ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1537.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: global gas; LNG; supply and demand dynamics; market outlook; investment needs
Online: 23 May 2023 (02:57:40 CEST)
This article provides a comprehensive analysis of the global gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) markets. The article begins by discussing the increasing demand for gas and LNG, particularly in Asia, as countries aim to transition to cleaner sources of energy. It explores how market volatility has led to energy security interventions and lasting economic and emissions impacts. It then explores the global supply and demand dynamics, highlighting the structural change expected in the market and the competition between Europe and Asia for limited new LNG supply. The article also focuses on Europe's increased flexibility and dependence on LNG imports, which have risen by 60% to 121 million tonnes, offsetting lower Russian pipeline imports. Furthermore, the article delves into global supply and demand dynamics, how the market is expected to remain tight, and how record gas and LNG prices have led to demand reductions. Additionally, it analyzes the future outlook and investment needs, highlighting the continued uptake of gas in heavy-duty transport and the need for further investment to avoid a supply-demand gap. The article concludes with an analysis of the implications for the future of the global gas and LNG markets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1126.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Green Supply Chain; Carbon Emission; Buy-back Contract; Cost Sharing
Online: 28 April 2023 (06:14:37 CEST)
As traditional supply chains face increasingly severe environmental issues and countries promote green development and sustainable development policy concepts, cultivating green supply chain operation models is gradually being highly valued by current governments and enterprises. Generally speaking, the production of green products incurs higher additional costs and thus their total production costs also increase. In this work, the product green level is related to the random demand. Under the green supply chain buy-back contract with the green product R&D cost sharing between the manufacturer and the retailer, both the product green level and the order quantity need to be decided to maximize the channel profit. In order to coordinate the green supply chain, the manufacturer needs to share both the risk of good salvage and the green product R&D cost with the retailer. We find that both the wholesale price and buy-back price increase in the manufacturer’s proposition of the green product R&D cost, but decrease in emission reduction efficiency coefficient or carbon trading price. In addition, the product green level, the optimal order quantity and the channel profit increase in emission reduction efficiency coefficient, but decrease in the R&D cost coefficient of the product green level. Interestingly, we find that if the carbon trading price is low, the manufacturer will set a low product green level and the product carbon emission trading is a cost for the supply chain. The increment of the carbon trading price leads to a higher cost such that the channel profit is decreased. However, if the carbon trading price is high, the manufacturer will set a high product green level and the product carbon emission trading is a revenue for the supply chain. The increment of the carbon trading price leads to a higher revenue such that the channel profit is increased.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0019.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Educational Tourism; Tourism Supply and Demand; Experience; Tourism Activities
Online: 6 September 2017 (11:58:11 CEST)
The Smart Park (well-known as Taman Pintar) as a major educational tourism destination in Jogjakarta offers a variety of tourism attractions that are very interesting for tourists. The main purpose of tourists visiting Smart Park is to get an educational tourism experience. A subjective experience raises a specific challenge for Smart Park toward the status of competitive destination. The purpose of this study is to analyze the aspects of educational tourism experience that are affected by tourism demand and supply. Data were collected by survey technique to 150 respondents and analyzed using path analysis. The results of analysis show that tourism demand and supply contributed to the variation of tourism activities by 45.1%, while the remaining was explained by other variables, such as National Budget, Local Budget, ticket sale, and cooperation with some stakeholders. Tourism supply had a higher effect than tourism demand. Tourism demand did not partially affect tourism experience. However, the results of the path analysis indicate that tourism supply had direct and indirect effects on tourism experience through the variation of tourism activities with indirect effect being dominant. In the management of Smart Park, there is still a gap between tourism demand and supply, so that the environment of tourism experience has not been created maximally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0369.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: energy efficiency; reservoir network; water supply
Online: 25 May 2018 (12:20:12 CEST)
The power generation from hydroelectric plants has increased worldwide, contributing to the participation of the renewable sources to the energy matrix. In the semiarid Brazilian Northeast (NEB), thousands of small dams have been built over time as a solution for water supply. Although incompatible with hydropower generation due to the conflict with human water supply in the region, small reservoirs accumulate water and hydraulic energy at high altitudes. In this work, simulations were performed to assess how the arrangement of various sized reservoirs impact the power demand for water distribution in the Banabuiú River Basin – BRB (19,800 km²), Brazil. The power required to pump water from all 1,405 reservoirs to the districts is 6.5 GWh/year, whereas in the scenario with the 12 larger strategic reservoirs only, the power demand reaches 45.3 GWh/year. Although representing roughly 60% of the water availability of the BRB and being able to supply all the districts, the Arrojado Lisboa reservoir alone would demand 195 GWh/year to supply water to the entire basin, i.e. 30 times the power required in the real reservoir arrangement. By storing water at high altitudes and distributing it spatially, the small reservoirs increase the energy efficiency on the water distribution system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0078.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: agriculture; climate variability; crop yield; food supply and demand analysis; West Africa; Ghana; Burkina Faso
Online: 1 December 2023 (11:29:04 CET)
Agricultural productivity is expected to decrease under changing climate conditions that correspond to the stability of West African food systems. Although numerous studies evaluated food production gaps or impacts of climate variability on crop yields, many uncertainties are associated with climate extremes, but also rapid population growth and the corresponding dietary lifestyle determine farming activities. Here, we present a food supply and demand analysis based on the relationship between climate change, crop production, as well as population growth in three experimental sites from southwestern Burkina Faso to southwestern Ghana. The method consists of a tiered approach that encompassed a statistical analysis of historical climate as well as agricultural time series using boxplots and a trend test by Mann-Kendall. Food balance sheets were calculated by estimating the demand using a population growth model linked to food supply with local consumption patterns. Results of the boxplot analysis revealed for the majority of climate time series light to strong right-skewed distributions with either a few heavy rainfall or hot temperature events. We found almost insignificant rainfall and temperature trends for both sites in the Sudano-Guinean savannah. The rainfall regime of southwestern Ghana indicated an insignificant upward or downward trend while the temperature significantly increased over time. Crop yield boxplots demonstrated mainly right-skewed distributions for cereals, legumes and tubers as well as cash crops such as cotton. Backed by the Mann-Kendall test, maize and sorghum significantly enhanced in both study areas of the Sudano-Guinean savannah. Southwestern Ghana depicted a different crop pattern where cassava and plantain showed a strong upward trend at a confidence level of 1%. The grouped food balances sheets across the regions illustrated a surplus for the Sudano-Guinean savannah ranging from 221.2 megatons (Mt) to 4,846.77 Mt while southwestern Ghana exhibited a deficit between -193.33 Mt and -16,188.82 Mt. Despite a growing yield of various crops, food demand outpaces the regional production. Hence, it is recommended to focus on a larger array of commodities, imports and marketing of farm products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0030.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: carbon emissions reduction; technology spillover; game theory; supply chain coordination
Online: 8 September 2016 (11:39:40 CEST)
We study a two-echelon supply chain made up of a supplier and a manufacturer, both of which can reduce their component/product carbon emissions. With the vertical technology spillovers, we explore the optimal decisions of centralized and decentralized supply chains with price dependent demand and propose coordination strategy for the decentralized supply chain. Considering the cost contraction effectiveness of the technology spillovers, the centralized and decentralized game theoretic models of a two-echelon supply chain are developed to investigate optimal decisions of pricing and carbon emissions reduction. Through a systematic comparison and numerical analysis, we show that the profits of both players and the entire supply chain improve with the effect of technology spillovers increasing. Carbon emissions reduction will be taken by various protective measures so that the supplier and the manufacturer who do not innovate can hardly share the results of innovating via the “free-riding” methods when the technology spillover is relatively small. We also propose a revenue-cost sharing contract through bargaining to enhance the performance of the decentralized supply chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0410.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: highly-regulated river basins; climate change; water demands; public water supply; SWAT-MODFLOW; WEAP; UKCP18
Online: 24 August 2022 (05:08:40 CEST)
In this article, we present the use of the coupled land surface model and groundwater flow model SWAT-MODFLOW with the decision support tool WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning software) to predict future surface water abstraction scenarios in a complex river basin, under conditions of climate change. The modeling framework is applied to the Dee River catchment in Wales, United Kingdom. Regarding hydrology, the coupled model improves overall water balance and low streamflow conditions, compared to a stand-alone SWAT model. The calibrated SWAT-MODFLOW is employed with high resolution climate model data from the UKCP18 project with future scenario of RCP85 from 2020 to 2040. Then, water supply results from SWAT-MODFLOW are fed into WEAP as input for the river reach in the downstream region of the river basin. This system is utilized to create various future scenarios of surface water abstraction of public water supply in the downstream region: maximum licensed withdraw, 50 % authorized abstractions, monthly time series with 1% increase of water use, and maximum water withdraw year based on historical records repeated every year with 1% increase of water use, to estimate the unmet demands and streamflow requirement. This modeling approach can be used in other river basins to manage scenarios of supply and demand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0037.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: collection-distribution center; closed loop supply chain; fuzzy random variable; particle swarm optimization
Online: 11 October 2016 (11:02:47 CEST)
Recycling waste products is an environmental-friendly activity that can bring benefits to accompany, saving manufacturing costs and improving economic efficiency. For the beer industry, recycling bottles can reduce manufacturing costs and reduce the industry's carbon footprint. This paper presents a model for a multi-objective collection-distribution center location and allocation problem in a closed loop supply chain for the beer industry, in which the objective is to minimize total costs and transportation pollution. Uncertainties in the form of randomness and fuzziness are jointly handled in this paper to ensure a more practical problem solution, for which returned bottle sand unusable bottles are considered fuzzy random variables. A heuristic algorithm based on priority-based global-local-neighbor particle swarm optimization (pb-glnPSO) is applied to ensure reliable solutions for this NP-hard problem. A case study on a beer operation company is conducted to illustrate the application of the proposed model and demonstrate the priority-based global-local-neighbor particle swarm optimization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2181.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Blockchain Technology-enabled Pharmaceutical Supply Chain; Uncertain Demand; Supervised Learning algorithms; Evolutionary Computation algorithms; Blockchain Technology
Online: 1 October 2023 (10:14:31 CEST)
This paper provides a new multi-function Blockchain Technology-enabled Pharmaceutical Supply Chain (BT-enabled PSC) mathematical cost model, including PSC costs, BT costs, and uncertain demand fluctuations. The purpose of this study is to find the most appropriate algorithm(s) with minimum prediction errors to predict the costs of the BT-enabled PSC model. This paper also aims to determine the importance and cost of each component of the multi-function model. To reach these goals, we combined four Supervised Learning algorithms (KNN, DT, SVM, and NB) with two Evolutionary Computation algorithms (HS and PSO) after data generation. Each component of the multi-function model has its own importance, and we applied the Feature Weighting approach to analyse their importance. Next, four performance metrics evaluated the multi-function model, and the Total Ranking Score determined predictive algorithms with high reliability. The results indicate the HS-NB and PSO-NB algorithms perform better than the other six algorithms in predicting the costs of the multi-function model with small errors. The findings also show that the Raw Materials cost has a stronger influence on the model than the other components. This study also introduces the components of the multi-function BT-enabled PSC model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0109.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: combined simulation; power and gas interdependence; security of supply; transient gas simulation; scenario analysis; power system contingency
Online: 22 November 2016 (09:33:38 CET)
Gas and power networks are tightly coupled and interact with each other due to physically interconnected facilities. In an integrated gas and power network, a contingency observed in one system may cause iterative cascading failures, resulting in network wide disruptions. Therefore, understanding the impacts of the interactions in both systems is crucial for governments, system operators, regulators and operational planners, particularly, to ensure security of supply for the overall energy system. Although simulation has been widely used in the assessment of gas systems as well as power systems, there is a significant gap in simulation models that are able to address the coupling of both systems. In this paper, a simulation framework that models and simulates the gas and power network in an integrated manner is proposed. The framework consist of a transient model for the gas system and a steady state model for the power system based on AC-Optimal Power Flow. The gas and power system model are coupled through an interface which uses the coupling equations to establish the data exchange and coordination between the individual models. The bidirectional interlink between both systems considered in this studies are the fuel gas offtake of gas fired power plants for power generation and the power supply to LNG terminals and electric drivers installed in gas compressor stations and underground gas storage facilities. The simulation framework is implemented into an innovative simulation tool named SAInt (Scenario Analysis Interface for Energy Systems) and the capabilities of the tool are demonstrated by performing a contingency analysis for a real world example. Results indicate how a disruption triggered in one system propagates to the other system and affects the operation of critical facilities. In addition, the studies show the importance of using transient gas models for security of supply studies instead of successions of steady state models, where the time evolution of the line pack is not captured correctly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0116.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: supply chain strategy; supply chain formulation; supply chain architecture; supply chain design
Online: 10 April 2019 (06:05:59 CEST)
The focus of this paper is on supply chain strategy formulation. A conceptual theory approach is used for investigating and identifying the relationship between multiple elements, dimensions, forces and factors that influence and affect the supply chain strategy formulation in Greenfield context, specific to the slate mining industry. The research study involved secondary data review and series of 20 qualitative interviews, followed by 2 group discussions, one with mining and transportation experts external to the supply chain and one group discussion with supply chain internal experts. Through critical analysis, a number of problems emerge and the process of addressing these problems, results in a new framework for evaluating the relationship between business and supply chain strategy, specific to Greenfield project and integration design context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0924.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: green supply chain management; dynamic capabilities; supply chain dynamic capabilities; supply chain performance; supply chain agility; supply chain costs; supply chain reliability
Online: 13 June 2023 (10:18:27 CEST)
Green supply chain management (GSCM) is fundamentally growing as a key component of sustainability, owing to its ability to improve supply chain competitiveness and performance within firms. The body of literature on GSCM within the manufacturing sector in developing countries such as South Africa is still limited. The study examined the relationships between GSCM practices, dynamic capabilities, and supply chain performance in the South African manufacturing sector. The study was quantitative, involving a sample of 402 supply chain professionals drawn from the manufacturing sector across the four provinces of the country. Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modelling based on the SMART PLS technique. Eco-design Green distribution and green training impacted positively on dynamic capabilities, the latter of which in turn is linked to improved agility, reliability, and reduced supply chain costs. The study validates the importance of GSCM as a driver of dynamic capabilities and performance in manufacturing environments within developing countries such as South Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0081.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: aluminum resources; sustainable supply; supply structure; guarantee degree
Online: 15 December 2016 (10:13:06 CET)
Aluminum is a strategic mineral resource, and China’s aluminum production and consumption is fairly large. However, its supply guarantee is uncertain because of a high dependency on external raw materials. This uncertainty may expand, so finding a way to reduce the uncertainty of aluminum resource supply is especially important. This paper applies the SFA method to analyze the aluminum flows in mainland China from 1996 to 2014, and establishes a supply structure model to measure its supply guarantee degree. The results claim that: (1) China’s aluminum production can satisfy demand and even create a surplus; (2) Domestic self-productive primary and secondary aluminum increased at an annual rate of 12% and 24%; (3) The proportion of self-productive secondary aluminum in the supply structure increased from 7.7% in 1996 to 12.8% in 2014, while that of primary aluminum decreased from 79.6% to 42.8%; (4) The total supply guarantee degree decreased from 87.3% to 55.6% in this period. These results provide a feasible way to solve this plight: the proportion of secondary aluminum in the supply structure should be enhanced, and an efficient aluminum resource recycling system needs to be established as soon as possible to ensure its sustainable supply.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0750.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Sustainability; SMEs; Supply Chain Collaboration; Supply Chain Visibility; Supply Chain Agility
Online: 30 September 2020 (14:26:12 CEST)
Today’s export-based manufacturers face the need to implement green supply chains more efficiently in order to overcome environmental barriers in increasingly competitive export markets and to improve export performance. This study examines the structural relationship between environmental collaboration, green innovation capacity, and performance based on the findings of previous studies in order to identify the factors affecting the green supply chain management (GSCM) performance of Korean export-based manufacturers. The study finds that environmental collaboration in the green supply chain environment is an important driver of green innovation capacity for export-based Korean manufacturers. It also finds that green innovation capacity has a positive effect on export performance through environmental performance. This study establishes a theoretical basis for the systematic study of the structural mechanisms of green supply chains and suggests strategic directions for export-based manufacturing firms’ successful GSCM implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0005.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Agile Supply Chains; Cognitive Digital Twin; Cognitive Supply Chains; Cognitive Manufacturing.
Online: 1 March 2021 (12:54:03 CET)
Supply chain agility and resilience are key factors for the success of manufacturing companies in their attempt to respond to dynamic changes. Circular economy, the need for optimized material flows, ad-hoc responses and personalization are some of the trends that require supply chains to become “cognitive”, i.e. able to predict trends and flexible enough in dynamic environments, ensuring optimized operational performance. Digital Twins (DTs) is a promising technology, and a lot of work is done on the factory level. In this paper, the concept of Cognitive Digital Twins (CDTs) and how they can be deployed in connected and agile supply chains is elaborated. The need for CDTs in the supply chain as well as the main CDT enablers and how they can be deployed under an operational model in agile networks is described. Emphasis is given on the modelling, cognition and governance aspects as well as on how a supply chain can be configured as a network of connected CDTs. Finally, a deployment methodology of the developed model into an example of a circular supply chain is proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0005.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: wastes, closed loop of supply chain, mining, sustainable supply chain, CSR
Online: 3 June 2019 (08:41:29 CEST)
(1) Background: Presentation of the method of increasing the competitiveness of the mining industry through the demonstration of the possibility and potential in closing the loop of supply chains through waste management; (2) Methods: The source literature analysis and an arithmetic analysis of the data of statistical materials and data obtained from business in static and dynamic perspectives; (3) Results: According to the latest data available, in Poland, mining wastes account for over a half of industrial wastes, while the annual growth of mining wastes is on the level of 4%. The recorded recovery of mining wastes is on the level of ca. 19%. The exemplary company that deals with the recovery of carbon wastes recovers ca. 80% of material, which is handed over for utilization (4) Conclusions: It has been found that the structure of the level of mining wastes and the level of their recovery rates demonstrate a large potential of closing the loop of chains in this industry and, at the same time, a potential to extend the chains through directing the material from recovery to various sectors. This constitutes an example of the direction of activities that are in line with the EU strategies for the economies of other states which possess this type wastes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1167.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Developing countries; Sustainable Supply chain; Sustainability; Oil and gas industry; Supply Chain Management
Online: 28 April 2023 (10:51:19 CEST)
‘‘Sustainable Supply Chain Management’’ (SSCM) has become a hot topic on which eminent researchers are working on every day. However, it is clear that we still observe in this field of research, an artistic vagueness on the fundamental differences between Sustainable Supply Chain Management and Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) Moreover, it is regrettable to note that previous researchers haven't yet thought about having a specific theory which can be applied to SSCM, the use of macro theories still being observed. In addition, we observe a lack of research in the oil and gas industry especially in Developing Countries when we know that this industry is the most lucrative and polluting. Therefore, this paper’s purpose consists to make a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) of 38 papers published from 2005 to 2023 especially in oil and gas industry and in Developing Countries, in order to make a clear distinction between SSCM and GSCM while highlighting the practices related to them and at the same time, generating a united theory which will bring together the triple bottom line of the SSCM. As findings, the authors built a Conceptual Framework that applies the triple bottom line of the SSCM in oil and gas industry by demonstrating that GSCM which is more related to environmental issues and is a part of the SSCM. Therefore, in order to be more efficient and to have a great impact on their performances, Oil and gas companies should apply SSCM practices rather than GSCM practices which are very different from what is applied in Developed Countries because of certain barriers and pressures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0144.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: supply chain integration
Online: 12 April 2019 (10:33:23 CEST)
This paper applied case study research to design architectures for green-field supply chain integration. The integration design is based on a case study of a supply chain integration of 5 companies, operating in different, but supply chain complimenting industry sectors. The case study research is applied to design and validate the architectures in a real world scenario. The supply chain integration architectures enable the conversion of individual into integrated strategies. The architectures are categorised and the process develops into a conceptual system for identifying the correlations between individual participants’ strategic areas of interest and the integrated supply chain areas of interest. The novelty of this paper is a conceptual system for green-field supply chain integration architectures, which can be applied in real world by supply chain practitioners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0015.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: supply chains; simulation model; contamination; variability; inventory levels; shipments
Online: 29 December 2019 (08:36:38 CET)
This article aims to serve as a guide for the construction of supply chain simulation models designed with a lean approach, using Promodel software. To achieve this, a supply chain was designed for a fictitious company located in the City of Celaya, Guanajuato and a set of suppliers located in different cities within the same State. It was used as a google tool to define the distances between each of the companies. As a final result, a representative model of a supply chain was obtained, as well as a methodology that allows the construction of lean supply chains regardless of the number of companies that comprise it. The effect of the variability in the delivery times between suppliers was incorporated into the simulation model, as well as an equation that calculates the pollution emissions of the vehicles that integrate the network that moves the products between the companies. With this work it is possible to represent networks of supply chains of real world companies, where the variability and contamination factor is included, to facilitate the decision making regarding the number of vehicles, inventory levels, quantities to be shipped, frequency in the shipments, etc. with the purpose of contaminating as little as possible and at the same time preventing interruptions in the supply chain using the least amount of resources possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0101.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Strategic alliance; Supply chain resilience; Resilient supply chain; Bibliometric analysis
Online: 4 November 2021 (10:28:29 CET)
Resilience is a particularly important quality for supply chains in this turbulent environment. Resilience in supply chain is the ability to retain, resume, and recover operations after an intense destructive incident. One of the strategic solutions for managing supply chain disruptions is to establish collaboration and strategic alliances in order to achieve competitive advantage. Therefore, given the increasing publication of articles in areas of strategic alliances and supply chain resilience, it is a good opportunity to review these articles, identify gaps in the current literature, demonstrate links between the two areas, and provide suggestions for future research. For these purposes, a bibliometric analysis has been performed on literature available on the Web of Science database. The distribution of articles based on year and country, influential journals, research areas, authors, affiliations, keywords, citations, and reference co-citation analysis are discussed. Results indicate that studies about strategic alliances, meant to increase resilience, are growing in areas such as “Management”, “Operations research”, “Management science”, and “Business”. Furthermore, the sources could be categorized in five clusters; namely “From knowledge concept to value creation”, “Internal and external relationships”, “Logistics and supply chain performance”, “Intellectual capital and strategic management”, and “Critical success factors and alliances”. This article can be useful for both practitioners and academics who explore the topic of strategic alliances and resilience in supply chain and also offers managers the opportunity to overcome supply chain disruptions and negative consequences of risks by becoming familiar with the key concepts of resilience. The persistence of businesses and supply chains is guaranteed through communicating with partners and even competitors in the light of alliance according to the findings of this research. Managers can pay attention to the integration of the supply chain to improve resilience and increase collaboration between suppliers and customers. Given the research results, strategic alliances can be noted in expanding organizational entrepreneurship, and shaping strategic collaboration networks in light of strategic alliances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0346.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Developing economy; Supply chain leadership; Supply chain management; Sustainable innovation; JSE-listed Companies; Competitiveness.
Online: 6 November 2023 (10:35:12 CET)
The concept of supply chain leadership strategy has garnered increasing interest from policymakers and experts, because it is among the most dependable practices to sustainable innovation and competitiveness for large firms across developing economies. Effective implementation of supply chain leadership strategic actions at each level in the company can create sustainable innovative and competitiveness. The study collected statistical data using an online Survey- Monkey questionnaire from 46 of top 100 JSE-listed companies with the intention to discover supply chain leadership strategic actions that drive sustainable innovation and competitiveness in the company. The findings expose a significant empirical insight for companies to understand and leverage supply chain leadership strategic actions to influence sustainable innovative position in a developing economy. These results suggest that firms operating within emerging markets should embrace and acknowledge the importance of sustainable innovation in business practices in the provision of goods and services. This study therefore delivers major contributions to the literature to assist in planning sustainable innovation and supply chain practices in a developing economy to survive in a competitive global environment. The paper also offers a vigorous awareness and knowledge of the common characteristics and strategies for supply chain management that needs to be prioritized by the JSE-listed companies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0652.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: supply chain management; logistics; collaboration; cooperation; supply chain design; customer satisfaction; distribution; regression; noodles
Online: 29 October 2018 (04:45:36 CET)
The degree of collaboration among supply chain partners and the structure of the network are important determinants of the level of satisfaction customers derive from the products or services. However, the effects of these dimensions on customer satisfaction at the downstream section of the supply chain remain under-researched in Nigeria. This study precisely examined the effects of collaboration and supply chain design on customers’ satisfaction at the downstream end of the chain using Ekiti State as study area. The study employed descriptive survey design with the use of structured Likert scale questionnaire administered to 381 retailers of noodles in Ekiti State. The research hypotheses were analysed using simple linear regression as statistical technique with the aid of SPSS version 22.0. At the end of the study, it was observed that both collaboration and supply chain design were significant predictors of customers’ satisfaction of instant noodles in Ekiti State. However, collaboration among supply chain partners emerged as stronger determinant of customers’ satisfaction than supply chain design. The study concludes that these two practices of supply chain management are highly important criteria any manufacturing firm especially in the noodles industry must pay close attention to in order to satisfy her consumers.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1944.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Hydropower; Irrigation; water supply; pre-feasibility
Online: 30 November 2023 (04:33:22 CET)
In order to achieve the target, several activities are being undertaken, including the development of multipurpose reservoir planning for the water supply and sanitation infrastructure, irrigation, and hydropower development for the H project. To undertake this work, the main data given was rainfall data, flow data, catchment area, base population for water supply, and so on. This report presents a specifically preliminary study and design of water supply, irrigation, and hydropower development for the project, which is carried out in accordance with the scope of work given by our professor. The preliminary study and design are therefore to investigate scenarios and alternatives and prepare a document of water supply, irrigation, and hydropower infrastructures for the provision of the assignment. This report, as required in the assignment, contains project background, water sources assessment, selection of suitable hydropower potential, and irrigation sizing, design criteria, descriptions of the proposed scheme, preliminary design of water supply components. The objective of the project is to recommend and design a cost-effective water supply system, irrigation, and hydropower development to supply reliable, sufficient, and safe water from a defined water source to the H project. The specific objectives of the investigation works are: • To assess potential water source alternatives for water supply • Selecting appropriate size for the reservoir which could satisfy all water demand • Assess and select suitable irrigation development and hydropower potential. • Preliminary study and design of all components of the reservoir and appurtenant structures The scope of the project generally focuses on preliminary study and design of water supply, irrigation and hydropower development components from water sources potential and the water balance output.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0344.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: water supply; crisis situation; safety of water supply; flood; water decontamination; water filtration; flexible tanks
Online: 17 February 2021 (07:56:01 CET)
Various methods of water purification, the aim of which is to obtain such a purity class that makes it suitable for consumption are presented in the article. It is a review of solutions, ranging from methods known and used for over 100 years, through research and experiments underway, to those that are only a concept. Some of the solutions are so effective that they should also be combined with the possibility of safe storage of purified water. Flexible tanks are used for this, which significantly improve logistics and provide a supply of water in all places where it is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1590.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Digitalization; Supply Chain Disruptions; Digital Supply Chain; Resilience; Best Practices; sustainability
Online: 25 October 2023 (05:25:22 CEST)
The Covid-19 pandemic strained global supply chains, and companies faced numerous produc-tion, logistics, or material management problems. It is claimed that the digitalization of supply chains can have the potential to make supply chains more resilient to interruptions and disrup-tions. This article focuses on describing the experiences of three large Austrian family-owned business during the supply chain disruptions caused by the pandemic and the Ukraine war. This assessment is done from the perspective of the supply chain leaders in the organization. We provide insights on what worked and what did not for these firms and what we can take away from their experiences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0103.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Data Analytics; Analytics; Supply Chain Input; Supply Chain; Data Science; Data
Online: 6 October 2021 (10:38:42 CEST)
One of the most remarkable features in the 20th century was the digitalization of technical progress, which changed the output of companies worldwide and became a defining feature of the century. The growth of information technology systems and the implementation of new technical advances, which enhance the integrity, agility and long-term organizational performance of the supply chain, can distinguish a digital supply chain from other supply chains. For example, the Internet of Things (IoT)-enabled information exchange and Big Data analysis might be used to regulate the mismatch between supply and demand. In order to assess contemporary ideas and concepts in the field of data analysis in the context of supply chain management, this literary investigation has been decided. The research was conducted in the form of a comprehensive literature review. In the SLR investigation, a total of 71 papers from leading journals were used. SLR has found that data analytics integrate into supply chain management can have long-term benefits on supply chain management from the input side, i.e., improved strategic development, management and other areas.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Industry 4.0; Supply Chain Design; Transformational Design Roadmap; IIoT Supply Chain Model; Decision Support for Information Management
Online: 24 December 2020 (13:37:35 CET)
Digital technologies have changed the way supply chain operations are structured. In this article, we conduct systematic syntheses of literature on the impact of new technologies on supply chains and the related cyber risks. A taxonomic/cladistic approach is used for the evaluations of progress in the area of supply chain integration in the Industrial Internet of Things and Industry 4.0, with a specific focus on the mitigation of cyber risks. An analytical framework is presented, based on a critical assessment with respect to issues related to new types of cyber risk and the integration of supply chains with new technologies. This paper identifies a dynamic and self-adapting supply chain system supported with Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (AI/ML) and real-time intelligence for predictive cyber risk analytics. The system is integrated into a cognition engine that enables predictive cyber risk analytics with real-time intelligence from IoT networks at the edge. This enhances capacities and assist in the creation of a comprehensive understanding of the opportunities and threats that arise when edge computing nodes are deployed, and when AI/ML technologies are migrated to the periphery of IoT networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0223.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Blockchain; Rice; Supply chain traceability; Quality control
Online: 8 June 2021 (12:34:45 CEST)
Rice is the grain feeds more than half of the world population. It is an important staple food provides twenty percent of the calories consumed worldwide. Food safety affects the health of consumers. Establishing an effective traceability system is one of the primary measures to protect rice quality and food safety. Blockchain-based traceability system has the characteristics of data tamper-proofing, decentralization, and co-governance. This paper proposed a rice traceability scheme based on blockchain technology that selects the critical nodes in the rice industry chain to construct a blockchain network to achieve transparent data sharing. It is meaningful for both enterprises and consumers. It can let enterprises get the real quality information of rice and related raw materials. Consumers can get the true information of rice and rice products to buy safe and healthy food. The scheme is proved feasible by simulating the traceability of the rice supply chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0238.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: raw materials; supply chain; logistics planning; logistics strategies
Online: 12 October 2020 (12:21:56 CEST)
Raw material logistics reflects an important aspect of global trade. Raw materials form an essential basis for society, for daily life, and range from apples to zinc. This paper addresses the analysis and optimization of supply chains of raw materials in terms of their economic viability and their sustainability. Type representatives are chosen according to annual transported quantities. Hard coal represents bulk goods, aluminum primary raw materials with medium quantities, and rare earths primary raw materials with small quantities. Their respective supply chains are analyzed and subsequently possible strategies and methods and their application are discussed. The paper shows for the first time that the selection and application of optimization priorities (e.g. profitability or sustainability) depends on the primary raw material and its integration into global production chains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0099.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Humanitarian Supply Chain; Supply Chain Resilience Evaluation; Flood Disaster; MCDM; ANP-PFs-VIKOR
Online: 2 August 2023 (10:19:38 CEST)
The sudden onset of natural hazards such as a flash flood events can be devastating to a country or region, often affecting numerous communities, and humanitarian supply chains play a major role in enabling the timely recovery of economic and social activities. However, the uncertainty and suddenness of natural disasters such as flash floods, as well as the potential for aftershocks, require humanitarian supply chains to be resilient during the relief process. This research first adopts the Delphi and literature review methods to identify the key indicators in the humanitarian supply chain to form an evaluation index system. Then, taking the 2021 mega-flash flood event which affected four cities in the mountainous region under the jurisdiction of the Zhengzhou municipal government, the ANP method is used to calculate the weights of each indicator and combines the weighted results with the Multi-styling and stereotyping method under Pythagorean fuzzy (PFs-VIKOR) to make an evaluation of the resilience of the humanitarian supply chain in the relief process. The findings suggest that policy makers and decision makers should pay close attention to the coordination of the parties involved in the humanitarian supply chain and improve the level of resilience of the entire supply chain by enhancing the resource scheduling capacity and responsiveness. At the same time, the VIKOR evaluation of the 4 cities highlighted the humanitarian supply chain in Dengfeng City to be most effective in this event due to the close cooperation and positive response of all parties involved in the humanitarian supply chain. The findings of this research provide some useful suggestions and guidance to the various practitioners involved in the humanitarian supply chain. Furthermore, the evaluation of the performance of the four cities in this mega-flash flood event provides some helpful indication of the importance of the various emergency measures which can help to inform policy recommendations for the Zhengzhou municipal government.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0369.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Cold supply chain; Meat Supply Chain; Food Safety; COVID-19; Blockchain; Hyperledger Fabric
Online: 14 April 2021 (12:18:24 CEST)
The world is facing an unprecedented socio-economic crisis caused by the novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19). It is also spreading through the import and export food supply chains. The Chinese authorities have discovered the COVID-19 virus in various imported frozen meat packages. Traceability plays a vital role in food quality and food safety. The Internet of Things (IoT) provides solutions to keep an eye on environmental conditions, product quality, and product traceability. These solutions are traditionally based on the centralized architecture, which does not guarantee tamper-proof data sharing. The blockchain is an emerging technology that provides tamper-proof data sharing in real-time. This article presents Hyperledger Fabric-based blockchain use case and a quick reference guide to develop the blockchain network for tracking and tracing the supply chain to minimize the risk of COVID-19 in the frozen meat supply chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0019.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: community-owned water supply organization (COWSO); domestic water management strategy; water quality; water supply and sanitation authority (WSSA)
Online: 1 July 2019 (15:07:50 CEST)
Water supply is a mandatory service for Tanzanians from respective legal public water utilities, and their sustainability reflects implementations of best management strategies at a local level. The objective of this study was to assess current approaches used in water quality and quantity management in Tanzania. This was achieved through secondary water data tends, on-site water quality assessments, visits of respective water supply and sanitation authorities, and assessment of their performances. It was observed that water supplied in rural-based authorities was quite different from that supplied in an urban setting as far as quality and quantity is concerned, urban-based supplies being of assistance to users over rural ones. A new strategy on water management is presented for sustainable water supply in Tanzania; it is based on controlling groundwater abstractions and preference of surface water in public water supplies. Rural water supply management must learn several practices realized at urban supplies for the betterment of respective majority water users.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0342.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: supply chain management; transport; sustainability; quality; innovation
Online: 14 December 2020 (14:03:54 CET)
The present article proposes a complete framework for Supply Chain Strategy (SCS) analysis that is adapted to the specific characteristics of the agrifood chain, thereby facilitating management of the former. As a specific case of analysis, the horticultural supply chain, originating in Spain and ending with the European consumer, is analyzed, taking as a reference the marketing companies at origin (mainly social economy companies, i.e.; cooperatives). In addition, a survey of marketing companies is conducted to possibly determine which explicit cooperative growth strategies may include horizontal and vertical collaboration relationships with other members of the chain. The aim is to analyze with whom the cooperative collaborates within the supply chain and the key points of such collaboration. A model analyzing the influence of collaboration on company performance is also considered. The results reveal that, in recent years, aspects related to quality and health have been surpassed and replaced by the concept of sustainability within a framework of collaboration with customers. In any case, it becomes evident that there is a need to expand collaboration within the chain by incorporating the supplier of the supplier, with the aim of making the chain more profitable.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0204.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: sustainable; global; supply chain; management
Online: 9 August 2021 (15:17:15 CEST)
This study aims to summarize the literature on sustainable global supply chain management so that researchers and practitioners can see the trends in the area in a single place. Systematic literature review (SLR) or Content analysis is used as a methodology of this literature review, studies that are published within the time frame of 2010 to 2020 are included in this literature. Dimensions to analyze each article includes; year of publications, methodology of research, data collection type, unit of analysis, industry, a country in which data is being collected, respondents’ types, the theory that is used in the study, dimensions of the sustainability and finally the purpose of study either it is to test the already existing theory or building up a new theory. I found that sustainable global supply chain management is an emerging field and there is potential in the area for researchers to explore the area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0252.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: resilience; grain supply chain; external supply shock; external cost shock; exchange rate volatility shock
Online: 3 November 2023 (12:56:18 CET)
Grain supply is the lifeblood of a country, and the stability of the supply chain is a crucial prerequisite for ensuring national grain security. This paper draws on the definition of resilience in physics and economics. It takes supply chain fracture resilience, impact resilience, and synergy resilience as the secondary indicators. It constructs a comprehensive evaluation indicator system of the grain supply chain resilience, measures the resilience indicator of China's grain supply chain from 1996 to 2021, and analyzes the role of supply, cost, exchange rate, and other external shocks in influencing the resilience of China's grain supply chain on this basis. The study found that the overall level of China's total grain supply chain resilience has been growing year by year and can be divided into three stages: low-level stabilization stage, continuous growth stage, and high-level stabilization stage. Grain supply chain fracture resilience has been growing steadily, grain supply chain impact resilience fluctuation is more obvious, and grain supply chain synergy resilience has been changing more gently. In the inquiry of the impact of external shocks on the resilience of China's grain supply chain, it was found that world grain exports and the RMB exchange rate have a significant positive impact on China's grain supply chain resilience level, while the international oil price has a significant negative impact. Based on this, the paper puts forward suggestions for ensuring stable production and supply in the grain market, improving the structure of foreign trade in grain, and actively coping with international commodity price shocks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1894.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; just-in-time; supply chain risk mitigation; supply chain visibility; GSCM
Online: 8 September 2023 (04:28:19 CEST)
There are two purposes for this article. The first purpose is to perform a reiew of previous research on global supply chain management (GSCM) principles that can adapt and survive adversity, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. The second purpose is to put forth a conceptual framework for the GSCM that is sustainable in the event of future turbulence similar to that experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic. With regard to the issues raised, the article posits the following questions. Is there, perhaps, a sustainable post-COVID-19 pandemic GSCM? Can the COVID-19 pandemic-related international logistics system (GSC) turbulences be predicted with certainty using these sustainable post-COVID-19 pandemic GSCM concepts? Putting it all together, the paper concludes that, while debatable, sustainable GSCM is feasible and can be accomplished utilizing JIT, supply chain mitigation, and supply chain visibility, as demonstrated by the manufacturing firms referenced in the article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0394.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: family caregivers; labour force; labour supply; employment; China
Online: 13 November 2020 (20:49:44 CET)
Unpaid family caregivers must consider the economic trade-off between caregiving and paid employment. Prior literature has suggested labour force participation (LFP) to decline with caregiving intensity, but no study has evaluated this relationship by accounting for the presence of both kinks and discontinuities. Here we used respondents of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study baseline survey who were non-farming, of working-age (aged 45-60) and had a young grandchild and/or a parent/parent-in-law. For women and men separately, a caregiving threshold-adjusted probit model was used to assess the association between LFP and weekly unpaid caregiving hours. Instrumental variables were used to rule out the endogeneity of caregiving hours. Of the 3,718 respondents in the analysis, for men, LFP was significantly and inversely associated with caregiving that involved neither discontinuities nor kinks. For women, a kink was identified at the caregiving threshold of 8 hours per week such that before 8 hours, each caregiving hour was associated with an increase of 0.0257 in the marginal probability of LFP, but each hour thereafter was associated with a reduction of 0.0014 in the marginal probability of LFP. These results have implications for interventions that simultaneously advance policies of health, social care and labour force.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: supply chain architecture; green-field strategic engi-neering
Online: 10 April 2019 (08:49:58 CEST)
This paper developed a new theory for supply chain architecture, and engineering design that enables integration of the business and supply chain strategies. The architecture starts with individual supply chain participants and derives insights into the complex and abstract concept of green-field integration design. The paper presented a conceptual system for depicting the interactions between business and supply chain strategy engineering. The system examines the decisions made when engineering the business strategy, with regards to the supply chain design. The system derived with a new understanding of how strategies are integrated, and what are the implications for engineering successful strategies. The study revealed that supply chain design is not considered in great detail before architecting the business strategies. Thus, companies consequentially experience supply chain problems that are likely to be detrimental to the growth potentials. The paper also derived with the findings that proactive and pre-emptive involvement of supply chain participants in the strategy engineering process, would lead to a more robust strategic design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0315.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Protein energy supply ratio; Overweight/obesity; Children; Adolescents; NHANES
Online: 6 October 2023 (05:47:43 CEST)
Background: The proportion of dietary protein may play a key role in the development of obesity in children and adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional data of 4,336 children and adolescents from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) during 2011 to March 2020 were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals, and restriction cubic spline was uesd to explore nonlinear relationships of dietary protein energy supply ratio and obesity in children and adolescents. Results:In the adjusted logistic regression model, for every 1% increase in dietary protein energy ratio in children and adolescents, the increased risk of obesity was 4% (OR=1.04,95%CI:1.01-1.08). The restrictive cubic spline showed a nonlinear relationship between dietary protein energy ratio and obesity in children aged 6-11 years (P <0.05). The dietary protein energy supply ratio was included in the logistic regression model after converting to quartiles into categorical variables. The adjusted OR of children aged 6-11 years was 2.08 (95%CI:1.34, 3.23,P <0.01) for the highest quartile of dietary protein energy supply ratio compared with the lowest quartile. Conclusion: In American children, dietary protein energy supply ratios was positively correlated with obesity, independent of individual characteristics and energy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0149.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Water Demand; Water Supply; Performance; Hydraulic Modeling; Water GEMSV8i
Online: 11 February 2020 (14:52:17 CET)
This study was conducted generally by aiming assessment of the hydraulic performance of water distribution systems of Addis Ababa Science and Technology University (AASTU). In line with the main objective, this study addressed, (1) pinpointing problems of existing water supply versus demand deficit (2) evaluating the hydraulic performance of water distribution system using water GEMS and (3) recommended alternative methods for improving water demand scenarios. The University’s water supply distribution network layout was a looped system and the flow of water derived by both gravity and pressurized system. The gravity flow served for the academic and administrative staffs whereas the pressurized system of the network fed the students dormitories, cafeteria’s etc. The study revealed the existence of unmet minimum pressure requirement around the student dormitories which accounts 25.64% below the country’s building code standard during the peak hour consumption. The result of the water demand projection showed an increment of 2.5 liter per capita demand (LPCD) in every five years. Hence, first, the university’s water demand was projected and then hydraulic parameters such as; pressure, head loss and velocity were modeled for both the existing and the improved water supply distribution. The finding of the study was recommended to the university’s water supply project and institutional development offices for its future modification and rehabilitation works.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1744.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Sustainable supply chain management; operational excellence; supply chain leadership; developing economy; JSE-listed companies; strategic actions; South Africa; sustainable development
Online: 27 October 2023 (12:01:15 CEST)
The effective implementation of a sustainable supply chain leadership (SSCL) strategy at each organization’s level, positively impacts on corporation’s competitive advantage and sustainable development. While fears have been acknowledged in previous literature, the benefit of designing Sustainable supply chain models for operational excellence and sustainable development is a noteworthy exploration. The study collected statistical data using an online Survey- monkey questionnaire from 46 of the top 100 JSE-listed companies with the intention to elucidate the large firms’ transition from longstanding linear approaches to sustainable production and consumption to a more circular approach. A bivariate data analysis was used to generate the results in SPSS. The results indicate a positive contribution of SSCL strategy to operational excellence and sustainable development of large corporations if only the entire supply chain system is well-coordinated and implemented. This study makes a vital contribution by proposing a new SSCL model for fast-tracking corporate sustainability and enhancing corporate contributions to sustainable growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1106.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: decarbonization; automotive vehicles; supply chains; energy efficiency; quantitative analysis
Online: 16 November 2023 (13:12:58 CET)
Internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles contribute significantly to the global warming through their immense quantity of CO2 emissions and are on the way to be replaced by zero emission alternative solutions. Several replacement techniques with scientifically sound performances are proposed for the propulsion equipment including the related supply chains from renewable sources, but they often cannot fulfill the huge demand quantitatively. The paper discusses the quantitative aspects of the real demand with the example of the actual automotive park in Switzerland and analyses different alternatives like conventional EV’s, fuel-cell vehicles or energetic chains based on sustainable fuels like e-methanol or synthetic solar fuels. The analysis comprises energy efficiency considerations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0441.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment; Blockchain; Supply Chain
Online: 28 October 2021 (14:56:20 CEST)
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a widely recognized tool used to evaluate environmental impacts of a product or process, based on the environmental inventory database and bills of material. Data quality is one of the most significant factors affecting the analysis results. However, currently most datasets in inventory databases are generic i.e., they may represent material and energy flow of a process at market average, instead of a specific process used by a manufacturer. As a result, stockholders are unable to track their supply chain to find out the actual environmental impact from each supplier and to compare the environmental performance of alternative options. In this paper, we developed a new framework i.e., blockchain based LCA (BC-LCA), where block-chain technology is adapted to secure and transmit inventory data from upstream suppliers to downstream manufacturers. With BC-LCA, more specific data can be acquired along the supply chain in a real-time manner. Moreover, the availability, accuracy, privacy, and automatic update of inventory data can be improved. A case study is provided based on an industrial supply chain, to demonstrate the utilization of BC-LCA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0328.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: green supply chain; manufacturer’s fairness preferences; leading retailer; Stackelberg Game
Online: 14 July 2021 (12:14:03 CEST)
This study investigates optimal decisions in a green supply chain consisting of a manufacturer and a leading retailer considering the green marketing and fairness preferences of member firms. Four Stackelberg game decision models are constructed in which the manufacturer and the re-tailer engage in green marketing separately when the manufacturer has no and has fairness preferences. The impacts of fairness preferences and green marketing on the optimal decision in the green supply chain are comparatively analyzed. The study finds that member firms perform green marketing regardless of the presence or absence of fairness preferences and that such be-havior increases the wholesale price, retail price, and market demand of low-carbon products as well as the profits of member firms and the supply chain. A more interesting finding is that the profit growth of member firms and the supply chain due to the manufacturer’s green marketing is more pronounced than that due to the retailer’s green marketing. When the retailer and the manufacturer engage in conduct green marketing, the manufacturer's fairness preferences have different effects on the wholesale price, retail price, market demand, level of green marketing efforts, member enterprises and profits of supply chain. Therefore, firms should consider the impact of green marketing and fairness preferences to make pricing and performance decisions, so as to achieve efficient operation of the whole supply chain and avoid double marginal effects. Finally, the above conclusions are verified through numerical simulation, providing a reference for the decision-making of member firms in the green supply chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0341.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Inequality; Lorenz Curve; Education; Equity; demand and supply; Ethiopia
Online: 24 June 2022 (16:03:48 CEST)
Globally, inequalities in educational provision are prevalent between genders, various geographical regions, and among different socio-economic backgrounds. Consequently, this study set-out to assess the level of disparity among the Federal Regional States of Ethiopia using Gini-coefficient and Lorenz curve from the statistical data of MoE. Moreover, data were collected from 656 respondents found in the sample regions. The result of the Gini-coefficient indicated that disparity in educational provision has been reduced over the past couple of decades both at primary (0.145 to 0.032) and secondary levels (0.277 to 0.126). Emerging regions are by far lagging behind the central and established regions. The sources of variation were mainly the demand-side variables, especially the economic and contextual related issues like drought and conflicts. Therefore, educational policies designed at the central level are advised to consider the strategies to bridge the existing inequalities through equitable provision of the education system to its citizen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0226.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: Supply Chain Management (SCM); Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM); risk modelling; time-series analysis; machine learning
Online: 20 January 2020 (10:21:00 CET)
Risk modelling along with multi-objective optimization problems have been at theepicenter of attention for supply chain managers. In this paper, we introduce a datasetfor risk modelling in sophisticated supply chain networks based on formal mathematical models. We have discussed the methodology and simulation tools used to synthesize the dataset. Additionally, the underlying mathematical models are discussed in granular details along with providing directions to conducting statistical analyses or neural machine learning models. The simulation is performed using MATLAB ™Simulink and the models are illustrated as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0265.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: photovoltaics systems in Colombia; supply chain; non-nterconnected areas (ZNI); supply chain orientation (SCO); Petri Nets
Online: 21 May 2018 (10:50:03 CEST)
This article makes a general analysis of the supply chain of photovoltaic systems in Colombia, taking as a starting point a conceptual base and the current situation of the country in this sector. This article especially will contemplate the non-interconnected areas (ZNI) to the electricity grid in the national, due to its complexity in the logistics issues. Likewise, the work performs a graphical representation of the stages and processes of the supply chain using a powerful-modeled tool such as the Petri Nets (PNs). Finally, it identifies some of the flaws in the operation and the joint of all the links of the logistic part and from there it is based the importance of the strategy of orientation to the supply chain (SCO) as a possible alternative to improve and to enhance the logistic processes of this type of systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0385.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: zirconia; digital light processing; continuous film supply; recyclable slurry
Online: 15 June 2021 (08:33:26 CEST)
Additive manufacturing (AM) processes, including stereolithography (SL), can fabricate complex ceramic parts layer by layer using computer-aided design (CAD) models. A ceramic slurry with high solid loading is usually used in SL to fabricate the desired shape, which is further sintered to produce the final part. The traditional SL system utilizes a tank filled with printable material, known as a vat, which for ceramic slurry contributes several limitations and operational difficulties, and further renders it non-recyclable mainly due to its high viscosity and the fragility of the green state. In this study, we utilized a continuous film supply (CFS) printer integrated with a tape casting system using in-house-designed ceramic slurry to print standard prototype specimens. Various printing parameters, including viscosity, layer thickness control, and slurry recycling efficiency, were studied. In addition, post-processing optimizations of the prototype, characterizations, and the microhardness of sintered samples were studied to determine their properties and compare them with traditional methods. The effectiveness of slurry reusability was demonstrated by printing with original and recycled slurry to produce consistent densification of final parts. Post-processing was optimized to achieve a relative sinter density of 99.02% and microhardness of 12.59 GPa. This method provides new opportunities to realize dense complex ceramic features with final properties comparable to those produced by subtractive machining and traditional SL. Furthermore, slurry recycling helps to reduce the overall cost and material consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0299.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: supply chain; partial equilibrium; biofuel; soft-linking; dynamic prices
Online: 14 July 2020 (11:20:30 CEST)
Biofuels and biochemicals play significant roles in the transition towards a fossil-free society. However, large-scale biorefineries are not yet cost-competitive with their fossil-fuel counterparts, and it is important to identify biorefinery concepts with high economic performance. For evaluating early-stage biorefinery concepts, one needs to consider not only the technical performance and process costs but also the economic performance of the full supply chain and the impacts on feedstock and product markets. This article presents and demonstrates a conceptual interdisciplinary framework that can constitute the basis for evaluations of the full supply-chain performance of biorefinery concepts. This framework considers the competition for biomass across sectors, assumes exogenous end-use product demand, and incorporates various geographical and technical constraints. The framework is demonstrated empirically through a case study of a sawmill-integrated biorefinery producing liquefied biomethane from forestry and forest industry residues. The case study results illustrate that acknowledging biomass market effects in the supply chain evaluation implies changes in both biomass prices and the allocation of biomass across sectors. The proposed framework should facilitate the identification of biorefinery concepts with a high economic performance which are robust to feedstock price changes caused by the increase in biomass demand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0430.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: informal caregiving; unpaid family caregivers; labour force participation; income; labour supply
Online: 19 February 2021 (09:58:39 CET)
Unpaid family caregivers might suffer losses in income as a result of care provision. Here we used data from the baseline survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study to assess the relationship between hours of weekly caregiving provided to grandchildren/parents/parents-in-law and individual’s monthly employment income. Our study sample comprised 3,718 middle-aged Chinese adults who were of working age (45-60 years). For women and men separately, we used a likelihood-based method to determine a caregiving threshold in a two-stage Heckman selection procedure. Instrumental variables were used to rule out the endogeneity of caregiving hours. Our analysis revealed a negative association between caregiving and income for women that depended on a caregiving threshold of 63-hours per week. There was an absence of caregiving-income relationship among men. These results offer new insights into the opportunity costs of unpaid caregiving and support tailored policies to protect the financial well-being of female caregivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1133.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Distributed Manufacturing; Supply Chain; Multi-attribute decision support; Sustainability; Construction
Online: 16 May 2023 (09:07:56 CEST)
Distributed Manufacturing (DM) is becoming increasingly important in operations management due to its potential to support sustainability goals, reduce risks in global supply chains, and boost local economies. However, previous analyses of the advantages and disadvantages of DM have mainly focused on operations, overlooking additional benefits across the supply chain. For example, DM can enable local sourcing, better serve end-users, and tackle reverse supply chain challenges. While economies of scale are essential for reducing costs and improving productivity, highly centralised manufacturing can increase transportation costs, vulnerability, and supply chain disruptions, particularly during pandemics or other times of restricted transportation. To address these challenges, this study introduces a Multi-attribute Decision Support System (MADSS) and assessment process that considers impacts across the supply chain and guides stakeholders, academics, and decision-makers. The MADSS handles quantitative and qualitative information, missing data, and uncertainty, and a team of experts from academia and industry in New Zealand has developed the evaluation. The MADSS was used to analyse DM and traditional construction alternatives from economic, social, environmental, and resilience perspectives in New Zealand. The research contributes to a better understanding of the impacts of DM across the entire supply chain. Also, it proposes a flexible decision-making framework to engage with stakeholders and support decision-making in other industries and regions.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0084.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: sustainability balanced scorecard; supply chain; sport tourism
Online: 1 June 2023 (11:54:10 CEST)
An integration between the principles in supply change management in sport tourism and sustainability balanced scorecard leads to development of guidance and assessment criteria for a city to be a sustainable sport tourist destination. This paper aims to present a sport tourism sustainability management model (STSM), consisting of 5 perspectives, namely financial perspective, customer perspective, internal process perspective, learning and growth perspective and sustainability perspective. By using Delphi technique to obtain a consensus from experts, university lecturers, independent organization/association and business entities in relation to sport tourism management, the researcher defines elements to assess complex perspective for sustainable development of sport tourism. The result shows that there are 5 perspectives and 18 elements in relation to sustainable development of sport tourism. All perspectives and elements have high consensus as measured by Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance (W) of .488. To validate the model, the researcher examines correlation among the five perspectives with structural equation model and finds that the absolute fit is satisfactory, with the value of CMIN/DF at 1.830, RMSEA at .046, GFI at .951, AGFI at .919 and RMR at .038. In addition, the incremental fit also demonstrates positive result with the value of NFI at .962, CFI at .982, TLI at .973 and IFI at .982. As the model aligns and explains empirical data, it can support decision making for management team, effective and efficient strategy drafting for sustainable development in sport tourism and improving livelihoods of residents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0310.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Kardashev scale; civilization; energy consumption and supply
Online: 23 March 2022 (05:19:37 CET)
The level of technological development of any civilization can be gaged in large part by the amount of energy they produce for their use, but also encompasses that civilization’s stewardship of their home world. Following the Kardashev definition, a Type I civilization is able to store and use all the energy available on its planet. In this study, we develop a model based on Carl Sagan’s K formula and use this model to analyze the consumption and energy supply of the three most important energy sources: fossil fuels (e.g., coal, oil, natural gas, crude, NGL and feedstocks), nuclear energy and renewable energy. We also consider environmental limitations suggested by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the International Energy Agency, and those specific to our calculations to predict when humanity will reach the level of a Kardashev scale Type I civilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0027.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Blockchain; Agriculture; Traceability; Food Supply chain; Crops.
Online: 1 November 2021 (16:04:00 CET)
In recent years, Blockchain has been favorably adopted in the Supply Chain industry as it provides guaranteed transparency and traceability. The flexibility of Blockchain allows different applications to enable to exchange information; a significant middleweight layer is responsible for information transfer in the Agricultural Sector. The products that are manufactured at a global level in the agriculture industry are improved in safety, validation of some criteria, and quality. In the agriculture industry, the increasing number of complications associated with food safety and impurity risks needs high-level effective traceability solutions that act as necessary quality management tools to make sure satisfactory safety of crops. The agricultural supply chain today has complex ecosystems, consisting of several stockholders to authenticate criteria which are important like crop development stages, monitoring and validation, and compliance with the quality standard. In this proposed research, a systematic literature review will be done that includes smart contracts, Blockchain, and business transactions exclusively for crop production traceability across the agricultural and food supply chain. By using Blockchain in the agriculture sector, productivity, consistency, safety, reliability, and advanced security are increased. All transactions are kept and recorded on the immutable record of Blockchain associates with a decentralized system. Thus, it provides more traceability and clarity in the agriculture system in asafe, trustworthy, and effective way. A systematic literature review is thus enforced to classify the papers which are selected by the following classification: crop traceability, contribution type, research type, and their approach. For this systematic review, the papers which extracted are classified according to defined criteria. The purpose of this study is to fill the gap by collecting and analyzing studies available within the literature aiming to firstly, gain complete insight on the integration of Blockchain in the agriculture sector. Secondly, provide a summary of the present state of research on this area and identify gaps in existing studies. To achieve this aim an SLR was conducted. The findings of this SLR are discussed and researchers were provided with suggestions on possible directions for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0053.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Guadalajara; coliform; intermittent water supply; Colilert, tanks
Online: 21 December 2018 (10:55:39 CET)
In many regions where drinking water supply is intermittent and unreliable, households adapt by storing water in cisterns or rooftop tanks. Both intermittent supply and stored water can be vulnerable to contamination by microorganisms with deleterious health effects. The Guadalajara Metropolitan Area is a rapidly growing urban center with over five million residents where household storage is nearly ubiquitous. This pilot study was conducted in July 2018 to examine the microbiological quality of drinking water in Guadalajara. Samples were tested for free available chlorine residual, total coliform bacteria, and E. coli. A survey on access to water and public perspectives was also conducted. Water exiting rooftop tanks exceeded regulatory limits for total coliform levels in half of the homes studied. Piped water arriving at two homes had total coliform levels that far exceeded regulatory limits. No E. coli were detected in any of the samples. Only 35% of homes had a chlorine residual between the recommended 0.2 and 1.5 mg/L. Many homes reported unpleasant odors and colors. Only 7% of residents drank the piped water. Future studies are needed, especially during April and May when many homes reported a higher disruption to water service.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0042.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: geospatial economic supply; biomass; risk assessment; vulnerability
Online: 4 April 2018 (04:17:33 CEST)
Assessing the economic supply of biomass in a geospatial context while accounting for risk from natural disasters was studied. Risk levels were estimated from a component of factors which included: population density, road density, federal ownership, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ecoregions, and Presidential Disaster Declarations. The Presidential Disaster Declarations included risks due to: coastal storm, drought, fire, flood, freezing, hurricane, mud land slide, severe ices, severe storms, snow, tornado, and tropical storm. Presidential Disaster Declarations included summaries based on a short-term time period from 2000-2011, and on a long-term time period from 1964-2011. Risk categories were developed as a function of the number of disaster declarations, agricultural-to-forest land ratio, average road density, and average population density. A significant contribution of the research was the allocation of spatially explicit data using GIS technology at the 5-digit zip code tabulation area. The average area for 5-digit ZCTAs in the Eastern U.S. study region was approximately 169 kilometers2. Long-term risk (1964-2011) from disaster declarations had a greater impact on the economic availability of biomass supply relative to short-term declarations (2000-2011). The greatest risk to biomass supply came from population density relative to the other risk factors studies. Of the 25,044 total ZCTAs, 12,256 ZCTAs were in locations that did not include population density ≥ 150/km2, road density ≥ 14 km/km2, federal ownership, and US Environmental Protection Agency Level III ecoregions. Of the remaining 12,256 ZCTAs, 26.8% were considered to be moderate-to-high risk based on short-term declarations (2000-2011) and 29.4% were considered to be moderate-to-high risk based on long-term declarations (1964-2011). Lower risk locations for procuring biomass supply for both short-term and long-term declarations, across all risk factors, were in southern Georgia, South Carolina, and Texas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0580.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Cybersecurity; supply chains; IoT systems; systems integration, real scenarios analysis
Online: 21 April 2021 (12:33:59 CEST)
The specific demands inherent to supply chains built upon large IoT systems, make a must the design of a coordinated framework for cyber resilience provisioning intended to guaranteeing trusted supply chains of ICT systems, built upon distributed, dynamic, potentially insecure and heterogeneous ICT infrastructures. As such, the proposed solution is envisioned to deal with the whole supply chain system components, from the IoT ecosystem to the infrastructure connecting them, addressing security and privacy functionalities related to risks and vulnerabilities management, accountability and mitigation strategies as well as security metrics and evidence-based security assurance. In this paper we present FISHY, as a preliminary designed architecture, designed to orchestrate both existing and beyond state-of-the-art security appliances in composed ICT scenarios and also leveraging capabilities of programmable network and IT infrastructure through seamless orchestration and instantiation of novel security services, both in real-time and proactively. The paper also includes a thorough business analysis to go far beyond the technical benefits of a potential FISHY adoption as well as three real-world use cases where to strongly support the envisioned benefits of a FISHY adoption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0181.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Service Quality; E-Supply Chain Management; Customer Satisfaction; online shopping
Online: 20 December 2021 (11:33:13 CET)
The purposes of this study are to introduce the concept of Service Quality (SQ) in E-Supply Chain Management (E-SCM) and its impact on increasing Customer Satisfaction (CS) and provide insightful enhancements to the literature. In addition, the paper also examines the influence of SQ of E-SCM on CS in online shopping. After a comprehensive literature review, four key factors for measuring the E-Supply Chain (Process Control, Interaction with Supplier, Management Support, and Focus on Customers), four key factors for measuring CS (Informing Customers, Attention to Customers’ Needs, Staff Performance Accuracy, and Easy Access to Services), and four factors for measuring the quality of identification services (Assurance, Accountability, Tangibility and Reliability) were selected. The proposed conceptual model was then presented. This model was validated by data collected through a survey of 150 respondents in order to identify customer satisfaction, including that of customers of online websites in Iran. The sample data was analyzed using SPSS21, after which the interrelationships between the model and factors were examined based on the Partial Least Square-Structural (PLS). Model fit indices were then calculated for the dataset. The proposed model was validated using factor analysis and structural equation modeling techniques. The results indicated that E-SCM has a direct impact on CS. The effect of SQ was also confirmed. A positive and significant relationship was identified between E-SCM and CS, E-SCM and SQ, as well as SQ and CS (P> 0.05). The first limitation was to convince respondents to cooperate with the researchers. The second one was the lack of research-related background due to the subject being relatively new. This study, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, is the first empirical analysis on the CS assessment of SQ of E-Supply Chain in online shopping. This important link to online shopping has rarely been explored. It is expected that by filling this gap, this study will help in strengthening online shopping, which needs a change in the marketing area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0411.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Fresh Agricultural Produce Supply Chain; Coordination; Discount Contract; Quantity Loss
Online: 24 December 2021 (15:56:11 CET)
This paper explores the coordination of the agricultural cooperative to supermarket or E-commerce sup-ply chain, under the condition of quantity loss with a mixed decay function of exponential and logistical distribution. The nature of this process is analyzed, and the corresponding demand and supply functions with single- and multi-stage discount strategies are constructed respectively to create a working model. The optimal discount ratios for supermarkets and agricultural cooperatives in decentralized and central-ized decision-making modes coupled with single- and multi-stage discounts are calculated respectively. Finally, a universal optimal strategy is designed, which can be applied to various quantity decay scenarios and makes the discount strategy more generalized. The results show that discounts can coordinate supply chains more effectively; not only is fresh agricultural produce sold before it starts to rot, but the benefit conflicts arising from both supermarkets vs. cooperatives and traditional vs. E-commerce channels are equilibrated. Further, multi-stage discounts are more effective than single-stage ones, but optimal discount ratios rely on the initial quantity of fresh agricultural produce in the supply chain; its market share in the traditional distribution channel; the potential market size; retail price; the price sensitivity coefficient of the channel; the cross-elasticity coefficient of prices between different channels; and the properties of the quantity loss.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1343.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Industry 4.0; healthcare; Sustainable Supply Chain Management; Sustainability; literature review; sustainable chain management(scm); Sustainable Supply Chain Management(SSCM)
Online: 22 November 2023 (07:39:52 CET)
In modern times, sustainability in supply chain management is one of the keys to boosting the performance of the supply chain, and it enables the accomplishment of SSCM. It has been found in recent years that SSCM with assist of industry 4.0 applications, can benefit splendid productivity and efficiency in the supply chain. The numerous industry 4.0 applications that are involved are Artificial intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML), Internet of Things (IoT) Big Data Analytics (BDA), etc. Industry 4.0 with SSCM has gained a lot of interest from various authors and scholars across the world. Healthcare is one of the most critical sectors due to its importance in handling public health. More recently, the COVID-19 pandemic and other viruses (SARS and Ebola) have highlighted supply chain vulnerabilities that are further mitigated by their lean and globalized structures. Covid-19 underlined the need for supply chain visibility problems within the healthcare sector. When the need for medical supplies became urgent and global distribution was disrupted, companies faced the consequences of needing the technology, systems, and plans in place to correctly predict the onslaught. One report shows that about 94 percent of Fortune 1000 companies reported supply chain disruptions due to the COVID-19 global outbreak. Existing studies have discussed supply chain issues and the importance of AI in addressing these challenges. AI, like Industry 4.0 in the healthcare supply chain, is proving to be a game-changer. This paper aims to review and present the various aspects of SSCM and industry 4.0 applications to get a comprehensive literature review, which contains the analysis of multiple articles published from 2010-2020. In addition, the various challenges SSCM and industry 4.0 applications face are identified and discussed. Also, the impact of Industry 4.0 and sustainable practices brings together the healthcare supply chain. This study will help in getting a good understanding of the different industry 4.0 technologies that are important for setting up SSCM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1178.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: construction machinery leasing; Industrial Internet platform; closed-loop supply chain; coordination contract
Online: 17 May 2023 (04:07:15 CEST)
Leasing and recycling are important issues to achieve low-carbon sustainable development of construction machinery industry, however there are some dilemmas bothering which is caused by excessive restriction of product service life. Focusing on the problem of pricing and coordination, a two-stage model of leasing closed-loop supply chain based on the Industrial Internet platform practical application was proposed. Under the centralized and decentralized decision-making scenarios, the price of leasing and selling, maintenance effort and recovery rate are calculated respectively. By using the Shapley value method to optimize the selling price, and the two-part pricing contract to calculate the compensation fee, the global profit is reasonably distributed, while the supply chain achieving Pareto optimality. The performance of different contracts on the improvement of supply chain profit was investigated. And the correlation among parameters was also explored through sensitivity analysis and numerical simulation. The findings showed that maintenance and recycling of construction machinery can be improved with the advantage of the Industrial Internet platform, while achieving the supply chain coordination by contracts. The enhancement of maintenance effort can decrease the remanufacturing cost which is positively correlated to the selling price and leasing price of product, furthermore promoting the recovery rate of used products. In the future, reasonable control of platform cost can help improve the recycling of construction machinery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1955.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Egg shortage; Poultry supply chain; Influenza; Economic crisis; One Health surveillance
Online: 29 May 2023 (03:59:14 CEST)
Poultry eggs are a critical source of protein, vitamins, and minerals for people worldwide; facing the current global egg shortage is a significant concern. The shortage results from various factors, including avian flu outbreaks, changes in consumer demand, and supply chain disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The economic crisis caused by the pandemic has also impacted the availability and affordability of eggs, particularly in low-income countries. The global egg shortage has implications for public health, particularly for vulnerable populations who rely on eggs for essential nutrients. One Health, an approach that recognizes the interconnectedness of human, animal, and environmental health, provides a useful framework for understanding and addressing the egg shortage. One Health approaches to the egg shortage involve collaboration between agriculture and environmental sectors to address the root causes of the lack and ensure the sustainable production and distribution of eggs. Addressing the global egg shortage requires a multifaceted approach considering the complex social, economic, and environmental factors. One Health perspectives offer a way to understand and address the interconnected factors contributing to the shortage to ensure access to affordable, nutritious eggs for all in a healthy way
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0381.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Rift Valley Fever; drones; Rwanda; livestock vaccine supply chain; zoonotic disease
Online: 22 February 2023 (09:01:39 CET)
Given the recent emergence of Rift Valley Fever (RVF) in Rwanda and its profound impact on livelihoods and health, improving RVF prevention and control strategies is crucial. Vaccinating livestock is one of the most sustainable strategies to mitigate the impact of RVF on health and livelihoods, yet vaccine supply chain constraints severely limit the effectiveness of vaccination programs. In the human health sector, unmanned aerial vehicles, i.e., drones, are increasingly being used to improve supply chains and last-mile vaccine delivery. We investigated perceptions on whether delivering RVF vaccines by drone in Rwanda might help to overcome logistical constraints in the vaccine supply chain. We conducted semi-structured interviews with stakeholders in the animal health sector and Zipline employees in Nyagatare District in the Eastern Province of Rwanda and used content analysis to identify key themes. We found that stakeholders in the animal health sector and Zipline employees believe that drones could improve RVF vaccination in Nyagatare. The main benefits study participants identified included decreased transportation time, improved cold chain maintenance, and cost savings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1222.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Palm Oil; Performance; Sustainability Supply Chain; Systematic Literature
Online: 17 May 2023 (10:12:03 CEST)
Indonesia has emerged as one of the leading producers and exporters of palm oil, as supported by data from the Central Bureau of Statistics in 2021, which indicate that Indonesian palm oil exports reached an impressive value of US$ 18.44 billion, or IDR 258 trillion, in 2020, marking an 18.43 percent growth compared to the previous year. Furthermore, the domestic market for palm oil and palm kernel oil remains substantial, despite improvements in export quantities. Various industries, including cooking oil refineries, specialty fats, shortening, margarine, bath soaps, and oleochemicals, present potential markets for palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel oil (PKO). The palm oil industry encompasses four related sub-sectors, namely growers, millers, refiners, and oleochemicals, forming an integrated value chain from upstream to downstream. The current focus on environmental, economic, and social sustainability is driving companies to adopt internal green activities and expand their efforts into sustainability supply chain management (SSCM). Implementing SSCM practices is often seen as economically beneficial, as research has demonstrated their positive impact on firm performance from a resource perspective. Within the palm oil industry, a wide range of green management applications are being utilized. This study aims to examine and highlight the existing sustainable management practices across the entire palm oil supply chain, with a particular emphasis on producing high-quality palm oil. To achieve this objective, the paper utilizes a systematic review methodology, The number of papers analyzed were 62 articles published which involves an extensive review of relevant literature to identify research trends, gaps, and issues. The study seeks to contribute to the body of knowledge by expanding the theory of organizational readiness in preparing globally competitive palm oil products. The research findings hold practical significance for practitioners and academics, providing a comprehensive roadmap for implementing green management applications at the organizational level in the palm oil industry's upstream-to-downstream chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1088.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: rainfall; climate change; water supply; intra-annual variations
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:04:27 CEST)
Climate change is an issue that is the order of the day, and among the many consequences it has on the environment one is its influence on the amount and frequency of rainfall on our planet, since our water supply depends on them. Therefore, in order to quantify these effects, a rainfall analysis has been carried out using data collected in Bilbao over the last 150 years. Thanks to this, it has been possible to observe that, although the total annual amount seems to suffer a slight decrease, hardly quantifiable with certainty, it is true that the intra-annual patterns are more concentrated at certain times of the year, with greater imbalances between one month and another than in previous years. However, taking into account the capacity of the reservoirs that supply the Greater Bilbao area, it can be concluded that this does not pose any problem for Bilbao's supply, at least at present.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0017.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Energy static conversion; Off-grid supply; Thermoacoustics; HRES
Online: 2 August 2021 (11:12:05 CEST)
The electrification of rural areas of the planet has become one of the greatest challenges for sustainability. In fact, it would be the key to guaranteeing development for the poorest of the planet, but from which most of the raw material for the food market derives. The paradigm of centralized production is not applicable in these territories, because the distribution network would involve unjustifiable costs. For this reason, studies have multiplied to ensure the energy supply, especially electricity, of off-grid utilities, to guarantee energy autonomy while reducing the dependence on specialist assistance for the management of the system. In this work, a hybrid system (HRES) is proposed that combines the exploitation of solar energy with that of the wind through the use of static devices, in order to improve the system's availability and limit the cost of operation and maintenance.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: COVID-19; Food Supply Chain; Epidemic; Pandemic, Disruptions
Online: 9 July 2021 (09:37:29 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has severely affected the food supply chain, including producers, retailers, wholesalers, and customers. To minimize the impacts caused by pandemics and epidemics on food supply chains, it is fundamental to implement effective policies that ensure continuity in the provision, affordability, and distribution of basic food items. This research aims to identify the main impacts of pandemics and epidemics on food supply chains and policies that can minimize these impacts. Based on a systematic literature review (SLR), 174 documents are analysed to propose a taxonomy of impacts on four supply chain links: demand-side, supply-side, logistics and infrastructure, and management and operation. The taxonomy presents the main impacts, as well as the respective mitigation policies simultaneously. In addition, the literature review leads to the development of a comprehensive causal loop diagram (CLD) with the identification of main variables and their relationship with food supply chains. Finally, a specific research agenda is proposed by identifying main research gaps. These findings provide a structured method for evaluating policies that ensure the functioning of food supply chains, particularly in disruptions such epidemics and pandemics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0557.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Stakeholder; Networking; Stakeholder Networking; Umbulan Water Supply Project
Online: 27 January 2021 (12:28:53 CET)
The Umbulan Water Supply Project is categorized by the Shipping Infrastructure Acceleration Committee in the list of Accelerated National Strategic Projects through Presidential Regulation Number 3 of 2016 concerning the Acceleration of the Implementation of National Strategic Projects, targeted to operate in mid-2019. This is what will be the focus of the stakeholders of the Umbulan Water Supply Project. This study was to identifying and analyzing networks among stakeholders. Method: This study used a qualitative approach with exploratory methods combined with meta-analysis identification design Identification of stakeholder mapping in the context of early detection of stakeholder involvement in the implementation of the Umbulan Water Supply Project at various levels starting from the National, Provincial (East Java), District/City (Pasuruan, Sidoarjo, Surabaya, to Gresik), Sub-District (Winongan, Gondang Wetan, and Pohtjentrek). The conclusion of this study was based on in-depth interviews and focus group discussions in describing the determination of stakeholders which were divided into two, namely primary stakeholder and secondary stakeholder, and outline the result of the indicators analysis on the stakeholder network of Umbulan Water Supply Project.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: construction engineering; lean supply chain; target cost management
Online: 13 November 2019 (08:57:42 CET)
The lean supply chain of construction engineering projects is to achieve the maximum satisfaction of the owners' needs in order to effectively achieve the goal of supply chain management. This paper explores an effective method of lean supply chain cost management for construction engineering projects with target cost management, so that each participating unit on the supply chain node can fully utilizes its core competencies to minimize internal consumption and waste, and achieve the optimal overall efficiency of the supply chain. According to the requirements of the goal planning theory of the construction project company, establish a lean supply chain cost planning system for the construction project, realize the basic model of the lean supply chain cost management of the construction project, and set the target cost from the lean project of the construction project. The technical decomposition is established by the process of cost decomposition and cost pressure transmission and sub-target cost planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1810.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: general contracting engineering supply chain; collaboration; profit distribution; Cobb-Douglas function
Online: 26 June 2023 (12:05:35 CEST)
To solve the benefit allocation problem between the subjects of the supply chain of general contracting projects. The Cobb-Douglas function is applied to establish the benefit distribution model when the two cooperate in the supply chain system, analyze the optimal benefit situation of one-time cooperation between the two parties under two modes of egoistic decision and collectivistic decision as well as the benefit distribution problem of multiple cooperation, and conduct numerical simulation to calculate the functional relationship between each decision variable and the contribution degree of the general contractor under different effort cost coefficients. The results show that：In the case of one-time cooperation between general contractors and subcontractors, regardless of the decision mode, the degree of effort of both parties is positively related to their own contributions and negatively related to each other's contributions; the overall benefit of the supply chain system is positively proportional to the degree of contribution of the general contractor and inversely proportional to the share of benefit distribution of the subcontractor; in multiple cooperation, the equilibrium result of both parties achieving Pareto optimality at each stage is that both parties choose to cooperate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0170.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: forest biomass; timber harvest residue; supply chain; trucking; delivery; logging residue
Online: 12 June 2018 (07:53:15 CEST)
Secondary transportation of raw and comminuted forest products is a major component in forest harvesting operations in terms of economics, public perception, and safety. Consequently, there is a substantial amount of literature on this topic. The existing literature has dealt with many of the technical aspects of transportation with a majority of them focusing on improving supply chain issues; However, there are only few specific to secondary transportation issues in general. This annotated bibliography will help practitioners, researchers, and stakeholders gain a better understanding of the existing literature from 2000 to 2015. To this end, we began by classifying the selected literature into six themes: cost, roads and routes, trucking, efficiency & safety, other modes of transportation, and supply chain & optimization. Woody biomass for bioenergy production was the most researched forest product with respect to transportation. About one-third of the articles were presented in the context of supply chain modeling and optimization. More than half of the studies originated from Europe while the United States had the most publications for any given country. The most articles (16) were published in 2013. Biomass and Bioenergy published the highest number of articles (29) during the timeframe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1491.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Municipal water supply; intergranular aquifers; karstic spring; contamination of water sources; Albania
Online: 22 August 2023 (10:56:02 CEST)
The municipal water supply, related mainly to the cities of Albanian, began to develop in the second half of the 19th century and much intensively after 1945. Today the reported mean water production for the cities, on average, is about 300 l/capita/d including drinking and industrial water supply. The territory of Albania consists of uneven distribution of very heterogeneous aquifers conditioning the reach variety of the municipal water supply solutions. In this article are analyzed and classified the hydrogeological aspects of water supply sources of the settlements, which are summarized in five groups: (a) Wells in alluvial intergranular aquifers; (b) karst springs; (c) wells in karst aquifers; (d) springs in fissured rocks, and (e) mixed water sources. For each group of the water supply sources the main concerns regarding the quantity and quality problems are analyzed facilitated by the description of a variety of representative examples of different situations. Based on the gained experience important recommendation are given for the better understanding of hydrogeological aspects of water supply systems emphasizing the problematics along the river water recharge areas and on the seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers, as well as on transboundary aquifers. However, the main problems of public water supply of Albania remain the poor management of water supply systems which is reflected in the e high water losses, as well as the low public awareness of request for sustainable use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1287.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: inrush current; high-speed train; over voltage; traction power supply system; vehicle
Online: 19 June 2023 (04:41:59 CEST)
This article addresses the problem of contact voltage increase caused by the low frequency oscillation of the train-grid system in the phase-separation process of the EMU. The article establishes the EMU-contact line-traction substation model, reveals the mechanism of low-frequency oscillation, and obtains the relationship between the separation phase angle of the pantograph with line and low-frequency oscillations. Methods to suppress the over-voltage during the low-frequency oscillation are proposed. The study shows that when the power phase angle of the pantograph-line separation is within the range of 60°~90° and 240°~270°, the voltage amplitude in the neutral zone is larger, the maximum amplitude can reach 52.2kV, and low-frequency oscillation will occur in the neutral zone. When low frequency oscillation occurs, the contact line voltage in the neutral zone is mainly 1/3 power frequency (16.7Hz). After installing an RC suppression device in the neutral zone, when the EMU enters the neutral zone, the absolute value of the voltage peak drops to below 20 kV. Compared with the situation where the suppression device is not connected, the absolute value of the voltage peak is reduced by nearly 60%. The study provides a basis for the design of the neutral zone of the contact line and the selection of the high-voltage equipment of the EMU.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0033.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Bio-energy; Artificial intelligence; Industry 4.0; Biodiesel; Biogas; Renewable energy; Supply Chain
Online: 2 September 2020 (07:56:48 CEST)
Machine learning (ML) is penetrating in all walks of life and is one of the major driving forces behind the fourth industrial revolution, typically known as Industry 4.0. The purpose of the present study is to review the state-of-the-art ML applications in the biofuels' life cycle stages, i.e., soil, feedstock, production, consumption, and emissions. A keyword search is performed to retrieve relevant articles from the databases of the Web of Science and Google Scholar. ML applications in the soil stage were mostly based on the use of satellite images of land for estimation of biofuels yield or suitability analysis of agricultural land. In the second stage of the life cycle, assessment of rheological properties of the feedstocks and their effect on the quality of biofuels were dominant studies reported in the literature. The production stage included estimation and optimization of quality, quantity, and process conditions. The fuel consumption and emissions stage included analysis of engine performance and estimation of emissions temperature and composition, such as NOx CO, and CO2. This study identified the following trends: dominant ML method, the stage of life cycle getting more usage of ML, the type of data used for the development of the ML-based models, and the stage-wise frequently used input and output variables. The findings of this article are beneficial for academia and industry-related people involved in model development in different stages of biofuel’s life cycle.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0125.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: business models; business model innovation; food supply chain; food security; systematic literature review
Online: 12 January 2020 (15:41:18 CET)
This paper investigates the contribution of business model innovations in improvement of food supply chains. Through a systematic literature review, the notable business model innovations in the food industry are identified, surveyed, and evaluated. Findings reveal that the innovations in value proposition, value creation processes, and value delivery processes of business models are the successful strategies proposed in food industry. It is further disclosed that rural female entrepreneurs, social movements, and also urban conditions are the most important driving forces inducing the farmers to reconsider their business models. In addition, the new technologies and environmental factors are the secondary contributors in business model innovation for the food processors. It is concluded that digitalization has disruptively changed the food distributors models. E-commerce models and internet of things are reported as the essential factors imposing the retailers to innovate their business models. Furthermore, the consumption demand and the product quality are two main factors affecting the business models of all the firms operating in the food supply chain regardless of their positions in the chain. The findings of the current study provide an insight into the food industry to design a sustainable business model to bridge the gap between food supply and food demand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0345.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Electrified railway; Fourier transform; Harmonic resonance; Overvoltage; Power Quality; Traction power supply
Online: 15 July 2021 (09:35:34 CEST)
Harmonic resonances are part of the Power Quality (PQ) problems of electrified railways and have serious consequences for the continuity of service and integrity of components in terms of overvoltage stress. The interaction between Traction Power Stations (TPSs) and trains that causes line resonances is briefly reviewed showing the dependence on infrastructure conditions. The objective is real-time monitoring of resonance conditions seen first of all from the onboard panto-graph interface, but it is equally applicable at TPS terminals. Voltage and current spectra, and de-rived impedance and power spectra, are analyzed proposing compact and efficient methods based on Short-Time Fourier Transform, suitable for real-time implementation with the hardware avail-able for energy metering and harmonic interference monitoring. The methods are tested by sweeping long recordings taken at some European railways, covering cases of longer and shorter supply sections, with a range of resonance frequencies of about one decade. They give insight into the spectral behavior of resonances, their dependency on position and change over time, and criteria to recognize genuine infrastructure resonances from rolling stock emissions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0068.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Bio-energy; Artiﬁcial intelligence; Industry 4.0; Biodiesel; Biogas; Renewable energy; Supply Chain
Online: 3 September 2020 (09:32:40 CEST)
Machine learning (ML) is penetrating in all walks of life and is one of the major driving forces behind the fourth industrial revolution, typically known as Industry 4.0. This study reviews the state-of-the-art ML applications in the biofuels’ life cycle stages, i.e., soil, feedstock, production, consumption, and emissions. A keyword search is performed to retrieve relevant articles from the databases of the Web of Science and Google Scholar. ML applications in the soil stage were mostly based on the use of satellite images of land for estimation of biofuels yield or suitability analysis of agricultural land. In the second stage of the life cycle, assessment of rheological properties of the feedstocks and their effect on the quality of biofuels were dominant studies reported in the literature. The production stage included estimation and optimization of quality, quantity, and process conditions. The fuel consumption and emissions stage included analysis of engine performance and estimation of emissions temperature and composition, such as NOx, CO, and CO2. This study identiﬁed the following trends: dominant ML method, the stage of life cycle getting more usage of ML, the type of data used for the development of the ML-based models, and the stage-wise frequently used input and output variables. The ﬁndings of this article are beneﬁcial for academia and industry-related people involved in model development in different stages of biofuel’s life cycle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1652.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: Income inequality; sustainable tomato supply chain; waste composting and recycling; profit distribution
Online: 24 August 2023 (03:29:12 CEST)
Investigating the potential impact of composting and recycling waste on income distribution are crucial to promote a fairer and more sustainable fresh tomato supply chain (FTSC). Therefore, this study aims to explore the potential of gaining extra income from recycling tomatoes waste generated along the FTSC and to calculate the contribution of extra income from recycling tomato waste to reduce income inequality along the FTSC. Data were collected from 136 greenhouse tomato producers, 60 wholesalers, 18 exporters, 120 domestic retailers, 22 overseas retailers, and 3 recycling facilities in Türkiye. Marketing cost, absolute marketing margin, relative marketing margin and net profit margin were used when economically analyzing the FTSCs. Research results showed that the net profit share of the producer decreased associated with the increasing number of intermediaries. Research results also showed that revenue gained from composting and recycling of product loss and waste increased the welfare of greenhouse producer more than other supply chain actors. When taking into account the revenue from composting and recycling of wastes, producers increased their net profit by 9.85% at first FTSC, while that of second and third FTSCs were 8.29% and 9.21%, respectively comparing to the prevailing conditions. The contribution of extra revenue from composting and recycling of wastes to retailers was more comparing wholesaler and exporter. Retailers and wholesalers gaining from recycling in domestic FTSCs was more comparing to overseas one. Close cooperation between producers, wholesalers, exporters, retailers, and recycling facilities is essential for the effective implementation of waste recycling initiatives. Organizing the training and education programs focused on waste management can increase the extra income of producers and active intermediaries in FTSC from composting and recycling tomato wastes. Offering financial incentives, grants, or subsidies can encourage producers and other actors within the supply chain to adopt waste recycling practices. Continuous research and innovation are crucial in identifying and developing new technologies, processes, and strategies to minimize food loss and waste. Dominating fair-trade practices to ensure that all FTSC actors may balance the income distribution among FTSC actors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0432.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: supply chain management; phosphorus fertilizers; environmental issues; sustainability; recycling policy; metaheuristic algorithm
Online: 23 December 2022 (01:39:06 CET)
Phosphorus (P) is the most important substance in inorganic fertilizers used in agriculture industry. In this study, a multi-product and multi-objective model is presented considering economic and environmental concerns to design a renewable and sustainable P-fertilizer supply chain management (PFSCM). To handle complexities of the proposed model, an ensemble knowledge-based three-stage heuristic-metaheuristic algorithm utilizing heuristic information available in the model, whale optimization algorithm, and variable neighborhood search (named H-WOA-VNS) is proposed. At first, a problem-dependent heuristic is designed to generate a set of near-optimal feasible solutions. These solutions are fed into a population-based whale optimization algorithm which benefits from both exploration and exploitation strategies. Finally, a single-solution metaheuristic based on variable neighborhood search is applied to further improve the quality of the solution using local search operators. The objective function of the algorithm is formulated as a weighted average function to minimize total economic cost, while increasing crop yield and P use efficiency. Experimental results over five synthetic datasets and a real case study of the P-fertilizer supply chain confirm the superiority of the proposed method against the state-of-the-art techniques. The results demonstrate that the proposed method performs well in optimizing both the economic cost and environmental issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1093.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Low carbon; remanufacturing; E-commerce platform; Closed-loop supply chain; evolutionary game
Online: 17 November 2023 (08:41:47 CET)
The rapid advancement of technology has led to increased electronic consumption and a corresponding rise in e-waste generation. To address this issue, this study develops a low-carbon e-commerce closed-loop supply chain (LCE-CLSC) system with remanufacturer, platform, and the government as key stakeholders. An evolutionary game approach is employed to investigate the system's dynamics, analyzing the impact of stakeholder strategies on system equilibrium. Numerical simulations reveal important findings: Firstly, government initiatives promoting recycling, carbon taxes on traditional products, can incentivize remanufacturers to produce low-carbon items and encourage platform investment in recycling services. Secondly, higher sales revenues motivate remanufacturers to produce low-carbon products. Thirdly, consumer sensitivity to recycling services strengthens waste recovery when platforms increase investments in these services, leading to remanufacturers choosing low-carbon production. Lastly, government subsidies may become ineffective if the cost of remanufacturers' carbon reduction and platforms' recycling services exceeds their affordability. These findings offer insights for the sustainable development of obsolete electronic product recycling systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0295.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; vascular supply; motor cortex; pericytes; exerkines
Online: 17 February 2023 (04:47:49 CET)
Brain vascular health appears to be of critical importance for protection against the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) as well as the slowing of disease progression. ALS patients often demonstrate cardiovascular risk factors and commonly suffer from cerebrovascular disease, with evidence of pathological alterations in the small cerebral vessels. Impaired vascular brain health has detrimental effects on motor neurons as lowered vascular endothelial growth factor levels compromise endothelial cell formation, promoting blood-brain barrier leakage and inflammation. Increased turnover of neurovascular unit cells precedes their senescence, which, together with pericyte alterations, further fosters the failure of toxic metabolite removal. We here provide a comprehensive overview of the pathogenesis of impaired brain vascular health in ALS and how novel magnetic resonance imaging techniques can aid its detection. In particular, we discuss vascular patterns of blood supply to the motor cortex with the number of branches from the anterior and middle cerebral arteries acting as a novel marker of resistance and resilience against downstream effects of vascular risk and events in ALS. We outline how certain interventions adapted to patient needs and capabilities have the potential to mechanistically target the brain microvasculature towards favorable motor cortex blood supply patterns. Through this strategy, we aim to guide novel approaches to ALS management and a better understanding of ALS pathophysiology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0172.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: blockchain; healthcare supply chain management; logistics cooperation; big data
Online: 19 January 2022 (12:09:00 CET)
This study emphasizes the necessity of introducing a blockchain-based joint logistics system to strengthen the competency of medical supply chain management (SCM) and tries to develop a healthcare supply chain management (HSCM) competency measurement item through an analytic hierarchy process. The variables needed for using blockchain-based joint logistics are the performance expectations, effort expectations, promotion conditions, and social impact of the UTAUT model, and the HSCM competency results in increased reliability and transparency, enhanced SCM, and enhanced scalability. Word cloud results, analyzing the most important considerations to realize work efficiency among medical industry-related agencies, mentioned numerous words, including sudden situations, delivery, technology trust, information sharing, effectiveness, urgency, etc. This might imply the need to establish a system that can respond immediately to emergency situations during holidays. It could also suggest the importance of real-time information sharing to increase the efficiency of inventory management. Therefore, there is a need of a business model that can increase the visibility of real-time medical SCM through big data analysis. By analyzing the importance of securing reliability based on the blockchain technology in the establishment of a supply chain network for HSCM competency, we reveal that joint logistics can be achieved and synergistic effects can be created by implementing the integrated database to secure HSCM competency. Strengthening partnerships, such as joint logistics, will eventually lead to HSCM competency. In particular, HSCM should seek ways to upgrade its competitive capabilities through big data analysis based on the establishment of a joint logistics system.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0483.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: titanium dioxide; E171; food supply; nanoparticles; safety; Europe; Slovenia
Online: 18 June 2021 (14:51:00 CEST)
Food additives are used for a variety of technological or processing reasons, including to add or restore colour in a food. In European Union (EU) the safety of food additives was in history assessed by the Scientific Committee on Food, while the role of risk accessor is not in hands of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Only additives for which the proposed uses is considered safe are on the EU list of authorized additives. Very recently – in May 2020, a scientific opinion was published by the EFSA, concluding that TiO2 can no longer be considered as a safe food additive, and the European Commission is expected to remove it from list of authorized food additives in near future. Our aim was to investigate the trends in the use of TiO2 in the food supply. A case study was conducted in Slovenia, using two nationally representative cross-sectional datasets of branded foods. Original sample contained 49,919 pre-packed food items, while analyses was done on N=12.644 foods (6.012 and 6.632 in 2017 and 2020, respectively) from 15 food subcategories, where TiO2 was found as food additive. Overall, we observed significantly decrease in use of TiO2 (3.6% vs. 1.8%; p<0.01) in the course of these three years. The most TiO2-containing foods were in the Chewing gum category (36.3%) in 2017, and Chocolate and sweets (45.9%) in 2020. Meanwhile in 2017 the largest within-category share of TiO2-containing foods was Chewing gum category, namely 70.3%, and those products presented over 85% of the market-share. In 2020 only 24.6% chewing gums contained TiO2, and those were accounting only 3% of the market share. In con-clusion, we showed overall decrease of TiO2 use and considerable improvements in certain food categories (particularly in chewing gums) despite the fact, that this additive has not yet been of-ficially removed from the list of authorized additives. Specific food categories (i.e. Chocolate and sweets) were identified, where product-reformulation is needed, and where official controls by authorities will be most relevant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0756.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Intelligent Procurement; Supply Chain; Procurement Ecosystem; Energy Business Procurement
Online: 28 April 2021 (15:36:26 CEST)
With the development of big data analysis, blockchain and other technologies, the supply chain of enterprises is transforming to lean and intelligent. As an important link in the enterprise supply chain, the intelligent transformation of procurement plays an important role in the improvement of the supply chain efficiency, therefore, the construction of a common method supporting the intelligent upgrade of the enterprise procurement business has become a key concern for enterprise managers. Based on the balanced scorecard theory and the supply chain maturity model, this study combines the actual situation of procurement management in Chinese energy enterprises and constructs a procurement benchmarking system that balances the development direction of the industry and the actual needs of enterprises. Meanwhile, based on the grounded theory, three major themes of the intelligent procurement system (digital business module, procurement synergy mechanism and procurement ecosystem) are extracted to provide a methodological reference for the construction of intelligent procurement systems of energy enterprises. The study concludes with a case study of China National Energy Group Materials Company to demonstrate the application of the intelligent procurement system built in this paper, with a view to providing methodological reference for the intelligent procurement management in energy enterprises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0148.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Covid-19; Indian economy; supply chain; manufacturing industries; barriers
Online: 9 May 2020 (10:01:56 CEST)
At present time world is facing from the coronavirus disease known as Covid-19. The first case of the coronavirus was reported in the December, 2019 in the Wuhan city of China which is known as the major transportation hub of China. After the spread of Covid-19 many countries have shut down their sea ports and airports. They have banned the import and export activities. Also, China is the major distributor of the raw materials which affect the manufacturing activities across the globe due to lockdowns. India is the developing country due to the Covid-19 spread the cases reported in the India government has lockdown the country for 41 days which affected the manufacturing activities and majorly it affects the supply chains and economy of the country. In the present paper we have discussed the effect of Covid-19 on Indian economy and on supply chains in India. There are total of 18 critical barriers are found out which affected the supply chains in the India. It is expected that this study will helpful the researchers to develop the conceptual models to overcome from this issue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0234.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: land locked countries; Africa; supply chain management; sea ports
Online: 18 December 2019 (03:41:18 CET)
Abstract: Many countries around the world suffer from the lack of a sea port directly linked to the rest of the world. Such countries are called "landlocked countries". This leads to Weak competitiveness of their products in the global market, as well as to the high cost of the imports. Africa has the largest share of these countries, with 16 of the 43 landlocked countries around the world. The aim of this paper is to propose a general framework for criteria that can be used to choose between ports in transit countries that can be used for import or export. These criteria are related to the assessment of the sea ports in terms of infrastructure and tariffs. It is also related to transport infrastructure from the transit country to the landlocked country and the level of safety. The study identified nine criteria that could be used to compare between ports in transit countries. Using Full Consistency Method (FUCOM) to evaluate those criteria showed that the number of navigation lines is the most important criteria followed by the port service level.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Industry 4.0; Supply Chain Design; Transformational Design Roadmap; IIoT Supply Chain Model; Decision Support for Information Management, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (AI/ML), dynamic self-adapting system, cognition engine, predictive cyber risk analytics.
Online: 23 December 2020 (17:20:35 CET)
Digital technologies have changed the way supply chain operations are structured. In this article, we conduct systematic syntheses of literature on the impact of new technologies on supply chains and the related cyber risks. A taxonomic/cladistic approach is used for the evaluations of progress in the area of supply chain integration in the Industrial Internet of Things and Industry 4.0, with a specific focus on the mitigation of cyber risks. An analytical framework is presented, based on a critical assessment with respect to issues related to new types of cyber risk and the integration of supply chains with new technologies. This paper identifies a dynamic and self-adapting supply chain system supported with Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (AI/ML) and real-time intelligence for predictive cyber risk analytics. The system is integrated into a cognition engine that enables predictive cyber risk analytics with real-time intelligence from IoT networks at the edge. This enhances capacities and assist in the creation of a comprehensive understanding of the opportunities and threats that arise when edge computing nodes are deployed, and when AI/ML technologies are migrated to the periphery of IoT networks.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: risk assessment; BIM; supply chain management; prefabricated construction products
Online: 19 March 2019 (13:07:57 CET)
Improving the efficiency of the supply process in prefabricated components is challenging and requires accounting for a variety of risks involved in the management of the suppliers. The purpose of this study is to present a method to account for the systematic trade-offs between several supplier alternatives. A novel framework is presented for the whole assessment of supplier alternatives by taking advantage of the information extracted from customized building information modeling (BIM) and a database required for assessment of impacts. A data library related to assessment criteria for supply alternatives is built to facilitate the storage and sharing of information. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to select the optimal supplier that is able to provide the most satisfaction for the determined criteria. The proposed framework was also illustrated by the implementation in a mega project. The study implication is that BIM-enabled supplier selection can indeed lead to more benefits and higher values for all stakeholders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0074.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: shareholder value; return-on-asset; days-sales-outstanding; current ratio; supply chain capability
Online: 5 March 2020 (02:35:22 CET)
The purpose of this paper is to explore which financial performance indicators (FPIs) evaluate the level of supply chain capability (SCC) that explicitly touches all of the business functions and processes within and beyond the company. The authors investigated nine FPIs that were selected from the financial statements of 155 companies within nine industries. The authors find that suitable FPIs to measure SCC for shareholders’ value are return-on-assets (ROA), days-sales-outstanding (DSO), and current ratio (CR). This means that higher ROA, shortened DSO, and an appropriate level of CR could reach a sustainable supply chain. These results will help the industry to avert a major disruption in supply chain processes and activities using suitable financial performance indicators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0089.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Affordable Care Act; access to care; co-residence; labor supply; medical expenditure
Online: 12 March 2018 (08:36:46 CET)
This paper investigates the effects of Inter-generational co-residence on health care market, and labor market outcomes, to see whether or not living under the same roof with at least one parent matters in health care market, and labor market behaviors in post-Affordable-Care Act (ACA) USA. The adopted analytical strategy involves not only looking at the gender differences in co-residence, and its effects on outcomes in the two markets, but also accounting for co-residence endogeneity following the recent literature. Unlike the recent literature that relies on instrumental variables methods, this study adopts a switching regression approach, defining inter-generational co-residence as an endogenous selection process using a binary probit equation, and modeled jointly with the extensive margins and intensive margins in the two markets. This novel approach results in a recursive trivariate probit model for each market, and estimated using penalized maximum likelihood methods. The results suggest that ACA by reorganizing the US health care market, seems to have reduced significantly disparities in health care access among males and females based on race, region of residence, place of birth, and citizenship. However not only do we observe significant differences in inter-generational co-residence status between males and females, we also find significant inequalities in the effects of co-residence on health care market, and labor market outcomes. In fact, co-residence is found to increase health care expenditure by 56.7% among females, while this figure increases to 74.2% among males. In addition co-residing individuals, while spending 69.7% more on health care annually are 1.22 times more likely to access health care, but 31% less likely to use health care intensively during the year. In the labor market, co-residence is found to reduce significantly hours of weekly labor supplied by 41% for females, and 55.6% for males. Furthermore co-residing individuals, while not significantly different in their likelihood of labor force participation, are 1.52 times less likely to work full time once they decide to participate, and also spend about 55.4% less time working in the labor market in post-ACA USA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1376.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: air supply optimization; double-objective optimization; surrogate-based optimization; Kriging model; genetic algorithm
Online: 21 August 2023 (03:23:07 CEST)
When using meta-heuristic optimization approaches for optimization, a large number of samples are required. In particular, when generating subgeneration, the utilization of existing samples is low and the number of individuals is high. Therefore, surrogate-based optimization has been developed, which greatly reduces the number of individuals in the subgeneration and the cost of optimization. In complex air supply scenarios, single-objective optimization results may not be comprehensive; therefore, this paper developed a double-objective air supply optimization method based on the Kriging surrogate model and Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithms-II. And proposed the infill criteria based on clustering to advance the Pareto Frontier. The method was validated by an inverse prediction case, and in particular, the problems when based on 3D steady-state simulations were analyzed. The results showed that the method can quickly achieve an approximate prediction of the boundary conditions (when prediction were made based on experimental data, the number of simulations was 82 and the average error was 6.8%). Finally, the method was used to optimize the air supply parameters of a dual-aisle, single-row cabin. The Pareto set suggested that an airflow organization with dual circulation may be optimal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1614.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: fairness concern; corporate social responsibility (CSR); bilateral quality efforts; agricultural products supply chain
Online: 23 August 2023 (07:34:27 CEST)
This study takes a two-echelon agricultural products supply chain (APSC) composed of an agricultural product processor (processor) and an agricultural product supermarket (supermarket) as the research object. In order to ensure the stable supply of high-quality agricultural products, this paper considers both fairness concern and corporate social responsibility (CSR), and establishes four Stackelberg game models with or without considering fairness concern and CSR, and obtains the influence mechanism of fairness concern and CSR on bilateral quality efforts in APSC through comparative analysis and numerical analysis. Research shows that the supermarket’s fairness concern can take the role of "profit distribution mechanism", but it is not conducive to improving bilateral quality efforts resulting in the inability to improve market demand, and it is not conducive to improving the utility of the supply chain system and consumer surplus; both members of APSC sharing CSR can not only improve the quality of agricultural products and promote the expansion of market demand, but also can achieve Pareto improvement of both profit of all members and supply chain system. Besides, The CSR shared by both members has a greater impact on bilateral quality efforts decision than the supermarket’s fairness concern, and thus the positive effect of CSR can overcome the negative effect of supermarket’s fairness concern.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0295.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Data integration; Decision Support System; Information Systems; Infrastructure Asset Management; Water supply systems
Online: 16 November 2022 (03:31:31 CET)
This paper presents a new information technology platform specially tailored for infrastructure asset management of urban water systems operated by water utilities of lower digital maturity level, developed in the scope of DECIdE research project. This platform aims at the integration of different data from the water utilities with several information systems and the assessment of the system performance, in terms of water losses, energy efficiency and quality of service by using developed tools (i.e., water and energy balances and key performance indicators). This platform was tested with data from five small to medium size Portuguese water utilities with different maturity levels in terms of technological and human resources. Obtained results are very promising since the platform allows to assess the systems performance periodically which constitute an important part of the infrastructure asset management for small and medium-sized water utilities
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0488.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Opioid crisis; PDMP; Pill Mill; Difference-in-Difference; Policy Analysis; Pharmaceutical Supply Chain
Online: 26 December 2022 (11:10:57 CET)
The opioid crisis in the United States has had devastating effects on communities across the country, leading many states to pass legislation that limits the prescription of opioid medications in an effort to reduce the number of overdose deaths. This study evaluates the impact of two categories of PDMP and Pill Mill regulations on the supply of opioid prescriptions at the level of dispensers and distributors (excluding manufacturers) using ARCOS data. The study uses a difference-in-difference method with a two-way fixed design to analyze the data. The study finds that both of the regulations are associated with reductions in the volume of opioid distribution. However, the study reveals that these regulations may have unintended consequences, such as shifting the distribution of controlled substances to neighboring states. For example, in Tennessee, the implementation of Operational PDMP regulations reduces in-state distribution of opioid drugs by 3.36% (95% CI, 2.37 to 4.3), while the out-of-state distribution to Georgia, which did not have effective PDMP regulations in place, increases by 16.93% (95% CI, 16.42 to 17.44). Our studies emphasize that policymakers should consider the potential for unintended distribution shifts of opioid drugs to neighboring states with laxer regulations as well as varying impacts on different dispenser types.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0159.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Term Sets; Supply Chain Management; Decision Making; Systematic Literature Review
Online: 14 June 2023 (09:46:43 CEST)
Supply Chain Management (SCM) encompasses a wide variety of decision-making problems that affect business and supply chain performance as a whole. Since most of these problems involve uncertainty and hesitation on the part of Decision Makers (DMs), various studies have emerged recently that present SCM applications of techniques based on Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Term Sets (HFLTSs) and HFLTS extensions. Given the relevance of this subject and the lack of literature review studies, this study presents a systematic review of HFLTS and HFLTS extension applications to SCM decision-making problems. In order to answer a set of research questions, the selected papers have been classified in accordance with a group of factors that are pertinent to the origins of these studies, SCM, HFLTSs, and decision-making. The results demonstrate that the Source and Enable processes have been studied with greater frequency, while the most common problems have to do with supplier selection, failure evaluation, and performance evaluation. The companies of the automotive sector and Sustainable SCM and Green SCM strategies predominate in the analyzed studies. Even though most of the studies use techniques based on HFLTSs, we have identified applications of seven distinct HFLTS extensions, with Double Hierarchy Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Term Sets and Probabilistic Linguistic Term Sets being the most utilized. The identification of gaps in the literature presents avenues for future studies focused on innovative applications, integrations of techniques, comparisons of techniques, group decision-making, and validation procedures for new models. The results of this study offer a panorama of the state of the art in regard to this subject and can help researchers and practitioners develop new studies which involve the use of methods that employ HFLTSs and HFLTS extensions in SCM decision-making problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1440.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: Micro gas turbine, fuel supply nozzle, combustion chamber, fuel distribution.
Online: 21 September 2023 (08:53:30 CEST)
The present distribution examines the effects of nozzle diameter, inlet mass rate, and channel geometry on the fuel distribution in annular combustion chambers of micro gas turbines, taking into account the importance of more uniform fuel distribution in the nozzles connected to the fuel supply channels. A comparison has been made between the numerically calculated pressure drop between the inlet and outlet of the fuel supply nozzle and the experimental value obtained. All fuel supply nozzles with a diameter of 500 micrometers are considered for the micro gas turbine. A more uniform distribution results in better combustion and higher efficiency. A geometrical change in the design of the fuel supply nozzle improved the uniformity of the flow distribution without increasing the pressure drop.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0129.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: plasma; plasma reactor; arc discharge; power supply; transformer; converter; cooperation
Online: 4 September 2023 (07:12:01 CEST)
Plasma generation by means of electrical discharge requires specialized power supply systems. The applicability of plasma for various plasma processes depends on its parameters, and these in turn depend on the parameters of the power supply systems. Arc plasma can be unstable, generating a lot of electromagnetic interference and overvoltage and overcurrent. The power system of a plasma reactor must guarantee good plasma control characteristics, be immune to disturbances and ensure good cooperation with the power grid. The article analyzes the cooperation of a three-phase plasma reactor, with gliding arc discharge, with a power supply system of a new type. This system integrates an AC/DC/AC converter with a five-column transformer of special design in a single device. Using the properties of magnetic circuits, it was possible to integrate the functions of ignition and sustaining the burning of the discharge in the reactor in a single transformer. Proper design of the transformer is crucial to achieve good cooperation of the AC/DC/AC converter with both the plasma reactor and the power supply network. The presented power supply design shows a number of positive features predisposing it to powering arc plasma reactors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0125.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Solar cell; patent analysis; business strategy; patent pool; supply chain
Online: 4 September 2023 (03:16:13 CEST)
The solar cell industry is a part of the green energy sector, and effectively combining the patents of various manufacturers within the supply chain to collectively create sustainable patent market value is of paramount importance. This study aimed to establish a business strategy framework for Project-based licensing through the analysis of solar cell patents and the integration of supply chain manufacturers' patents, with the goal of collectively creating market value for patents sustainably. The research methodology included literature analysis and focus group discussions. Initially, the study analyzed solar cell industry patents from the past decade using the WIPS Global Patent database to identify projects with the highest patent count. Subsequently, through the use of focus group discussions, the feasibility of a patent pool strategy within the supply chain was explored. Finally, a strategy framework was proposed for Project-based patent pool licensing, focusing on the top 15 projects with the highest count of 5,579 patents. The results indicated that adopting this strategy framework for supply chain manufacturer patents can result in higher commercial patent value.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0798.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Blood supply chain; queueing system; disaster management; Blood inventory management
Online: 10 August 2023 (07:31:31 CEST)
The problem of blood delivery has been a critical concern in past decades. However, the unsteady behavior of blood donors, along with the uncertainties associated with demands in a crisis imposes several challenges for resource management. In this research work, we analyze the blood delivery behavior in a crisis modeled by coupled queues of patients and blood sources. Using Markovian modeling and results associated with G-network, we derive two critical probabilities, namely lack of unit of blood (unit of donations) or not having any storage capacity left to accept new donors' blood. We propose a closed-form solution to calculate the optimal blood storage size, and also we suggest sufficient conditions that guarantee the feasibility of the model. Finally, we conduct a sensitivity analysis to investigate the impact of model parameters on storage size and the proportion of time that storage is full.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0282.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Supply chain; Network design; Two-Stage; Fixed cost; Sensitivity analysis
Online: 3 August 2023 (09:57:29 CEST)
Most of the literature on the optimization problem of transportation in supply chain networks (SCN) considered fixed costs (FC). However, in the practical applications of this problem it is important to study the effect of FC. This paper examines the impact of fixed cost increase as well as the variable cost on the optimization of a Two-Stage SCN. To do so, two mathematical models for mixed-integer nonlinear programming are developed. The first model optimizes fixed and variable costs in addition to the opening cost, whereas the second model only optimizes variable and opening costs. To evaluate the effect of considering FC on the optimization supply chain problem, four groups of instances are randomly generated, and solved using Lingo. The results of the two models are compared utilizing the average percentage deviation. In addition, sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the impact of changes in opening and variable costs on the considered optimization problem. The computational results and the sensitivity analysis show that the first model with minimized FC outperforms the second model, which does not consider the FC in minimization and FC affect the optimization.