especially, antibiotic treatment. Different health organizations worldwide have established treatment guidelines against gonorrhea, mostly consisting in dual therapy with a single oral or intramuscular dose. However, gonococci continue to develop resistances to all antibiotics introduced for treatment. In fact, the first strain of super-resistant N. gonorrhoeae was recently detected in the United Kingdom, which was resistant to ceftriaxone and azithromycin. This increasing detection of resistant gonococcal strains may lead to a situation where gonorrhea becomes untreatable. Seeing as drug resistance appears to be unstoppable, new treatment options are necessary in order to control the disease. Three approaches are currently being followed for the development of new therapies against drug-resistant gonococci: (1) novel combinations of already existing antibiotics, (2) development of new antibiotics and (3) development of alternative therapies which might slow down the appearance of resistances. N. gonorrhoeae is a public health threat due to the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains. Current treatment guidelines are already being challenged by this Superbug. This has lead the scientific community to develop new antibiotics and alternative therapies in order to control this disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0056.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: intermediate heat treatment; boron; fabrication process
Online: 8 January 2018 (09:36:45 CET)
In this study, we evaluated the cold drawing workability of two kinds of modified 9Cr-2W steel containing different contents of boron and nitrogen, depending on the temperature and time of normalizing and tempering treatments. Using ring compression tests at room temperature, the effect of intermediate heat treatment condition on workability was investigated. It was found that the prior austenite grain size can be changed by the austenite transformation, and the grain size increases with increasing temperature during normalizing heat treatment. Alloy B and Alloy N showed different patterns after normalizing heat treatment. Alloy N had higher stress than Alloy B, and the reduction in alloy N increased, while the reduction in alloy B decreased. Alloy B showed a larger number of initially formed cracks and a larger average crack length than Alloy N. Crack length and number increased proportionally in Alloy B as the stress increased. Alloy B had lower crack resistance than Alloy N due to boron segregation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: permutation entropy; permutation complexity; pharmacological treatment
Online: 4 August 2017 (11:06:40 CEST)
In the clinical electrophysiologic practice, the reading and comparing electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings some times is insufficient and take to much time. That is why in the last years it has begun to introduce new methods of EEG analysis, that give a better and faster understanding of the EEG dynamics and allow a rapid intervention in the patient's treatment. Tools coming from the information theory or nonlinear system as an entropy and complexity have been shown to be a very good alternative to address this problem. In this work we introduce a novel method -the permutation Lempel-ziv complexity vs permutation entropy map. This method was applied to EEG of two patients with specific diagnosed pathologies during respective follow up processes of pharmacological changes in order to detect changes that are not evident with the usual inspection method. Our results show that the proposed method are useful for observing an evolutionary retrospective clinical effects of pharmacological interventions in both patients, and from these, to follow the clinical response to the proposed treatment.
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Semisolid casting; RheoMetal process; GISS process; SEED process; production; capability; surface treatment; heat treatment; tool-life; productivity
Online: 19 September 2020 (05:15:22 CEST)
Semisolid casting of Aluminum alloys is growing. For magnesium alloys, Thixomoulding became the dominant process around the world. For aluminium processing, the situation is different as semisolid processing of aluminium is more technically challenging than for magnesium. Today three processes are leading the process implementation, The GISS method, the RheoMetal process and the SEED process. These processes have all strengths and weaknesses and will fit a particular range of applications. The current paper aims at looking at the strengths and weaknesses of the processes to identify product types and niche applications for each process based on current applications and development directions taken for these processes
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0430.v1
Online: 25 August 2022 (10:00:27 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic initiated a race to determine the best measures to control the disease and to save as many people as possible. Efforts to implement social distancing, the use of masks, and massive vaccination programs turned out to be essential in reducing the devastating effects of the pandemic. Nevertheless, the high mutation rates of SARS-CoV-2 challenge the vaccination strategy and maintain the threat of new outbreaks due to the risk of infection surges and even lethal variations able to resist the effects of vaccines and upset the balance. Most of the new therapies tested against SARS-CoV-2 came from already available formulations developed to treat other diseases, so they were not specifically developed for SARS-CoV-2. In parallel, the knowledge produced regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in this disease was vast due to massive efforts worldwide. Taking advantage of such a vast molecular understanding of virus genomes and disease mechanisms, a targeted molecular therapy based on siRNA specifically developed to reach exclusive SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequences was tested in a non-transformed human cell model. Since coronavirus can escape from siRNA by producing siRNA inhibitors, a complex strategy to simultaneously strike both the viral infectious mechanism and the capability of evading siRNA therapy was developed. The combined administration of the chosen produced siRNA proved to be highly effective in successfully reducing viral load and keeping virus replication under control, even after many days of treatment, unlike the combinations of siRNAs lacking this anti-anti-siRNA capability. Additionally, the developed therapy did not harm the normal cells, which was demonstrated because, instead of testing the siRNA in nonhuman cells or in transformed human cells, a non-transformed human thyroid cell was specifically chosen for the experiment. The proposed siRNA combination deeply reduced the viral load throughout the experiment and allowed cellular recovery, thus representing a potential innovation, to be considered as an additional weapon for therapy of COVID-19 and even other infectious diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0446.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: sustainable; decentralized; wastewater; treatment; micro-nanobubbles; biomedia
Online: 29 July 2022 (03:42:31 CEST)
As the scarcity of potable water increases, recycling of treated wastewater is increasing. Small-scale, decentralized treatment can be implemented to serve local populations by keeping water within their boundaries and within reach for reuse, particularly in less dense, non-urban communities. Availability of cellular networks and high-speed internet connectivity, along with significant reduction in cost, allows ongoing monitoring of decentralized treatment systems at a central location. In this paper a decentralized treatment system using micro nanobubble aeration, moving media and membranes is able to produce reusable water with low energy consumption, thereby allowing the use of solar energy in places with unreliable electrical supply. The treatment system, which uses no external chemicals, is able to operate unattended and deliver clear, disinfected water with non-detect suspended solids, BOD5 less than 10 mg/L and nutrients below 5 mg/L.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0416.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: biofouling; deposition; hydrophobic; plasma treatment; PTFE; stickiness
Online: 27 July 2022 (08:53:19 CEST)
The spray drying process causes the buildup of an unspecified and unique pattern of wall deposits on the wall. The powder recovery of fruit juice by spray dryer is associated with stickiness problems because of the nature of food which contains low molecular weight sugars and organic acids, which have a low glass transition temperature (Tg). The surface properties of oxygen plasma treated-PTFE substrate were evaluated by using the different parameters of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD) prior to spray drying analysis. In this study, the fabrication method of nearly perfect superhydrophobic surfaces through plasma treatment with oxygen gas was generated and utilized. The plasma-treated PTFE were deposited from a fixed flow rate of oxygen gas with 30 cm3/min by varying the deposition time from 1 to 15 minutes to induce the hydrophobic surface of the PTFE substrate. The characterization techniques used to determine the morphology and chemical bonding of the substrate are field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. The hydrophobicity of the glass samples was determined by the water droplet contact angle. Sample prepared at radio frequency (RF) power of 90W for 15 minutes duration of treatment time showed porous and spongy like microstructure which correlates with the best performance of a good contact angle which creates the superhydrophobicity regime (171o). Surface morphology analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed changes in its roughness in the surface-treated glass substrate. The success of this method produced a huge potential for solving most of the food processing issues which relate to biofouling (e.g., powder stickiness) that would otherwise struggle to improve high productivity and recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0142.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: brachial plexus; traction injury; surgical treatment; electrostimulation
Online: 9 July 2022 (16:47:09 CEST)
As the problem of traction injuries to brachial plexus is a common one and of high socio-economic significance, the analysis of the surgical outcomes in patients with this pathology is significant for neurosurgery, neurology, traumatology-orthopedics, and rehabilitation. The aim of the research is to compare the short-term outcomes of using various surgical methods for managing patients with closed traction injuries of brachial plexus. Material and methods. The research involved 61 patients with closed traction injury of brachial plexus divided into two groups homogeneous in sex, age and severity of their neurological deficit: Group I – 33 patients who underwent microsurgical neurolysis, Group II – 28 patients who underwent microsurgical neurolysis combined with one-level electrostimulation. The dynamic assessment of clinical and functional status of upper limbs was performed using scale methods and electrophysiological monitoring. Results. The research revealed a more evident recovery of the upper limb function in Group II patients suggesting the method of microsurgical neurolysis combined with electrostimulation to be preferable in case of closed traction injuries to brachial plexus. Conclusion. The combination of microsurgical neurolysis with one-level electrostimulation improves the short-term outcomes of surgical treatment in patients with closed traction injuries of brachial plexus due to a sooner decrease in pain in postoperative period, and positive dynamics of clinical and electrophysiological parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0225.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-Cov-2; arbidol; treatment
Online: 26 April 2022 (04:07:48 CEST)
Background The spread of COVID-19 continues, the mutation of SARS-COV-2 is still difficult to control, and the need for antiviral drugs to treat COVID-19 remains urgent. The use of arbidol in the treatment of COVID-19 is limited and controversial. Methods To clarify the efficacy of arbidol on COVID-19, we collected 25 cases and 178 related studies. We analyzed the treatment information of arbidol based on the obtained cases, expanded the scope of the study, and collected current studies on the treatment of COVID-19 in various databases for in-depth analysis. Results History analysis showed that arbidol was effective (76% cure rate) compared with other drugs. However, compared with other antiviral drugs or standard therapy, the arbidol group had no significant advantage in reducing the time to negative virus transformation, length of hospital stays, or improvement in CT (MD=0.22, 95%CI -0.29-0.73; MD = 0.61, 95% CI 1.46 to 2.67; RR=1.15, 95%CI 0.88-1.50); Analysis of adverse events showed no significant difference between the arbidol group and the other groups (RR=0.82, 95%CI 0.25-2.71). Conclusion Our study showed that arbidol had no significant effect on COVID-19, but showed a slight advantage in CT improvement and adverse events. Our study objectively evaluated the efficacy of arbidol in the treatment of COVID-19 and provided some guidance for arbidol in the treatment of COVID-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; bacterial vaginosis; refractory; recurrent; treatment
Online: 2 March 2022 (10:11:03 CET)
Bacterial vaginosis (BV), the most common cause of vaginal discharge, is characterized by a shift in the vaginal microbiota from lactobacillus dominance to a diverse array of facultative and strict anaerobic bacteria which form a multi-species biofilm on vaginal epithelial cells. The rate of recurrence after therapy is high, often >60%. While the BV biofilm itself likely contributes to recurrent and/or refractory disease after treatment by reducing antimicrobial penetration, antimicrobial resistance in BV-associated bacteria including those, both within the biofilm and the vaginal canal, may be the result of independent, unrelated bacterial properties which are discussed in this paper. Our current recommendations for the treatment of refractory and recurrent BV are also provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0439.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: geopolymer; plasma; surface treatment; fly ash; wettability
Online: 1 March 2022 (12:42:26 CET)
This paper deals with investigation of changes in geopolymer wettability with increasing mass fraction of high-carbon fly ash and surface treatment by cold atmospheric plasma (CAP). In this study, multiple samples of geopolymers were prepared, including those with 5% and 10% of high-carbon fly ash from coal-fired power station. Wettability of samples was then measured before and after plasma treatment, both on surface and cut surface. While addition of fly ash only had low effect on the wettability, as in most cases, it only lowered the initial contact angle without speeding up the speed of soaking for compact geopolymer and actually slowed the soaking for foamed geopolymer, plasma treatment had significant impact and made the geopolymer hydrophobic.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0291.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: granulomatous cheilitis; latent tuberculosis; IGRA; antibiotic treatment
Online: 23 February 2022 (12:08:19 CET)
The granulomatous cheilitis (GC) presents a heterogeneous group of disorders characterised by a granulomatous inflammation/reaction of the lips to various stimuli. Numerous etiologies have been proposed, including genetic, immunologic, allergic and infectious. Among the secondary causes of GC, a distant infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis should be considered. The GC could be the clinical presentation of a tuberculide resulting from a hypersensitivity reaction to an underlying focus of active or latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). This communication describes a woman diagnosed with GC related to LTBI, who responded well to antituberculosis treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0451.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: coping; pain; children; sedation; analgesia; treatment effects
Online: 31 January 2022 (11:43:26 CET)
Children with leukaemia experience difficulties adapting to medical procedures and to the chemotherapy’s adverse effects. Study’s objectives were to identify which coping strategies could be associated with the treatments’ factors and with the dosage of sedation analgesic drugs during bone marrow aspirates. 125 patients (M = 6.79 years; SD = 3.40), majority with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (90.4%) and their parents received, one month after diagnosis, the PPCI. Data on the severe treatment effects and on the dosage of drugs in sedation-analgesia were also collected. An ANCOVA model (R2=0.25) showed that, weighing the age factor (F=3.47; df=3; p=0.02), the number of episodes of fever (F=4.78; df=1; p=0.03), nausea (F=4.71; df=1; p=0.03) and mucositis (F=5.81; df=1; p=0.02) influenced the use of distraction. Cognitive self-instructions (R2=0.22) were influenced by the number of hospitalizations (F=5.14; df=1; p=0.03) and mucositis (F=8.48; df=3; p=0.004) and by child’s age (F=3.76; df=3; p=0.01). Children who sought parental support more frequently (F=9.7; df=2; p=0.0001) and who tended not to succumb to a catastrophic attitude (F=13.33; df=2; p=0.001) during the induction treatment phase required lower drug dosages, especially propofol. The clinical application of these results could be to encourage the use of cognitive self-instructions and search for social support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0065.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: acromegaly; somatostatin analogues; presurgical treatment; surgical remission
Online: 2 July 2021 (14:52:23 CEST)
Purpose: To determine whether pre-surgical treatment using long-acting somatostatin analogues (SSAs) may improve surgical outcomes in acromegaly. Methods: Retrospective study of 48 patients with acromegaly operated by endoscopic transsphenoidal approach and for first time. Surgical remission was evaluated based on the 2010 criteria. Results: Most patients, 83.3% (n=40), harboured macroadenomas and 31.3% (n=15) invasive pitu-itary adenomas. Fourteen patients were treated with lanreotide LAR and 6 with octreotide LAR, median monthly doses of 97.5 [range 60-120] and 20 [range 20-30] mg, respectively, for at least 3 months preoperatively. Presurgical variables were comparable between pre-treated and un-treatred patients (P>0.05). Surgical remission was more frequent in those pre-treated with monthly doses ≥90 mg of lanre-otide or ≥30 mg of octreotide than in untreated or pre-treated with lower doses (OR=4.64, P=0.025). However, no differences were found between pre-treated and untreated patients when lower doses were included or between those treated for longer than 6 months compared to those untreated or pre-treated for shorter than 6 months. Similarly, no differences were found either in terms of surgical or endocrine complications (OR=0.65, P=0.570)), independently of the doses and the duration of SSA treatment (P>0.05). Conclusions: The dose of SSAs is a key factor during pre-surgical treatment, since the beneficial effects in surgical remission were observed with monthly doses equal or higher than 90 mg of lanreotide and 30 mg of octreotide, but not with lower doses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0620.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: adipogenesis; signaling pathways; anti-obesity treatment; obesity
Online: 25 June 2021 (12:09:51 CEST)
Abstract: As a risk factor, obesity is a threat to human well-being and related metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. adipogenesis is defined as the proliferation and maturation of adipocyte predecessor cells to adipocyte. As the adipogenesis process decides adipocyte production, it may be considered a therapeutic target for obesity and obesity-related disorders. White adipose tissue abnormal expansion increases the size and number of adipocytes. For that reason, this review aims to spot the molecular mechanisms implicated in adipogenesis that lead to application in the therapeutic targets. Keywords: adipogenesis, signaling pathways, anti-obesity treatment, obesity
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0583.v1
Online: 23 June 2021 (12:47:11 CEST)
The mechanical engineering requires heat treatment after rough machining to reach the mechanical strength, but the heat treatment can induce workpiece deformation, so that the workpiece cannot be reworked. In this study, the plasma was integrated with a lathe, and the on line heat treatment was performed to achieve the mechanical strength and hardness, so as to reduce the machining process and handling. However, for on line heat treatment, it is important to study the machine and plasma parameters of the lathe and plasma, and the research method is used eventually to optimize the process, reduce the machining cost and machining error. The variable factors in surface on line real-time heat treatment are revolution, feed rate and current, the objective function is the hardness of mechanical properties. In the screening experiment, the interaction of factors was discussed using full factorial experiment. The Central Composite Design was combined with the Lack-of-Fit test for optimization experiment, the R2 coefficient was used to determine whether the regression model is appropriate. The optimum parameters were derived from the contour diagram and response surface diagram. The experimental results show that the significant factors include revolution, feed rate and current, the optimum parameters include revolution 168rpm, feed rate 0.068mm/rev and current 86A. The experimental results of optimum parameters show that the surface hardness is increased from 306HLD to 806HLD, the surface hardening effect is enhanced by 163%, so the on line real-time heat treatment equipment has a best hardening effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0568.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: die forging; isothermal annealing; thermo-mechanical treatment
Online: 22 December 2020 (16:13:53 CET)
The article discusses the results of investigations performed during a thermo-mechanical treatment of forgings made of chromium-molybdenum 42CrMo4 grade steel. The treatment was realized during a regular series production. The forging process was combined with a heat treatment carried out directly after forging on a specially adapted station. Such a production technology will make it possible to eliminate the step of repeated heating of the forgings. On the example of an element of a steering gear, it was demonstrated how it is possible to perform an isothermal annealing process starting from the temperature at which the trimming of the forgings ends. During the cooling of the forgings, it is enough to maintain the temperature at the proper level in order for the exothermal phase transformation of austenite into pearlite to take place. With an appropriate design of the processing line, the heat released during the transformation could be used to maintain the applied temperature, thus limiting the consumption of energy needed to power the devices. The test results show that, with the properly selected temperature of isothermal annealing, it is possible to obtain an equilibrial ferritic-pearlitic structure in the required hardness scope. Introducing such a solution into the industrial practice would allow significant savings of the energy used for the heat treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0393.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Equine theileriosis; Theileria haneyi; treatment; imidocarb diproprionate
Online: 13 November 2020 (20:48:27 CET)
Control of Theileria equi, the primary cause of equine theileriosis, is largely reliant on acaracide use and chemosterilization with imidocarb dipropionate (ID). However, it is currently unknown if ID is effective against Theileria haneyi, the recently identified second causative agent of equine theileriosis, or if the drug maintains effectiveness against T. equi in the presence of T. haneyi co-infection. The purpose of this study was address these questions using ID treatment of the following three groups of horses: 1. Five T. haneyi infected horses; 2. Three T. haneyi-T. equi infected horses; and 3. Three T. equi-T. haneyi infected horses. Clearance was first evaluated using nPCR for each Theileria sp. on peripheral blood samples. ID failed to clear T. haneyi in all three groups of horses, and failed to clear T. equi in 2/3 horses in group two. For definitive confirmation of infection status, horses in groups two and three underwent splenectomy post-treatment. The T. equi-nPCR-positive horses in group two developed severe clinical signs and were euthanized. Remaining horses exhibited moderate signs consistent with T. haneyi. Our results demonstrate that ID therapy lacks efficacy against T. haneyi, and T. haneyi-T. equi co-infection may interfere with ID clearance of T. equi.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0379.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Equine theileriosis; Theileria haneyi; treatment; imidocarb diproprionate
Online: 13 November 2020 (13:19:37 CET)
Control of Theileria equi, the primary cause of equine theileriosis, is largely reliant on acaracide use and chemosterilization with imidocarb dipropionate (ID). However, it is currently unknown if ID is effective against Theileria haneyi, the recently identified second causative agent of equine theileriosis, or if the drug maintains effectiveness against T. equi in the presence of T. haneyi co-infection. The purpose of this study was address these questions using ID treatment of the following three groups of horses: 1. Five T. haneyi infected horses; 2. Three T. haneyi-T. equi infected horses; and 3. Three T. equi-T. haneyi infected horses. Clearance was first evaluated using nPCR for each Theileria sp. on peripheral blood samples. ID failed to clear T. haneyi in all three groups of horses, and failed to clear T. equi in 2/3 horses in group two. For definitive confirmation of infection status, horses in groups two and three underwent splenectomy post-treatment. The T. equi-nPCR-positive horses in group two developed severe clinical signs and were euthanized. Remaining horses exhibited moderate signs consistent with T. haneyi. Our results demonstrate that ID therapy lacks efficacy against T. haneyi, and T. haneyi-T. equi co-infection may interfere with ID clearance of T. equi.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0273.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Mycobacterium abscessus, drug treatment, experimental therapy, review,
Online: 12 August 2020 (08:01:41 CEST)
Mycobacterium abscessus is a non-tuberculous mycobacteria notoriously known for causing severe, chronic infections. Treatment of these infections is challenging due to either intrinsic or acquired resistance of M. abscessus to multiple antibiotics. Despite prolonged poly-antimicrobial therapy, treatment of M. abscessus infections often fails, leading to progressive morbidity and eventual mortality. Great research efforts are invested in finding new therapeutic options for M. abscessus. Clofazimine and rifabutin are known anti-mycobacterial antibiotics, repurposed for use against M. abscessus. Novel antimicrobials active against M. abscessus include delamanid, pretomanid and PIPD1 and the recently approved beta-lactamase inhibitors avibactam, relebactam and vaborbactam. Previously unused antimicrobial combinations e.g. vancomycin-clarithromycin and dual beta-lactam therapy have been shown to have synergistic effect against M. abscessus in experimental models, suggesting their possible use in multiple-drug regimens. Finally, engineered phage therapy has been reported to be clinically successful in a severe case of disseminated M. abscessus infection. While many of these experimental therapeutics have shown activity against M. abscessus in vitro, as well as intracellular and/or animal models, most have little if any evidence of effect in humans infections. Clinical studies of M. abscesssus treatments are needed in order to reliably determine the value of their incorporation in therapeutic regimens.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0173.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: pandrug-resistant; treatment; carbapanemase; Acinetobacter; Klebsiella; Pseudomonas
Online: 14 June 2020 (13:19:32 CEST)
The management of carbapenem-resistant infections is often based on colistin, tigecycline, aminoglycosides and their combinations. However, in a recent systematic review we found that Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) co-resistant to carbapanems, aminoglycosides, colistin and tigecycline (CACT-resistant) are increasingly being reported worldwide. Clinical data to guide the treatment of CACT-resistant GNB are scarce and based exclusively on few case reports and small case series but seem to indicate that appropriate (in vitro active) antimicrobial regimens, including newer antibiotics and synergistic combinations, may be associated with lower mortality. In this review we consolidate the available literature to inform clinicians dealing with CACT-resistant GNB about treatment options by considering the mechanisms of resistance to carbapenems. In combination with rapid diagnostic methods that allow fast detection of carbapenemase production, the approach proposed in this review may guide a timely and targeted treatment of patients with infections by CACT-resistant GNB. Specifically, we focus on the three most problematic species, namely Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. Several treatment options are currently available for CACT-resistant K. pneumonia. Newer β-lactam-β-lactamase combinations, including the combination of ceftazidime/avibactam with aztreonam against metallo-β-lactamase-producing isolates, appear to be more effective compared to combinations of older agents. Options for P. aeruginosa (especially metallo-β-lactamase-producing strains) and A. baumannii remain limited. Synergistic combination of older agents (e.g. colistin- or fosfomycin-based synergistic combinations) may represent a last resort option but their use against CACT-resistant GNB requires further study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0057.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; treatment; drug; survival; antiviral; hydroxychloroquine
Online: 9 May 2020 (04:45:37 CEST)
Background: Although no specific treatment for COVID 19 has been proven effective yet, some drugs with in vitro potential against SARS-CoV-2 virus have been proposed for clinical use. Hydroxychloroquine has in vitro anti-viral and immunomodulatory activity, but there is no current clinical evidence of its effectiveness on the outcome of the disease. Methods: We enrolled all 18-85 years old inpatients from Central Defense Hospital, Madrid, Spain, who were hospitalised due to COVID-19 and had a definitive outcome (either dead or discharged). We used a statistical survival analysis. Results: We analysed 220 medical records. 166 patients met the inclusion criteria. 48,8 % of patients not treated with HCQ died, versus 22% in the group of hydroxychloroquine (p=0,002). According to clinical picture at admission, hydroxychloroquine increased the mean cumulative survival in all groups from 1,4 to 1,8 times. This difference was statistically significant in the mild group. Conclusions: in a cohort of 166 patients between 18 to 85 years hospitalised with COVID-19, hydroxychloroquine treatment with an initial loading dose of 800mg improved patient survival when admitted in early stages of the disease. There was a non-statistically significant trend towards survival in all groups, which will need to be clarified in subsequent studies.
Online: 22 January 2020 (02:33:51 CET)
Plastics are naturally hydrophobic materials so, in order to employ flotation for the separation of plastic mixtures, the use of appropriate wetting agents is mandatory. In this work, the effect of pretreatment with alkaline solutions of sodium hydroxide on the floatability of four plastics (PET, PS, PMMA and PVC) was studied. The influence of NaOH concentration, treatment time and temperature of the alkaline solution, and influence of particle size was analyzed. Results showed that alkaline treatment had a strong effect on PET floatability, some effect on floatability of PMMA and PVC and no effect on floatability of PS. Plastics floatability decreased with the increase of NaOH concentration, temperature and treatment time of the alkaline solution. Based on flotation behavior of simple plastics, flotation separation after alkaline treatment of bi-component mixtures of PET with PS and PVC was achieved efficiently. The best separation was obtained for PET/PS mixture, a floated with a grade of 98% in PS and a sunk with a grade of 100% in PET. PET/PMMA mixture led to the worst separation. For PET/PMMA and PET/PVC mixtures, flotation separation improved with the decrease of the particles size.
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: ischemia-reperfusion injury; mesenchymal stem cells; treatment
Online: 11 June 2019 (04:28:04 CEST)
The shortage of donor organs is a major global concern. Organ failure requires the transplantation of functional organs. Organ donors are preserved in warm or cold ischemia. Ischemia and reperfusion damage the organs, due to the lack of oxygen during the ischemia step and the oxidative stress during the reperfusion step. Different methodologies were developed to prevent or diminish the level of injuries. Preservation solutions were first developed, followed by the addition of chemical compounds. In addition of inhibitors of mitogen activated protein kinase, inhibitors of the proteasome, mesenchymal stem cells started to be used 13 years ago to prevent or diminish the organ’s injuries. Mesenchymal stem cells (e.g bone marrow stem cells, adipose derived stem cells) have proven to be powerful tools in repairing damaged organs. This review will focus on the use of some bone marrow stem cells, adipose derived stem cells and umbilical cord stem cells on preventing or decreasing the injuries due to ischemia-reperfusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0024.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: adenovirus; pneumonia; fever; response to antipyretic treatment
Online: 3 June 2019 (14:02:51 CEST)
In 2014, the outbreak of adenoviral pneumonia occurred in Korean military training center. However, there is limited data on characteristics of fever and its response to antipyretics therapy in immunocompetent adults with adenoviral positive community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Medical records of patients who were admitted to Armed Forces Chuncheon Hospital for treatment of CAP between January 2014 and December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. We evaluated demographics, clinico-laboratory findings and radiologic findings at admission were compared between adenovirus positive (Adv) group and adenovirus negative (non-Adv) group. Out of 251 military personnel with CAP during the study periods, 67 were classified into Adv group while 184 were Non-Adv group. Patients with Adv group had a longer duration of fever after admission and symptom onset. Adv group patients had a higher mean temperature at admission and more observed over 40 and 39 to 40℃. Adv group patients had more commonly observed no response to antipyretic treatment and adverse events after antipyretics use. Length of hospital stay had no significant difference between two groups and no patient died in both groups. In our study, Adv positive CAP in patients with immunocompetent military personnel had distinct characteristics of fever and response to antipyretic treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0252.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Explosive welding; heat treatment; Inconel; steel; microstructure
Online: 20 December 2018 (13:04:18 CET)
In this investigation steel P355NH has been successfully cladded with Inconel 625 through the method of explosive welding. Explosively welded bimetal clad-plate was subjected to the two separated post weld heat treatment processes: stress relief annealing (at 620oC for 90 minutes) and normalizing (at 910oC for 30 minutes). In order to analyze the microstructure of the joint in the as-welded state and to investigate the influence of the post weld heat treatment on it, the light and scanning electron microscope observations and microhardness analysis have been performed. The examination of the diffusion zone microstructure has been performed by using the scanning transmission electron microscope. It was stated that obtained joint has characteristic wavy-shape geometry with the presence of the melted zones and severe deformed grains of both joined materials. Strain hardening of the materials in joint zone was established with microhardness analysis. In both of the heat treatments the changes in the grain structure have been observed. The normalizing heat treatment has the most significant impact on the microstructure of the joint as well as the concentration of the chemical elements in the joint zone. It was reported that due to normalizing the diffusion zone has been formed together with precipitates in the joint zone. The analysis of the diffusion zone images leads to the conclusion that the diffusion of alloying elements from Inconel 625 to steel P355NH takes place along the grain boundaries with additional formation of the voids in this area. The precipitates in Inconel 625 in the joint zone are two type of carbides – chromium-rich and molybdenum-rich. Scanning transmission electron microscope observation of the grain microstructure in the diffusion zone shows that this area consists of equiaxed grains (from the side of Inconel 625 alloy) and columnar grains (from the side of steel P355NH).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0226.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Fatigue, heat treatment, hot-work tool steel
Online: 18 December 2018 (16:37:32 CET)
The fatigue strength of the hot work steel depends on various factors, including the mechanical, properties and behavior and bulk and the surface under layer, the microstructural features as well as heat treatments. The influence of a series of heat treatments on the fatigue strength of H13 hot work steel was investigated. Different preheating, quenching and tempering treatments were applied to four sets of specimens and fatigue tests were conducted at room temperature using a rotating bending test machine. All heat treatments resulted in a certain improvement of the fatigue strength. Highest fatigue strength obtained by applying a double tempering heat treatment (first tempering at 550 °C for two hours and second tempering at 610 °C for two hours) after initial preheating and quenching. One tempering treatment (550 °C for two hours after preheating and quenching) did not significantly improve the fatigue strength.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0359.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Carbon; nanofiber; membrane; urease; biomolecules; water treatment
Online: 15 November 2018 (11:08:43 CET)
Development of carbon nanomaterials for adsorption thus removal of organic pollutants from water is a progressive research subject. In this regard, carbon nanomaterials with bifunctionality towards polar and non-polar or even amphiphilic undesired materials is indeed attractive for further study and implementation. Here, we created carbon buckypaper adsorbents comprising amphiphilic (oxygenated amorphous carbon (a-COx)/graphite (G)) nanofilaments that can dynamically adsorb organic biomolecules (i.e. urease enzyme) and thus purify the wastewaters of relevant industries. Given the dynamic conditions of the test, the adsorbent was highly efficient in adsorption of the enzyme (88%) while permeable to water (2382 L.h-1.m-2), thus holds a great promise for further development and upscaling. A subsequent citric acid functionalization declined selectivity of the membrane to urease, implying the biomolecules adsorb mostly via graphitic domains rather than oxidized, polar amorphous carbon ones. The devised platform i.e. the urease functionalized buckypaper is optimally conductive (13 S.cm-1) and can be further employed as a biosensor. Accordingly, water treatment can be linked to biosensing via a nanostructured membrane.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0634.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Recreational water, spa, thermal water, innovative treatment
Online: 26 October 2018 (15:09:47 CEST)
Natural spa springs are diffused all over the world and their use in pools is known since ancient times. This review underlines the cultural and social spa context focusing on hygiene issues, public health guidelines and emerging concerns regarding water management in wellness or recreational settings. The question of the "untouchability" of therapeutic natural waters and their incompatibility with traditional disinfection processes is addressed considering the demand for effective treatments that would respect the natural properties. Available strategies and innovative treatments are reviewed, highlighting potentials and limits for a sustainable management. Alternative approaches comprise nanotechnologies, photocatalysis systems, advanced filtration. State of the art and promising perspectives are reported considering the chemical-physical component and the biological natural complexity of the spa water microbiota.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0028.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Hypertension; Blood pressure; Genetics; Pharmacogenetics; Pharmacotherapy; Treatment
Online: 2 October 2018 (15:02:46 CEST)
Several common and functional genes are known to contribute to responsiveness to blood pressure (BP) therapy. BP therapy is typically guided by algorithms that do not include a patient’s genetic information. This study aimed to determine the impact of a multi-organ genetic panel on BP response to pharmacotherapy. Eighty-six patients completed one study visit consisting of a buccal swab collection, measurement of office BP, and a medical chart review for BP history. Genes analyzed included those that encode for one drug metabolizing enzyme, renal Na+ handling, vascular, and cardiac function. Relationships between genotype and control of BP (<140/<90), ∆ systolic BP, ∆ diastolic BP, and ∆ mean arterial BP were assessed. SLC12A3 resulted in a significant association between the target drug and the functional genotype for BP control (<140/<90 cut off) (p<0.05). Conversely, three of five renal genotypes were associated with BP control using 120/80 as a cut-off (p<0.05). Three of four cardiac genotypes were associated with the BP control at <140/<90, with one being statistically significant (position 49 of ADRB1). Only one vascular genotype was predictive of blood pressure control at <140/<90. We found a significant drop in mean BP from baseline in six genes, three important in the diuretic response and three in β-blockade (p<0.05 on target drug vs. not). These results demonstrate that a multi-gene panel for renal Na+ handling, vascular function, and cardiac output may influence the BP response to therapy, but larger studies with more statistical power are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0039.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: Cryogenic treatment; wear resistance; Raman intensity rate
Online: 7 December 2016 (11:13:10 CET)
This study explored the effects of cryogenic treatment on the microstructure, hardness, and wear-resistance of diamond-like carbon (DLC) by cryogenically treating NAK 80 mold steel coated with DLC. Raman spectroscopy analyzed the structure of the DLC film. Nanoindenter analyzed the hardness and Young’s modulus of the film, and their relationship determined the wear resistance. Wear test assessed the wear rate and friction coefficient of the DLC film. The results showed that cryogenic treatment increased the rate of carbide precipitation and refined the grain structure. Raman spectroscopy indicated that the Raman intensity rate (ID/IG) of treated DLC films was smaller than those without cryogenic treatment. When the sp3 bond increased, the hardness and wear-resistance of the DLC film also increased.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0486.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: wastewater treatment; combinatorial normalization; codec; pollutant indicators; predict
Online: 30 September 2022 (11:07:01 CEST)
Effective prediction of wastewater treatment is beneficial for precise control of wastewater treatment processes. The nonlinearity of pollutant indicators such as COD and TP makes the model difficult to fit and has low prediction accuracy. The classical deep learning methods have been shown to perform nonlinear modeling. However, there are enormous numerical differences between multi-dimensional data in the prediction problem of wastewater treatment, such as COD above 3000 mg/L and TP around 30 mg/L. It will make current normalization methods challenging to handle effectively, leading to the training failing to converge and the gradient disappears or exploding. This paper proposes a multi-factor prediction model based on deep learning. The model consists of a combined normalization layer and a codec. The combined normalization layer combines the advantages of three normalization calculation methods: z-score, Interval, and Max, which can realize the adaptive processing of multi-factor data, fully retain the characteristics of the data, and finally cooperate with the codec to learn the data characteristics and output the prediction results. Experiments show that the proposed model can overcome data differences and complex nonlinearity in predicting industrial wastewater pollutant indicators and achieve better prediction accuracy than classical models.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0212.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: COVID-19; Drug targets; Inflammation; Treatment Options; Vaccines
Online: 11 August 2022 (08:07:05 CEST)
Background: A novel virulent coronavirus is what causes Novel Corona-virus Disease 2019 (nCOVID 19). It results in severe respiratory distress syndrome and potentially fatal infectious pneumonia. On March 12, 2020, the World Health Organization first labeled it a pandemic, which was then followed on the same day by a community health emergency of global concern. Vaccines against this deadly virus are now being created. Many drugs with different uses have been repurposed and tested for the prevention and treatment of the infection. Objective: The purpose of this review is to provide an in-depth analysis of data on possible pharmacological targets and available coronavirus treatments. Methods: Following the review protocol, a literature search was conducted. Results: Chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, and Lopinavir-Ritonavir in combination with or without interferon and convalescent plasma therapy are the main treatment candidates, according to the World Health Organization. This review article has elaborated on the current evidence of prospective pharmacological targets and related ongoing research, including inflammatory chemicals, bioactive peptides, beta cells, platelets, and the Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2 Receptor. This information was gathered from published journals. In addition, stories of medications and biological products like interferons and vaccinations that are utilized or could be utilized have been provided. Conclusion: There are a variety of pharmacological targets and therapeutic strategies that need more study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0047.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Situbondo Mango Fruit; Hot Water Treatment; Anthracnos disease
Online: 4 July 2022 (09:45:28 CEST)
Situbondo is one of the best mango producer city with a distinctive mango taste compared to other regions in East Java. Mango production in Situbondo in 2015 reached 222,471 quintals. One of the damage to post-harvest mango products is due to anthracnose disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of hot water treatment in inhibiting anthracnose disease and maintaining the quality of mangoes. The study was conducted at the Plant Clinical Laboratory in January 2019 at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jember. The study design used was a completely randomized design with two factors, namely washing temperature (59 ± 1 ° C, 53 ± 1 °C, normal water temperature) and storage temperature (15.1 ± 1 ° C and 18.1 ± 1 ° C). Washing with a temperature of 53 ± 1 ° C can be used to clean fruit. Treatment with low temperature (15.1 ± 1 ° C and 18.1 ± 1 ° C) resulted in inhibiting changes in weight loss, fruit hardness, acid content (total titrated acid), and total dissolved solids while another treatment, 53 ± 1 ° C washing temperature with storage temperature 15.1 ± 1 ° C gives a good appearance that suppress the development of anthracnose, and inhibit fruit discoloration.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0171.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: ATP; Cancer cell; Cancer Treatment; Mitochondria; T cell
Online: 27 June 2022 (05:07:50 CEST)
Like living organisms, cancer cells require energy to survive and interact with their environment. Mitochondria are the main organelles for energy production and cellular metabolism. Recently, investigators demonstrated that cancer cells can hijack mitochondria from immune cells. This behavior sheds light on a pivotal piece in the cancer puzzle, the ‘dependence’ on the normal cells. This article illustrates the benefits of new, functional mitochondria for cancer cells that urge them to hijack mitochondria. It describes how functional mitochondria help cancer cells’ survival in the harsh tumor microenvironment, immune evasion, progression, and treatment resistance. Recent evidence has put forward the pivotal role of mitochondria in cancer stem cells’ metabolism. This theory highlights the mitochondria in cancer biology and explains how targeted anti-mitochondrial treatments can improve oncological outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0004.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Neisseria gonorrhea; Zoliflodacin; Covid-19; Antibiotic-resistance; Treatment
Online: 1 April 2022 (07:26:28 CEST)
Background: Neisseria gonorrhea is a gram negative diplococci leads to sexually transmitted infection. N.gonorrhoeae is an obligate human pathogen that causes infection to the mucus-secreting epithelial cells both in male and female. In 2017 the centre of disease control and World Health Organization published the list of global priority pathogens-12 with denting therapeutic options, including antibiotic-resistant N. gonorrhoeae. Aim: During the covid-19 pandemic, excessive use of antibiotics is occurring which has lead to its resistance. The infection is widespread and intractable. If this happens, more people will be left with an incurable infection which may cause serious health problems. The possibility of untreatable gonorrhea is emerging larger, and hence, it is the need of an hour to develop new drug for treating it Methods and material: We characterized thoroughly zoliflodacin antibiotic, its clinical trials and effect on human health by using different keywords like “zoliflodacin”, “covid-19”, “clinical trials” from different data sources like Pub-Med, Google-Scholar, and Science-Direct. Result: Zoliflodacin targets antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea. Zoliflodacin shows therapeutic approach against N. gonorrhea. It acts by inhibiting bacterial type 2 topoisomerase with binding site in bacterial gyrase. It shows promising results against N. gonorrhea. Zoliflodacin is effective in treating gonococcal urogenital and rectal infection. Discussion: Antibiotic is the only option to treat N. gonorrhea. There is no vaccine available to treat gonorrhea. The new drug, zoliflodacin, specifically targets antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea. This is giving a hope to researchers. In this study, we elaborate the discovery of zoliflodacin, its mechanism of action, the current clinical trials, and the effectiveness of zoliflodacin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0004.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Critical illness; Osteoporosis; Bone turnover; Bone metabolism; Treatment
Online: 4 January 2022 (12:29:45 CET)
Critical illness has been recognized to acutely influence bone metabolism and, consequently, bone mineral density. The main purpose of this study was to describe bone metabolism changes in adult survivors of critical illness in the attempt to correlate changes with severity scores. It is an open, prospective, observational, monocentric study on patients admitted to the ICU was conducted, evaluating bone metabolism at baseline (within 72 hours of ICU admission), 6 months, and 12 months. Fifty-nine patients admitted to the ICU (63% males), mean age 58 ± 16 years, were enrolled. Of these, 20 patients (34%) completed the one-year follow up. At baseline, bone resorption showed an increase, which was maintained at 6 months, with normalization at 12 months. Patients showed, in a majority of cases, hypovitaminosis D with hyperparathyroidism at baseline with subsequent normalization. A trend towards a correlation was described between severity scores and serum 25(OH) vitamin D and bone turnover marker levels. These results contribute to the confirmation of a positive association between critical illness requiring ICU and bone metabolism changes. This study poses the bases for further studies to evaluate bone health in ICU patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0415.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Chronic Hypoparathyroidism; rhPTH (1-84); Natpar®; Treatment
Online: 24 December 2021 (23:55:38 CET)
The use of recombinant human PTH (1-84) [rhPTH(1-84)] is approved as hormonal replacement therapy in patients with hypoparathyroidism not adequately controlled with conventional therapy. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 12 months of rhPTH (1-84) treatment in a cohort of patients selected according to the indications of recent hypoparathyroidism guidelines. It is a multicenter, observational, retro-prospective, open label study. Eleven Italian Endocrinological centers were involved. Fourteen adult subjects with chronic hypoparathyroidism treated with rhPTH (1-84) for 12 months were enrolled. Main outcome measures included serum and urinary parameters of mineral metabolism, renal function, oral calcium and vitamin D doses, and clinical manifestations. At 12 months, 61.5% of patients discontinued calcium supplement and 69.2% calcitriol. Mean serum calcium levels quickly normalized after initiation of rhPTH (1-84) treatment compared to baseline (p=0.009). Rare hypo-hypercalcemia episodes were reported. Renal function was maintained normal and no renal complications were reported. Serum and urinary phosphate and urinary calcium were maintained in the normal range. Mean phosphatemia levels linearly decreased from 3 months up to 12 months compared to baseline (p= 0.014). No severe adverse events were described. In conclusion, this study confirm the efficacy and safety of rhPTH (1-84) therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0202.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: helminth; self-treatment; clinical trials; inflammation; dose escalation
Online: 13 December 2021 (12:46:41 CET)
The virtually complete loss of intestinal worms, known as helminths, from Western society has resulted in elimination of a range of helminth-induced morbidities. Unfortunately, that loss has also led to inflammation-associated deficiencies in immune function, ultimately contributing to widespread pandemics of allergies, autoimmunity, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Several socio-medical studies have examined the effects of intentional reworming, or self-treatment with helminths, on a variety of inflammation-related disorders. In this study, the latest results from ongoing socio-medical studies are described. The results point toward two important factors that appear to be overlooked in some if not most clinical trials. Specifically, (a) the method of preparation of the helminth can have a profound effect on its therapeutic efficacy, and (b) variation between individuals in the effective therapeutic dosage apparently covers a 10-fold range, regardless of the helminth used. These results highlight current limits in our understanding of the biology of both hosts and helminths, and suggest that information from self-treatment may be critical for clinical evaluation of the benefits and limits of helminth therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0365.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Dirofilaria immitis; macrocyclic lactones; resistance; diagnosis; treatment; prevention
Online: 17 August 2021 (14:13:15 CEST)
Dirofilaria immitis infection is one of the most severe parasitic diseases of dogs. Prevention is achieved by the administration of drugs containing macrocyclic lactones (MLs). These products are very safe and highly effective, targeting the third and fourth larval stages (L3, L4) of the parasite. Until 2011, claims of ineffectiveness of MLs, reported as “Lack of Efficacy” (LOE), were generally attributed to owners’ non-compliance, or other reason for inadequate preventative coverage. There was solid argumentation that a resistance problem is not likely to occur because of i) the great extent of refugia, ii) the complexity of resistance development to MLs, and iii) the possible big number of genes involved in resistance selection. Nevertheless, today it is unequivocally proven that ML resistant D. immitis strains exist, at least in the Lower Mississippi region, USA. Accordingly, tools have been developed, to evaluate and confirm the susceptibility status of D. immitis strains. A simple, in-clinic, microfilariae suppression test, 14-28 days after ML administration, and a “decision tree” (algorithm), including compliance and preventatives’ purchase history, and testing gaps, may be applied for assessing any resistant nature of the parasite. On the molecular level, specific SNPs may be used as markers of ML resistance, offering a basis for validation of clinically suspected resistant strains. In Europe, no LOE/resistance claims have been reported so far, and the existing conditions (stray dogs, rich wildlife, majority of owned dogs not on preventive MLs treatment) do not favor selection pressure on the parasites. Considering the genetic basis of resistance and the epizootiological characteristics of D. immitis, ML resistance neither establishes easily nor spreads quickly, a fact confirmed by the current known dispersion of the problem, which is limited. Nevertheless, ML resistance may propagate from an initial geographical point, via animal and vector mobility, to other regions, while it can also emerge as an independent evolutionary process in a new area. For these reasons and considering the current chemoprophylaxis recommendations and increasing use of ML endectoparasiticides as a potential selection pressure, it is important to remain vigilant for timely detection of any ML LOE/resistance, in all continents where D. immitis is enzootic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0355.v1
Online: 14 June 2021 (11:45:29 CEST)
Objective: In India, yearly, estimated one million TB cases are missing from notification, mostly from private sector. The large number of patients in private sector has raised concerns for suboptimal quality of care. This study was conducted to find out the treatment adherence status among the private TB patients and factors associated with poor adherence.Data Source: Secondary project data, obtained through adherence monitoring house visit by NGO workers. Data collected by reviewing different records available with the patients & data was entered into the CommCare HQ, an open-source mobile platform designed for data collection.Methods: Descriptive observational study.Results: Default rate among private patients was 5%. Commonest reasons stated for being a defaulter were ‘Medicine is not good’ (30%), ‘Travel’ (28.6%), ‘Cost of treatment’ (21.8%) and ‘Side effects’ (11.6%). Despite best of efforts only 36.9% defaulter could be retrieved. Higher default rate was associated with 15-59 years age, males, earning member of the family, addiction, DR-TB, continuation phase of treatment, previous history of TB, presence of symptoms and inability to walk.Conclusion: Privately treated TB patients are vulnerable to non-adherence. Once defaulted, it is difficult to retrieve them. Economically productive age group is at higher risk of being defaulter. Strict adherence monitoring for private TB patients and extensive advocacy communication & social mobilization program in the community, workplaces and institutions is a need of hour.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0326.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: microenvironment; radiopharmaceuticals; treatment response; personalised medicine; Nuclear Medicine
Online: 13 April 2021 (08:29:32 CEST)
Background: Molecular nuclear medicine, due to hybrid imaging camera systems and new tailored radiopharmaceuticals, has been gained a clinical relevance for diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of solid tumors. Despite numerous literature studies, many new radiopharmaceuticals for imaging tumor microenvironment, have not yet been used, routinely, in oncological clinical practice to monitor treatments. This is due to poor comparability of published studies, due to poor design and methodology, heterogeneous population and prevalence of preclinical studies. Methods: In this systematic review, we described the use of radiopharmaceuticals for evaluation of tumor treatment response by targeting microenvironment. We reviewed studies published from 2000 to 2020, to provide an updated status of research in this topic. Results: There is a growing role of radiopharmaceuticals and nuclear medicine imaging techniques in the management of cancer treatments, especially immunotherapy. Of the 24 papers included, 16 were preclinical studies. Conclusions: New radiopharmaceuticals could have an excellent impact in molecular imaging, leading to better diagnosis and important clinical information for therapy decision making and follow-up of cancer treatments in different solid tumors. Recently developed radiopharmaceuticals may provide great advantage to improve personalized medicine for patients with a great cost-effectiveness ratio.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0104.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: children; leukaemia; in treatment; parenting; adaptation; moderation effect
Online: 5 April 2021 (11:55:13 CEST)
Parents’ attitudes and practices may support the children’s reactions to treatments for leukemia and their general adjustment. This study has two aims: to explore parenting depending on child's age and to develop and test a model on how family processes influence the psycho-social development of children with leukemia. Patients were 118 leukemic children and their parents recruited at the Haematology-Oncologic Clinic of the Department of Pediatrics, University of Padua. All parents were Caucasian with a mean age of 37.39 years (SD = 6.03). Children’s mean age was 5.89 years (SD = 4.21). After the signature of the informed consent, the parents were interviewed using the EFI-C from which we derived Parenting dimension and 3 parental perceptions on child’s factors. One year later, the clinical psychologist interviewed again parents using the VABS scales. The analyses revealed the presence of a significant difference in parenting by child’s age: Infants required a higher and more intensive parenting. Child’s coping to medical procedures at the second week after the diagnosis, controlled for parenting effect, impacted upon child’s adaptation one-year post diagnosis. Specific intervention programmes are proposed in order to help children more at risk just after the diagnosis for developmental delays.
Online: 2 April 2021 (11:24:50 CEST)
Pain is an unpleasant emotional and sensory experience. For many years orthodontists have been looking for an effective method of reducing this feeling of discomfort. In recent years, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has taken hold in the orthodontic field. Among the countless advantages it can modulate the painful feeling. The aim of this research is to identify the use of photobiomodulation in subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment, to reduce the pain and discomfort that it causes. The research was conducted from the Web of Science, Pubmed and Scopus databases. Only 14 of all articles met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were therefore used to conduct the research. The different studies compared, in most cases, patients whose mouth was divided into a part treated with laser therapy and a placebo part. The results show a statistically significant difference in perceived pain between the irradiated arch and the non-irradiated arch. Three authors didn’t find statistically significant results in favour of low-laser therapy, but it is important to remember that they used different parameters. To obtain generally valid studies, with consistent and reproducible results, it is necessary to standardize the different parameters used that are independent by operator performing the procedure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0337.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Nanomaterials; Rare earth metals; Wastewater treatment; CNT; Pollutants
Online: 16 February 2021 (14:12:17 CET)
Today major environmental issue facing the universe is Industrial wastewater. They are present in the form of various pollutants like organic/inorganic, heavy metals, and non-disintegrating materials at an enormous amount. As of now, eliminating these pollutants from wastewater from industries in a viable manner has become a significant issue. Productive refinement methodologies are required to eliminate those toxins before removal. Furthermore, nanomaterials are innovationally powerful to purification of water by utilizing inexpensive nanofiltration and nano adsorbent. Heavy metal ions removal in an efficient way from the environment is the first and foremost problem from a biological and ecological perspective, and numerous research practices have been dedicated to the removal of harmful metal particles, involved both in the underground and surface wastewater. This article mainly focuses on the nanomaterials utilization of various contaminating materials removal from industrial wastewater with an exceptional spotlight on rare earth components and nanofiber and nanocomposite films. The objective is to offer references an outline in the field of developing nanomaterials utilization for harmful pollutants removal from industrial wastewater for industrializers and analysts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0364.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: subgingival margin; cavity; gum; choice of treatment plan
Online: 19 January 2021 (08:41:42 CET)
Background. Restoring large defects with proximal caries extending below the cemento-enamel junction and cavity margins located beneath the gingival tissues represents a very common clinical situation. The aim of this article is to propose a clinical classification of the localization subgingival margins of cavity.Material and methods. Diagnosis is carried out by periodontal probe perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth in the deepest point of the cavity’s margin. To describe the localization subgingival margins of cavity we use exponent which value is equal to the distance (integer number expressed in millimeters) of the level of epithelial attachment to the margin of the cavity. Three periodontal examiners, with >10 years of periodontal practice, were required to attend a calibration session aimed at the validation of the proposed classification. Results. The intrarater and interrater agreement among the localization subgingival margins of cavity: for intrarater agreement ranged from 0.74 to 0.95 (almost perfect agreement), whereas interrater agreement ranged from 0.26 to 0.59 (moderate agreement).Conclusions. The classification the localization subgingival margins of cavity is useful for reaching a more precise diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0223.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases; psychometric testing; Treatment Adherence and Compliance
Online: 5 November 2020 (19:17:33 CET)
Purpose: Determine the internal consistency and reproducibility test-retest of the Barrier Scale for Cardiac Rehabilitation (BSCR) in Colombian population. Methods: 190 patients (67% men, average age = 65 ± 12 years) completed the scale in two moments, with an average of eight days between applications. Cronbach's Alpha and Intraclass Correlation (ICC) coefficients were calculated. Results: The internal consistency of the Colombian version of the BSCR was good (Cronbach's alpha = 0.85). The ICC of the instrument was 0.69 (95% CI 0.61-0.76), 0.78 (95% CI 0.71-0.84) when used in the interview type, and 0.47 (95% CI 0, 21-0.67) when it was self-completing. Conclusions: The EBRC has an acceptable reliability in the Colombian population, however, its reproducibility decreases when it is self-directed. Identifying barriers using this scale will allow developing strategies to increase participation and adherence to cardiac rehabilitation programs focused on the real needs of patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0169.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Dental treatment outcomes; Geographic Information Systems; Neighborhood contexts
Online: 3 November 2020 (15:33:02 CET)
ABSTRACT: Aims: This study aimed to explore the impacts of neighborhood-level socioeconomic contexts (e.g., income, education) on the therapeutic and preventative dental quality outcome of children aged 3 to 15 years. Materials and Methods Anonymized billing data of 842 patients reporting to a university Children’s Dental over three years met the inclusion criteria. Their access to care (OEV-CH-A), topical fluoride application (TFL-CH-A) and dental treatment burden (TRT-CH-A) were determined by dental quality alliance (DQA) criteria. The three oral health variables were aggregated at a neighborhood-level and analyzed with census data provided by Statistics Canada within a GIS framework. The forward sortation area (FSA) was chosen as a neighborhood spatial unit and regression models were run both the individual and neighborhood level. Results: The individual-level regression models showed significant negative associations between OEV-CH-A (p=0.027) and TFL-CH-A (p=0.001) and the cost of dental care. There was a significant negative association between TRT-CH-A and median household income. Neighborhood-level Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) linear regression models show negative associations of all three dental health variables (OEV-CH-A, TFL-CH-A, TRT-CH-A) with median household income and the number of households without a college degree. Conclusion: GIS and spatial quantitative approaches may be an effective tool to explore the impacts of socioeconomic variables on oral health outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0407.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: SEIR Dynamic Model; 2019-nCoV; Treatment; Vaccination; Economical
Online: 19 July 2020 (10:45:26 CEST)
In this paper, drug treatment and vaccination are compared healthy and economically. In this comparison, in addition to comparing economic costs, it has paid attention to patients' recovery. To reach the goal, the prevalence of Covid-19 virus in New York is modeled by using the SEIR dynamic model. The SEIR dynamic model is used to model the period of epidemic diseases. Then, three disease control scenarios are evaluated economically. Treatment and vaccination are two important issues in controlling epidemic diseases. To control the disease, each of these two methods has economic costs and benefits. The main purpose of this paper is to compare the two methods of vaccination and treatment economically. Although the results of the study show that vaccination can be effective in preventing the epidemic of the disease than treatment, but due to the high cost and genetic mutation of the virus, vaccination is not the optimal method for both health and the economy in the long term.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0027.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; Artificial Intelligence; prevention; testing; treatment
Online: 4 June 2020 (06:30:35 CEST)
Globally, an approximate of 380,000 patients succumbed to death due to the pandemic COVID-19 which also infected more than six million people since December 2019. Not sparing anyone, COVID-19 infections are widely reported among healthcare professionals, sanitation workers and researchers too while global leaders and various governments are providing their best in defending their citizens against this airborne and contact spread virus. In order to contain the virus and protect millions of lives from this deadly coronavirus, there is a need to have a combination of advanced engineering technology and medical facilities. Application of applied science, engineering and technology diffuse almost every aspect of contemporary living. Grasping the fundamentals to determine humanity's most imperative and forthcoming challenges is essential. Artificial Intelligence, the technology that learns, adapts and reciprocates the actions according to the situations, finds optimum position in the fight against corona virus and acts as a powerful tool against this pandemic. In this research article, the authors discusses how Artificial Intelligence (AI) can be leveraged to fight the deadly virus. The research paper further discusses the efficient utilization of AI across the globe to help in testing, treating and serving the population in these hard times. This manuscript focuses on the potential impact of the process in which AI can be implemented to prevent, test and treat.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0372.v1
Online: 21 April 2020 (04:44:40 CEST)
The recent pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread so rapidly and severely affected the people of almost every country in the world. The highly contagious nature of this virus makes it difficult to take control of the present pandemic situation. With no specific treatment available, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presents a threat to people of all ages including the elderly people and people with other medical complications as a vulnerable group to this disease. Better understanding of viral pathogenesis, appropriate preventive measures, early diagnosis and supportive treatments of the infected patients are now the general solutions to fight against this viral transmission. But, as an emerging disease, most about it remains still poorly understood. This article holds an overview on the origin and structure, pathogenesis, diagnosis and possible therapeutic options for the causative agent, SARS-CoV-2 and disease, COVID-19. However, few therapeutic options, laboratory experiments and other strategies proposed here need to be further clinically tested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0231.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: schizophrenia; neuroimmunomodulation; inflammation; biomarkers; major depression; treatment resistance
Online: 15 April 2020 (08:19:08 CEST)
Objective: About a third of schizophrenia patients are treatment-resistant to antipsychotic therapy. No studies established the fingerprints or pathway-phenotypes of treatment-resistant schizophrenia. The present study aimed to delineate the pathway-phenotypes of non-responders (NRTT) and partial responders (PRTT) to treatment using machine learning. Methods: We recruited 115 schizophrenia patients and 43 healthy controls and measured schizophrenia symptom dimensions, neurocognitive tests, plasma CCL11, interleukin-(IL)-6, IL-10, Dickkopf protein 1 (DKK1), high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1), κ- and µ-opioid receptors (KOR and MOR, respectively), endomorphin-2 (EM-2), and β-endorphin. Results: Machine learning showed that the NRTT group is a qualitatively distinct class and is significantly discriminated from PRTT with an accuracy of 100% using a neuro-immune-opioid-cognitive (NIOC) pathway-phenotype with as main determinants list learning, controlled word association, and Tower of London test scores, CCL11, IL-6, and EM2. The top-5 symptom domains separating NRTT from PRTT were in descending order: psychomotor retardation, negative symptoms, psychosis, depression, and mannerism. Moreover, a NIOC pathway also discriminated PRTT from healthy controls with an accuracy of 100% while all PRTT and controls were authenticated as belonging to their respective classes. Conclusion: A non-response to treatment with antipsychotics is determined by increased severity of specific symptom profiles coupled with deficits in executive functions, and episodic and semantic memory, and aberrations in neuro-immune and opioid pathways. No patients showed complete remission after treatment indicating that non-remitting in PRTT is attributable to increased HMGB1 and residual deficits in attention, executive functions, and semantic memory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: schizophrenia; treatment resistance; neuro-immune; inflammation; cytokines; neurocognition
Online: 8 December 2019 (16:04:52 CET)
Background: Schizophrenia and treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) are associated with aberrations in immune-inflammatory pathways. Increased High Mobility Group Protein 1 (HMGB1), an inflammatory mediator, and Dickkopf-Related Protein (DKK1), a Wnt/β-catenin signaling antagonist, affect the blood-brain-barrier and induce neurotoxic effects and neurocognitive deficits.Aim of the study: The present study aims to examine HMGB1 and DDK1 in non-responders to treatments with antipsychotics (NRTT, n=60), partial RTT (PRTT, n=55) and healthy controls (n=43) in relation to established markers of schizophrenia including IL-6, IL-10 and CLL11 (eotaxin); and to delineate whether these proteins are associated with the schizophrenia symptom subdomains and neurocognitive impairments.Results: HMGB1, DKK1, IL-6 and CCL11 were significantly higher in schizophrenia patients than in controls. DKK1 and IL-6 were significantly higher in NRTT than in PRTT and controls while IL-10 was higher in NRTT than in controls. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that schizophrenia was best predicted by increased DDK1 and HMGB1 while NRTT (versus PRTT) was best predicted by increased IL-6 and CCL11 levels. A large part of the variance in psychosis, hostility, excitation, mannerism and negative (PHEMN) symptoms, and formal thought disorders was explained by HMGB1, IL-6, and CCL11 while most neurocognitive functions were predicted by HMGB1, DDK1 and CCL11. Conclusion: The neurotoxic effects of HMGB1, DKK1, IL-6 and CCL11 including effects on the blood-brain-barrier and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway may cause impairments in executive functions, and working, episodic and semantic memory and explain, in part, PHEMN symptoms and a non-response to treatment with antipsychotic drugs.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: neuroendocrine neoplasms; chemotherapy; temozolomide; metronomic treatment; second-line
Online: 26 July 2019 (16:56:08 CEST)
Background: The front-line treatment of advanced NeuroEndocrine Neoplasms (NENs) depends on clinical and pathological factors but there are no standard second-line therapies. Methods: Metastatic NENs patients were treated at the ENETS (European NeuroEndocrine Tumor Society) center of excellence of Naples (Italy), from 2014 to 2017 with second-line metronomic temozolomide, 75 mg/m2 per os “one week on/one week off”. Toxicity was graded with NCI-CTC criteria v4.0; objective responses with RECIST v1.1 and performance status (PS) according to ECOG. Results: Twenty-six consecutive patients were treated. Median age was 65.5 years. The predominant primary organs were pancreas and lung. Grading was G2 in 11 patients, G3 in 15. Eleven patients presented with PS 1 and 15 with PS 2. The median time-on-temozolomide therapy was 12.2 months (95% CI: 11.4-19.6). No G3/G4 toxicities were registered. Complete response was obtained in 1 patient, partial response in 4, stable disease in 19 (disease control rate: 92.3%), and progressive disease in 2. The median overall survival from temozolomide start was 28.3 months. PS improved in 73% of patients. Conclusions: Metronomic temozolomide is a safe and active treatment for G2 and G3 NENs. Prospective and larger trials are needed to confirm these results.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: trichomonas vaginalis; compliance; treatment; STIs; HIV; cost-effectiveness
Online: 6 May 2019 (06:02:07 CEST)
Background: Trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral STI globally and yet is not a reportable disease. Trichomonas Vaginalis is an important source of reproductive morbidity and may increase risk of acquisition and transmission of HIV. WHO and CDC recommend various regimens of Nitro-Imidazoles for treatment. The common Nitro-Imidazoles used for Trichomoniasis are Metronidazole and Tinidazole, which vary in their cost, efficacy and side effect profile and it is relevant to study these factors, for better management of the patients. Objectives: This study aims to compare and study the efficacy, compliance of various treatment regimens, their outcomes and side-effects for Trichomoniasis, among STI clinic attendees in Trinidad. Methods: A clinical trial study was designed and after obtaining the informed consent a routine clinical examination was conducted and the swabs for Trichomoniasis tests were collected for diagnosis from the 692 participants. Out of 692 participants, Eighty two (82) patients with established diagnosis of Trichomonas infection were quasi-randomly treated using different regimens. Compliance to treatment, side effects and outcome were evaluated. Results: The prevalence of the Trichomoniasis in population attending our STI clinic is 11.9% and prevalence of HIV is 9%. Of the total 82 participants for the treatment, 80% were females; nearly 90% of the patients belonged to age group 15-45 years and over 60% were below 30 yrs. Among those diagnosed for Trichomonas vaginalis, 13.3% had associated HIV infection. The compliance with respect to single dose treatment was significantly better than the long duration oral regimen and has significant relation with side effects of the treatment. The outcome is generally better and comparable and shows no significant difference between different treatment regimens used in the study. Conclusions: Metronidazole and Tinidazole are commonly used drugs in various regimens. compliance is better with those treated with Tinidazole and Metronidazole stat, than with other groups. Outcome is comparable between these regimens, especially when combined with other important factors like abstinence and treatment of the partners. The treatment regimens mainly differ in the compliance and side effects profile, which suggests that to improve the compliance the drugs with less side effects, short course regimen would be a preferred choice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0306.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Mental disorder, treatment gap, health system, Madhya Pradesh.
Online: 30 January 2019 (09:25:43 CET)
Background: India has one-fifth of the world's population and the number of people suffering from mental illness is assumed to be huge considering the contribution of mental disorders to the overall burden of the disease being 13.9 %. Objectives of Study: To estimate prevalence and patterns of mental illnesses to assess the current mental health services and systems in the Madhya Pradesh. Material and Methods: Multi-stage, stratified, random cluster sampling technique, with random selection based on probability proportionate to size at each stage. A total of 3240 individuals aged 18 years and above were interviewed. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were employed. A set of 10 instruments including Mini International Neuro-psychiatric Interview were utilized. Results: The overall weighted prevalence for any mental illness was 16.7% lifetime and 13.9% current. Treatment-gap for all mental health problems is as high as 91% in the state along with huge socioeconomic impact of mental illness. Conclusions: This huge burden of mental, behavioural and substance use disorders, in Madhya Pradesh, calls for immediate attention of political leaders, policy makers, health professionals, opinion-makers and society at large. It is hoped that the data from the study will inform mental health policy and legislation and help shape mental health care delivery systems in the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0182.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: 410NiMo, all weld metal, heat treatment, hardness, microstructure
Online: 7 November 2018 (16:24:42 CET)
ASTM A743 CA6NM alloy is a martensitic stainless steel typically used in energy industry -runners and hydraulic turbine components- due to its superior toughness, yield and fatigue properties. In both the manufacturing, shielded metal arc welding is applied to join for this grade steels. However, weldability of the steels is limited due to formation of hard and brittle phases such as untempered martensite during welding and post weld heat treatment processes. The formation causes a reduction in toughness. In this study, influence of post-weld heat treatment procedure (single tempering and double tempering) and parameters on microstructure and hardness of AWS410NiMo all weld metal. Hardness tests were conducted from weld metal. Microstructures of the all weld metals subjected to different heat treatment process were characterized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0769.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Bentonite; Sawdust; Chemically treatment; Heavy metal; Adsorption capacity
Online: 1 November 2018 (18:18:19 CET)
In recent years, the need for safe and modern composite barrier for the prevention of groundwater contamination and the provision of Geo-environmental protection has been studied together with the need of designing low cost and effective liner for isolating landfill contents from the environment. In this study, various mix designs involving two natural adsorbents, the Na-Bentonite and the pH-adjusted sawdust were prepared for a series of Geo-environmental experiments to be carried out to determine the adsorption capacity, buffering capacity, pH changes, and COD changes among others, in the presence of Pb(NO3)2 contaminant concentrations. Generally, the results showed an increase in adsorption capacity in the acidic segment of the treatment. An increase of 58% of the adsorption efficiency of the Na-Bentonite in adsorbing the contaminant at the highest concentration was the most important achievement of the system while in the acidic segment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0402.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: methylene blue; water treatment; magnetic nanomaterials; cryogel; nanocomposites
Online: 20 September 2018 (06:33:48 CEST)
Inorganic nanoparticles based on magnetite improve the mechanical, thermal, and magnetic properties of microporous cryogel polymer composites. Here we report the synthesis of microporous cryogel based on the crosslinked sodium vinyl sulfonate (Na-VS) and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid sodium salt (Na-AMPS). The magnetite nanoparticles were inserted into Na-VS/Na-AMPS cryogel either during its crosslinking polymerization or by in-situ technique after its crosslinking. The morphology, particle sizes, thermal stability and magnetite contents of Na-VS/Na-AMPS cryogel and its magnetite composites were investigated. The prepared Na-VS/Na-AMPS cryogel and its magnetite composites were used as adsorbents for methylene blue (MB) cationic dye using optimum conditions. The magnetite Na-VS/Na-AMPS cryogel composite prepared by in-situ technique achieved the best adsorption MB removal capacity for 7 cycles among the other adsorbents via chemical adsorption mechanism at room temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0384.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: dechlorination; hydrothermal treatment; thermogravimetric study; pyrolysis; chlorophenols; chlorobenzenes
Online: 19 September 2018 (12:13:23 CEST)
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) electric wires were subjected to dechlorination in subcritical water at three different temperatures in a high-pressure reactor. About 2.09, 73.08 and 95.96 wt. % of chlorine in PVC wires was removed during dechlorination at 200, 250 and 300 °C, respectively. The solid residues were analyzed and characterized by thermogravimetry, at three different heating rates (5, 10 and 20 °C/min) in inert and oxidizing atmosphere. With the purpose of studying the emission of chlorinated pollutants, pyrolysis experiments at 850 °C were also performed in a laboratory scale reactor with the dechlorinated materials, as well as with the original PVC electric wire. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation increased, but chlorobenzenes (ClBz) and chlorophenols (ClPh) formation decreased as the temperature of dechlorination increased; naphthalene was the most abundant PAH and monochlorobenzene and monochlorinated phenols (3-+4-) were the most abundant chlorinated compounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0244.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: ozonation; membranes; polydimethylsiloxane; mass transfer; wastewater treatment; peroxone
Online: 13 September 2018 (15:16:43 CEST)
A membrane ozonation contactor was built to investigate ozonation using tubular membranes and to inform computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies. Non-porous tubular polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes of 1.0 – 3.2 mm inner diameter were tested at ozone gas concentrations of 110 – 200 g m−3 and liquid side velocities of 0.002 m s−1 – 0.226 m s−1. The dissolved ozone concentration could be adjusted to up to 14 mg O3 L−1 and increased with decreasing membrane diameter and liquid side velocity. Experimental mass transfer coefficients and molar fluxes of ozone were 1.1∙10−5 mol m−2 s−1 and 2.4∙10−6 m s−1, respectively, for the smallest membrane. CFD modelling could predict the final ozone concentrations but slightly overestimated mass transfer coefficients and molar fluxes of ozone. Model contaminant degradation experiments and UV absorption measurements of ozonated water samples in both ozone (O3) and peroxone (H2O2/O3) reaction systems in pure water, river water, wastewater effluent and solutions containing humic acid show that the contactor system can be used to generate information on the reactivity of ozone with different water matrices. Combining simple membrane contactors with CFD allows predicting ozonation performance under a variety of conditions leading to improved bubble-less ozone systems for water treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0018.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: SSPCM, Vacuum Drying, Microwave Acid Treatment, Solar Applications
Online: 3 September 2018 (09:57:39 CEST)
Today with enhancement in technology, sciences, there is also an increase in global heating rate. There is an urgent need of any alternate efficient source to reduce the wastage of energy and to utilize it efficiently. The advanced preparation of Expanded graphite ,lauric acid, stearic acid as shape stabilized phase change material deals with different energy harvesting applications. The main reason behind the need for synthesis of this matrix is to prepare a material that can be used in low temperature energy storage applications. Mixture of lauric acid , stearic acid impregnated in expanded graphite through vacuum impregnation followed by Vacuum Drying and Microwave acid treatment serves as novel shape stabilized phase change material of its type. The microwave acid treatment was done in order to increase the removal of moisture from the sample thus initiating proper bonding of its constituents. The mixture was produced in 1:1:1 ratio where all expanded graphite, lauric acid , stearic acid has one proportions of each other. The product obtained after microwave acid treatment was subjected to SEM, DSC analysis
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0464.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: corrosion; plastic deformation; titanium; titanium alloys; surface treatment
Online: 25 July 2018 (04:14:36 CEST)
1) Background: The objective was to evaluate the corrosion resistance of different commercially pure ultrafine-grained (UFG) titanium and its alloys with acid etched surface processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP); 2) Methods: Coarse-grained and UFG titanium samples were investigated using polarization resistance technique. Surface characteristics of the native oxidized layer were evaluated by TEM and XRD. Electrochemical tests were under physiological electrolyte at a rate of 1 and 10 mV/s. Weight loss tests were performed after immersion into HCl solution for up to 3 years; 3) Results: UFG titanium was less susceptible to corrosion which was identified under lower rates and at higher polarization resistance than its coarse grain counterparts. Titanium Grade 2 and Grade 4 demonstrated similar corrosion susceptibility. Titanium Grade 5 revealed a thin and tightly adhered native oxide layer with adequate corrosion resistance; 4) Conclusions: ECAP process imposed a more compact and adhered oxidized layer. Surface etching techniques delivered a thicker native TiO2 layer, being both grain refinement and surface etching techniques responsible for the improved corrosion resistance of Titanium samples under physiological environment after 3 years of observation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0125.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Endodontic treatment, Irrigant activation, bacteria, biofilm, Sodium Hypochlorite
Online: 6 July 2018 (17:07:21 CEST)
INTRODUCTION The goal of root canal treatment is to shape and clean the endodontic space, reducing the bacterial load and removing the pulp tissue. Obviously, the action of the endodontic instruments is limited to the main canals, regardless of the complexity of the endodontic space. Consequently, finding the best possible cleaning technique, which can be obtained chemically using irrigation solutions, is a fundamental aid in the endodontic therapy. One of the most commonly used root canal irrigant is sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), available in various commercial formulations. The effectiveness of NaOCl is undeniable. However, the action of dissolution of the pulp tissue is merely dependent on the concentration and the characteristics of the irrigant itself. AIM The aim of this study is to evaluate the effective concentration of different commercial formulas of sodium hypochlorite, by evaluating the percentage of total chlorine in each product. The dissolution capacity of the pulp tissue of each of the tested products was then analyzed by measuring the required time. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three commercial types of sodium hypochlorite were selected for this study: 5% NaOCl (ACE, Procter & Gamble), 5% NaOCl (N5, Simit Dental) and 6% NaOCl (CanalPro, Coltene). For each product, 10 packages were used, from which samples of the product were taken and 30 x 5 ml tubes were filled. All samples were divided into 3 groups and were analyzed using the DIN EN ISO 7393-2 method and the percentage of total chlorine (expressed as a percentage) was calculated. 40 samples of vital pulp were obtained from teeth freshly extracted for periodontal reasons and stored in physiological solution. In order to unify the size and weight of the samples (0.0001 mg), a microtome and a precision balance (Pro Explorer Ohaus) were used. Each sample, carefully examined by stereomicroscope (40x), was placed in artificial plastic containers and submerged in 0.1 ml of irrigating solution at room temperature (26 ° C). A fourth control group used saline solution as irrigant. Simultaneously with the insertion of the irrigating solution, a digital stopwatch was activated and the time necessary for the complete dissolution of the pulp sample was measured. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. RESULTS The average percentages of chlorine detected for each group were: 4.26% (ACE), 5.16% (N5) and 5.97% (CanalPro). The Kruskal-Wallis test showed statistically significant differences between the different commercial formulations of hypochlorite (P <0.05). CanalPro showed the lowest values, while ACE showed the highest values of dissolution time of the pulp. DISCUSSION The analysis of the total chlorine percentage found that the actual concentration of the sodium hypochlorite in the samples is close to the values declared by the manufacturers both in the case of N5 and CanalPro. On the contrary, the concentration detected in the samples of common bench bleach (ACE) is significantly lower, which has average values less than 5%. This explains the longer time taken for the complete dissolution of the pulp tissue. The average dissolution time of the pulp samples was in fact inversely proportional to the concentration detected in the tested irrigants, so that a lower time corresponds to a higher concentration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0184.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Water Treatment, Filtration, Modified Perlite, Optical density, wastewater
Online: 27 February 2018 (16:02:02 CET)
Water treatment efficiency of several filter media such as perlite, modified (silicated) perlite, zeolite and sand were studied on wastewater. This study contains 2 distinct experiments which the first one emphasize on the modified perlite’s performance in removing turbidity which has been gone through 3 phases including low turbidity model water, mid turbidity and high turbidity model water; the second experiment underlines the differentiation between 3 evolutionary material based on perlite which undergoes the filtration process with certain turbid model water. It was dedicated that modified perlite removed more than 90% of turbidity and it functions better than other materials with high turbidity (more than100 NTU). The experiments have been conducted with sodium silicate perlite, normal perlite and synthetic zeolite perlite in order to determine the optimized material which is able to be substituted with perlite in the filtration process.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0204.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: burns; treatment; pediatric; autograft; biological skin substitute; thermal
Online: 30 November 2017 (14:12:10 CET)
Burns is a pervasive and oppressive basic care issue. In children, burn injuries are a major reason for bleakness and mortality. The quirks in the physiology of liquid and electrolyte taking care of, the vital necessity and the distinctions in the different body extends in children direct that the pediatric wounds administration ought to be brought with an alternate point of view than for adults. Notwithstanding, for the intensivist, challenges regularly exist that muddle quiet help and adjustment. Moreover, burn injuries are mind-boggling and can show exceptional challenges that require deep-rooted recovery. Investigation in burn wound care has yielded progressions that will keep on improving practical recuperation. What's more, pain management all through this period is essential. Managing these wounds requires escalated therapeutic treatment for multi-organ dysfunction, and forceful surgical treatment to forestall sepsis and other inconveniences. The biological therapeutic bilayered skin substitutes with a long shelf life that recapitulates the normal barrier function of the intact human skin and stimulate wound repair and skin regeneration. A definitive objective is to accomplish a perfect skin substitute that gives a successful and without scar wound recuperating. This review article features the headway in pediatric burn wounds with an emphasis on the pathophysiology and treatment of burn wounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0004.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: rotating photocatalytic reactor; TiO2 /Ag catalysts; water treatment
Online: 1 November 2017 (04:44:39 CET)
A four stage semi-pilot scale RFR reactor with ceramic disks as support for TiO2 modified with silver particles was developed for the removal of organic pollutants. The design presented in this article is an adaptation of the rotating biological reactors (RBR) and its coupling with the modified catalyst provides additional advantages to designs where a catalyst in suspension is used. The optimal parameter of rotation was 54 rpm and the submerged surface of the disks offer a total contact area of 387 M2. The modified solid showed a decrease in the value of its bandgap compared to commercial titanium. The system has a semi-automatic operation with a maximum reaction time of 50 h. Photo-activity tests show high conversion rates at low concentrations. The results conform to the Langmuir heterogeneous catalysis model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0403.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: RKIP expression regulation; Stochastic binary regulation of gene expression; Treatment targeting RKIP levels increase; Reduction of heterogeneity of treatment response
Online: 23 September 2021 (11:43:54 CEST)
In this manuscript we use an exactly solvable stochastic binary model for regulation of gene expression to analyse the dynamics of response to a treatment aiming to modulate the number of transcripts of RKIP gene. We demonstrate the usefulness of our method simulating three treatment scenarios aiming to reestablish RKIP gene expression dynamics towards pre-cancerous state: i. to increase the promoter’s ON state duration; ii. to increase the mRNAs’ synthesis rate; iii. to increase both rates. We show that the pre-treatment kinetic rates of ON and OFF promoter switching speeds and mRNA synthesis and degradation will affect the heterogeneity and time for treatment response. Hence, we present a strategy for reducing drug dosage by simultaneously targeting multiple kinetic rates. That enables a reduction of treatment response time and heterogeneity which in principle diminishes the chances of emergence of resistance to treatment. This approach may be useful for inferring kinetic constants related to expression of antimetastatic genes or oncogenes and on the design of multi-drug therapeutic strategies targeting master regulatory genes.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Acquired Coagulation Disorders; Arterial thrombosis; prophylaxis; diagnosis; and treatment; Infections in immunocompromised hosts; Viral Infection; Venous thromboembolism; prophylaxis; diagnosis; treatment
Online: 16 October 2020 (12:09:23 CEST)
Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE) and acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Methods: A retrospective study was conducted within the OSF HealthCare System in Peoria, Illinois. The objectives were to determine the incidence of acute VTE and ACS within one year of CMV testing. The “study group” included patients with positive CMV IgM or positive CMV Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The “seropositive control” group included patients with positive CMV IgG and negative IgM. The “seronegative control” group included patients with negative CMV IgG and IgM, or negative PCR. Results: Within one year of CMV infection, 38 of 379 patients (10.0%) developed VTE in the study group compared to 41 of 1334 patients (3.1%) in the seropositive control and 37 of 1249 (3.0%) in the seronegative control. Adjusting for age and gender, both control groups were less likely to have VTE than the study group within one year (Seropositive Control: OR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.5, p <0.0001; Seronegative Control: OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.6, p <0.0001). ACS was more likely to occur in the study group, with incidence of 7.7% compared to 4.7% (p <0.0001) in the seropositive control and 1.9% (p <0.0001) in the seronegative control. Adjusting for age and gender, the seronegative control was less likely to develop ACS than the study group within one year (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7, p = 0.003). Conclusions: This retrospective study demonstrates that CMV infection may be a significant risk factor for VTE and ACS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0431.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: bladder cancer; clinically positive lymph nodes; diagnosis; treatment; lymphadenectomy
Online: 25 August 2022 (10:05:05 CEST)
The purpose of this review is to present the current knowledge about the diagnostic and treatment options in bladder cancer (BCa) patients with clinically positive lymph nodes (cN+). In this review compaction of CT and MRI performance in preoperative prediction of lymph node invasion (LNI) in BCa patients was presented, along with other diagnostic methods. Most scientific societies do not distinguish cN+ patients in their guidelines, recommendations concern muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) and differ between associations. Currently, the standard treatment of patients with MIBC is radical cystectomy (RC) with bilateral pelvic lymph node dis-section (PLND). The template of PLND and its therapeutic value remain debatable. Moreover, most guidelines recommend neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). However, there is still lack of definitive evidence of the superiority of neoadjuvant chemotherapy over adjuvant chemotherapy. Nevertheless, the curative treatment that provides the best long-term survival in cN+ patients is a multimodal approach with a combination of chemotherapy and RC. Recent studies demonstrate the growing importance of immunotherapy. Special attention should be paid to cN+ BCa patients as the oncological outcomes are significantly worse for this group.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: acute pulmonary embolism; dilemmas; therapeutic treatment; recommendations; clinical application
Online: 2 August 2022 (03:12:56 CEST)
Pulmonary thromboembolism is a very common cardiovascular disease, with a still high mortality rate. Despite the clear guidelines, this disease still represents a great challenge both in diagnosis and treatment. Heterogeneous clinical picture, often without pathognomonic signs and symptoms, represents a huge differential diagnostic problem even for experienced doctors. The decision on the therapeutic regimen also represents a major dilemma in the group of patients who are hemodynamically stable at initial presentation and have signs of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction proven by echocardiography and positive biomarker values (pulmonary embolism of intermediate-high risk). Studies have shown conflicting results about the benefit of using fibrinolytic therapy in this group of patients until hemodynamic decompensation, due to the risk of major bleeding. The latest recommendations give preference to new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) compared to vitamin K antagonists (VKA), except for certain categories of patients (patients with antiphospholipid syndrome, mechanical valves, pregnancy). When using oral anticoagulant therapy, special attention should be paid to drug-drug interactions, which can lead to many complications, even to the death of the patient. Special population groups such as pregnant women, obese patients, patients with antiphospholipid syndrome and cancer represent a great therapeutic challenge in the application of anticoagulant therapy. In these patients, not only the effectiveness of the drugs must be taken into account, but great attention must be paid to their safety and possible side effects, which is why a multidisciplinary approach is emphasized in order to provide the best therapeutic option.