Preprint Article Version 1 This version not peer reviewed

Sacubitril-Valsartan for Heart Failure with Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction: A Retrospective Study

Version 1 : Received: 8 November 2017 / Approved: 9 November 2017 / Online: 9 November 2017 (09:17:37 CET)

How to cite: De Vecchis, R.; Ariano, C. Sacubitril-Valsartan for Heart Failure with Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction: A Retrospective Study. Preprints 2017, 2017110062 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201711.0062.v1). De Vecchis, R.; Ariano, C. Sacubitril-Valsartan for Heart Failure with Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction: A Retrospective Study. Preprints 2017, 2017110062 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201711.0062.v1).

Abstract

Introduction In sacubitril-valsartan (sacub/v), the effects of an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) exerted by valsartan are strengthened by the addition of sacubitril, an inhibitor of neutral endopeptidases. PARADIGM - HF study proved   this association to be superior to enalapril in reducing both all-cause death and cardiovascular mortality, as well as heart failure (HF) hospitalizations in patients with cardiac insufficiency and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction( HFREF) belonging to NYHA class II-IV. To test whether even in our experience sacub/v is associated with favorable outcomes concerning mortality and morbidity, an outpatient small population of HFREF patients was retrospectively studied, of whom one third was treated with sacub/v instead of conventional therapy with ACE -inhibitors or ARBs. Methods A retrospective cohort study was carried out to assess the effects of sacub/v in addition to beta-blocker and mineral receptor antagonist (MRA) in a group of HFREF patients in NYHA classes II-III compared with conventional therapy (comprising ACE inhibitor or ARB added to beta-blocker plus a MRA) administered in a second group of HFREF patients with comparable clinical features retrospectively enrolled as controls. In the two groups, the therapeutic regimen was established in accordance with the preferences of the treating physician. Additionally, in both groups, evidence-based drug therapy was   supplemented by the adjunct of a loop diuretic, usually furosemide, at variable doses. The primary outcomes of interest were all-cause death and HF hospitalizations. Safety outcomes were symptomatic hypotension, angioedema, hyperkalemia and worsening renal function. Results Mortality at six months was 6.8% in patients under therapy with sacub/v versus 34% in those treated with conventional therapy (odds ratio[OR] = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.04-0.49). Moreover, HF hospitalizations in the observation period considered were 4.5% in sacub/v group versus 59% in the conventional therapy group (OR = 0.03; 95% CI: 0.01–0.14). Safety outcomes included in our study (angioedema, hyperkalemia, hypotension and worsening renal function) showed a comparable profile in the two groups, with evidence of good tolerability of sacub/v , except for the side - effect " hypotension" (PAS < 100 mm Hg) , found in 15.9% of patients under sacub/v versus 5.7% reported in controls (OR = 3.14; 95% CI: 0.94–10.55). Conclusions In our experience, sacub/v has yielded a strong protection against both all-cause death and HF hospitalizations at six months , in the absence of significant noxious side effects. Nevertheless, considering the retrospective character of the study and the relatively exiguous sample size, further post marketing observational studies would be desirable . In particular, studies aiming at exploring safety of the new pharmacologic principle, namely mainly focusing on hypotension and angioedema, are warranted, in order to validate further this very efficacious molecule for therapy of chronic HF, especially stable HFREF in NYHA classes II-III.

Subject Areas

sacubitril valsartan; heart failure; treatment

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