ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0069.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: nuclear receptors; hepatokines; transcriptomics
Online: 3 July 2019 (15:08:03 CEST)
The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is the main nuclear receptor regulating the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and is highly expressed in the liver and intestine. Recent studies have highlighted its additional role in lipid homeostasis, however, the mechanisms of these regulations are not fully elucidated. We investigated the transcriptomic signature of PXR activation in the liver of adult wild-type vs Pxr-/- C57Bl6/J male mice treated with the rodent specific ligand pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN). PXR activation increased liver triglyceride accumulation and significantly regulated the expression of 1215 genes mostly xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. Among the down-regulated genes, we identified a strong peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) signature. Comparison of this signature with a list of fasting-induced PPARα target genes confirmed that PXR activation decreased the expression of more than 25 PPARα target genes, among which the hepatokine fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21). PXR activation abolished plasmatic levels of FGF21. We provide a comprehensive signature of PXR activation in the liver and identify new PXR target genes that might be involved in the steatogenic effect of PXR. Moreover, we show that PXR activation down-regulates hepatic PPARα activity and FGF21 circulation, which could participate in the pleiotropic role of PXR in energy homeostasis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0840.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: transcriptomics; venomics; Wagler’s Pit Viper
Online: 10 August 2023 (09:54:50 CEST)
The venom proteome of Temple Pit Viper (Tropidolaemus wagleri) is unique among pit vipers, characterized by a high abundance of a neurotoxic peptide, waglerin. To further explore the genetic diversity of its toxins, the present study de novo assembled the venom gland transcriptome of T. wagleri from west Malaysia. Among the 15 toxin gene families discovered, gene annotation and expression analysis reveal the dominating trend of bradykinin-potentiating peptide/angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-C-type natriuretic peptide (BPP/ACEI-CNP, 76.19% of all-toxin transcription) in the transcriptome, followed by P-III snake venom metalloproteases (13.91%) and other toxins. The transcript TwBNP01 of BPP/ACEI-CNP represents a large precursor gene (209 amino acid residues) containing the coding region for waglerin (24 residues). TwBNP01 shows substantial sequence variations from the corresponding genes of its sister species, T. subannulatus of Northern Philippines, and other viperid species which diversely code for proline-rich small peptides such as bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs). The waglerin/waglerin-like peptides, BPPs and azemiopsin are proline-rich, evolving de novo from multiple hyper-mutatable propeptide regions within the orthologous BPP/ACEI-CNP genes. Neofunctionalization of the peptides results in phylogenetic constraints consistent with a phenotypic dichotomy, where Tropidolaemus spp. and Azemiops feae convergently evolve a neurotoxic trait while vasoactive BPPs evolve only in other species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0521.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Gene expression; Helianthus; microsatellites; transcriptomics
Online: 20 April 2021 (08:21:06 CEST)
Mutations that provide environment dependent selective advantages drive adaptive divergence among species. Many phenotypic differences among related species are more likely to result from gene expression divergence rather than from non-synonymous mutations. In this regard, cis-regulatory mutations play an important part in generating functionally significant variation. Some proposed mechanisms that explore the role of cis-regulatory mutations in gene expression divergence involve microsatellites. Microsatellites exhibit high mutation rates and are abundant in both coding and non-coding regions and could influence gene function and products. Here we tested the hypothesis that microsatellites contribute to gene expression divergence among species with 50 individuals from nine closely related Helianthus species using an RNA-seq approach. Differential expression analyses of the transcriptomes revealed that genes containing microsatellites in non-coding regions (UTRs and introns) are more likely to be differentially expressed among species when compared to genes with microsatellites in the coding regions and transcripts lacking microsatellites. We detected a greater proportion of shared microsatellites in 5’UTRs and coding regions compared to 3’UTRs and non-coding transcripts among Helianthus spp. Further, allele frequency differences measured by pairwise FST at single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), indicate greater genetic divergence in transcripts containing microsatellites compared to those lacking microsatellites. A gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that microsatellite-containing differentially expressed genes are significantly enriched for GO terms associated with regulation of transcription and transcription factor activity. Collectively, our study provides compelling evidence to support the role of microsatellites in gene expression divergence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0151.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Epididymis; Regional; Single cell/Spatial Transcriptomics
Online: 3 May 2023 (12:43:28 CEST)
Sperm gain fertilization ability and forward movement characteristics during epididymal transport. Sperm maturation is inseparable from the processing of the epididymis. Compared with other reproductive organs, relatively little is known about the epididymis. However, with the development of molecular biology and the improvement of single-cell sequence technology, we gradually realized that we should re-examine the importance of the epididymis for sperm mat-uration and for the entire male reproductive system. Recently, epididymis related reports have tended to be more regionalized and more refined. We can understand cell distribution and gene expression from the perspective of a single cell. It has been reported that different regions of the epididymis have different functions and different cell compositions, which may be determined by gene expression. Here, we comprehensively reviewed the epididymal studies. From the ana-tomical structure of the epididymis to the division of its regions, we focused on the cell compo-sition and region-specific genes differentially expressed in the epididymis. The gene expression of the epididymis extends to a series of biological processes of sperm in the epididymal cavity, and the serious effects of epididymal diseases on reproduction are discussed. Therefore, the importance of the epididymis in male reproduction is emphasized. With the maturity of single-cell spatial transcriptomics, it is hoped that the technology can be applied to epididymal research and bring about the spatiotemporal landscape of the epididymis at the single-cell level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0332.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: transcriptomics; aquaculture; genetics; next generation sequencing
Online: 28 January 2020 (05:10:55 CET)
New challenges arise in the face of global climate change which impact every ecosystem on earth, including aquatic systems. This is evident in observations made in regard to the world’s oceans, which show trends of incremental changes in ocean surface temperatures, sea levels, and ocean acidity. These environmental shifts impact human resources such as fisheries and aquaculture. In addition, according to the World Bank, the increase in human population will also require more food and nutrient production, which include industries such as aquaculture. With this increasing demand in aquaculture and fisheries, we must develop efficient and productive methods to operate these industries. We can use genetic methods, specifically transcriptomic information to better understand the biology of our source of nutrition. With the advent of RNASeq techniques, we can provide a better understanding about growth and development, immune function and stress, and adaptations. The use of population genetics or (genomics) to detect Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) between populations or closely related species can provide greater insight from stock structure to fishery-induced evolution. In addition, candidate loci can be investigated further to better understanding evolutionary processes, which provide clues on physiological adaptations and gene expression patterns that can help elucidate how these organisms respond to their current environment. In addition, the use of transcriptomic analyses such as differential gene expression can be used to determine resilience in various environmental conditions such as pollution, hypoxic/anoxic conditions, fluctuations in salinity, and temperature extremes. There has been an increase in transcriptomic studies for many aquaculture species, which has aimed at improving our understanding of growth, development, and metabolism, providing vital information for fisheries and aquaculture industries to make adjustments to environmental conditions such as oxygen availability, nutrition, and salinity. All of these aspects provide insightful information for advancing our knowledge of aquaculture, fisheries and conservation management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0177.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: stress response; ADAR; C. elegans; transcriptomics
Online: 7 November 2018 (15:17:33 CET)
Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a highly conserved regulatory process carried out by adenosine-deaminases (ADARs) on dsRNAs. Although a considerable fraction of the transcriptome is edited, the function of most editing sites is unknown. Previous studies indicate changes in A-to-I RNA editing frequencies following exposure to several stress types. However, the overall effect of stress on the expression of ADAR targets is not fully understood. Here, we performed high-throughput RNA sequencing of wild-type and ADAR mutant C. elegans worms after heat-shock to analyze the effect of heat-shock stress on the expression pattern of genes. We found that ADAR regulation following heat-shock does not directly involve heat-shock related genes. Our analysis also revealed that lncRNAs and pseudogenes, which have a tendency for secondary RNA structures, are enriched among upregulated genes following heat-shock in ADAR mutant worms. The same group of genes is downregulated in ADAR mutant worms under permissive conditions, which is likely, considering that A-to-I editing protects endogenous dsRNA from RNA-interference (RNAi). Therefore, temperature increases may destabilize dsRNA structures and protect them from RNAi degradation, despite the lack of ADAR function. These findings shed new light on the dynamics of gene expression under heat-shock in relation to ADAR function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0078.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: transcriptomics; metabolomics; drought stress; rehydration; genes; pathway
Online: 3 October 2023 (05:34:06 CEST)
Drought stress is a major abiotic factor affecting tomato production and fruit quality. However, the genes and metabolites associated with tomato responses to water deficiency and rehydration are poorly characterized. To identify the functional genes and key metabolic pathways underlying tomato responses to drought stress and recovery, drought-susceptible and drought-tolerant inbred lines underwent transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses. A total of 332 drought-responsive and 491 rehydration-responsive core genes were robustly differentially expressed in both genotypes. The drought-responsive and rehydration-responsive genes were mainly related to photosynthesis–antenna proteins, nitrogen metabolism, plant–pathogen interactions, and the MAPK signaling pathway. Various transcription factors, including homeobox-leucine zipper protein ATHB-12, NAC transcription factor 29, and heat stress transcription factor A-6b-like, may be vital for tomato responses to the water status. Moreover, 24,30-dihydroxy-12(13)-enolupinol, caffeoyl hawthorn acid, adenosine 5′-monophosphate, and guanosine were the key metabolites identified in both genotypes under drought and recovery conditions. The combined transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis highlighted the importance of 38 genes involved in metabolic pathways, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, biosynthesis of amino acids, and ABC transporters for tomato responses to water stress. Our results provide valuable clues regarding the molecular basis of drought tolerance and rehydration. The data presented herein may be relevant for genetically improving tomato to enhance drought tolerance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1976.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: pineapple; ripening; yellowing; fruit quality; metabolomics; transcriptomics
Online: 28 September 2023 (18:24:50 CEST)
To understand the molecular mechanism underlying yellowing in pineapples during ripening, coupled with alterations in fruit quality, comprehensive metabolome and transcriptome investigations were carried out. These investigations were conducted using the pulp samples collected at three distinct stages of maturity: young fruit (YF), mature fruit (MF), and fully mature fruit (FMF). This study revealed a noteworthy increase in the levels of total phenols and flavones, coupled with a concurrent decline in lignin and total acid content, as the fruit transitioned from YF to FMF. Furthermore, the analysis yielded 167 differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) and 2194 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis based on DAMs and DEGs revealed that the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites, particularly the flavonol, flavonoid, and phenypropanoid pathways, plays a pivotal role in fruit yellowing. Additionally, a comprehensive regulatory network encompassing genes that contribute to metabolisms of flavones, flavonols, lignin, and organic acids was proposed. This network sheds light on the intricate processes that underlies fruit yellowing and quality alterations. These findings enhance our understanding of the regulatory pathways governing pineapple ripening and offer valuable scientific insight into the molecular breeding of pineapples.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1231.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; drug repurposing; connectivity mapping; transcriptomics
Online: 19 September 2023 (15:17:05 CEST)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disorder that has significant impact on quality of life and work capacity. Treatment of RA aims to control inflammation and alleviate pain, however achieving remission with minimal toxicity is frequently not possible with the current suite of drugs. This review aims to summarise current treatment practices and highlight the urgent need for alternative pharmacogenomic approaches to novel drug discovery. These approaches can elucidate new relationships between drugs, genes, and diseases to identify additional effective and safe therapeutic options. This review discusses how computational approaches such as connectivity mapping offers the ability to repurpose FDA approved drugs beyond their original treatment indication. This review also explores the concept of drug sensitisation, to predict co-prescribed drugs with synergistic effects that produce enhanced anti-disease efficacy by involving multiple disease pathways. Challenges of this computational approach are discussed including the availability of suitable high-quality datasets for comprehensive analysis and other data curation issues. The potential benefits include accelerated identification of novel drug combinations, and ability to trial and implement established treatments in a new index disease. This review underlines the huge opportunity to incorporate disease-related data and drug-related data to develop methods and algorithms which have strong potential to determine novel and effective treatment regimens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0413.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: PFAS; metabolism; transcriptomics; transcriptome; cross-species analysis
Online: 28 June 2023 (02:33:02 CEST)
In the recent decades, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have garnered widespread public attention due to their persistence in the environment and detrimental effects on the health of living organisms, spurring the generation of several transcriptome-centered investigations to understand the biological basis of their mechanism. In this study, we collected 2144 publicly available samples from 7 distinct animal species to examine the molecular responses to PFAS exposure and to determine if there are conserved responses. Our comparative transcriptional analysis revealed that exposure to PFAS is conserved across different tissues, molecules and species. We identified and reported several genes exhibiting consistent and evolutionarily conserved transcriptional response to PFAS, such as ESR1, HADHA and ID1, as well as several pathways including lipid metabolism, immune response and hormone pathways. This study provides the first evidence that distinct PFAS molecules induce comparable transcriptional changes and affect the same metabolic processes across inter-species borders. Our findings have significant implications for understanding the impact of PFAS exposure on living organisms and the environment. We believe that this study offers a novel perspective on the molecular responses to PFAS exposure and provides a foundation for future research into developing strategies for mitigating the detrimental effects of these substances in the ecosystem.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0405.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Explainability; Deep Learning; Artificial Intelligence; Genomics; Transcriptomics
Online: 23 February 2023 (09:32:09 CET)
Deep learning has already revolutionised the way we process a wide range of data, in many areas of our daily life. The ability to learn abstractions and relationships from heterogeneous data, has provided impressively accurate prediction and classification tools to handle increasingly big datasets. This has a significant impact on the growing wealth of omics datasets, with the unprecedented opportunity for a better understanding of the complexity of living organisms. While this revolution is transforming the way we analyse these data, explainable deep learning is emerging as an additional tool with the potential to change the way we interpret biological data. Explainability addresses critical issues such as transparency, so important when computational tools are introduced especially in clinical environments. Moreover, it empowers artificial intelligence with the capability to provide new insights in the input data, thus adding an element of discovery to these already powerful resources. In this review we provide an overview of the transformative effects explainable deep learning is having on multiple sectors, ranging from genome engineering and genomics, from radiomics to drug design and clinical trials. We offer a perspective to life scientists, to better understand the potential of these tools, and a motivation to implement them in their research, by suggesting learning resources they can use to move their first steps in this field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0531.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: cereals; omics; gemomics; transcriptomics; proteomics; metabolomics; phenomics.
Online: 20 April 2021 (11:25:07 CEST)
Omics technologies, viz., genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and phenomics, are becoming an integral part of virtually every commercial cereal breeding program because they provide substantial dividends per unit time in both pre-breeding and breeding phases. Continuous advances in cereal-omics promise—in combination with time efficiency—the cost benefits. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the established cereal-omics methods in five major cereals, viz., rice, sorghum, maize, barley, and bread wheat. We cover the evolution of technologies in each omics section independently and concentrate on their use to improve economically important agronomic as well as biotic and abiotic stress-related traits. Advancements in the (1) identification, mapping, and sequencing of molecular/structural variants, (2) high-density transcriptomics data to study gene expression patterns, (3) global and targeted proteome profiling to study protein structure and interaction, (4) metabolomic profiling to quantify organ level small-density metabolites and their composition, and (5) high-resolution high-throughput image-based phenomics approaches are surveyed in this review.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Gene expression; Gene Ontology; Enrichment analysis; Transcriptomics
Online: 2 April 2020 (11:51:32 CEST)
Gene expression profiling data contains more information than is routinely extracted with standard approaches. Here we present Fold-change-Specific Enrichment Analysis (FSEA), a new method for functional annotation of differentially expressed genes from transcriptome data with respect to their fold changes. FSEA identifies GO terms, which are shared by the group of genes with a similar magnitude of response, and assesses these changes. GO terms found by FSEA are fold-change-specifically (e.g. weakly, moderately or strongly) affected by a stimulus under investigation. We demonstrate that many responses to abiotic factors, mutations, treatments and diseases occur in a fold-change-specific manner. FSEA analyses suggest that there are two prevailing responses of functionally-related gene groups, either weak or strong. Notably, some of the fold-change-specific GO terms are invisible by classical algorithms for functional gene enrichment, SEA and GSEA. These are GO terms not enriched compared to the genome background but strictly regulated by a factor within specific fold-change intervals. FSEA analysis of a cancer-related transcriptome suggested that the gene groups with a tightly coordinated response can be the valuable source to search for possible regulators, markers and therapeutic targets in oncogenic processes. Availability and Implementation: FSEA is implemented as the FoldGO Bioconductor R package and a web-server https://webfsgor.sysbio.cytogen.ru/ .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0735.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Transcriptomics; Metabolomics; Pork; Meat quality; Longissimus dorsi muscle
Online: 9 August 2023 (07:13:33 CEST)
Over the last several decades, China has continuously introduced Duroc boars and used them as breeding boars. Although this crossbreeding method has increased pork production, it has affected pork quality. Nowadays, one of the primary goals of industrial breeding and production systems is to enhance the quality of meat. This research adds to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control the quality of pork and may be used as a guide for future efforts to enhance meat quality. We investigated the genetic mechanisms of cross-breeding for meat quality improvement by combining transcriptome and metabolome analysis, using Chinese native Jiaxing black (JXB) pigs and crossbred Duroc × Duroc × Berkshire × JXB (DDBJ) pigs. In the longissimus Dorsi muscle, the content of inosinic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid, and amino acids was considerably higher in JXB pigs in contrast with that of DDBJ pigs, whereas DDBJ pigs have remarkably greater levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids than JXB pigs. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differential metabolites were identified using transcriptomic and metabolomic KEGG enrichment analyses. Differential metabolites mainly include amino acids, fatty acids, phospholipids. In addition, we found several DEGs that may explain differences in meat quality between the two pig types, including genes associated with lipid metabolism (e.g., DGKA, LIPG, and LPINI), fatty acid metabolism (e.g., ELOVL5, ELOVL4, and ACAT2), and amino acid metabolism (e.g., SLC7A2, SLC7A4). Combined with the DEGS-enriched signaling pathways, the regulatory mechanisms related to amino acids, fatty acids, and phospholipids were mapped. The abundant metabolic pathways and DEGs may provide insight into the specific molecular mechanism that regulates meat quality. Optimizing the composition of fatty acids, phospholipids, amino acids, and other compounds in pork is conducive to improving meat quality. Overall, these findings will give useful information and further groundwork for enhancing the meat quality that may be achieved via hybrid breeding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0928.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Fabaceae; transcriptomics; proteomics; metabolomics; low doses; abiotic stress
Online: 12 May 2023 (10:39:57 CEST)
Our understanding of the long-term consequences of chronic ionising radiation for living organisms remains scarce. Modern molecular biology techniques are helpful tools for researching pollutant effects on biota. To reveal the molecular phenotype of plants growing under chronic radiation exposure, we sampled Vicia cracca L. plants in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and in areas with normal radiation backgrounds. We performed a detailed analysis of soil and gene expression patterns, and made coordinated multi-omics analyses of plant samples, including transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Chronic exposure to ionising radiation induced complex and multidirectional changes, including significant alterations in the metabolism and gene expression patterns of irradiated plants. We revealed profound changes in carbon metabolism, nitrogen reallocation, and photosynthesis. These plants were characterised by increased DNA damage, redox imbalance, and stress response reactions. The upregulation of histones, chaperones, peroxidases, and secondary metabolism were noted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0370.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Chinese chestnut; replaceable bud; programmed cell death; transcriptomics
Online: 20 January 2023 (06:31:11 CET)
Previous research suggests that the senescence and death of the replaceable bud in chestnut cultivar (cv.) ‘Tima Zhenzhu’ involves programmed cell death (PCD). However, the molecular network responsible for regulating replaceable bud PCD is poorly characterized. Here, we performed transcriptomic profiling of the chestnut cv. ‘Tima Zhenzhu’ replaceable bud before (S20), during (S25), and after PCD (S30) to ascertain the molecular mechanism underlying the PCD process. A total of 5,779, 9,867, and 2,674 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were discovered upon comparison of S20 vs. S25, S20 vs. S30, and S25 vs. S30, respectively. Approximately 6,137 DEGs common to at least two comparisons were selected for GO and KEGG enrichment analyses to interrogate the main corresponding biological functions and pathways. GO analysis showed that these common DEGs could be divided into three functional categories, including 15 cellular components, 14 molecular functions, and 19 biological processes. KEGG analysis found that “plant hormone signal transduction” included 93 DEGs. Overall, 441 DEGs were identified as related to the process of PCD. Most of these were found to be genes associated with ethylene signaling, as well as initiation and execution of various PCD processes. A hypothetical model, consisting of three overlapping processes, is proposed for the replaceable bud PCD: First, ethylene signaling is activated during preparation for PCD, in order to regulate the activity of downstream targets. Next, during PCD initiation, the up-regulation of several TFs (including MYB, MADS-box, bHLH, and NAC TFs) induces an increase in cytochrome c expression and in the cytosolic Ca2+ content, activating the Ca2+-dependent signaling cascade. Finally, during PCD execution, the process of autophagy and the activity of proteases (i.e., cysteine proteinases RD21A-like, metacaspase-9-like, vacuolar-processing enzyme-like, and senescence-associated proteins for hydrolysis) work synergistically to clear the cell of cellular components. When this process is complete, the replaceable bud senesces and dies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0521.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: plant–microbe interactions; endophytes; comparative transcriptomics; velvet genes
Online: 29 November 2022 (02:06:31 CET)
Epichloë species form bioprotective endophytic symbioses with many cool-season grasses, including agriculturally important forage grasses. Despite its importance, relatively little is known about the molecular details of the interaction and the regulatory genes involved. VelA is a key global regulator in fungal secondary metabolism and development. In previous studies, we showed the requirement of velA for E. festucae to form a mutualistic interaction with Lolium perenne. We showed that VelA regulates the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in membrane transport, fungal cell wall biosynthesis, host cell wall degradation and secondary metabolism, along with several small-secreted proteins in Epichloë festucae. Here, by a comparative transcriptomics analysis on perennial ryegrass seedlings and mature plants, which are endophyte free or infected with wild type (mutualistic interaction) or mutant ∆velA E. festucae (antagonistic or incompatible interaction), regulatory effects of the endophytic interaction on perennial ryegrass development was studied. We show that ∆velA mutant associations influence the expression of genes involved in primary metabolism, secondary metabolism and response to biotic and abiotic stresses compared to wild type associations, providing an insight into processes defining mutualistic versus antagonistic interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0735.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Transcriptomics; Candida tropicalis; isoespintanol; genetic dysregulation; mitochondria; cell wall
Online: 13 November 2023 (14:21:10 CET)
Candida tropicalis, an opportunistic pathogen, ranks among the primary culprits of invasive candidiasis, a condition notorious for its resistance to conventional antifungal drugs. The urgency to combat these drug-resistant infections has spurred the quest for novel therapeutic compounds, with a particular focus on those of natural origin. In this study, we set out to evaluate the impact of Isoespintanol (ISO), a monoterpene derived from Oxandra xylopioides, on the transcriptome of C. tropicalis. Leveraging transcriptomics, our research aimed to unravel the intricate transcriptional changes induced by ISO within this pathogen. Our differential gene expression analysis unveiled 186 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to ISO, with a striking 85% of these genes experiencing upregulation. These findings shed light on the multifaceted nature of ISO's influence on C. tropicalis, spanning a spectrum of physiological, structural, and metabolic adaptations. The upregulated DEGs predominantly pertained to crucial processes, including ergosterol biosynthesis, protein folding, response to DNA damage, cell wall integrity, mitochondrial activity modulation, and cellular responses to organic compounds. Simultaneously, 27 genes were observed to be repressed, affecting functions such as cytoplasmic translation, DNA damage checkpoints, membrane proteins, as well as metabolic pathways like trans-methylation, trans-sulfuration, and trans-propylamine. These results underscore the complexity of ISO's antifungal mechanism, suggesting that it targets multiple vital pathways within C. tropicalis. Such complexity potentially reduces the likelihood of the pathogen developing rapid resistance to ISO, making it an attractive candidate for further exploration as a therapeutic agent. In conclusion, our study provides a comprehensive overview of the transcriptional responses of C. tropicalis to ISO exposure. The identified molecular targets and pathways offer promising avenues for future research and the development of innovative antifungal therapies to combat infections caused by this pathogenic yeast.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0443.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: carcass quality; beef cattle; adipose tissue; muscle tissue; transcriptomics
Online: 27 February 2023 (04:56:02 CET)
Targets for finished livestock are often determined by expected fat, either subcutaneous or intramuscular. These targets are used frequently to improve the chances of acceptable eating quality. Lower intramuscular fat, lack of product uniformity, and reduced or insufficient tenderness can negatively impact beef acceptability. This study aimed to investigate differences in gene expression that potentially alter subsequent metabolism and intercellular signaling in the muscle and proximate intermuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissue in beef carcasses at different fat endpoints. In this study, Longissimus thoracis muscle samples and associated adipose tissue were collected at harvest. RNA was harvested from both tissues, and individual samples were sequenced using RNAseq. Differential expression was determined using edgeR, and p-values were adjusted using the Benjamini-Hochberg method. A corrected p-value of 0.005 and log₂ (fold change) of 1 was set as the threshold to identify differential expression of genes. Comparison between intermuscular fat and subcutaneous fat showed no differences between the genes activated in the two adipose tissue depots, suggesting that subcutaneous fat could be sampled to evaluate changes in adipose tissue. Carcass data allowed the classification of carcasses by projected USDA quality grades (marbling targets). In the comparison between muscle from Standard and Choice carcasses, 15 genes were downregulated, and 20 were upregulated. The insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS 1) gene was the only known functionally important gene to be differentially expressed. There were 49 downregulated genes and 113 upregulated genes in the comparison between adipose tissue from Standard and Choice carcasses. These genes are mostly related to the metabolism of fat and energy. This potentially indicates that muscle is not changing at the transcript level as much as the adipose tissue at the sampled endpoints. Also, subcutaneous fat can be used to evaluate transcript changes in both subcutaneous and intermuscular fat. However, it is not clear if these fat tissues can be used as surrogates for intramuscular fat or marbling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0497.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: oxygen; physioxia; hyperoxia; cell culture; transcriptomics; differential gene expression
Online: 29 August 2022 (14:46:44 CEST)
Standard cell culture is routinely performed at supraphysiological oxygen concentrations (~18% O2). Conversely, oxygen levels in most tissues range from 1%–6% (physioxia). Such hyperoxic conditions can alter reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, energy metabolism, mitochondrial network dynamics, and response to drugs and hormones. The aim of this project was to investigate the transcriptional response to different oxygen levels and whether it is similar across cell lines, or cell-line specific. Using RNA-seq, we performed differential gene expression and functional enrichment analyses in four human cancer cell lines, LNCaP, Huh-7, PC-3, and SH-SY5Y cultured at either 5% or 18% oxygen for 14 days. We found that oxygen levels affected transcript abundance of hundreds of genes, with the affected genes having little overlap between cell lines. Functional enrichment analysis also revealed different processes and pathways being affected in each cell line. Interestingly, we found that the top differentially expressed genes are involved in cancer biology. Further, we observed several hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) targets upregulated at 5% oxygen, suggesting a role of HIF at physiological oxygen conditions. Finally, oxygen strongly induced transcription of mitochondrial genes in most cell lines, in a cell-type specific manner too. We conclude that cellular response to oxygen is widely cell-type specific, emphasizing the importance of maintaining physioxia in cell culture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0773.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: secondary data analysis; PARP/PARG; transcriptomics; biotrophy-necrotrophy transition
Online: 3 March 2021 (10:15:08 CET)
Key genes needed for maintenance and growth for the two pathogens, Fusarium graminearum and Magnaporthe oryzae, were identified. These are genes that are induced in response to maintenance requirements (stress) and growth requirements. The processes involved are synthesizing arginine, synthesis of DNA-bases, nitric oxide synthesis needing arginine, autophagy, DNA synthesis, and DNA repair. A simplified regulatory network for these key genes for both organisms was constructed as a hypothesis for the work, and procedures previously developed to use sets of downloaded transcriptomic data were used to test hypotheses concerning what time under the course of infection of plants the key genes are expressed. The analysis shows that the transcription efforts (costs) to maintain the fungal cells (maintenance) are high before infection and during early infection. During the following biotrophic stage, maintenance activities drop, followed by a dramatic increase in the necrotrophic stage transition. Finally, in the necrotrophic stage, maintenance is again lower despite the high growth rate that can also cause stress. All identified genes' expressions behaved almost similar with an increased expression in the biotrophy-necrotrophy transition for both fungi except the DNA repair genes PARP/PARG that was not responding or absent (PARG) in the mainly clonal M. oryzae. This PARG expression pattern might indicate that M. oryzae is more subject to evolution by point mutations than F. graminearum, where sexual reproduction is frequent. The potential consequences of this in the development and the accelerated breakage of host species resistance in a Red Queen dynamics scenario are discussed. The analysis demonstrates the possibility of using large transcriptome datasets and co-regulations between key genes to test hypotheses. This technique's advantages complement molecular techniques that employ knockouts and over-expression of target genes to suggest that genes' roles are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0041.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Bioinformatics; Ionizing radiation; Microarrays; Radiation-induced bystander effects; Transcriptomics
Online: 6 November 2017 (15:02:00 CET)
Ionizing radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) encompass a number of effects with potential for a plethora of damages in adjacent non-irradiated tissue. The cascade of molecular events is initiated in response to the exposure to ionizing radiation (IR), something that may occur during diagnostic or therapeutic medical applications. In order to better investigate these complex response mechanisms, we employed a unified framework integrating statistical microarray analysis, signal normalization and translational bioinformatics functional analysis techniques. This approach was applied to several microarray datasets from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) related to RIBE. The analysis produced lists of differentially expressed genes, contrasting bystander and irradiated samples versus sham-irradiated controls. Furthermore, comparative molecular analysis through BioInfoMiner, which integrates advanced statistical enrichment and prioritization methodologies, revealed discrete biological processes, at the cellular level. For example, negative regulation of growth, cellular response to Zn2+- Cd2+, Wnt and NIK/NF-kappaB signalling, which refine the description of the phenotypic landscape of RIBE. Our results provide a more solid understanding of RIBE cell-specific response patterns, especially in the case of high-LET radiations like α-particles and carbon-ions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0472.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: acne; apoptosis; FoxO1; FoxO3; isotretinoin; mTORC1; p53; pathogenesis; therapy; transcriptomics
Online: 9 October 2023 (07:48:02 CEST)
This review provides information on acne transcriptomics allowing deeper insights into acne pathogenesis and isotretinoin´s mode of action. Puberty-induced insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin and androgen signaling activate the kinase AKT and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Western diet (hyperglycemic carbohydrates, milk/dairy products) as well co-stimulate AKT/mTORC1 signaling. AKT-mediated phosphorylation of nuclear FoxO1 and FoxO3 results in their extrusion into the cytoplasm, a critical switch, which enhances the transactivation of lipogenic and proinflammatory transcription factors including androgen receptor (AR), sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) but reduces FoxO1-dependent expression of GATA binding protein 6 (GATA6), the key transcription factor of infundibular keratinocyte homeostasis. AKT-mediated phosphorylation of the p53-binding protein MDM2 promotes the degradation of p53. In contrast, isotretinoin enhances the expression of p53, FoxO1 and FoxO3 in sebaceous glands of acne patients. Overexpression of these proapoptotic transcription factors explains isotretinoin´s desired sebum-suppressive effect via induction of sebocyte apoptosis but also its adverse effects including teratogenicity (neural crest cell apoptosis), reduced ovarian reserve (granulosa cell apoptosis), risk of depression (apoptosis of hypothalamic neurons), VLDL hyperlipidemia, intracranial hypertension and dry skin.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0798.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Head and neck cancer; oral mucositis; pain; genomics; transcriptomics; microbiomics
Online: 23 April 2023 (12:29:17 CEST)
Oral mucositis (OM) is inflammation of the mouth caused by damage to the mucous membranes that line the mouth and throat. It is a side effect of cancer treatment, particularly in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) who undergo radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and/or immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors. The etiology and pathogenic mechanisms of OM is complex and multifaceted, involving cytotoxicity (cell death), inflammation, infection, change in microbiome, and immune-mediated cytotoxicity. We summarize the literature about attempts to use various omics methodologies (genomics, transcriptomics, microbiomics and metabolomics) to elucidate the biological pathways associated with the development or the severity of OM. Integrating different omics into multi-omics approaches carries the potential to discover links among host factors (genomics), host responses (transcriptomics, metabolomics), and local environment (microbiomics).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0431.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: transcriptomics; COVID-19; tuberculosis; progression; non-coding RNA; hub proteins
Online: 23 December 2022 (01:24:48 CET)
The pandemic of COVID-19 ravaged most countries and made the healthcare system go for a toss. The impact of the disease is different in each patient and it progresses differently. Based on the severity, the COVID-19 infection is stratified into three main categories- mild, moderate, and severe. In this study, we performed a transcriptomic study of different stages and studied the progression of the disease. The study was based on an Indian population of 28 COVID-19 patients, which were classified into different groups. Our analysis has shown that as the disease progresses, the genes involved in the degranulation of the neutrophils and galactose metabolism increase. Furthermore, we identified the hub proteins in each stage. TB is one of the comorbidities of COVID-19 and a comparative study was done to identify the preserved module of genes in both. Enrichment analysis showed that the members of this module are significantly involved in translation and ribosome synthesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0004.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Spatial transcriptomics; Molecular imaging; single-cell RNA-seq; intratumoral heterogeneity
Online: 1 February 2022 (11:08:51 CET)
Intratumoral heterogeneity associates with more aggressive disease progression and worse patient outcomes. Understanding the reasons enabling the emergence of such heterogeneity remains incomplete, which restricts our ability to manage it from a therapeutic perspective. Technological advancements such as high-throughput molecular imaging, single-cell omics and spatial transcriptomics now allow recording the patterns of spatiotemporal heterogeneity in a longitudinal manner, thus offering insights into the multi-scale dynamics of its evolution. Here, we review latest technological trends and biological insights from molecular diagnostics as well as spatial transcriptomics, both of which have witnessed a burgeoning growth in recent past in terms of mapping heterogeneity within tumor cell types as well as stromal constitution. We also discuss ongoing challenges, indicating possible ways to integrate insights across these methods to have a systems-level spatiotemporal map of heterogeneity in each tumor, and a more systematic investigation of implications of heterogeneity for the patient outcomes.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: callus; genotype-specific recalcitrance; reprogramming; somatic embryogenesis; transcriptomics; upland cotton
Online: 20 July 2021 (15:30:47 CEST)
Somatic embryogenesis-mediated plant regeneration is essential for genetic manipulation of agronomically important traits in upland cotton. Genotype specific recalcitrance to regeneration is a primary challenge in deploying genome editing and incorporating useful transgenes into elite cotton germplasm. In this study, transcriptomes of a semi-recalcitrant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genotype ‘Coker312’ were analyzed at two critical stages of Somatic Embryogenesis that includes non-embryogenic callus (NEC) and embryogenic callus (EC) cells, and the results compared to a non-recalcitrant genotype ‘Jin668’. We discovered of 305 differentially expressed genes in Coker312, whereas, in Jin668, about 6-fold more genes (2,155) were differentially expressed. A total of 154 differentially expressed genes were common between the two genotypes. Gene enrichment analysis of upregulated genes identified functional categories such as lipid transport, embryo development, regulation of transcription, sugar transport, vitamin biosynthesis, among others. In Coker312 EC cells, five major transcription factors were highly upregulated: LEAFY COTYLEDON 1 (LEC1), WUS-related homeobox 5 (WOX5), ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3), FUSCA3 (FUS3), and WRKY2. In Jin668, LEC1, BABY BOOM (BBM), FUS3, and AGAMOUS-LIKE15 (AGL15) were highly expressed in EC cells. We also found that gene expression of these embryogenesis genes was typically higher in Jin668 when compared to Coker312. We conclude that significant differences in expression of the above genes between Coker312 and Jin668 may be a critical factor affecting the regenerative ability of these genotypes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0287.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: cotton; whitefly; resistance; transcriptomics; miRNA; lincRNA; phasiRNA; auxin; jasmonic acid
Online: 27 August 2019 (16:23:57 CEST)
Although the regulatory function of miRNAs and their targets have been characterized in model plants, a possible underlying role in the cotton response to herbivore infestation has not been determined. To investigate this, we performed small RNA and degradome sequencing between resistant and susceptible cotton cultivar following infestation with the generalist herbivore whitefly. In total, 260 miRNA families and 241 targets were identified. Quantitative-PCR analysis revealed that several miRNAs and their corresponding targets exhibited dynamic spatio-temporal expression patterns. Moreover, 17 miRNA precursors were generated from 29 long intergenic non-coding RNA (lincRNA) transcripts. Genome-wide analysis also led to the identification of 85 phased small interfering RNA (phasiRNA) loci. Among these, nine PHAS genes were triggered by miR167, miR390, miR482a, and two novel miRNAs, including those encoding a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) disease resistance protein, an auxin response factor (ARF) and MYB transcription factors. Through combined modeling and experimental data, we explored and expanded the miR390-tasiARF cascade during the cotton response to whitefly. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of ARF8 in whitefly-resistant cotton plants increased auxin and jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation, resulting in an increased tolerance to whitefly infestation. These results highlight the provides a useful transcriptomic resource for plant-herbivore interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0063.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: matreotype; proteomics; transcriptomics; lifespan; extracellular matrix; ECM; collagen; MMP; homeostasis
Online: 5 August 2019 (14:22:17 CEST)
Accumulation of damage is generally considered the cause of aging. Interventions that delay aging mobilize mechanisms that protect and repair cellular components. Consequently, research has been focused on studying the protective and homeostatic mechanisms within cells. However, in humans and other multicellular organisms, cells are surrounded by extracellular matrices (ECM), which are important for tissue structure, function and intercellular communication. During aging, components of the ECM become damaged through fragmentation, glycation, crosslinking, and accumulation of protein aggregation, all of which contribute to age-related pathologies. Interestingly, placing senescent cells into a young ECM rejuvenates them and we found that many longevity-assurances pathways re-activate de-novosynthesis of ECM proteins during aging. This raises the question of what constitutes a young ECM to reverse aging or maintain health? In order to make inroads to answering this question, I suggest a systems-level approach of quantifying the matrisome or ECM compositions reflecting health, pathology, or phenotype and propose a novel term, the “matreotype”, to describe this. The matreotype is defined as the composition and modification of ECM or matrisome proteins associated with or caused by a phenotype, such as longevity, or a distinct and acute physiological state, as observed during aging or disease. Every cell type produces its unique ECM. Interestingly, cancer-cell types can even be identified based on their unique ECM composition. Thus, the matreotype reflects cellular identity and physiological status. Defined matreotypes could be used as biomarkers or prognostic factors for disease or health status during aging with potential relevance for personalized medicine. Treatment with biologics that alter ECM-to-cell mechanotransduction might be a strategy to reverse age-associated pathologies. An understanding of how to reverse from an old to a young matreotype might point towards novel strategies to rejuvenate cells and help maintain tissue homeostasis to promote health during aging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0180.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: sheep oocytes; antral follicle; single-cell transcriptomics; molecular signatures; signaling pathways
Online: 2 November 2023 (14:40:47 CET)
The development of the ovarian antral follicle is a complex, highly regulated process. Oocytes orchestrate and coordinate the development of mammalian ovarian follicles, and the rate of follicular development is governed by a developmental program intrinsic to the oocyte. Characterizing oocyte signatures during this dynamic process is critical for understanding oocyte maturation and follicular development. Although the transcriptional signature of sheep oocytes matured in vitro and preovulatory oocytes have been previously described, the transcriptional changes of oocytes in antral follicles have not. Here, we used single-cell transcriptomics (SmartSeq2) to characterize sheep oocytes from small, medium, and large antral follicles. We characterized the transcriptomic landscape of sheep oocytes during antral follicle development, identifying unique features in the transcriptional atlas, stage-specific molecular signatures, oocyte-secreted factors, and transcription factor networks. Notably, we identified specific gene and signaling pathways in each antral follicle stage that may reflect oocyte quality and in vitro maturation competency. Additionally, we discovered key biological processes that drive the transition from small to large antral follicles, revealing hub genes involved in follicle recruitment and selection. Thus, our work provides a comprehensive characterization of the single-oocyte transcriptome, filling a gap in the mapping of the molecular landscape of sheep oogenesis. We also provide key insights into the transcriptional regulation of the critical stages of antral follicular development, which is essential for understanding how the oocyte orchestrates follicular development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0070.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: phototrophic bacteria; phototrophic extracellular electron uptake; comparative genomics; transcriptomics; environmental microbiology
Online: 6 May 2022 (09:35:45 CEST)
Rhodovulum spp. are anoxygenic photosynthetic purple bacteria with versatile metabolisms, including the ability to obtain electrons from minerals in their environment to drive photosynthesis, a relatively novel process called phototrophic extracellular electron uptake (pEEU). Recently, our group isolated 15 strains of R. sulfidophilum to observe this metabolism in marine phototrophs. Our group previously observed carbon dioxide fixation coupled to phototrophic iron oxidation (photoferrotrophy) and pEEU in AB26 and identified a novel di-heme c¬-type cytochrome EeuP important for pEEU but not photoferrotrophy. Taxonomic re-evaluation based on 16S and pufM phylogenetic analyses led us to re-classify two isolates, AB26 and AB19, as Rhodovulum visakhapatnamense. The AB26 genome consists of 4,380,746 base-pairs, including two plasmids, and encodes 4,296 predicted protein-coding genes. AB26 contains 22 histidine kinases, 20 response regulators, and dedicates ~16% of its genome to transport. Transcriptomic data under aerobic, photoheterotrophy, photoautotrophy, and pEEU reveals how gene expression varies between metabolisms. Lastly, we use transcriptomic data for a comparative genomic analysis of potential pEEU-relevant genes between all 15 isolates. With these data we identify potential pEEU capable phototrophs within these isolates, and likely molecular mechanisms of pEEU.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0281.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Red Ginseng; Ginsenoside Rg5; Gene expression; IPA pathways; Network pharmacology; Transcriptomics
Online: 16 September 2021 (11:47:52 CEST)
Numerous in vitro studies on isolated cells have been conducted to uncover the molecular mechanisms of action of Panax ginseng Meyer root extracts and purified ginsenosides. However, the concentrations of ginsenosides and the extracts used in these studies were much higher than detected in pharmacokinetic studies in humans and animals orally administered with ginseng preparations at therapeutic doses. Our study aimed to assess: (a) the effects of ginsenoside Rg5, the major "rare" ginsenoside of Red Ginseng, on gene expression in the murine neuronal cell line HT22 in a wide range of concentrations, from 10-4 to 10-18 M, and (b) the effects of differentially expressed genes on cellular and physiological functions in organismal disorders and diseases. Gene expression profiling was performed by transcriptome-wide mRNA microarray analyses in HT22 cells after treatment with ginsenoside Rg5. Ginsenoside Rg5 exhibits soft-acting effects on gene expression of neuronal cells in a wide range of physiological concentrations and strong reversal impact at high (toxic) concentration: significant up- or downregulation of expression of about 300 genes at concentrations from 10-6 M to 10-18 M, and dramatically increased both the number of differentially expressed target genes (up to 1670) and the extent of their expression (fold changes compared to unexposed cells) at a toxic concentration of 10-4 M. Network pharmacology analyses of genes expression profiles using Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) software showed that at low physiological concentrations, ginsenoside Rg5 has the potential to activate the biosynthesis of cholesterol and to exhibit predictable effects in senescence, neuroinflammation, apoptosis, and immune response, suggesting soft-acting, beneficial effects on organismal death, movement disorders, and cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0109.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: proteomics; transcriptomics; DNA methylation; mitochondria; metabolism; OXPHOS; ASD; neurogenesis; gliosis; neurodevelopment
Online: 6 September 2021 (17:14:37 CEST)
Abstract: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with extensive genetic and aetiological heterogeneity. While the underlying molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear, significant progress has been facilitated by recent advances in high-throughput transcriptomic, epigenomic and proteomic technologies. Here, we review recently published ASD proteomic data and compare proteomic func-tional enrichment signatures to those of transcriptomic and epigenomic data. We iden-tify canonical pathways that are consistently implicated in ASD molecular data and find an enrichment of pathways involved in mitochondrial metabolism and neurogenesis. We identify a subset of differentially expressed proteins that are supported by ASD tran-scriptomic and DNA methylation data. Furthermore, these differentially expressed proteins are enriched for disease phenotype pathways associated with ASD aetiology. These proteins converge on protein-protein interaction networks that regulate cell pro-liferation and differentiation, metabolism and inflammation which demonstrates a link between canonical pathways, biological processes and the ASD phenotype. This review highlights how proteomics can uncover potential molecular mechanisms to explain a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodevelopmental pathology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0364.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; gender; transcriptomics; RAS; hydrolase activity; sex-based immunological differences
Online: 23 May 2020 (06:03:25 CEST)
Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) at the end of 2019, the clinical presentation of the disease showed a great heterogeneity with a diverse impact between different subpopulations. Emerging evidence from different parts of the world showed significantly poor outcome among males compared to female patients. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind this difference might be a fundamental step for a more effective and targeted response to the outbreak. For that reason, here we try to investigate the molecular basis of the gender variations in mortality rates related to COVID-19 infection. To achieve this, we used our in-house pipeline to process publicly available lung transcriptomic data from 141 females compared to 286 males. After excluding Y specific genes, our results showed a shortlist of 73 genes that are differentially expressed between the two groups. Our results showed downregulation of a group of genes that are involved in the regulation of hydrolase activity including (AGTR1, CHM, DDX3X, FGFR3, SFRP2, and NLRP2), which is also believed to be essential for lung immune response and antimicrobial activity in the lung tissues in males compared to females. In contrast, our results showed an upregulation of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR1), a member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that plays a role in angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activity modulation. Interestingly, recent reports and experimental animal models highlight an important role of this receptor in SARS-Coronavirus lung damage as well as pulmonary edema, suggesting a possible role of its blockers like losartan and olmesartan as potential therapeutic options for COVID-19 infection. Finally, our results also showed a differential expression of different genes that are involved in the immune response including the NLRP2 and PTGDR2, further supporting the notion of the sex-based immunological differences. Taken together, our results provide an initial evidence of the molecular mechanisms that might be involved in the differential outcomes observed between both genders during the COVID-19 outbreak. This might be essential for the discovery of new targets and more precise therapeutic options to treat COVID-19 patients from different clinical and epidemiological characteristics with the aim of improving their outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0299.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: wheat; Al toxicity; Mn toxicity; transcriptomics; nicotianamine; cell wall; commonality and specificity
Online: 6 December 2023 (03:42:45 CET)
Aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn) toxicity are the top two constraints to crop production in acid soil. Crops have evolved common and specific mechanisms to tolerate the two stresses. In the present study, the responses (toxicity and tolerance) of wheat near-isogenic lines (ET8 and ES8) and their parents (Carazinho and Egret) to Al and Mn were compared by determining physiolog-ical parameters and transcriptome profiling of roots. The results showed that: (1) Carazinho and ET8 exhibited dual tolerance to Al and Mn as compared with Egret and ES8, indicated by higher relative root elongation and SPAD; (2) After entering into roots, Al was mainly distributed in the root and fixed in the cell wall, while Mn was mainly distributed in the cell sap and then trans-ported to leaves. Both Al and Mn stresses decreased the contents of Ca, Mg, and Zn; Mn stress al-so inhibited the accumulation of Fe, while Al showed an opposite effect; (3) Transcriptomic analy-sis identified 5581 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under Al stress and 4165 DEGs under Mn stress. Among these, 2774 DEGs were regulated by both Al and Mn stresses, while 2280 and 1957 DEGs were exclusively regulated by Al and Mn stress, respectively. GO and KEGG analyses indi-cated that cell wall metabolism responds exclusively to Al, while nicotianamine synthesis exclu-sively responds to Mn. Pathways such as signaling, phenylpropanoid metabolism, and metal ion transport showed commonality and specificity to Al and Mn. TFs, such as MYB, WRKY, and AP2 families, were also regulated by Al and Mn, and WGCNA identified PODP7, VATB2, and ABCC3 as the hub genes for Al tolerance and NAS for Mn tolerance. The identified genes and pathways can be used as targets for pyramiding genes and breeding multi-tolerant varieties.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1923.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; phytochemicals; dietary intervention; epigenetics; transcriptome; epigenome; transcriptomics; epigenomics
Online: 27 July 2023 (13:22:59 CEST)
Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, are caused by a combination of multiple events that damage neuronal function. A well-characterized biomarker of neurodegeneration is proteinaceous aggregates accumulation in the brain. However, the gradually worsening symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases are unlikely to be solely due to the result of a mutation in a single gene, but rather a multi-step process involving epigenetic changes. Multiple epigenetic studies have revealed that modification of histones accompanied by both the local and global remodeling of the chromatin structure and alternations in transcriptional patterns are closely associated with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Unlike DNA mutations, epigenetic alterations are reversible, and therefore raise the possibilities for therapeutic intervention including dietary modifications. Additionally, reactive oxygen species may contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Given that the antioxidant properties of plant-derived phytochemicals are likely to exhibit pleiotropic effects against ROS-mediated epigenetic alternation, dietary intervention may be promising for the management of neurodegeneration in these diseases. In this review, the state-of-the-art applications using single-cell multi-modal omics approaches including genetics, and epigenetics, and dietary approaches for the identification of novel biomarkers and therapeutic approaches for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1588.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: multi-stress responses; Arabidopsis; comparative transcriptomics; Pachycladon; cross-species comparison; network analysis
Online: 23 May 2023 (10:47:08 CEST)
The environment is seldom optimal for plant growth and changes in abiotic and biotic signals, including temperature, water availability, radiation and pests, induce plant responses to optimise survival. The New Zealand native plant species and close relative to Arabidopsis thaliana, Pachycladon cheesemanii grows under environmental conditions that are unsustainable for many plant species. Here we compare the responses of both plant species to different stressors (low temperature, salt and UV-B radiation) to help understand how P. cheesemanii can grow in such harsh environments. The stress transcriptomes were then determined and comparative transcriptome and network analyses discovered similar and unique responses within species between different stresses, and between the two plant species. A number of widely studied plant stress processes were highly conserved in A. thaliana and P. cheesemanii. However, in response to cold stress, Gene Ontology terms related to glycosinolate metabolism were only enriched in P. cheesemanii. Salt stress was associated with alteration of the cuticle and proline biosynthesis in A. thaliana and P. cheesemanii, respectively. Anthocyanin production may be a strategy to cope with UV-B radiation stress in P. cheesemanii only. These results allowed us to construct broad stress response pathways in A. thaliana and P. cheesemanii and identify possible novel plant strategies that help mitigate environmental stress.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0256.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Multi-omics; proteomics; transcriptomics; metabolomics; lipidomics; surfaceomics; system biol-ogy; EVs origin
Online: 17 March 2022 (12:31:43 CET)
In the era of multi-omic sciences, dogma on singular cause-effect in physio-pathological processes is overcome and system biology approaches have been providing new perspectives to see through. In this context, extracellular vesicles (EVs) are offering a new level of complexity, given their role in cellular communication and their activity as mediators of specific signals to target cells or tissues. Indeed, their heterogeneity in terms of content, function, origin and potentiality contribute to the cross-interaction of almost every molecular process occurring in a complex system. Such features make EVs proper biological systems being, therefore, optimal targets of omic sciences. Currently, most studies focus on dissecting EVs content in order to either characterize it or to explore its role in various pathogenic processes at transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic, lipidomic and genomic levels. Despite valuable results are being provided by individual omic studies, the categorization of EVs biological data might represent a limit to be overcome. For this reason, a multi-omic integrative approach might contribute to explore EVs function, their tissue-specific origin and their potentiality. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art of EVs omic studies, addressing recent research on the integration of EVs multi-level biological data and challenging developments in EVs origin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0258.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Red Ginseng; HRG80TM; Ginsenoside Rg5; Gene expression; IPA pathways; Network pharmacology,; Transcriptomics
Online: 15 September 2021 (12:36:42 CEST)
Panax ginseng C.A.Mey. is an adaptogenic plant traditionally used to enhance mental and physical capacities in cases of weakness, exhaustion, tiredness, loss of concentration, and during recovery. According to ancient records, Red Ginseng root preparations enhance longevity with long-term intake. Recent pharmacokinetic studies of ginsenosides in humans and our in vitro study in neuronal cells suggest that ginsenosides are effective when their level in blood is shallow - at concentrations from 10-6 to 10-18 M. In the present study, we compared the effects of Red Ginseng root preparation HRG80TM(HRG) at concentrations from 0.01 to 10,000 ng/ml with effects of White Ginseng (WG) and purified ginsenosides Rb1, Rg3, Rg5 and Rk1 on gene expression of isolated hippocampal neurons. The aim of this study was to predict the effects of differently expressed genes on cellular and physiological functions in organismal disorders and diseases. Gene expression profiling was performed by transcriptome-wide mRNA microarray analyses in murine HT22 cells after treatment with ginseng preparations. Ingenuity pathway downstream/upstream analysis (IPA) was performed with datasets of significantly up-or downregulated genes, and expected effects on cellular function and disease were identified by IPA software. Ginsenosides Rb1, Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1 have substantially various effects on gene expression profiles (signatures) and are different from signatures of HRG and WG. Furthermore, the signature of HRG is changed significantly with dilution from 10000 to 0.01 ng/ml. Network pharmacological analyses of gene expression profiles showed that HRG exhibits predictable positive effects in neuroinflammation, senescence, apoptosis, and immune response, suggesting beneficial soft-acting effects in cancer, gastrointestinal, and endocrine systems diseases and disorders in a wide range of low concentrations in blood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0409.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Renal cancers; oncocytoma; chromophobe; transcriptomics; machine learning; clustering; gene signature; unsupervised learning
Online: 20 August 2021 (11:23:43 CEST)
Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) and oncocytoma (RO) are renal tumor types originating from alpha intercalated cells of the collecting ducts of the kidney. Both tumor types have similar gross histological morphology and increased mitochondria, which leads to difficulties differentiating between these tumors, especially with core biopsy samples. This study aims to apply a machine learning approach to develop a molecular classifier based on transcriptomics data. Here we generated a meta-data set containing 62 chRCC and 45 RO gene expression arrays. Arrays were subjected to quality control steps, and genes were selected based on differential expression and ROC analysis. The final gene list was evaluated with UMAP based dimension reduction followed by density-based clustering with 95.5% accuracy. Molecular profiling by KEGG pathway analysis identified enrichment of fatty acid oxidation pathway in RO. We finally identified and validated the 30-gene signature, with an accuracy of 94.4% to distinguish chRCC from RO on UMAP analysis. Our results show that chRCC and RO have a distinct gene signature that can differentiate these tumors and complement histology for routine diagnosis of these two tumors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0240.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: LPI, lncRNA, ncRNA, protein, transcriptomics, molecular docking, machine learning, deep learning, databases
Online: 11 May 2021 (10:54:27 CEST)
Phenotypes are driven by regulated gene expression, which in turn are mediated by complex interactions between diverse biological molecules. Protein-DNA interactions such as histone and transcription factor binding are well studied, along with RNA-RNA interactions in short RNA silencing of genes. In contrast, lncRNA-protein interaction (LPI) mechanisms are comparatively unknown, likely driven by the difficulties in studying LPI. However, LPI are emerging as key interactions in epigenetic mechanism, playing a role in development and disease. Their importance is further highlighted by their conservation across kingdoms. Hence, interest in LPI research is increasing. We therefore review the current state of the art in lncRNA-protein interactions. We specifically surveyed recent computational methods and databases which researchers can exploit for LPI investigation. We discovered that algorithm development is heavily reliant on a few generic databases containing curated LPI information. We show that early methods predict LPI using molecular docking, have limited scope and are slow, creating a data processing bottleneck. Recently, machine learning has become the strategy of choice in LPI prediction, likely due to the rapid growth in machine learning infrastructure and expertise. While many of these methods have notable limitations, machine learning is expected to be the basis of modern LPI prediction algorithms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0230.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Astrocyte, Alzheimer´s disease, neurodegeneration, transcriptomics, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), cellular states.
Online: 9 February 2021 (10:04:24 CET)
Astrocytes perform a wide variety of essential functions defining normal operation of the nervous system, and are active contributors to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer among others. Recent data provide compelling evidence that distinct reactive astrocyte states are associated with specific stages of Alzheimer´s disease. The advent of transcriptomics technologies enables rapid progress in the characterisation of such pathological astrocyte states. In this review, we provide an overview of the origin, main functions, molecular and morphological features of astrocytes in physiological as well as pathological conditions related to Alzheimer´s disease. We will also explore the main roles of astrocytes in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer´s disease and summarize main transcriptional changes and altered molecular pathways observed in astrocytes during the course of the disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0025.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: drug repurposing; translational bioinformatics; transcriptomics; transcriptome analysis; drug discovery; protocol; gene expression
Online: 9 October 2016 (08:42:23 CEST)
Traditional methods for discovery and development of new drugs can be a very time-consuming and expensive process because it includes several stages such as compound identification, pre-clinical and clinical trials before the drug is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Therefore, drug repurposing, namely using currently FDA-approved drugs as therapeutics for other diseases than what they are originally prescribed for, is emerging to be a faster and more cost-effective alternative to current drug discovery methods. In this paper, we have described a three-step in silico protocol for analyzing transcriptomics data using online databases and bioinformatics tools for identifying potentially repurposable drugs. The efficacy of this protocol was evaluated by comparing its predictions with the findings of two case studies of recently reported repurposed drugs: HIV treating drug Zidovudine for the treatment of Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration and the antidepressant Imipramine for Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma. The proposed protocol successfully identified the published findings, thus demonstrating the efficacy of this method. In addition, it also yielded several novel predictions that have not yet been published, including the finding that Imipramine could potentially treat Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), a disease that currently does not have any treatment or vaccine. Since this in-silico protocol is simple to use and does not require advanced computer skills, we believe any motivated participant with access to these databases and tools would be able to apply it to large datasets to identify other potentially repurposable drugs in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0054.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: influenza virus; antiviral agent; proteomics; phosphoproteomics; metabolomics; transcriptomics; genomics; virtual ligand screening
Online: 5 August 2016 (12:41:07 CEST)
Human influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause global pandemics and epidemics. These viruses evolve rapidly, making current treatment options ineffective. To identify novel modulators of IAV-host interactions, we re-analyzed our recent transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, phosphoproteomics, and genomics/virtual ligand screening data. We identified 713 potential modulators targeting 200 cellular and two viral proteins. Anti-influenza activity for 48 of them has been reported previously, whereas the antiviral efficacy of the remaining 665 is unknown. Studying anti-influenza efficacy, immuno-modulating properties and potential resistance of these compounds or their combinations may lead to the discovery of novel modulators of IAV-host interactions, which might be more effective than the currently available anti-influenza therapeutics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0353.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Aspergillus fumigatus; histone acetyltransferase; MYST family; Sas3; asexual development; stress responses; virulence; transcriptomics
Online: 8 November 2023 (08:44:09 CET)
The conserved MYST proteins form the largest family of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) that acetylate lysines within the N-terminal tails of histone, enabling active gene transcription. Here, we have investigated the biological and regulatory functions of the MYST family HAT Sas3 in the opportunistic human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus using a series of genetic, biochemical, pathogenic, and transcriptomic analyses. The deletion of sas3 results in drastically reduced colony growth, asexual development, spore germination, response to stresses, and the fungal virulence. Genome-wide expression analyses have revealed that the sas3 mutant showed 2,402 significant differentially expressed genes; 1,147 up-regulated and 1,255 down-regulated. The representative up-regulated gene resulting from sas3 is hacA predicted to encode a bZIP transcription factor, whereas the UV-endonuclease UVE-1 was significantly down-regulated by sas3. Furthermore, our Western blot analyses suggest that Sas3 likely catalyzes acetylation of H3K9, K3K14, and H3K29 in A. fumigatus. In conclusion, Sas3 is associated with diverse biological processes and can be a potential target for controlling pathogenic fungi.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1809.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Omics, Cochlea, Single cell omics, Spatial omics, Epigenomics, Transcriptomics, Genomics, Organ of Corti.
Online: 25 August 2023 (13:29:18 CEST)
Advanced genomics, transcriptomics and epigenomics techniques are providing unprecedented insights into the understanding of the molecular underpinnings of the central nervous system, including the neuro-sensory cochlea of the inner ear. Here, we report for the first time a comprehensive and updated overview of the most advanced omics techniques for the study of nucleic acids, and their applications in cochlear research. We describe the available in vitro and in vivo models for hearing research, the principles of genomics, transcriptomics and epigenomics, alongside their most advanced technologies (like single cell omics and spatial omics), which allows to investigate the molecular events that occur at single cell resolution retaining the spatial information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0565.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: foxtail millet 1; nitrogen use efficiency 2; varieties3; physiological parameters 4; transcriptomics 5.
Online: 9 May 2023 (04:41:12 CEST)
Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv) is an important food and forage crop that is well adapted to nutrient-poor soils. However, little is known about how foxtail millet adapts to low nitrogen (LN) at the physiological and molecular levels. In the present study, two foxtail millet varieties with contrasting low nitrogen (LN) tolerance properties were investigated through integrative analyses of physiological featureparameters and transcriptomics. The physiological results showed that JG20 (high tolerance to LN) had higher biomass accumulation, nitrogen content and nitrogen use efficiency compared with JG22 (low tolerancesensitive to LN) under LN. JG20 had higher soluble sugar and soluble protein concentration in shoots compared with JG22 under LN, while contcentrations of soluble sugar and soluble protein contents were higher in the roots of JG22. Higher levels of CTK contentzeatin concentration were found in the shoots of JG20 com-pared with JG22, and a higher ABA contcentration was found in both the shoots and roots of JG22 compared with JG20 under LN. In the transcriptomics results, JG20 had more differentially ex-pressed genes (DEGs) than JG22 both in shoots and roots in response to LN. These LN-responsive genes were enriched in glycolysis, starch and sucrose metabolism, photosynthesis, biosynthesis of amino acids, hormone metabolism and nitrogen metabolism. Furthermore, the high-affinity nitrate transporter gene, SiNRT2.1, and glutamine synthetase gene, SiGS5, chlorophyll apoprotein of photosystem II gene, SiPsbQ, ATP synthase subunit gene, b, auxin-responsive protein gene, SiIAA25, and aldose 1-epimerase gene, SiAEP, in shoots, and high-affinity nitrate transporter gene, SiNRT2.3, SiNRT2.4, and glutamate synthase gene, SiGOGAT2, auxin-responsive protein gene, SiIAA4, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase gene, SiAEP5, in root, were important genes in-volved in the LN tolerance of foxtail millet. These results provide a detailed description of the physiological and transcriptome response of foxtail millet under LN condition.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0042.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Structured illumination; Spatial transcriptomics; Super-resolution; Gene expression; In situ sequencing; Deconvolution microscopy
Online: 2 March 2023 (10:42:14 CET)
Spatial biology is a rapidly growing research field which focuses on the transcriptomic or proteomic profiling of single cells within tissues with preserved spatial information. Imaging-based spatial transcriptomics uses epifluorescence microscopy, which has shown remarkable results for identification of multiple targets in situ. Nonetheless, the number of genes that can be reliably visualized is limited by the diffraction of light. Here, we investigate the effect of structured illumination (SIM), a super-resolution microscopy approach, over the performance of single gene transcript detection in spatial transcriptomics experiments. We performed direct mRNA-targeted hybridization in situ sequencing for multiple genes in mouse coronal brain tissue sections. We evaluated spot detection performance in widefield and confocal images versus those with SIM in combination with 20X, 25X and 60X objectives. In general, SIM increases the detection efficiency of gene transcripts spots compared to widefield and confocal modes. For each case, the specific fold increase in localizations is dependent on gene transcripts density and the numerical aperture of the objective used, which showed to play an important role especially for densely clustered spots. Taken together, our results suggest that SIM has the capacity to improve spot detection and overall data quality in spatial transcriptomics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0386.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: tumor microenvironment; meta-analysis; tumor stroma; breast cancer; LCM; microdissection; transcriptomics; microarray; database
Online: 17 May 2021 (13:17:53 CEST)
Background: transcriptome data provide a valuable resource for the study of cancer molecular mechanisms, but technical biases, samples’ heterogeneity and small sample sizes result in poorly reproducible lists of regulated genes. Additionally, the presence of multiple cellular components contributing to cancer development complicate the interpretation of bulk transcriptomic profiles. Methods: we collected 48 microarray datasets of laser capture microdissected breast tumors, and performed a meta-analysis to identify robust lists of genes differentially expressed in these tumors. We created a database with carefully harmonized metadata to be used as a resource for the research community. Results: combining the results of multiple datasets improved the statistical power, and the analysis of stroma and epithelium separately allows identifying genes with different contribution in each compartment. Conclusions: our database can profitably help biomarkers’ discovery and is readily accessible through a user-friendly web interface (https://aurorasavino.shinyapps.io/metalcm/).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0227.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: meta-analysis; transcription factor; binding site; genomics; transcriptomics; chilling stress; CBF; DREB; CAMTA
Online: 13 May 2020 (15:17:16 CEST)
At the molecular level, response to an external factor or an internal condition causes reprogramming of temporal and spatial transcription. When an organism undergoes physiological and/or morphological changes, several signaling pathways are activated simultaneously. Examples of such complex reactions are the response to temperature changes, dehydration, various biologically active substances, and others. Synergistic action of multiple pathways greatly complicates the experimental study of the molecular genetic mechanisms of the organism's reactions. As a result, a significant part of the regulatory ensemble in such complex reactions remains unidentified. We developed metaRE, an R package for the systematic search for cis-regulatory elements enriched in the promoters of the genes significantly changed their transcription in a complex reaction. metaRE mines multiple expression profiling datasets generated to test the same organism's response and identifies simple and composite cis-regulatory elements systematically associated with differential expression of genes. Here we showed metaRE performance for identification of cold stress-responsive cis-regulatory code in Arabidopsis thaliana. MetaRE identified potential binding sites for known as well as unknown cold response regulators. Software with source files, documentation, and example data files are freely available online at the repository (https://github.com/cheburechko/MetaRE).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0514.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: virus-host interaction; human immunodeficiency virus; protein-protein interactions; OMICs; transcriptomics; network analysis
Online: 30 April 2020 (03:07:05 CEST)
The interaction of human immunodeficiency virus with human cells is responsible for all stages of the viral life cycle, from the infection of CD4+ cells to reverse transcription, integration, and the assembly of new viral particles. To date, a large amount of OMICs data as well as information from functional genomics screenings regarding the HIV-1-host interaction has been accumulated in the literature and in public databases. We processed databases containing HIV-host interactions and found 2910 HIV-1-human protein-protein interactions, mostly related to viral group M subtype B, 137 interactions between human and HIV-1 coding and non-coding RNAs, essential for viral lifecycle and cell defense mechanisms, 232 transcriptomics, 27 proteomics, and 34 epigenomics HIV-related experiments. Numerous studies regarding network-based analysis of corresponding OMICs data have been published in recent years. We overview various types of molecular networks, which can be created using OMICs data, including HIV-human protein-protein interaction networks, co-expression networks, gene regulatory and signaling networks, and approaches for the analysis of their topology and dynamics. The network-based analysis can be used to determine the critical pathways and key proteins involved in the HIV life cycle, cellular and immune responses to infection, viral escape from host defense mechanisms, and mechanisms mediating different susceptibility of humans to infection. The proteins and pathways identified in these studies may represent a basis for developing new anti-HIV therapeutic strategies such as new small-molecule drugs preventing infection of CD4+ cells and viral replication, effective vaccines, "shock and kill" and "block and lock" approaches to cure latent infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0323.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: next-generation sequencing; nanopore sequencing; biosensors; single-molecule analysis; molecular diagnostics; genetics; transcriptomics; epigenetics
Online: 18 January 2023 (07:36:43 CET)
There have been several developments in the field of nanopore biosensor development and sequencing applications that address previous limitations that restricted widespread nanopore use. These innovations, paired with the large-scale commercialization of biological nanopore sequencing by Oxford Nanopore Technologies, are making these platforms a mainstay in contemporary research labs. Equipped with the ability to provide long and short-read sequencing information with quick turn-around times and simple sample preparation, nanopore sequencers are quickly improving our understanding of unsolved genetic, transcriptomic, and epigenetic problems. However, there remain some key obstacles that have yet to be improved. In this review, we provide a general introduction to nanopore sequencing principles, discussing biological and solid-state nanopore developments, obstacles to single-base detection, and library preparation considerations. We conclude with examples of important clinical applications to give perspective on the potential future of nanopore sequencing in the field of molecular diagnostics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0675.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Fruit ripening; gingerglycolipid A; HPLC-HRMS; melatonin; nitric oxide; phytosphingosin; quercetin; transcriptomics; L-tryptophan
Online: 26 March 2021 (15:44:51 CET)
Plant species are precursors of a wide variety of secondary metabolites that, besides having useful activity for themselves, can also be used by humans for their consumption and economic benefit. Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruit is not only a common food and spice source, but it also stands out for containing high amounts of antioxidants (such as vitamins C and A), polyphenols and capsaicinoids. Particular attention has been paid to capsaicin, whose anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and analgesic activities, have been proven. Due to the potential interest in pepper metabolites for human use, in this project, we carried out an investigation to identify new bioactive compounds of this crop is carried out. To achieve this, we developed a metabolomic approach, using an HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) separative technique coupled to metabolite identification by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). After chromatographic analysis and data processing against metabolic databases, 12 differential bioactive compounds were identified in sweet pepper fruits, including quercetin and its derivatives, L-tryptophan, phytosphingosin, FAD, gingerglycolipid A, tetrahydropentoxylin, blumenol C glucoside, colnelenic acid and capsoside A. The abundance of these metabolites varied depending on the ripening stage of the fruits, either immature green or ripe red. We also studied the variation of these 12 metabolites upon treatment with exogenous nitric oxide (NO), a free radical gas involved in a good number of physiological processes in higher plants such as germination, growth, flowering, senescence, and fruit ripening, among others. Overall, it was found that the content of the analysed metabolites was modulated by the ripening stage and by the presence of NO. The metabolic pattern followed by quercetin and its derivatives, as a consequence of the ripening stage and NO treatment, was also corroborated by transcriptomic analysis of genes involved in the synthesis of these compounds. This opens new research windows on the pepper fruit’s bioactive compounds with nutraceutical potentiality, where biotechnological strategies can be applied for optimizing the level of these beneficial compounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1031.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: plant-microbe symbiosis; legumes; Pisum sativum; symbiotic responsivity; genomics; transcriptomics; differential gene expression; molecular breeding
Online: 15 November 2023 (15:49:19 CET)
Pea (Pisum sativum L.), like most legumes, forms mutualistic symbioses with nodule bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The positive effect of inoculation is partially determined by the plant genotype, thus, pea varieties with high and low symbiotic responsivity have been described, but the molecular genetic basis of this trait remains unknown. Here, we compare the symbiotically responsive breeding line ‘Triumph’ of grain pea with its parental cultivars ‘Vendevil’ (a donor of high symbiotic responsivity) and ‘Classic’ (a donor of agriculturally valuable traits) using genome and transcriptome sequencing. We show that ‘Triumph’ inherited one-fourth of its genome from ‘Vendevil’, including the genes related to AM and nodule formation, and reveal that under combined inoculation with nodule bacteria and AM fungi, ‘Triumph’ and ‘Vendevil’, in contrast to ‘Classic’, demonstrate similar up-regulation of the genes related to solute transport, hormonal regulation and flavonoid biosynthesis in their roots. We also identify the gene PsGLP2, whose expression pattern distinguishing ‘Triumph’ and ‘Vendevil’ from ‘Classic’ correlates with difference within the promoter region sequence, making it a promising marker for the symbiotic responsivity trait. The results of the study may be helpful for future molecular breeding programs aimed at creation of symbiotically responsive cultivars of pea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1079.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: adherence; biofilm formation; colonic epithelium; rectoanal junction; Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli; transcriptomics; virulence genes
Online: 15 September 2023 (12:03:12 CEST)
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are notorious foodborne pathogens capable of causing severe diarrhea and other life-threatening complications in humans. Cattle remain a major reservoir and asymptomatic carriers of STEC. In reservoir animals, the rectoanal junction (RAJ) serves as the primary colonization site of STEC playing a critical role in its transmission to humans through contaminated food sources. However, the molecular mechanisms behind the adaptation of STEC in the RAJ of the asymptomatic reservoir host and its subsequent infection of human colonic epithelial cells in an event of a foodborne transmission to cause diarrhea remain largely unexplored. This study aimed to unravel the intricate dynamics of STEC O157:H7 serotype in these two distinct host environments: bovine RAJ cells and human colonic epithelial cells, during initial colonization. In this context, comparative transcriptomics analysis was employed to investigate the differential gene expression profiles of STEC O157:H7 during its interaction with these cell types. The bacterial cells were cultured under controlled conditions to simulate the microenvironments of both bovine RAJ and human colonic epithelial cells. Using high-throughput RNA sequencing, we identified key bacterial genes and regulatory pathways that were significantly modulated in response to each specific host environment. Our findings reveal distinct expression patterns of bacterial genes involved in virulence, including adherence, metal iron homeostasis and stress response in STEC O157:H7 grown in bovine RAJ cells as op-posed to human colonic epithelial cells six hours post-infection. Additionally, the comparative analysis highlights the potential role of certain genes in host adaptation and tissue-specific pathogenicity. Furthermore, this study sheds light on the potential factors contributing to the survival and persistence of STEC O157:H7 in the bovine reservoir, and its ability to colonize in-testinal epithelium and cause disease in humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0139.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy; spatial transcriptomics; single nucleus RNA-sequencing; gene expression; bioinformatics; cardiovascular disorder; genetic disorder
Online: 4 July 2023 (05:18:51 CEST)
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common inherited disorder that can lead to heart failure and sudden cardiac death, characterized at the histological level by focal areas of myocyte disarray, hypertrophy and fibrosis, and few disease-targeted therapies exist. To identify, focal, spatially restricted alterations in transcriptional pathways and reveal novel therapeutic targets, we performed a spatial transcriptomic analysis of areas of focal myocyte disarray compared to areas of normal tissue, using a commercially available platform (GeoMx, nanoString). We analyzed surgical myectomy tissue from four patients with HCM and control interventricular septum tissue from two unused organ donor hearts that were free of cardiovascular disease. Histological sections were reviewed by an expert pathologist and 72 focal areas with varying degrees of myocyte disarray (normal, mild, moderate, severe) were chosen for analysis. Areas of interest were interrogated with the Human Cancer Transcriptome Atlas designed to profile 1800 transcripts. Differential expression analysis revealed significant changes in gene expression between HCM and Control tissue, and functional enrichment analysis indicated these genes were primarily involved in interferon production and mitochondrial energetics. Within HCM tissue, differentially expressed genes between areas of mild and moderate disarray were enriched for genes related to mitochondrial energetics (moderate disarray) and response to oxygen/cytokine levels (mild disarray). The comparison between areas of moderate and severe disarray were enriched for genes related to the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) cascade in severe disarray. Analysis of ligand-receptor pair gene expression revealed that HCM tissue exhibited downregulation of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), NOTCH, junctional adhesion molecule, and CD46 signaling, while showing upregulation of fibronectin, CD99, cadherin, and amyloid precursor protein signaling. A deconvolution analysis utilizing the matched single nuclei RNA-sequencing (snRNA-seq) data to determine cell type composition in areas of interest revealed significant differences in fibroblast and vascular cell composition in areas of severe disarray when compared to normal areas in HCM samples. Cell composition in normal areas from control tissue was also divergent from normal areas in HCM samples, which was consistent with the differential expression results. Overall, our data identify novel and potential disease-modifying targets for therapy in HCM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0357.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: granulosa cells; heat stress; apoptosis; oxidative stress; RNA-seq; transcriptomics; differentially expressed genes; signaling pathways
Online: 28 February 2022 (11:08:42 CET)
Heat stress affects the granulosa cells (GCs) and ovarian follicular microenvironment, causing poor oocyte developmental competence and fertility. This study aimed to investigate the physical responses and global transcriptomic changes in bovine GCs to acute heat stress (43 ℃ for 2 h) in-vitro and gave essential insights into the general interaction at cell–stress nexus. Heat-stressed GCs exhibited transient proliferation senescence, resumed proliferation at 48 h post-stress. While post-stress immediate culture-media change had a relatively positive effect on proliferation resumption. Increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis was observed in heat stress group. In spite of the upregulation of pro-apoptotic and caspase executioner genes, antioxidants and anti-apoptotic genes were also upregulated in heat-stressed GCs. Progesterone and Estrogen hormones along with steroidogenic genes expression, declined significantly, in spite of the upregulation of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis. Out of 12385 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 330 significant DEGs (75 upregulated, 225 downregulated) were subjected to KEGG functional pathway annotation, gene ontology enrichment, and STRING network analyses. Based on the manual query of DEGs, pathway and enrichment analyses, a vast interplay observed among all major signaling pathways strongly evidence the repression of cellular transcriptional and proliferation activity, averting the effects of heat stress through remodeling of cellular structural proteins and energetic-homeostasis. This study presents detailed responses of acute heat-stressed GCs at physical, transcriptional, and pathway levels and presents interesting insights into future studies regarding GCs adaptation and their interaction with oocyte and reproductive system at ovarian level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0389.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Asian citrus psyllid; citrus greening bacterium; huanglongbing; transcriptomics; virus-vector relationship; vitellogenin; cytoskeleton; endocytotic pathway
Online: 24 May 2020 (17:03:45 CEST)
Citrus greening disease or huanglongbing (HLB) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) limits the citrus production worldwide. CLas is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in a persistent-propagative manner. Application of insecticides to manage the psyllid vectors and disease is the most common practice. Understanding the molecular interaction between CLas and ACP and interrupting the interrelationship can provide an alternative to insecticides for managing citrus greening disease. Transcriptome analysis of ACP in response to CLas showed differential expression of 3911 genes (2196 up-regulated, and 1715 down-regulated) including the key genes of ACP involved in cytoskeleton synthesis and nutrition-related proteins. Majority of the differentially expressed genes were categorized under molecular function followed by cellular components and biological processes. KEGG pathway analysis showed differential regulation of carbohydrate, nucleotide and energy metabolic pathways, the endocytotic pathway and the defense-related pathways. Differential regulation of genes associated with the key pathways might favors CLas to become systemic and propagate in its insect vector. The study provides an understanding of genes involved in circulation of CLas in ACP. The candidate genes involved in key physiological processes and CLas transmission by ACP would be potential targets for sustainable management of ACP and CLas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0288.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: array-comparative genomic; gliomas; Cell culture; Cancer genomics; Cancer Transcriptomics; brain tumors; cell line; glioblastoma
Online: 27 August 2019 (16:34:22 CEST)
Cancer cell lines are widely used as in vitro models of tumorigenesis, facilitating fundamental discoveries in cancer biology and translational medicine. Currently, there are few options for glioblastoma (GBM) treatment and limited in vitro models with accurate genomic and transcriptomic characterization. Here, a detailed characterization of a new GBM cell line, namely AHOL1, was conducted in order to fully characterize its molecular composition based on its copy number alteration (CNA) and transcriptome profiling, followed by the validation of key elements associated with GBM tumorigenesis. Large numbers of CNAs and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. CNAs were distributed throughout the genome, including gains at Xq11.1-q28, Xp22.33-p11.1, Xq21.1-q21.33, 4p15.1-p14, 8q23.2-q23.3 and losses at Yq11.21-q12, Yp11.31-p11.2 and 12p13.31 positions. Nine druggable genes were identified, including HCRTR2, ETV1, PTPRD, PRKX, STS, RPS6KA6, ZFY, USP9Y and KDM5D. By integrating DEGs and CNAs, we identified 57 overlapping genes enriched in fourteen pathways. Altered expression of several cancer-related candidates found in the DEGs-CNA dataset was confirmed by RT-qPCR. Taken together, this first comprehensive genomic and transcriptomic landscape of AHOL1 provides unique resources for further studies and identifies several druggable targets that may be useful for therapeutics and biologic and molecular investigation of GBM.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0189.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: RNA-seq; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; gene enrichment analysis; enriched pathways; differentially expressed genes; transcriptomics
Online: 2 June 2023 (11:12:22 CEST)
During the infection by SARS-CoV-2, the virus is changing infected host cell into its own factory producing new viral particles. As infection progresses, infected cell undergoes many changes in various pathways. One of the events caused by changes is cytokine storm, which leads to the severe symptoms. In this study, we investigated transcriptomic changes caused by COVID-19 disease using RNA-seq data obtained from COVID-19-positive patients and COVID-19-negative donors. RNA-seq data were collected for the purpose of identification of potential biomarkers associated with a different course of the disease. Here, the first datasets of 96 samples were analyzed to validate the methods. The aim of this publication is to report pilot results. In search of potential biomarkers associated with different disease severity, we performed differential expression analysis of human transcriptome, focusing on COVID-19 positivity and symptom severity. Since we detected plenty of potential biomarkers, we performed KEGG enrichment analysis to get better view of altered pathways. Results show, that affected were pathways related to immune processes and response to infection, also multiple signaling pathways, while most of them were also reported to be influenced by SARS-CoV-2 infection in previous studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0376.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; Aβ cascade hypothesis; a-synuclein aggregation and spreading; transcriptomics of nervous system
Online: 22 September 2021 (11:33:22 CEST)
Alzheimer’s and Parkinson's diseases (AD and PD) are amongst top of the prevalent neurodegenerative disease. One-third of PD patients are diagnosed with dementia, a pre-symptom of AD, but the underlying mechanism is elusive. Amyloid beta (Aβ) and α-synuclein are two of the most investigated proteins, whose pathological aggregation and spreading are crucial to the pathogenesis of AD and PD, respectively. Transcriptomic studies of the mammalian central nervous system shed light on gene expression profiles at molecular levels, regarding the complexity of neuronal morphologies and electrophysiological inputs/outputs. In the last decade, the booming of the single-cell RNA sequencing technique helped to understand gene expression patterns, alternative splicing, novel transcripts, and signal pathways in the nervous system at single-cell levels, providing insight for molecular taxonomy and mechanistic targets of the degenerative nervous system. Here, we re-visited the cell-cell transmission mechanisms of Aβ and α-synuclein in medi-ating disease propagation, and summarized recent single-cell transcriptome sequencing from different perspectives and discussed its understanding of neurodegenerative diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0252.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: data; sequence; information; entropy; genome; gene; proteins; time-series; modeling; meta-genomics; transcriptomics; proteomics; bioinformatics; DNA
Online: 22 November 2019 (02:28:15 CET)
Today massive amounts of sequenced metagenomic and -transcriptomic data from different ecological niches and environmental locations are available. Scientific progress depends critically on methods that allow extracting useful information from the various types of sequence data. Here, we will first discuss types of information contained in the various flavours of biological sequence data, and how this information can be interpreted to increase our scientific knowledge and understanding. We argue that a mechanistic understanding is required to consistently interpret experimental observations, and that this understanding is greatly facilitated by the generation and analysis of dynamic mathematical models. We conclude that, in order to construct mathematical models and to test mechanistic hypotheses, time-series data is of critical importance. We review diverse techniques to analyse time-series data and discuss various approaches by which time-series of biological sequence data was successfully used to derive and test mechanistic hypotheses. Analysing the bottlenecks of current strategies in the extraction of knowledge and understanding from data, we conclude that combined experimental and theoretical efforts should be implemented as early as possible during the planning phase of individual experiments and scientific research projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0162.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: human pluripotent stem cells; human stem cell-derived hepatocytes; in vitro; metabolic diseases; transcriptomics; maturation; characterization
Online: 14 November 2019 (11:24:24 CET)
There is a strong anticipated future for human pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes (hiPS-HEP), but so far their use has been limited due to insufficient functionality. We investigated the potential of hiPS-HEP as an in vitro model for metabolic diseases by combining transcriptomics with multiple functional assays. The transcriptomics analysis revealed that 86% of the genes were expressed at similar levels in hiPS-HEP as in human primary hepatocytes (hphep). Adult characteristics of the hiPS-HEP were confirmed by the presence of important hepatocyte features, e.g. Albumin secretion and expression of major drug metabolizing genes. Normal energy metabolism is crucial for modeling metabolic diseases, and both transcriptomics data and functional assays showed that hiPS-HEP were similar to hphep regarding uptake of glucose, LDL and fatty acids. Importantly, the inflammatory state of the hiPS-HEP was low under standard conditions, but in response to lipid accumulation and ER stress the inflammation marker TNFα was upregulated. Furthermore, hiPS-HEP could be co-cultured with primary hepatic stellate cells both in 2D and in 3D spheroids, paving the way for using these co-cultures for modeling NASH. Taken together, hiPS-HEP have the potential to serve as an in vitro model for metabolic diseases. Furthermore, differently expressed genes identified in this study can serve as targets for future improvements of the hiPS-HEP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1833.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: transcriptomics; co-expression networks; fungal pathogens; WRKY; plant pathology; meta-analysis; multi-study analysis; sunflower; candidate genes
Online: 26 June 2023 (15:48:34 CEST)
Fungal plant diseases are a major threat to food security worldwide. Current efforts to identify and list loci involved in different biological processes are more complicated than originally thought, even when complete genome assemblies are available. Despite numerous experimental and computational efforts to characterize gene functions in plants, about ~ 40% of protein-coding genes in the model plant A. thaliana are still not categorized in the Gene Ontology Biological Process (BP) annotation. In non-model organisms, such as sunflower (Helianthus annuus), the number of BP term annotation is far fewer, ~22%. In the current study we performed gene co-expression network analysis using eight terabytes of public transcriptome datasets and performed expression-based functional prediction to categorize and identify loci involved in the response to fungal pathogens. We were able to construct a reference gene network of healthy green tissue (GreenGCN) and a gene network of healthy and stressed root tissues (RootGCN). Both networks achieved robust high quality scores on the metrics of guilt-by-association and selective constraints versus gene connectivity. We were able to identify eight modules enriched in defense functions, of which, two out of the three modules in the RootGCN were also conserved in the GreenGCN, suggesting similar defense-related expression patterns. We identified 16 WRKY genes involved in defense related functions and 65 previously uncharacterized loci now linked to defense response. In addition, we identified and classified 122 loci previously identified within QTL or near candidate loci reported in GWAS studies of disease resistance in sunflower linked to defense response. In all, we have implemented a valuable strategy to better describe genes within specific biological processes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0371.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Nuclei isolation; Next-generation sequencing; Cell-type specific isolation; Epigenetics; Transcriptomics; Single cell sequencing; Single nucleus sequencing
Online: 21 March 2023 (06:40:11 CET)
In the last decade, we have witnessed an upsurge in nuclei-based studies, particularly coupled with next-generation sequencing. Such studies aim at understanding the molecular states that exist in heterogeneous cell populations by applying increasingly more affordable sequencing approaches, in addition to optimized methodologies developed to isolate and select nuclei. Although these powerful new methods promise unprecedented insights, it is important to understand and critically consider the associated challenges. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the rise of nuclei-based studies and elaborate on their advantages and disadvantages. Improved designs and appropriate use of the various experimental strategies will result in acquiring biologically accurate and meaningful information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0248.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: granulosa cells; heat stress; integrated analysis; transcriptomics; metabolomics; differentially ex-pressed genes; metabolites; signaling pathways; metabolic pathways; cancer pathways
Online: 27 April 2022 (05:08:15 CEST)
Previous studies reported the physical, transcriptomics and metabolomics changes in in-vitro acute heat stressed bovine granulosa cells. Granulosa cells exhibited transient proliferation senescence, oxidative stress, increased rate of apoptosis, and decline in steroidogenic activity. This study performs joint integration and network analysis of metabolomics and transcriptomics data to further narrow down and elucidate the role of differentially expressed genes, important metab-olites and relevant cellular and metabolic pathways in acute heat-stressed granulosa cells. Among significant (Raw P-value <0.05) metabolic pathways where metabolites and genes did converge, this study found Vitamin B6 metabolism, Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, Phenylalanine metabo-lism, Arginine biosynthesis, Tryptophan metabolism, Arginine and proline metabolism, Histidine metabolism, and Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism. Important significant convergent bio-logical pathways included, ABC transporters and Protein digestion and absorption, while func-tional signaling pathways included cAMP, mTOR, and AMPK signaling pathways together with Ovarian steroidogenesis pathway. Among caner pathways, the most important pathway was Central carbon metabolism in cancer. Through multiple analysis query, Progesterone, Serotonin, citric acid, Pyridoxal, L-Lysine, Succinic acid, L-Glutamine, L-Leucine, L-Threonine, L-Tyrosine, Vitamin B6, Choline, and CYP1B1, MAOB, VEGFA, WNT11, AOX1, ADCY2, ICAM1, PYGM, SLC2A4, SLC16A3, HSD11B2 and NOS2 appeared to be important enriched metabolites and genes, respectively. These genes, metabolites, metabolic, cellular and cell signaling pathways com-prehensively elucidate the mechanisms underlying the intricate fight between death and survival in acute heat-stressed bovine granulosa cells, and essentially help further our understanding and future quest of research in this direction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0082.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: atherosclerosis; coronary aortic disease; gene set enrichment analysis; heart disease; Apoe mouse; transcriptomics; RNA-seq analysis; pathway enrichment analysis; mouse; precision medicine; New Zealand White rabbit
Online: 5 September 2018 (04:49:40 CEST)
The central promise of personalized medicine is individualized treatments that target molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological changes and symptoms arising from disease. We demonstrate a bioinformatics analysis pipeline as a proof-of-principle to test the feasibility and practicality of comparative transcriptomics to classify two of the most popular in vivo diet-induced models of coronary atherosclerosis, apolipoprotein E null mice and New Zealand White rabbits. Transcriptomics analyses indicate the two models extensively share dysregulated genes albeit with some unique pathways. For instance, while both models have alterations in the mitochondrion, the biochemical pathway analysis revealed, Complex IV in the electron transfer chain is higher in mice, whereas the rest of the electron transfer chain components are higher in the rabbits. Several fatty acids anabolic pathways are expressed higher in mice, whereas fatty acids and lipids degradation pathways are higher in rabbits. This reflects the differences between two translational models of atherosclerosis. This study validates transcriptome analysis as a potential method to precisely identify altered cellular and molecular pathways in atherosclerotic disease, which can be used to individualize treatment even in the absence of genetic data.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0103.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: plant immune response; reactive oxygen species; salicylic acid; reactive oxygen species-salicylic acid crosstalk; programmed cell death; hypersensitive response-conferred resistance; RBOH NADPH oxidases; chloroplastic redox state; biosensors; precision transcriptomics
Online: 7 March 2022 (14:46:28 CET)
One of the earliest hallmarks of plant immune response is production of reactive oxygen spe-cies (ROS) in different subcellular compartments, which regulate plant immunity. A suitable equilibrium, which is crucial to prevent ROS over-accumulation leading to oxidative stress, is maintained by salicylic acid (SA), a chief regulator of ROS. However, ROS are not only acting downstream of SA signaling, but were also proposed to be a central component of a self-amplifying loop that regulates SA signaling as well as the interaction balance between dif-ferent phytohormones. The exact role of this crosstalk, the position where SA interferes with ROS signaling and ROS interferes with SA signaling and the outcome of this regulation depend on the origin of ROS but also on the pathosystem. The precise spatiotemporal regulation of or-ganelle specific ROS and SA levels determine the effectiveness of pathogen arrest and is there-fore crucial for a successful immune response. However, the regulatory interplay behind still remain poorly understood, as up till now, the role of organelle specific ROS and SA in HR-conferred resistance has mostly been studied by altering the level of a single component. In order to address these aspects, a sophisticated combination of research methods for monitoring the spatiotemporal dynamics of key players and transcriptional activity in plants is needed, and will most probably consist of biosensors and precision transcriptomics.