ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0422.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: spatio-temporal; lightning; elevation; Uganda
Online: 27 October 2021 (18:13:44 CEST)
Lightning has received a lot of attention in scientific literature during the recent decade, not only because it is an impressive atmospheric phenomenon but also its associations with severe storms that cause unprecedented damages to agriculture, electric power networks, property, and life. This study assessed the Spatio-temporal characteristics of lightning occurrence with elevation in Uganda using lightning flash and elevation datasets for a period of fifteen years (1998-2013). Datasets used in this study included daily lightning flashes as captured by Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) aboard on Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite and elevation data in form of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) obtained from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Spatio-temporal results indicated that ~80% of areas with an elevation that ranges from 800-1200 m above mean sea level (masl) in Uganda had severe lightning occurrences and ~20% of areas with an elevation greater than 1200 m (masl) had severe lightning occurrences. The country received an enhanced number of lighting events with the highest number in 1999. Subsequently, a reduced trend was observed from 2002 to 2007 followed by an increment in the number of lightning events in (2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013). The intensity of the events decreased gradually though two peaks were observed, (1998-2001) and (2010-2013). Furthermore, results indicate escalations in the frequency and duration of lightning events from 60 times in 1998 to approximately 200 times in 2013 and from 1000 microseconds in 1998 to more than 2000 microseconds in 2013. Generally, the country experienced an enhanced increase in lighting occurrences over the study period which therefore calls for urgent actions to combat the root cause and also provide effective measures to reduce the impacts of lightning strikes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0483.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Spatio-temporal; Drought; Climate Change; SPI; RCP; Rakai
Online: 25 August 2021 (10:45:01 CEST)
Drought occurrences in Rakai district take a strange model and it has been rampantly increasing causing reduced income levels for farmers, reduced farm yields, increased food insecurity and migration, wetland degradation, illness and loss of livestock. The purpose of this study was to investigate past and future characteristics of drought due to climate change in Rakai district. Datasets used include dynamically downscaled daily precipitation and temperature data from Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) at 0.44°×0.44° resolution over the Africa domain. R software (Climpact2 package), was used to generate SPI values, Mann Kendall trend test and Inverse Distance Weighting methods were used to examine temporal and spatial drought characteristics respectively. Results depicted more extreme and severe drought conditions for SPI12 under historical compared to SPI3,Kakuto, Kibanda and Lwanda sub counties were the most drought hot spot areas, positive trends of drought patterns for both time scales were observed, though only significant under SPI12. Projected results revealed extreme and severe drought conditions will be observed under RCP8.5 SPI12, and the least will be under RCP8.5 SPI3 and SPI12. Results further reveal that Kakuto, Kibanda, Kiziba, Kacheera, Kyalulangira, Ddwaniro and Lwanda sub counties will be the most drought hot spot sub counties across all time scales. Generally projected results reveals that the district will experience more drought conditions under RCP8.5 compared to RCP4.5 for time scale SPI12 and therefore urgent actions are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0513.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Economic Dispatch; Spatio-temporal kriging; Wind power; Uncertainty
Online: 26 October 2020 (11:08:13 CET)
The incorporation of wind generation introduces challenges to the operation of the power system due to its uncertain characteristics. Therefore, the development of methods to accurately model the uncertainty is necessary. In this paper, the spatio-temporal Kriging and analog approaches are used to forecast wind power generation and used as input to solve an economic dispatch problem, considering the uncertainties of wind generation. Spatio-temporal Kriging takes into account the spatial and temporal information given by the database to enhance wind forecasts. We evaluate the performance of using the spatio-temporal Kriging, and comparisons are carried out versus other approaches in the framework of the economic power dispatch problem, for which simulations are developed on the modified IEEE 3-bus and IEEE 24-bus test systems. The results show that the use of Kriging-based spatio-temporal models in the context of economic power dispatch can provide an opportunity for lower operating costs in the presence of uncertainty when compared to other approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0167.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: spatio-temporal pattern; land cover; mountainous city; Chongqing
Online: 10 May 2018 (14:59:19 CEST)
The urban heat island (UHI) becomes more and more serious with the acceleration of urbanization. Many researchers have shown interest in studying the UHI by using remote sensing data. But these studies rarely examine the mountainous cities. The studies on UHI in mountainous cities often used empirical parameters to estimate the land surface temperature (LST), and lacked satellite-ground synchronous experiment to test the accuracy. This paper revised the parameters in mono-window algorithm used to retrieve the LST according to the characteristics of mountainous cities. This study examined the spatial and temporal patterns of the UHI intensity in Chongqing, a typical mountainous city, and its relationship with land cover from 2007 to 2011 based on the Landsat TM data and the improved method. The accuracy of the LST derivation increased by about 1°C compared to the traditional method. The high LST areas increased and extended from the downtown to suburban area each year, but the rate of change decreased. The UHI is dramatically impacted by the rivers. There is a good relationship between the urban sprawl and the UHI. The LST was reduced by about 1°C within a 300m distance from large urban fringe green spaces. The urban landscape parks had a strong effect relieving the UHI at a 100m distance. The LST was reduced by about 0.5°C. The study greatly improves the accuracy of LST derivation, and provides a reliable parameters for the UHI researched in mountainous city.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0065.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: generalized estimating equations; overdispersion; poisson; spatio-temporal; Leishmaniasis
Online: 13 March 2017 (09:30:11 CET)
This paper is motivated by spatio-temporal pattern in the occurrence of Leishmaniasis in Afghanistan and the relatively high number of zero counts. We hold the view that correlations that arise from spatial and temporal sources are inherently distinct. Our method decouples these two sources of correlations, there are at least two advantages in taking this approach. First, it circumvents the need to inverting a large correlation matrix, which is a commonly encountered problem in spatio-temporal analyses. Second, it simplifies the modelling of complex relationships such as anisotropy, which would have been extremely difficult or impossible if spatio-temporal correlations were simultaneously considered. We identify three challenges in the modelling of a spatio-temporal process: (1) accommodation of covariances that arise from spatial and temporal sources; (2) choosing the correct covariance structure and (3) extending to situations where a covariance is not the natural measure of association. Moreover, because the data covers a period that overlaps with the US invasion of Afghanistan, the high number of zero counts may be the result of no disease incidence or lapse of data collection. To resolve this issue, a model truncated at zero built on a foundation of the generalized estimating equations was proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0086.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: action recognition; spatio-temporal features; convolution network; transfer learning
Online: 7 December 2019 (00:57:34 CET)
This paper introduces a fusion convolutional architecture for efficient learning of spatio-temporal features in video action recognition. Unlike 2D CNNs, 3D CNNs can be applied directly on consecutive frames to extract spatio-temporal features. The aim of this work is to fuse the convolution layers from 2D and 3D CNNs to allow temporal encoding with fewer parameters than 3D CNNs. We adopt transfer learning from pre-trained 2D CNNs for spatial extraction, followed by temporal encoding, before connecting to 3D convolution layers at the top of the architecture. We construct our fusion architecture, semi-CNN, based on three popular models: VGG-16, ResNets and DenseNets, and compare the performance with their corresponding 3D models. Our empirical results evaluated on the action recognition dataset UCF-101 demonstrate that our fusion of 1D, 2D and 3D convolutions outperforms its 3D model of the same depth, with fewer parameters and reduces overfitting. Our semi-CNN architecture achieved an average of 16 – 30% boost in the top-1 accuracy when evaluated on an input video of 16 frames.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0454.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: LaiPen; Management Tools; Remote sensing; Vegetation indices; Spatio-temporal changes
Online: 17 June 2021 (09:26:34 CEST)
The leaf area index (LAI) is an important vegetation biophysical index that provides broad information on the dynamic behavior of ecosystems productivity and related climate, topography, and edaphic impacts. The spatio-temporal changes of LAI were assessed throughout Ardabil Province, a host of relevant plant communities within the critical ecoregion of a semi-arid climate. In a comparative study, novel data from Google Earth Engine- GEE was tested against traditional ENVI measures to provide LAI estimations. Besides, it is of important practical significance for institutional networks to quantitatively and accurately estimate LAI at large areas in a short time and using appropriate baseline vegetation indices. Therefore, LAI was characterized for ecoregions of Ardabil Province using remote sensing indices extracted from Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), including Enhanced Vegetation Index calculated in GEE (EVIG) and ENVI5.3 software (EVIE), as well as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index estimated in ENVI5.3 software (NDVIE). Besides, a new field measurement method, i.e., the LaiPen LP 100 portable device (LP 100), was used to evaluate the accuracy of the derived indices. Accordingly, the LAI was measured on June and July 2020 in 822 ground points distributed in 16 different ecoregions-sub ecoregions having various Plant Functional Types (PFTs) of the shrub, bush, and tree. The analyses revealed heterogeneous spatial and temporal variability in vegetation indices and LAIs within and between ecoregions. The mean (standard deviation) value of EVIG, EVIE, and NDVIE at Province scale yielded 1.1 (0.41), 2.20 (0.78), and 3.00 (1.01), respectively in June, and 0.67 (0.37), 0.80 (0.63), and 1.88 (1.23), in that respect in July. The highest mean values of EVIG-LAI, EVIE-LAI, and NDVIE-LAI in June are found in Meshginshahr (1.40), Meshginshahr (2.80), and Hir (4.33) ecoregions and in July are found in Andabil ecoregion respectively with values of 1.23, 1.5, and 3.64. The lowest mean values of EVIG-LAI, EVIE-LAI, and NDVIE-LAI in June were observed for Kowsar (0.67), Meshginshahr (1.8), and Neur (2.70), ecoregions and in July were for Bilesavar ecoregion respectively with values of 0.31, 0.31, and 0.81. High correlation and determination coefficients (r>0.83 and R2>0.68) between LP 100 and remote sensing derived LAI were observed in all three PFTs (except for NDVIE-LAI in June with r=0.56 and R2=0.31). On average, all three examined LAI measures tended to underestimation compared to LP 100-LAI (r>0.42). The findings of the present study can be promising for effective monitoring and proper management of vegetation and land use in Ardabil Province and other similar areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0348.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: intestinal parasites; spatio-temporal; Poisson-gamma; Bayesian; Integrated Nested Laplace Approximations
Online: 15 November 2018 (06:10:13 CET)
Understanding the spatially varying effects of demographic factors on the spatio-temporal variation of intestinal parasites infections is important for public health intervention and monitoring. This paper presents a hierarchical Bayesian spatially varying coefficient model to evaluate the effects demographic factors on intestinal parasites morbidities in Ghana. The modeling relied on morbidity data collected by the District Health Information Management Systems. We developed Poisson and Poisson-gamma spatially varying coefficient Models. We used the demographic factors, unsafe drinking water, unsafe toilet and unsafe liquid waste disposal as model covariates. The models were fitted using the Integrated Nested Laplace Approximations (INLA). The overall risk of intestinal parasites infection was estimated to be 10.9 per 100 people with a wide spatial variation in the district-specific posterior risk estimates. Substantial spatial variation of increasing multiplicative effects of unsafe drinking water, unsafe toilet and unsafe liquid waste disposal occurs on the variation of intestinal parasites risk. The structured residual spatial variation widely dominates the unstructured component, suggesting that the unaccounted-for risk factors are spatially continuous in nature. The study concludes that both the spatial distribution of the posterior risk and the associated exceedance probability maps are essential for monitoring and control of intestinal parasites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0150.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: water quality indices; spatio-temporal analysis; ébrié lagoon; surface water; Abidjan
Online: 17 January 2018 (07:54:12 CET)
For decades, the Ébrié Lagoon in Côte d'Ivoire has been the receptacle of wastewater effluent and household waste transported by runoff water. This work assesses the spatio-temporal variability of the Ébrié lagoon water quality at the city of Abidjan. The methodological approach used in this study is summarized in three stages: the choice and standardization of the parameters for assessing water quality for uses such as aquaculture, irrigation, watering, and sports and recreation; the weighting of these parameters using the Hierarchical Analysis Process (AHP) of Saaty; and finally, the aggregation of the weighted parameters or factors. Physicochemical and microbiological analysis data on the waters of the Ébrié lagoon for June and December of 2014 and 2015 were provided by the Ivorian Center for Anti-Pollution (Centre Ivoirien Anti-Pollution, CIAPOL) and the concentrations of trace elements in sediments (As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn) were used. The aggregation of standardized and weighted parameters allowed the determination of the Water Quality Indices (WQI) by usage for each bays of the lagoon. The results show that in both 2014 and 2015, the waters of the Ébrié lagoon were generally of poor quality for the different uses examined in this study (aquaculture, irrigation, watering and sport and recreation) with an accentuation in 2015. However, some bays of the lagoon have waters of dubious to satisfactory quality. This study contributes an improved evaluation of the Ébrié lagoon waters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0274.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: digital inclusive finance; rural revitalization; spatio-temporal evolution; Gini coefficient; GWR model
Online: 19 July 2022 (04:12:41 CEST)
Using the 2011-2020 digital inclusive finance data released by Peking University and the index system constructed by the Blue Book of China Rural Revitalization and Development Index (2018), this paper analyzes the dynamic evolution of the digital inclusive finance and the rural revitaliza-tion from time and space dimensions with the help of kernel density estimation, Markov chain and Moran index. Using The Gini coefficient decomposition method to analyze the source of differ-ences in digital inclusive finance, and then using the spatial autoregressive (SAR) model and ge-ographically weighted regression (GWR) model to study the boosting effect of digital inclusive finance on rural revitalization from the perspective of spatial aggregation and spatial differentia-tion, respectively. The results show that: (1) The growth rate of China's digital inclusive finance slows down year by year, and the inter-provincial differences increase year by year and show gradient characteristics, indicating that there may be a trend of multipolar differentiation. The overall level of Rural Revitalization shows an increasing trend, and the gap between provinces is still apparent. (2) The evolution of digital inclusive finance and rural revitalization is a slow ad-justment process, and there has been no cross-level jump in the past ten years. In digital inclusive finance, the liquidity from the highest and lowest levels to the medium level is high. However, the liquidity in the states of rural revitalization development level is not high. (3) Rural revitalization has a positive spatial spillover effect. The level of rural revitalization in the western area is signif-icantly lower than in the eastern area. At the same time, there is no significant difference between the east and central areas. The depth of the use of digital inclusive finance has a significant positive impact on the revitalization and development of rural areas, indicating that the further promotion of digital inclusive finance business in rural areas can substantially boost the revitalization of rural areas. (4) The boosting effect of digital inclusive finance on rural revitalization shows prominent spatial differentiation characteristics. The depth of use and the degree of digitization generally show a positive impact. The central and eastern coastal cities have the highest impact, decreasing toward the southwest and northeast. The areas with the lowest usage depth impact are clustered in the northeast, and the areas with the lowest digitization impact are clustered in the southwest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0302.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Development economics; China’s fishery industry; development quality; spatio-temporal differentiation; panel data
Online: 20 January 2022 (11:14:26 CET)
By reviewing the research of development economics in recent years, five key terms of ‘innovation, coordination, green, openness and sharing’ are extracted, corresponding to the five dimensions of the New Development Concept advocated by China. Based on this, an evaluation index system of the development quality of China's fishery industry is constructed. The spatio-temporal characteristics of China's fishery industry development quality were analyzed by using the provincial panel data from 2007 to 2017. The results show that: i) China's fishery industry overall development quality continues to grow, while the variation of provincial quality is also increasing, and the contribution of innovation quality and sharing quality is increasing, becoming an important sub-dimension leading the overall development quality.ii) there is a significant spatial dependence among provincial quality, and the significance is further strengthening. The Hangzhou Bay area and Bohai Bay area have gradually become a dual-core area where the high-quality development of China's fishery industry agglomeration, and the radiation from the dual-core area to the peripheral areas may still be in the process of enhancement. The spatial and temporal distribution of China’s fishery industry development quality keeps the trend of ‘from northeast to southwest’, which is almost parallel to Hu Huanyong line. The gravity center of its distribution is close to the gravity center of Chinese population and economy, and the development quality experienced a process from relatively concentrated to dispersed and then returned to concentrated, and the development speed in the later period was higher than that in the earlier period. iii) Capital accumulation level is the dominant positive influencing factors, while government support level is the dominant negative influencing factors respectively, and both have significant spatial differentiation among provinces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0610.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: land price map; land use development; GIS; spatio-temporal changes; sustainability; Olomouc
Online: 25 October 2018 (14:23:11 CEST)
Land price sustainability issues have been addressed by many authors in the past. Most of these researchers used land prices (from land price maps) as the primary data source in their studies. Only a few papers analysed official land price maps, which are available very rarely. For this reason, we studied the spatial and temporal changes of land prices in the city of Olomouc based on an analysis of official land price maps from 1993 to 2017. We proposed several research hypotheses to confirm some general statements about land price development. We concluded that some macroeconomic indicators had a significant impact on changes in land prices. In the residential and commercial areas and historical centre, land prices are significantly higher than in other monitored aspects (land-use types). We also concluded that no link existed between land-use stability and land price stability. Surprisingly, no long-term stable areas were found in the area of interest. The analysis also confirmed that land price and its change over time varied in different spatial aspects. Surprisingly, the smallest influence was reflected in the economic aspect. Regarding natural events in recent decades, we observed a significant drop in land prices in the vicinity of watercourses threatened by flooding. These findings can assist in better understanding local development and changes in land price.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0031.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: SensorThings API; INSPIRE; download services; spatio-temporal data interoperability; Internet of Things
Online: 2 May 2018 (12:06:28 CEST)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0096.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: complex catchment; weather X-band radars; flash floods; multifractals; spatio-temporal variability
Online: 14 October 2017 (03:10:07 CEST)
This paper presents a comparison between rain gauges, C-band and X-band radar data over an instrumented and regulated catchment of the Paris region, as well as their respective hydrological impacts with the help of flow observations and a semi-distributed hydrological model. Both radars confirm the high spatial variability of the rainfall down to their space resolution (respectively one kilometer and 250 m) and therefore underscore limitations of semi-distributed simulations. The use of the polarimetric capacity of the Météo-France C-band radar was limited to corrections of the horizontal reflectivity and its rainfall estimates are adjusted with the help of a rain gauge network. On the contrary, neither calibration was performed for the polarimetric X-band radar of the Ecole des Ponts ParisTech (below called ENPC X-band radar), nor any optimization of its scans. In spite of that and the non-negligible fact that the catchment was much closer to the C-band radar than to the X-band radar (20 km vs. 40 km), the latter seems to perform at least as well as the former, but with a higher scale resolution. This characteristic was best highlighted with the help of a multifractal analysis of the respective radar data, which also shows that the X-band radar was able to pick up a few extremes that were smoothed out by the C-band radar.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0431.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: agricultural eco-efficiency; DEA-SBM model; spatio-temporal evolution pattern; improvement potential; Jiangsu Province
Online: 16 April 2021 (10:34:15 CEST)
Achieving eco-efficiency in agriculture production at low environmental costs is key to sustainable agriculture. Using the DEA-SBM model, this study evaluated the agricultural eco-efficiency of the 77 counties and districts in China’s Jiangsu province from 1999 to 2018 and analyzed its spatio-temporal evolution pattern and influencing factors. The mains conclusions were as follows: (1) The overall agricultural eco-efficiency and its decomposition terms, pure technology efficiency and scale efficiency, exhibited a fluctuating downward trend. The regional inequality in agricultural eco-efficiency had been widening and exhibited a strong positive spatial association. (2) The agricultural eco-efficiency in Jiangsu province presented a “high south and low north” spatial pattern. High-level agricultural eco-efficiency areas were in the Taihu Plain in Sunan, while low-level agricultural eco-efficiency zones are distributed across Subei City. The High-High-type spatial association pattern is concentrated in the Suzhou-Wuxi-Changzhou region, while the Low-Low areas are mainly in the coastal regions of Subei and Suzhong. (3) The spatial pattern of PTE and SE generally exhibited a “high south and low north” distribution. Areas with positive growth in agricultural eco-efficiency, PTE, and SE, were situated in Xuzhou, Nanjing city, and the bordering regions between Yangzhou and Huai’an, and Changzhou and Wuxi. (4) The excessive redundant use and application of pesticides, chemical fertilizer, agricultural diesel, labor, land, and agricultural carbon emission have been the primary factor affecting Jiangsu's agricultural eco-efficiency. Irrigation had also signficantly impacted agricultural eco-efficiency, while mechanical power and agricultural film had minimal effect. The majority of counties and districts in Subei, Suzhong, and Ningzhen Yang Hilly region have issues regarding their excessive usage of chemical fertilizer, pesticide, chemical fertilizer, agricultural diesel, labor, and land. The findings of this study can contribute towards a better understanding of agricultural eco-efficiency and spatial association effect and can help policymakers increase agricultural eco-efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0039.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: generative model; human movement; conditional Deep Convolutional Generative Adversarial Network; GAN; spatio-temporal pseudo-image
Online: 2 November 2020 (12:55:22 CET)
Generative models for images, audio, text and other low-dimension data have achieved great success in recent years. Generating artificial human movements can also be useful for many applications, including improvement of data augmentation methods for human gesture recognition. The object of this research is to develop a generative model for skeletal human movement, allowing to control the action type of generated motion while keeping the authenticity of the result and the natural style variability of gesture execution. We propose to use a conditional Deep Convolutional Generative Adversarial Network (DC-GAN) applied to pseudo-images representing skeletal pose sequences using Tree Structure Skeleton Image format. We evaluate our approach on the 3D-skeleton data provided in the large NTU RGB+D public dataset. Our generative model can output qualitatively correct skeletal human movements for any of its 60 action classes. We also quantitatively evaluate the performance of our model by computing Frechet Inception Distances, which shows strong correlation to human judgement. Up to our knowledge, our work is the first successful class-conditioned generative model for human skeletal motions based on pseudo-image representation of skeletal pose sequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0118.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: noise disturbances; residents complaints; logistic regression; spatio-temporal effects; socio-demographic and environmental effects; GIS
Online: 8 July 2019 (12:42:05 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to explore the presence of spatial and temporal effects on the calls for noise disturbance service reported to the Local Police of València (Spain) in the time period from 2014 to 2015, and investigate how some socio-demographic and environmental variables affect the noise phenomenon. The analysis is performed at the level of València's boroughs. It has been carried out using a logistic model after dichotomization of the noise incidents variable. The spatial effects consider first and second order neighbours. The temporal effects are included in the model by means of one and two weeks temporal lags. Our model confirms the presence of strong spatio-temporal effects. We also find significant associations between noise incidence and specific age groups, socio-economic status, land uses and recreational activities, among other variables. The results suggest that there is a problem of ``social'' noise in València that is not exclusively a consequence of coexistence between local residents. External factors such as the increasing number of people on the streets during weekend nights or during summer months increase severely the chances of expecting a noise incident.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0058.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Digital reference object; Perivascular spaces; Spatio-temporal imaging artefacts; Perivascular space enhancement; Cerebral small vessel disease
Online: 3 August 2022 (11:12:43 CEST)
Growing interest surrounds the assessment of perivascular spaces (PVS) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their validation as a clinical biomarker of adverse brain health. Nonetheless, the limits of validity of current state-of-the-art segmentation methods are still unclear. Here, we propose an open-source three-dimensional computational framework comprising 3D digital reference objects and evaluate the performance of three PVS filtering methods under various spatiotemporal imaging considerations (including sampling, motion artefacts, and Rician noise). Specifically, we study the performance of the Frangi, Jerman and RORPO filters in enhancing PVS-like structures to facilitate segmentation. Our findings were three-fold. First, as long as voxels are isotropic, RORPO outperforms the other two filters, regardless of imaging quality. Unlike the Frangi and Jerman filters, RORPO’s performance does not deteriorate as PVS volume increases. Second, the performance of all “vesselness” filters is heavily influenced by imaging quality, with sampling and motion artefacts being the most damaging for these types of analyses. Third, none of the filters can distinguish PVS from other hyperintense structures (e.g. white matter hyperintensities, stroke lesions, or lacunes) effectively, the area under precision-recall curve dropped substantially (Frangi: from 94.21 [IQR 91.60, 96.16] to 43.76 [IQR 25.19, 63.38]; Jerman: from 94.51 [IQR 91.90, 95.37] to 58.00 [IQR 35.68, 64.87]; RORPO: from 98.72 [IQR 95.37, 98.96] to 71.87 [IQR 57.21, 76.63] without and with other hyperintense structures, respectively). The use of our computational model enables comparing segmentation methods and identifying their advantages and disadvantages, thereby providing means for testing and optimising pipelines for ongoing and future studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0023.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: structural health monitoring; displacement measurement; non-contact; computer vision, environmental factors; spatio-temporal context; Taylor approximatio
Online: 3 June 2019 (12:59:00 CEST)
Currently the majority of studies on vision-based measurement has been conducted under ideal environments so that an adequate measurement performance and accuracy is ensured. However, vision-based systems may face some adverse influencing factors such as illumination change and fog interference, which can affect the measurement accuracy. This paper develops a robust vision-based displacement measurement method which can handle the two common and important adverse factors given above and achieve sensitivity at the subpixel level. The proposed method leverages the advantage of high-resolution imaging incorporating spatial and temporal context aspects. To validate the feasibility, stability and robustness of the proposed method, a series of experiments was conducted on a two-span three-lane bridge in the laboratory. The illumination change and fog interference are simulated experimentally in the laboratory. The results of the proposed method are compared to conventional displacement sensor data and current vision-based method results. It is demonstrated that the proposed method gives better measurement results than the current ones under illumination change and fog interference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0214.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: roundabouts; traffic engineering; rotary priority; spatio-temporal technique; synchronization; protocols; intelligent transport systems; connected vehicles; traffic safety
Online: 10 September 2020 (03:31:57 CEST)
Roundabouts need capacity and safety improvements compatible with manual-driven, not only with autonomous vehicles. The signaling and control of roundabouts must evolve and incorporate current technologies. For that, we approach roundabouts as synchronous switches of vehicles. This paper describes Synchronous Roundabouts with Rotating Priorities, a roundabout control system based on vehicle platoons arriving at the roundabout at speed identical to the roundabout and within the time slot assigned to their entry, avoiding conflicts and stops, thus increasing roundabout capacity and safety. Signaling is visual for human drivers and also wireless for connected and autonomous vehicles. We evaluate analytically and with simulations roundabouts of different radius for several values of the average distance between vehicles. Average delays are 28,7 % lower, with negligible dispersion. The capacity improvements depend on design parameters: in our set is moderate for small roundabouts but goes up to 70-100 % for short distances and medium and large roundabouts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: digital reference object; blood-brain barrier permeability; DCE-MRI; Spatio-temporal imaging artefacts; endothelial dysfunction; cerebral small vessel disease
Online: 9 October 2020 (12:44:33 CEST)
Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) is increasingly used to quantify and map the spatial distribution of blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage in neurodegenerative disease, including cerebral small vessel disease and dementia. However, the subtle nature of leakage and resulting small signal changes make quantification challenging. While simplified one-dimensional simulations have probed the impact of noise, scanner drift, and model assumptions, the impact of spatio-temporal effects such as gross motion, k-space sampling and motion artefacts on parametric leakage maps has been overlooked. Moreover, evidence on which to base the design of imaging protocols is lacking due to practical difficulties and the lack of a reference method. To address these problems, we present an open-source computational model of the DCE-MRI acquisition process for generating four-dimensional Digital Reference Objects (DROs), using a high-resolution brain atlas and incorporating realistic patient motion, extra-cerebral signals, noise and k-space sampling. Simulations using the DROs demonstrated a dominant influence of spatio-temporal effects on both the visual appearance of parameter maps and on measured tissue leakage rates. The computational model permits a greater understanding of the sensitivity and limitations of subtle BBB leakage measurement and provides a non-invasive means of testing and optimising imaging protocols for future studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0132.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: event-driven architectures; asynchronous transactions; sensor web; spatio-temporal data; real-time data; stream processing; spatial data infrastructures; sensor networks
Online: 7 August 2018 (03:54:13 CEST)
The nature of contemporary Spatial Data Infrastructures lies in the provision of geospatial information in an on-demand fashion. Though recent applications identified the need to react to real-time information in a time-critical way. In particular, research efforts in the field of geospatial Internet of Things have identified substantial gaps in this context, ranging from a lack of standardization for event-based architectures to the meaningful handling of real-time information as ''events''. This manuscript presents work in the field of Event-driven Spatial Data Infrastructures with a particular focus on sensor networks and the devices capturing in-situ measurements. The current landscape of Spatial Data Infrastructures is outlined and used as the basis for identifying existing gaps that retain certain geospatial applications from using real-time information. We present a selection of approaches - developed in different research projects - to overcome these gaps. Being designed for specific application domains, these approaches share commonalities as well as orthogonal solutions and can build the foundation of an overall Event-driven Spatial Data Infrastructure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0272.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: real-time quality prediction; spatio-temporal features; feature importance; recurrent neural network; high-speed infrared imaging; convolutional neural network; lack of fusion (false friends)
Online: 12 May 2021 (13:55:12 CEST)
An effective process monitoring strategy is a requirement for meeting the challenges posed by increasingly complex products and manufacturing processes. To address these needs, this study investigates a comprehensive scheme based on classical machine learning methods, deep learning algorithms, and feature extraction and selection techniques. In a first step, a novel deep learning architecture based on convolutional neural networks (CNN) and gated recurrent units (GRU) is introduced to predict the local weld quality based on mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and near-infrared (NIR) image data. The developed technology is used to discover critical welding defects including lack of fusion (false friends), sagging and lack of penetration, and geometric deviations of the weld seam. Additional work is conducted to investigate the significance of various geometrical, statistical, and spatio-temporal features extracted from the keyhole and weld pool regions. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed deep learning architecture is compared to that of classical supervised machine learning algorithms, such as multi-layer perceptron (MLP), logistic regression (LogReg), support vector machines (SVM), decision trees (DT), random forest (RF) and k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN). Optimal hyperparameters for each algorithm are determined by an extensive grid search. Ultimately, the three best classification models are combined into an ensemble classifier that yields the highest detection rates and achieves the most robust estimation of welding defects among all classifiers studied, which is validated on previously unknown welding trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0449.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: motion; superpixel; temporal features; video classification
Online: 24 September 2018 (09:54:01 CEST)
Superpixels are a representation of still images as pixel grids because of their more meaningful information compared with atomic pixels. However, their usefulness for video classification has been given little attention. In this paper, rather than using spatial RGB values as low-level features, we use optical flows mapped into hue-saturation-value (HSV) space to capture rich motion features over time. We introduce motion superpixels, which are superpixels generated from flow fields. After mapping flow fields into HSV space, independent superpixels are formed by iteration of seeded regions. Every grid of a motion superpixel is tracked over time using nearest neighbors in the histogram of flow (HOF) for consecutive flow fields. To define the temporal representation, the evolution of three features within the superpixel region, namely the HOF, HOG, and the center of superpixel mass are used as descriptors. The bag of features algorithm is used to quantify final features, and generalized histogram-kernel support vector machines are used as learning algorithms. We evaluate the proposed superpixel tracking on first-person videos and action sports videos.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0254.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: Logic Artificial Intelligence; Knowledge Bases; Query Plan; Temporal Logic; Conformance Checking; Temporal Data Mining; Intraquery Parallelism
Online: 13 January 2023 (11:07:20 CET)
This paper extends our seminal paper on KnoBAB for efficient Conformance Checking computations performed on top of a customised relational model. After defining our proposed temporal algebra for temporal queries (xtLTLf ), we show that this can express existing temporal languages over finite and non-empty traces such as LTLf . This paper also proposes a parallelisation strategy for such queries thus reducing conformance checking into an embarrassingly parallel problem leading to super-linear speed up. This paper also presents how a single xtLTLf operator (or even entire sub-expressions) might be efficiently implemented via different algorithms thus paving the way to future algorithmic improvements. Finally, our benchmarks remark that our proposed implementation of xtLTLf (KnoBAB) outperforms state-of-the-art conformance checking software running on LTLf logic, be it data or dateless.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0153.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Temporal processing of information, surprisal, temporal coupling; sparse coding, Shannon information, time-dimension in the brain
Online: 18 February 2019 (10:08:19 CET)
Perception and motor interaction with physical surroundings can be analyzed by the changes in probability laws governing two possible outcomes of neuronal activity, namely the presence or absence of spikes (binary states). Perception and motor interaction with physical environment are accounted partly by the reduction in entropy within the probability distributions of binary states of neurons in distributed neural circuits, given the knowledge about the characteristics of stimuli in physical surroundings. This reduction in the total entropy of multiple pairs of circuits in networks, by an amount equal to the increase of mutual information among them, occurs as sensory information is processed successively from lower to higher cortical areas or between different areas at the same hierarchical level but belonging to different networks. The increase in mutual information is partly accounted by temporal coupling as well as synaptic connections as proposed by Bahmer and Gupta . We propose that robust increases in mutual information, measuring the association between the characteristics of sensory inputs and neural circuits connectivity patterns, are partly responsible for perception and successful motor interactions with physical surroundings. It is also argued that perception from a sensory input is the result of networking of many circuits to a common circuit that primarily processes the given sensory input.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0199.v1
Subject: Keywords: urban structure, remote sensing, temporal change, NYC
Online: 10 May 2021 (14:26:15 CEST)
Surface temperature influences human health directly and alters the biodiversity and productivity of the environment. While previous research has identified that the composition of urban landscapes influences the physical properties of the environment such as surface temperature, a generalizable and flexible framework is needed that can be used to compare cities across time and space. This study employs the Structure of Urban Landscapes (STURLA) classification combined with remote sensing of New York City’s (NYC) surface temperature. These are then linked using machine learning and statistical modeling to identify how greenspace and the built environment influence urban surface temperature. It was observed that areas with urban units composed of largely the built environment hosted the hottest temperatures while those with vegetation and water were coolest. Likewise, this is reinforced by borough-level spatial differences in both urban structure and heat. Comparison of these relationships over the period between2008 and 2017 identified changes in surface temperature that are likely due to the changes in prevalence in water, lowrise buildings, and pavement across the city. This research reinforces how human alteration of the environment changes ecosystem function and offers units of analysis that can be used for research and urban planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0094.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: GIR; TIR; NLP; spatiotemporal information; temporal inference
Online: 22 October 2016 (10:55:08 CEST)
Historic expeditions are events that are flavored by exploratory, scientific, military or geographic characteristics. Such events are often documented in literature, journey notes or personal diaries. A typical historic expedition involves multiple site visits and their descriptions contain spatiotemporal and attributive contexts. Expeditions involve movements in space that can be represented by triplet features (location, time and description). However, such features are implicit and innate parts of textual documents. Extracting the geospatial information from these documents requires understanding the contextualized entities in the text. To this end, we developed a semi-automated framework that has multiple Information Retrieval and Natural Language Processing components to extract the spatiotemporal information from a two-volumes historic expedition gazetteer. Our framework has three basic components, namely, the Text Preprocessor, the Gazetteer Processing Machine and the JAPE (Java Annotation Pattern Engine) Transducer. We used the Brazilian Ornithological Gazetteer as an experimental dataset and extracted the spatial and temporal entities from entries that refer to three expeditioners’ site visits and mapped the trajectory of each expedition using the extracted information. Finally, one of the mapped trajectories was manually compared with a historical reference map of that expedition to assess the reliability of our framework. The reference map was manually prepared in previous research work by others.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0294.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: SWMM; Low-impact development; Satellite observations; Temporal downscaling
Online: 20 January 2022 (10:13:05 CET)
Urban floods are typical urban disasters that threaten the economy and development of cities. Sponge cities can improve the flood resistance ability and reduce the floods by setting low-impact development measures (LID). Evaluating the floods reduction benefits is the basic link in the construction of sponge cities. Therefore, it is of great significance to evaluate the benefits of sponge cities from the perspective of different rain patterns. In this study, we investigated the urban runoff of various rainfall patterns in Mianyang city using the Strom Water Management Model (SWMM). We employed 2–100-year return periods and three different temporal rainfall downscaling methods to evaluate rain patterns and simulate urban runoff in Mianyang, with and without the implementation of sponge city measures. After calibration, model performance was validated using multi-source data concerning flood peaks and inter-annual variations in flood magnitude. Notably, the effects of peak rainfall patterns on historical floods were generally greater than the effects of synthetic rainfalls generated by temporal downscaling. Compared to the rainfall patterns of historical flood events, the flood protection capacities of sponge cities tended to be overestimated when using the synthetic rainfall patterns generated by temporal downscaling. Overall, an earlier flood peak was associated with better flood sponge city protection capacity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0480.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: GIS; RUSLE; Sediment Yield; Spatial Variation; Temporal Variation
Online: 22 February 2021 (14:57:30 CET)
Sediment accumulation in a dam reservoir is a common happening environmental problem throughout the world. Topographic conditions, land use land cover change, the intensity of rainfall, and the soil characteristics are the major driving factors for sedimentation to occur. The effect of sedimentation in a dam reservoir is very visible in the watershed as a result of hilly topographic conditions, high rainfall intensity, thin land cover, and less soil infiltration capacity. In this paper, an integrated RUSLE and GIS technique was implemented to estimate a mean annual sediment yield based on spatial and temporal variations in Nashe dam reservoir situated in Fincha catchment, Abaya River basin, Ethiopia. Spatial and temporal estimation of mean annual sediment yield was estimated using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model and GIS. Historical 6-year (2014-2019) rainfall for the temporal variations and other physical factors such as soil erodibility, slope and length steepness, management and land used land cover, and support practice for spatial variations were used as sediment driving factors. The mean annual sediment yield ranges from 0 to 2712.65 t ha-1 year-1 was seen. Spatially, Very high, high, moderate, low, and very low sediment yield severity with total area coverage with 25%, 10%, 30%, 15%, and 20% in 2017, 2015, 2019, 2014, and 2018 respectively. The information about the spatial and temporal variations of the severity of sediment yield in RUSLE model has a paramount role to control the entry of sediment into the dam reservoir in this watershed. The results of the RUSLE model can also be further considered along with the watershed for planning strategies for dam reservoirs in the catchment.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0339.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: COVID19; Bounce Back Loans; BBLS; Clustering, Geospatial; Temporal
Online: 18 January 2021 (13:13:23 CET)
Bounce Back Loan is amongst a number of UK business financial support schemes launched by UK Government in 2020 amidst pandemic lockdown. Through these schemes, struggling businesses are provided financial support to weather economic slowdown from pandemic lockdown. £43.5bn loan value has been provided as of 17th Dec2020. However, with no major checks for granting these loans and looming prospect of loan losses from write-offs from failed businesses and fraud, this paper theorizes prospect of applying spatiotemporal modelling technique to explore if geospatial patterns and temporal analysis could aid design of loan grant criteria for schemes. Application of Clustering and Visual Analytics framework to business demographics, survival rate and Sector concentration shows Inner and Outer London spatial patterns which historic business failures and reversal of the patterns under COVID-19 implying sector influence on spatial clusters. Combination of unsupervised clustering technique with multinomial logistic regression modelling on research datasets complimented by additional datasets on other support schemes, business structure and financial crime, is recommended for modelling business vulnerability to certain types of financial market or economic condition. The limitations of clustering technique for high dimensional is discussed along with relevance of an applicable model for continuing the research through next steps
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0386.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Precision diagnosis; Personalised interventions; Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)
Online: 13 November 2020 (14:15:57 CET)
A 12 year old boy was diagnosed with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) along with mesial temporal sclerosis based on MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) results. The diagnosis was further confirmed by genetic analysis. He also had minor psychiatric symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorders and mood swings. After 4 years of treatment with Sodium Valproate no change in symptoms was observed. Genetic testing along with deep phenotyping revealed altered glutamate pathway and metabolism. Post genetic testing the patient was put on a combination of Sodium Valproate and Valproic acid along with supplementation of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), Cyanocobalamin, Pyridoxine and Cholecalciferol. Within three months of this combined therapy the patient experienced complete elimination of seizures and drastic improvement in mood and social behaviour. The case report highlights the importance of precision diagnosis in understanding the underlying perturbed pathways in structural epilepsy like TLE and demonstrates the importance of non-invasive targeted therapy in such cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0082.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: hox genes; temporal collinearity; axial patterning; gastrulation; xenopus
Online: 11 June 2019 (04:03:46 CEST)
Kondo and collaborators recently reported the absence of Hox temporal collinearity in Xenopus tropicalis. They found none in the initiation of accumulation of Hox transcripts (detected via RNA seq). And none in the initial expression sequence of primary unprorocessed transcripts (Identified by using qRT-PCR against introns or intron-exon boundaries). Nor in the initial acquisition by Hox gene DNA of a mark for active chromatin. These findings are in conflict with the idea that temporal collinearity has to do with the initiation of Hox gene transcription or with the opening of and a progression from repressed to active states in Hox chromatin. But collinear acquisition of the same active chromatin mark has been shown by others in murine 5’ Hoxd cluster genes.The reason for this difference is unknown . This careful study thus indicated that the initiation phase of Hox expression shows no temporal collinearity in X. tropicalis. A previous study in X. laevis from the same group also showed that the sequence of times for reaching (normalised) half maximal Hox expression showed no temporal collinearity. These conclusions are likely to be correct. These authors do however also conclude that “experimental evidence for the temporal collinearity hypothesis is not strong” There is however strong evidence that Hox temporal collinearity does occur in early vertebrate embryos. Below. I present and discuss 3 lines of evidence to resolve the present conflict I argue that Hox temporal collinearity actually does exist and that it is part of a central mechanism in early development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0187.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: remote sensing; multi-temporal; Landsat; age; canopy; FCD
Online: 9 October 2018 (11:33:18 CEST)
In the oil palm industry, stands age is an important parameter to monitor the sustainability of cultivation, to develop the growth yield model, to identify the disease or stressed area, and to estimate the carbon storage capacity. This research is focused to estimate and distinguish oil palm stands age based on crown/ canopy density obtained using Forest Canopy Density (FCD) model derived from four indices as follows; Advanced Vegetation Index, Bare Soil Index, Shadow Index, and Thermal Index. FCD model employs multi temporal image analysis resulting four classes of oil palm stands age categorized as seed with FCD value of 29–56% (0 years), young with FCD value of 56–63% (1–9 years), teen with FCD value of 63–80% (10–15 years), and mature with FCD value of >80% (>15 years). Minimum canopy density value is 29% even in the zero years old indicates incomplete land clearance or the type of seed planted in the land.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0051.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle & Field Physics Keywords: classical gauge theory; pair creation/annihilation; temporal paradoxes
Online: 8 March 2017 (09:06:25 CET)
Stueckelberg-Horwitz-Piron (SHP) electrodynamics formalizes the distinction between coordinate time (measured by laboratory clocks) and chronology (temporal ordering) by defining 4D spacetime events xμ as functions of an external evolution parameter τ. Classical spacetime events xμ (τ) evolve as τ grows monotonically, tracing out particle worldlines dynamically and inducing the five U(1) gauge potentials through which events interact. Since Lorentz invariance imposes time reversal symmetry on x0 but not τ, the formalism resolves grandfather paradoxes and related problems of irreversibility. The action involves standard first order field derivatives but includes a higher order τ derivative that while preserving gauge and Lorentz invariance removes certain singularities and makes the related QFT super-renormalizable. The resulting field equations are Maxwell-like but τ-dependent and sourced by a current that represents a statistical ensemble of instantaneous events distributed along the worldline. The width λ of this distribution defines a correlation time for the interactions and a mass spectrum for the photons that carry the interaction. As λ becomes very large, the photon mass goes to zero and the field equations become τ-independent Maxwell’s equations. Maxwell theory thus emerges as an equilibrium limit of SHP, in which λ is larger than any other relevant time scale. Particles and fields are not constrained to mass shells in SHP theory, and by exchanging mass may produce pair creation/annihilation processes at the classical level. On-shell evolution with fixed particle masses is restored through a self-interaction associated with the 5D wave equation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0046.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: oscillations, theta rhythm, gamma rhythm, coherence, temporal lobe epilepsy
Online: 2 December 2022 (10:11:23 CET)
The dentate gyrus (DG) is part of the hippocampal formation and is essential for important cognitive processes such as navigation and memory. The oscillatory activity of the DG network is believed to play a critical role in cognition. DG circuits generate three main rhythms: theta, beta, and gamma, which participate in the specific information processing performed by DG neurons. In the temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), cognitive abilities are impaired, which may be due to drastic alterations in the DG structure and network activity during epileptogenesis. The theta rhythm and theta coherence are especially vulnerable in dentate circuits; disturbances in DG theta oscillations and their coherence may be responsible for general cognitive impairments observed during epileptogenesis. Some researchers suggested that the vulnerability of DG mossy cells is a key factor in the genesis of TLE, but others did not support this hypothesis. The aim of the review is not only to present the current state of the art in this field of research but to help pave the way for future investigations by highlighting the gaps in our knowledge to completely appreciate the role of DG rhythms in brain functions. Disturbances in oscillatory activity of the DG during TLE development are described in detail that may be a diagnostic marker in the treatment of this disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0376.v2
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: free will; undecidability; temporal asymmetry; compatibilism; predictability; dynamic systems
Online: 23 August 2022 (11:28:17 CEST)
One of the central criteria for free will is “Could I have done otherwise?” But because of a temporal asymmetry in human choice, the question makes no sense. The question is backward-looking, while human choices are forward-looking. At the time when any choice is actually made, there is as of yet no action to do otherwise. Expectation is the only thing to contradict (do other than). So the ability to do something not expected by the ultimate expecter, Laplace’s demon, is a better criterion for free will. If human action is fundamentally unpredictable, then we have free will. Scientists have studied a form of fundamental unpredictability, known as undecidability. The features that make a system capable of undecidable dynamics have been identified: program-data duality; potential to access an infinite computational medium; and the ability to implement negation. Humans have all three of these features, so we very likely are fundamentally unpredictable, so we have free will.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0438.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: drones; UAV; bathymetry; shallow water; multispectral; multi-temporal; geomorphology
Online: 28 July 2022 (09:28:41 CEST)
Short-term changes in shallow bathymetry affect the coastal zone and therefore their monitoring is an essential task in coastal planning projects. This study provides a novel approach for monitoring shallow bathymetry change based on drone multispectral imagery. Particularly we apply a shallow water inversion algorithm on two composite multispectral datasets being acquired five months apart in a small Mediterranean sandy embayment (Chania, Greece). Initially, we perform radiometric corrections using proprietary software and following we combine the bands from standard and multispectral cameras resulting in a six-band composite image suitable for applying the shallow water inversion algorithm. Bathymetry inversion results showed good correlation and low errors (< 0.3m) with sonar measurements collected with an uncrewed surface vehicle (USV). Bathymetry maps and true-color orthomosaics assist in identifying morphobathymetric features representing crescentic bars with rip channel systems. The temporal bathymetry and true-color data reveal important erosional and depositional patterns, which were developed under the impact of winter storms. Furthermore, bathymetric profiles show that the crescentic bar appears to migrate across and along-shore over the 5-months period. Drone-based multispectral imagery proves to be an important and cost-effective tool for shallow seafloor mapping and monitoring when it is combined with shallow water analytical models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0767.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: COVID 19; Temporal and Spatial Effects; ANCOVA and MANCOVA
Online: 29 April 2021 (07:57:56 CEST)
This paper presents a two-way factor design incorporating both spatial and temporal variation in the prediction of COVID 19 in Africa. In line with this, the impact of COVID-19on the GDP in Africa is well scrutinized. In contrast to the existing works [1–3], this work also extends the two-factor design into the one-way factor design through incorporating covariates into spatial effects. The data rely on the spatial and temporal obtained from WHO datasets [4, 5]. The one-factor design with more covariates is taken into consideration to identify the major potential predictor variables responsible for the deaths and confirmed cases due to COVID 19 in Africa. The MANCOVA considered population density, temperature, humidity; perception, and wind are all considered as co-variates. Simulations show that the two-way analysis of variance has shown that there is a statistically significant difference between the spatial (Fcal= 8.2704, Pvalue= 3.099∗10−6)and temporal (Fcal= 48.7964, Pvalue= 9.147∗10−16) effects. South Africa and Nigeria are highly influencing due to the pandemic where their GDP also relatively mostly declined. A significant economic change is observed before the pandemic and after the outbreak of the pandemic(tcal= 2.9548, Pvalue= 0.01805). COVID 19 negatively influenced the economy of1 most of the African countries. The population density, temperature, and wind are found to be statistically significantly associated with COVID 19 cases and deaths.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0450.v2
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Hox gene collinearity; spatial temporal collinearity; vertebrates; Noether theory
Online: 22 March 2021 (13:01:59 CET)
Hox gene collinearity (HGC) is a multiscalar property of many animal phyla particularly important in embryogenesis. It relates entities and events occurring in Hox clusters inside the chromosome DNA and in embryonic tissues. These two entities differ in linear size by more than four orders of magnitude. HGC is observed as spatial collinearity (SC) where the Hox genes are located in the order (Hox1, Hox2, Hox3 …) along the 3’ to 5’ direction of DNA in the genome and a corresponding sequence of ontogenetic units (E1, E2, E3, …) located along the Anterior – Posterior axis of the embyo. Expression of Hox1 occurs in E1. Hox2 in E2, Hox3 in E3… Besides SC, a temporal collinearity (TC) has been also observed in many vertebrates. According to TC first is Hox1 expressed in E1, later is Hox2 expressed in E2, followed by Hox3 in E3,… Lately doubt has been raised whether TC really exists. A biophysical model (BM) was formulated and tested during the last twenty years. According to BM, physical forces are created which pull the Hox genes one after the other driving them to a transcription factory domain where they are transcribed. The existing experiments support this BM description. Symmetry is a physical-mathematical property of Matter that was explored in depth by Noether who formulated a ground-breaking theory that applies to all sizes of Matter. This theory applied to Biology can explain the origin of HGC as applied not only to animals developing along the A/P axis but also to animals with circular symmetry.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: nNOS; Temporal lobe epilepsy; Interneuron; Synaptic transmission; Mouse models
Online: 25 November 2020 (10:19:05 CET)
Excitation-inhibition imbalance of GABAergic interneurons is predisposed to develop chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We have previously shown that virtually every neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-positive cell is a GABAergic inhibitory interneuron in the denate gyrus. The present study was designed to quantify the number of nNOS-containing hilar interneurons using stereology in pilocapine- and kainic acid (KA)-exposed transgenic adult mice that expressed GFP under the nNOS promoter. In addition, we studied the properties of miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) and paired-pulse response ratio (PPR) of evoked EPSC in nNOS interneurons using whole cell recording techniques. Results showed that there were fewer nNOS-immunoreactive interneurons of chronically epileptic animals. Importantly, patch-clamp recordings revealed reduction in mEPSC frequency, indicating diminished global excitatory input. In contrast, PPR of evoked EPSC following the granule cell layer stimulation was increased in epileptic animals suggesting reduced neurotransmitter release from granule cell input. In summary, we propose that impaired excitatory drive onto hippocampal nNOS interneurons may be implicated in the development of refractory epilepsy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0335.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: big data; maturity model; temporal analytics; advanced business analytics
Online: 18 August 2018 (11:05:24 CEST)
The main aim of this paper is to explore the issue of big data and to propose a conceptual framework for big data, based on the temporal dimension. The Temporal Big Data Maturity Model (TBDMM) is a means for assessing organization’s readiness to fully profit from big data analysis. It allows the measurement of the current state of the organization’s big data assets and analytical tools, and to plan their future development. The framework explicitly incorporates a time dimension, providing a complete means for assessing also the readiness to process temporal data and/or knowledge that can be found in modern sources, such as big data ones. Temporality in the proposed framework extends and enhances the already existing maturity models for big data. This research paper is based on a critical analysis of literature, as well as creative thinking, and on the case-study approach involving multiple cases. The literature-based research has shown that the existing maturity models for big data do not treat the temporal dimension as the basic one. At the same time, dynamic analytics is crucial for a sustainable competitive advantage. This conceptual framework was well received among practitioners, to whom it has been presented during interviews. The participants in the consultations often expressed their need of temporal big data analytics, and hence the temporal approach of the maturity model was widely welcomed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0107.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: dynamic speckle; activity; temporal history speckle pattern; Varnish; Cyclododecane
Online: 16 November 2017 (07:14:44 CET)
Dynamic laser speckle is applied as a reliable sensor of activity in all sort of material. Traditional applications are based on a time rate that is usually higher than 10 frames-per-second (FPS). Even in drying processes, where there is a high activity in the first moments after the painting and a slow activity after some minutes or hours, the process is based on the acquisition of images in a time rate that is the same in both moments of high and low activity. In this work, we present an alternative approach to follow the drying of paint and the other processes related to restauration of paintings that takes long-term to reduce the activity. We illuminated, using three different wavelength lasers, an accelerator (Cyclododecane) and a varnish used in restauration of paintings and monitor them at long-term drying using an alternative fps, comparing the results to the traditional method. The work also presents a way to do the monitoring using a portable equipment. The results present the feasibility to use the portable device and show the improvement in the sensitivity of the dynamic laser speckle to sense long-term process regarding the drying of Cyclododecane and Varnish used in restauration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0117.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: multi-temporal; seasonal; vegetation; palaeo-river; Indus civilisation; archaeology
Online: 27 June 2017 (04:41:04 CEST)
Remote sensing has considerable potential to contribute to the identification and reconstruction of lost hydrological systems and networks. Remote sensing-based reconstructions of palaeo-river networks have commonly employed single or limited time-span imagery, which limits their capacity to identify features in complex and varied landscape contexts. This paper presents a seasonal multi-temporal approach to the detection of palaeo-rivers over large areas based on long-term vegetation dynamics and spectral decomposition techniques. The use of multi-temporal data has allowed the overcoming of seasonal cultivation patterns and long-term visibility issues related to crop selection, large-scale irrigation and land use patterns. The application of this approach on the Sutlej-Yamuna interfluve (northwest India), a core area for the Bronze Age Indus Civilisation, has enabled the reconstruction of an unsuspectedly complex palaeo-river network comprising more than 8000 kms of palaeo-channels. It has also enabled the definition of the morphology of these relict courses, which provides insights into the environmental conditions in which they operated. These new data will contribute to a better understanding of the settlement distribution and environmental settings in which this, often considered riverine, civilisation operated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0128.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Precipitation; Tibetan Plateau; trends; temporal-spatial distribution; hydrological cycle;
Online: 29 January 2017 (09:43:00 CET)
The Tibetan Plateau(TP) is known as ‘the water tower of Asian’, its precipitation variation play an important role in the eco-hydrological processes and water resources regimes. based on the monthly mean precipitation data of 65 meteorological stations over the Tibetan Plateau and the surrounding areas from 1961-2015,variations, trends and temporal-spatial distribution were analyzed, furthermore, the possible reasons were also discussed preliminarily. The main results are summarized as follows: the annual mean precipitation in the TP is 465.54mm during 1961-2015, among four seasons, the precipitation in summer accounts for 60.1% of the annual precipitation, the precipitation in summer half year (May.- Oct.) accounts for 91.0% while that in winter half year (Nov.- Apr.) only accounts for 9.0%; During 1961-2015, the annual precipitation variability is 0.45mm/a and the seasonal precipitation variability is 0.31mm/a, 0.13mm/a, -0.04mm/a and 0.04mm/a in spring, summer, autumn and winter respectively on the TP; The spatial distribution of precipitation can be summarized as decreasing from southeast to northwest in the TP, the trend of precipitation is decreasing with the increase of altitude, but the correlation is not significant. The rising of air temperature and land cover changes may cause the precipitation by changing the hydrologic cycle and energy budget, furthermore, different pattern of atmospheric circulation can also influence on precipitation variability in different regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0095.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: particulate matter; temporal variation; urban area of Athens; Greece
Online: 18 December 2016 (10:51:57 CET)
The main objective of this work is to investigate the temporal variation of PM10 concentrations within the urban area of Athens during the years 2001-2015. For this purpose, the time series of the particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10μm (PM10) is recorded for a 15-year period (2001-2015) in two different monitoring stations located in the urban area of Athens. The results show a totally different behavior of PM10 concentrations between the Athens city center and the suburban areas. It seems that in the city center the main sources of PM10 are traffic and heating systems especially during the cold period of the year. Furthermore, in the city center a significant seasonal variation was found with high concentrations during the cold period of the year and lower concentrations during the warm period of the year. Moreover, it was found that during the weekends, there is a decrease in PM10 concentrations probably due to the fact that majority of people do not use their vehicles. Finally, for both locations a significant temporal decreasing trend of the mean annual PM10 concentrations was found which indicates that during the last years, there have been improvements towards a better air quality.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0477.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: cross-country skiing; temporal event detection; wearable sensors; field analysis
Online: 25 November 2022 (10:09:08 CET)
The aim of this study was to adapt a treadmill-developed method for determination of inner-cycle parameters in cross-country roller ski skating for a field application. The method is based on detecting initial and final ground-contact of poles and skis during cyclic movements. Eleven athletes skied four laps of 2.5 km at low and high endurance-intensity, using two types of skis with different rolling coefficients. Participants were equipped with inertial measurement units (IMUs) attached to their wrists and skis, while insoles with pressure sensors and poles with force measurements were used as reference systems. The method based on IMUs was able to detect more than 97% of the temporal events compared to the reference system. The inner-cycle temporal parameters had a precision ranging from 49 to 59 ms, corresponding to 3.9% to 13.7% of the corresponding inner-cycle duration. Overall, this study showed good reliability of using IMUs on athlete’s wrists and skis to determine temporal events, inner-cycle parameters and the performed sub-techniques in cross-country roller ski skating in field-conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0487.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: water quality monitoring; wetland ecosystem services; spatial variation; temporal variation
Online: 29 August 2022 (10:46:13 CEST)
Stream chemistry effectively integrates watershed ecosystem processes on both spatial and temporal scales. Streams of coastal areas integrate a more homogeneous, flat topography wherein there can be interactions between the stream and the body of water into which it drains, especially where tidal fluxes occur. The present study assessed water quality of Thompson Bayou, which comes to the campus of the University of West Florida in a wetland after flowing through 4 km of commercial and private property with associated impacts on water quality. Sampling was carried out for one year at eight discrete sites along Thompson Bayou from the UWF campus to the Escambia River. We used a portable field meter to measure temperature, pH, dissolved O2 (DO), and specific conductivity (SC). Except for temperature, all variables exhibited a spatial pattern of significant variation with distance, with consistent increases in DO and SC as the stream approached the river. These variables also exhibited a temporal pattern of significant seasonal variation, including—and especially—temperature. Data suggest that spatial and temporal patterns of water quality of Thompson Bayou are determined by (1) processing of water by the wetland, (2) interactions of the stream channel with upland forest stands, and (3) the tidal hydrology of the Escambia River.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0437.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; LaLiga; sports; spatial and temporal analysis; serological status
Online: 26 August 2022 (02:59:56 CEST)
Objectives: COVID-19 pandemic interrupted the Spanish professional football competition until May 2020, when it was restarted following a surveillance protocol established by LaLiga. The aims were to describe the infective and serological status of professional football players (PLY) and staff (STF) between May 5th 2020 until April 22nd 2021, to analyze the spatial-temporal distribution of the COVID-19 disease in this cohort and its comparison to the Spanish population. Methods: a prospective observational cohort study was carried out. Differences between PLY and STF were assessed by Chi-squared test and test of equality of proportions. Pearson correlation test was used to measure the presence of an association between the percentages of positivity in population and LaLiga cohort. Results: 137,420 RT-PCR and 20,376 IgG serology tests were performed in 7,112 professionals. Positive baseline serology was detected in 10.57% of PLY and 6.38% of STF. Among those who started the follow-up as not infected and before STF vaccination, 11.87% of PLY and 5.03% of STF became positive. Before summer 2020 the prevalence of infection was similar than the observed at national level. The percentage of positivity in the Spanish population was higher than in LaLiga cohort, but both series showed a similar decreasing trend.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0105.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Built-up land; Fourier transformation; high-accuracy mapping; temporal correcti
Online: 4 December 2020 (11:58:42 CET)
Long-term, high-accuracy mapping of built-up land dynamics is essential for understanding urbanization and its consequences for the environment. Despite advances in remote sensing and classification algorithms, built-up land mapping using early satellite imagery (e.g., from the 2000s and earlier) remains prone to uncertainty. We mapped the extent of built-up land in the North China Plain, one of China’s most important agricultural regions, from 1990 to 2019 at three-year intervals. Using dense time-stack Landsat data, we applied discrete Fourier transformation to create temporal predictors and reduce mapping uncertainties for early years. We improved overall accuracy by 8% compared to using spectral and indices predictors alone. We implemented a temporal correction algorithm to remove inconsistent pixel classifications, further improving accuracy to a consistently high level (>94%) across years. A cross-product comparison showed that our study achieved the highest levels of accuracy across years. Total built-up land in the North China Plain increased from 37,941 km2 in 1990–1992 to 131,578 km2 in 2017–2019. Consistent, high-accuracy built-up land mapping provides a reliable basis for policy planning in one of the most rapidly urbanizing regions of the planet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0154.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: spatiotemporal; time series; bi-temporal; ground-based LiDAR; tree growth
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:56:08 CEST)
Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) has been adopted as a feasible technique to digitize trees and forest stands, providing accurate information on tree and forest structural attributes. However, there is limited understanding on how a variety of forest structural changes can be quantified using TLS in boreal forest conditions. In this study, we assessed the accuracy and feasibility of TLS in quantifying changes in the structure of boreal forests. We collected TLS data and field reference from 37 sample plots in 2014 (T1) and 2019 (T2). Tree stems typically have planar, vertical, and cylindrical characteristics in a point cloud, and thus we applied surface normal filtering, point cloud clustering, and RANSAC-cylinder filtering to identify these geometries and to characterize trees and forest stands at both time points. The results strengthened the existing knowledge that TLS has the capacity to characterize trees and forest stands in space and showed that TLS could characterize structural changes in time in boreal forest conditions. Root-mean-square-errors (RMSEs) in the estimates for changes in the tree attributes were 0.99-1.22 cm for diameter at breast height (Δdbh), 44.14-55.49 cm2 for basal area (Δg), and 1.91-4.85 m for tree height (Δh). In general, tree attributes were estimated more accurately for Scots pine trees, followed by Norway spruce and broadleaved trees. At the forest stand level, an RMSE of 0.60-1.13 cm was recorded for changes in basal area-weighted mean diameter (ΔDg), 0.81-2.26 m for changes in basal area-weighted mean height (ΔHg), 1.40-2.34 m2/ha for changes in mean basal area (ΔG), and 74-193 n/ha for changes in the number of trees per hectare (ΔTPH). The plot-level accuracy was higher in Scots pine-dominated sample plots than in Norway spruce-dominated and mixed-species sample plots. TLS-derived tree and forest structural attributes at time points T1 and T2 differed significantly from each other (p < 0.05). If there was an increase or decrease in dbh, g, h, height of the crown base, crown ratio, Dg, Hg, or G recorded in the field, a similar outcome was achieved by using TLS. Our results provided new information on the feasibility of TLS for the purposes of forest ecosystem growth monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0292.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: temporal lobe epilepsy; antioxidants; oxidative stress; neuroimmune; major depression; schizophrenia
Online: 19 March 2020 (02:11:32 CET)
Background: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common focal epilepsy subtype in adults and is frequently accompanied by depression, anxiety and psychosis. Aberrations in total paraoxonase (PON)1 status may occur in TLE and those psychiatric conditions. Methods: We examined paraoxonase (PON)1 status, namely Q192R PON1 genotypes and PON1 enzymatic activities, in 40 normal controls and 104 TLE patients, 27 without comorbidities, and 77 with comorbidities including mood disorders (n=25), anxiety disorders (n=27) and psychosis (n=25). Outcomes: CMPAase and arylesterase activities were significantly lower in TLE and mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) with and without psychiatric comorbidities than in normal controls. The areas under the ROC curve of CMPAase were 0.893 (0.037) for TLE and 0.895 (±0.037) for MTS. Partial Least Squares (PLS) path analysis showed that there were specific indirect effects of PON1 genotype on TLE severity (p<0.0001) and psychopathology (p<0.0001), which were both mediated by lowered CMPAase activity, while arylesterase activity was not significant. The severity of TLE was significantly associated with psychopathology scores. Furthermore, PON1 CMPAase activity was inversely associated with Mini Mental State Examination scores. Interpretation: The severity of TLE and comorbidities are to a large extent explained by lowered PON1 enzyme activities and by effects of the Q192R genotype which are mediated by lowered CMPAase activity. Total PON1 status plays a key role in the pathophysiology of TLE, MTS and psychiatric comorbidities by increasing the risk of oxidative toxicity. PON1 enzyme activities are new drug targets in TLE to treat seizure frequency and psychiatric comorbidities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0096.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Deep learning; Energy demand; Temporal convolutional network; Time series forecasting
Online: 5 March 2020 (15:02:37 CET)
Modern energy systems collect high volumes of data that can provide valuable information about energy consumption. Electric companies can now use historical data to make informed decisions on energy production by forecasting the expected demand. Many deep learning models have been proposed to deal with these type of time series forecasting problems. Deep neural networks, such as recurrent or convolutional, can automatically capture complex patterns in time series data and provide accurate predictions. In particular, Temporal Convolutional Networks (TCN) are a specialised architecture that has advantages over recurrent networks for forecasting tasks. TCNs are able to extract long-term patterns using dilated causal convolutions and residual blocks, and can also be more efficient in terms of computation time. In this work, we propose a TCN-based deep learning model to improve the predictive performance in energy demand forecasting. Two energy-related time series with data from Spain have been studied: the national electric demand, and the power demand at charging stations for electric vehicles. An extensive experimental study has been conducted, involving more than 1900 models with different architectures and parametrisations. The TCN proposal outperforms the forecasting accuracy of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) recurrent networks, which are considered the state-of-the-art in the field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0285.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: laser hardening; temporal-temperature profile; solid phase transformation; heat treatment
Online: 24 November 2019 (14:38:37 CET)
A novel mathematical model is developed to calculate the temperature distribution on the surface and bulk of a steel plate under the laser hardening process. The model starts with the basic heat equation then it is developed into a volumetric form and is connected to the various solid existing phases. The proposed model is based on three influencing parameters of the laser hardening process which are the velocity of the laser spot and irradiation time. The results are compared with the available experimental data reported in the literature. The volumetric model provides an assessment of temperature distribution in both the vertical and horizontal axis. Laser irradiation at sufficiently high fluence can be used to create a solid-state phase change on the surface. Primary calculations show that the temperature profile has a Gaussian distribution in horizontal x and y-axis and presents an exponentially decreasing in the horizontal and vertical depth directions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0185.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: rainfall-runoff; multiple temporal scales; non-linearity; small catchments; Mediterranean
Online: 15 November 2019 (16:56:57 CET)
Mediterranean catchments are characterized by significant spatial and temporal hydrological variability caused by the interaction of natural as well human-induced abiotic and biotic factors. This study investigates the (non-)linearity rainfall-runoff relationship at multiple temporal scales in representative small Mediterranean catchments (i.e., < 10 km2) to achieve a better understanding of the hydrological response. Rainfall-runoff relationship was evaluated in 44 catchments at annual and event –203 events in 12 of these 44 catchments– scales. A linear rainfall-runoff relation was observed at annual scale with higher scatter in pervious than impervious catchments. Larger scattering was observed at event scale, although pervious lithology and agricultural land use promoted significant rainfall-runoff linear relations in winter and spring. These relationships were particularly analysed during five hydrological years in Es Fangar catchment (3.35 km2; Mallorca, Spain) as a temporal downscaling to assess intra-annual variability in which antecedent wetness conditions played a significant role in runoff generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0344.v2
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Landsat8; multi-temporal; crops statistics; land use land cover; Pakistan
Online: 21 August 2018 (12:25:17 CEST)
Developing countries like Pakistan is among those where lack of adoption to science and technology advancement is a major constraint for Satellite Remote Sensing use in crops and land use land cover digital information generation. Exponential rise in country population, increased food demand, limiting natural resources coupled with migration of rural community to urban areas had further led to skewed official statistics. This study is an attempt to demonstrate the possible use of freely available satellite data like Landsat8 under complex cropping system of Okara district of Punjab, Pakistan. An Integrated approach has been developed for the satellite data based crops and land use/cover spatial area estimation. The resultant quality was found above 96% with Kappa statistics of 0.95. Land utilization statistics provided detail information about cropping patterns as well as land use land cover status. Rice was recorded as most dominating crop in term of cultivation area of around 0.165 million ha followed by autumn maize 0.074 million ha, Fallow crop fields 0.067 million ha and Sorghum 0.047 million ha. Other minor crops observed were potato, fodder and cotton being cultivated on less than 0.010 million ha. Population settlements were observed over an area of around 0.081 million ha of land.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0028.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: GPS trajectory; GPS sensor; trajectory similarity measure; spatial-temporal data
Online: 6 March 2017 (06:51:37 CET)
With the rapid spread of built-in GPS handheld smart devices, the trajectory data from GPS sensors has grown explosively. Trajectory data has spatio-temporal characteristics and rich information. Using trajectory data processing techniques can mine the patterns of human activities and the moving patterns of vehicles in the intelligent transportation systems. A trajectory similarity measure is one of the most important issues in trajectory data mining (clustering, classification, frequent pattern mining, etc.). Unfortunately, the main similarity measure algorithms with the trajectory data have been found to be inaccurate, highly sensitive of sampling methods, and have low robustness for the noise data. To solve the above problems, three distances and their corresponding computation methods are proposed in this paper. The point-segment distance can decrease the sensitivity of the point sampling methods. The prediction distance optimizes the temporal distance with the features of trajectory data. The segment-segment distance introduces the trajectory shape factor into the similarity measurement to improve the accuracy. The three kinds of distance are integrated with the traditional dynamic time warping algorithm (DTW) algorithm to propose a new segment–based dynamic time warping algorithm (SDTW). The experimental results show that the SDTW algorithm can exhibit about 57%, 86%, and 31% better accuracy than the longest common subsequence algorithm (LCSS), and edit distance on real sequence algorithm (EDR) , and DTW, respectively, and that the sensitivity to the noise data is lower than that those algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0242.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Temperature Humidity Index; Milk Production; Milk Composition; Temporal and Periodic Variation
Online: 14 November 2022 (06:32:11 CET)
Global warming has been increasing heat stress threat in animals which can be monitored by Temperature Humidity Index (THI). The present study describes the relationship of THI, calculated using 35 years period weather station data, and production performances of dairy cattle in a se-lected area of Bangladesh. The month January and June were identified as the coolest and hottest, respectively. Based on this outcome, every year in the month of January and June production performances of 10 crossbred cows with homogenous characteristics were monitored for a period of 5 years. The average THIMEAN value was found 17% higher in June as compared to January, and with this increment of THIMEAN average milk production was decreased 24.4% (p<0.05). The milk fat and protein content were also reduced (p<0.05) by 14.5 and 15.2%, respectively suggesting negative correlation as like as milk production. However, ash content was increased 15.3% that indicates a positive correlation. In addition, multiple regression analysis revealed each point increase in THIMEAN and rectal temperature, there was a decrease in milk yield 0.04 and 1.17 kg ECM, respectively. In contrary, each point increase in THIMEAN resulted 0.059 C increase of rectal temperature. Taken together, THIMEAN value calculated using metrological station data has distinct relationship with the production performances of lactating crossbred dairy cows.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0271.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: COVID-19; human mobility; spatial autocorrelation; temporal autocorrelation; Facebook mobility data
Online: 19 September 2022 (09:33:10 CEST)
COVID-19 is the most severe health crisis of the 21st century. COVID-19 presents a threat to almost all countries world-wide. The restriction of human mobility is one of the strategies used to control the transmission of COVID-19. However, it has yet to be determined how effective this restriction is in controlling the rise in COVID-19 cases, particularly in major capital cities such as Jakarta, Indonesia. Using Facebook's mobility data, our study explores the impact of restricting human mobility on COVID-19 case control in Jakarta. Our main contribution is showing how the restriction of human mobility data can give important information about how COVID-19 spreads in different places. We proposed modifying a global regression model into a local regression model by accounting for the spatial and temporal interdependence of COVID-19 transmission across space and time. We applied Bayesian hierarchical Poisson spatiotemporal models with spatially varying regression coefficients. We estimated the regression parameters using an Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation. We found that the local regression model with spatially varying regression coefficients outperforms the global regression model based on DIC, WAIC, MPL, and R2 criteria for model selection. In Jakarta's 44 districts, the impact of human mobility varies significantly. The impacts of human mobility on the log relative risk of COVID-19 range from –4.445 to 2.353. The prevention strategy involving the restriction of human mobility may be beneficial in some districts but ineffective in others. Therefore, a cost-effective strategy had to be adopted.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0114.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: HOX gene collinearity; spatial collinearity; temporal collinearity; TC disappearence; TC reappearence
Online: 7 September 2021 (09:56:27 CEST)
It was observed that a cluster of ordered genes (Hox1, Hox2, Hox3,…) in the genome are activated in the ontogenetic units (1, 2, 3,…) of an embryo along the Anterior/Posterior axis following the same order of the Hox genes. This Spatial Collinearity (SC) is very strange since it correlates events of very different spatial dimensions. It was later observed in vertebrates, that, in the above ordering, first is Hox1expressed in ontogenetic unit 1, followed later by Hox2 in unit 2, and even later Hox3 in unit 3….This temporal collinearity (TC) is an enigma and even to-day is explored in depth. In 1999 T. Kondo and D. Duboule, after posterior upstream extended DNA excisions , concluded that the Hox cluster behaves ‘as if’ TC disappears. Here the consideration of TC really disappearing is taken face value and its repercussions are analyzed. Furthermore, an experiment is proposed to test TC disappearance. An outcome of this experiment could be the reappearance (partial or total) of TC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0458.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: biophoton emission; age; temporal variation; asymmetry; analytical model; photon diffusion; steady-state
Online: 14 January 2019 (11:26:03 CET)
Biophoton emission has been experimented for decades. The photo-genic origin of biophoton has also been attributed to the oxidative stress or free radical production. However, there are considerable gaps in quantitative understanding of biophoton emission. In this work, I propose an analytical hypothesis for interpreting a few patterns of steady-state biophoton emission of human, including the dependency on age, the diurnal variation, and the geometric asymmetry associated with serious asymmetrical pathological conditions. The hypothesis is based on an alternative form of energy state, termed vivo-nergy, which is associated with only metabolically active organisms that are also under neuronal control. The hypothesis projects a decrease of the vivo-nergy in human during growth beyond puberty. The hypothesis also proposes a modification of the vivo-nergy by the phases of systematic or homeostatic physiology. The hypothesis further postulates that the deviation of the physiology-modified vivo-nergy from the pre-puberty level is deteriorated by acquired organ-specific pathological conditions. A temporal differential change of vivo-nergy is hypothesized to proportionally modulate oxidative stress that functions as the physical source of biophoton emission. The resulted steady-state diffusion of the photon emitted from a photo-genic source in a human geometry simplified as a homogeneous spherical domain is modeled by photon diffusion principles incorporating an extrapolated zero-boundary condition. The age and systematic physiology combined determines the intensity of the centered physiological steady-state photo-genic source. An acquired pathology sets both the intensity and the off-center position of the pathological steady-state photo-genic source. When the age-commemorated, physiology-commanded, and pathology-controlled modifications of the steady-state photo-genetic sources are implemented in the photon diffusion model, the photon fluence rate at the surface of the human-representing spherical domain reveals the patterns on age, the temporal variation corresponding to systematic physiology, and the geometric asymmetry associated with significant asymmetric pathological condition as reported for spontaneous biophoton emission. The hypothesis, as it provides conveniences for quantitative estimation of biophoton emission patterns, will be extended in future works towards interpreting the temporal characteristics of biophoton emission under stimulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0377.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: land cover change detection; adaptive contextual information; bi-temporal remote sensing images
Online: 29 April 2018 (10:52:26 CEST)
Land cover change detection (LCCD) based on bi-temporal remote sensing images plays an important role in the inventory of land cover change. Due to the benefit of having spatial dependency properties within the image space while using remote sensing images for detecting land cover change, many contextual information based change detection methods have been proposed during past decades. However, there is still a space for improvement in accuracies and usability of LCCD. In this paper, a LCCD method based on adaptive contextual information is proposed. First, an adaptive region is constructed by gradually detecting the spectral similarity surrounding a central pixel. Second, the Euclidean distance between pairwise extended regions is calculated to measure the change magnitude between the pairwise central pixels of bi-temporal images. While the whole bi-temporal images are scanned pixel-by-pixel, the change magnitude image (CMI) can be generated. Then, the Otsu or a manual threshold is employed to acquire the binary change detection map (BCDM). The detection accuracies of the proposed approach are investigated by two land cover change cases with Landsat bi-temporal remote sensing images. In comparison to several widely used change detection methods, the proposed approach can achieve a land cover change inventory map with a competitive accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0316.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: temporal lobe epilepsy; hippocampus; 4-aminopyridine; epilepsy model; long-term potentiation; AMPA receptor.
Online: 17 September 2021 (12:45:31 CEST)
Even brief epileptic seizures can lead to activity-dependent structural remodeling of neural circuitry. Animal models show that the functional plasticity of synapses and changes in the intrinsic excitability of neurons can be crucial for epileptogenesis. However, the exact mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis remain unclear. We induced epileptiform activity in rat hippocampal slices for 15 min using a 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) in vitro model and observed hippocampal hyperexcitability for at least 1 hour. We tested several possible mechanisms of this hyperexcitability, including changes in intrinsic membrane properties of neurons, presynaptic and postsynaptic alterations. Neither input resistance nor other essential biophysical properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons were affected by epileptiform activity. The glutamate release probability also remained unchanged, as the frequency of miniature EPSCs and the paired amplitude ratio of evoked responses did not change after epileptiform activity. However, we found an increase in the AMPA/NMDA ratio, suggesting alterations in the properties of postsynaptic glutamatergic receptors. Thus, the increase in excitability of hippocampal neural networks is realized through postsynaptic mechanisms. In contrast, the intrinsic membrane properties of neurons and the probability of glutamate release from presynaptic terminals are not affected in a 4-AP model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0269.v1
Subject: Keywords: Travel Time Prediction; Deep Learning; Long Short Term Memory Networks; transit; temporal correlation
Online: 9 April 2021 (15:04:06 CEST)
This study introduces a comparative analysis of two deep learning (multilayer perceptron neural networks (MLP-NN) and the long short term memory networks (LSTMN)) models for transit travel time prediction. The two models were trained and tested using one-year worth of data for a bus route in Blacksburg, Virginia. In this study, the travel time was predicted between each two successive stations to all the model to be extended to include bus dwell times. Additionally, two additional models were developed for each category (MLP of LSTM): one for only segments including controlled intersections (controlled segments) and another for segments with no control devices along them (uncontrolled segments). The results show that the LSTM models outperform the MLP models with a RMSE of 17.69 sec compared to 18.81 sec. When splitting the data into controlled and uncontrolled segments, the RMSE values reduced to 17.33 sec for the controlled segments and 4.28 sec for the uncontrolled segments when applying the LSTM model. Whereas, the RMSE values were 19.39 sec for the controlled segments and 4.67 sec for the uncontrolled segments when applying the MLP model. These results demonstrate that the uncertainty in traffic conditions introduced by traffic control devices has a significant impact on travel time predictions. Nonetheless, the results demonstrate that the LSTMN is a promising tool that can has the ability to account for the temporal correlation within the data. The developed models are also promising tools for reasonable travel time predictions in transit applications.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0753.v2
Subject: Keywords: HOX genes; Hox gene collinearity; spatial collinearity; temporal collinearity; vertebrates; elongated gene cluster
Online: 4 January 2021 (08:30:15 CET)
Hox gene collinearity (HGC) is a multiscalar property of many animal phyla particularly important during embryogenesis. It relates events occurring in Hox clusters inside the chromosome DNA and embryonic tissues. These two entities differ in size by more than four orders of magnitude. HGC is observed as spatial collinearity (SC) where the Hox genes are located in the order H1, H2, H3 … along the 3’ to 5’ direction of the DNA sequence. The corresponding embryonic tissues (E1, E2, E3, …) are activated along the Anterior – Posterior axis in the same order. Besides this collinearity a temporal collinearity (TC) has been also observed in many vertebrates. According to TC first is H1 expressed in E1, later is H2 in E2, followed by H3,… Lately doubt has been raised whether TC really exists. A biophysical model (BM) has been formulated and tested in the last twenty years. According to BM, physical forces are created which pull the Hox genes one after the other driving them to a transcription factory domain where they are transcribed. The existing experiments support this BM description. In the present work two equivalent realizations of BM are presented which explain the recent findings on TC as observed in the vertebrates.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: headwater catchment; water quality assessment; driving factors; spatial and temporal analysis; Southeast China
Online: 27 December 2019 (10:30:07 CET)
Safety of source water streams is an urgent environmental issue, while protections in monsoon controlled subtropical regions face difficulties because of the lack of small scaled observation and analysis in small source water catchments. Basing on continuous weekly water quality data (2014-2017) in Pingqiao River Catchment, the annual average values of TN, NO3, NH4 and TP are 3.36, 1.64, 0.28 and 0.02 (mg/L) respectively. During dry, normal and wet seasons, the variability of parameters is over 35%, which indicates an obvious seasonality. Multiple methods are combined in order to assess the water quality and find the driving factors during dry, normal and wet seasons. This study suggests precipitation and fertilization are the mainly seasonal factors, which can make water quality better in wet season than dry season due to the dilution effect. The mechanism between seasonality and compound of nutrients can also be traced by log(TN:TP), and log(NO3:NH4). Among six main land use types (forest, tea plantation, cropland (paddy), urban, bare soil and water), the former three ones are influential mostly during dry and wet season. Tea plantation has the largest nutrients discharge amount per area, which is similar to cropland in dry season. By contrary, forest has the double power in reducing nitrogen release in wet and normal seasons. When transformed into paddies, croplands can lower the phosphorus concentration. Conclusions of this study can be used in southeastern China and similar regions on source water protection and agricultural plans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0210.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: continuous authentication; touch-gesture biometrics; few-shot anomaly detection; data augmentation; temporal convolution network
Online: 14 September 2022 (15:39:03 CEST)
The rapid growth of smartphone financial services raises the need for secure mobile authentication. Continuous authentication is a user-friendly way to strengthen the security of smartphones by implicitly monitoring a user’s identity through sessions. Mobile continuous authentication can be viewed as an anomaly detection problem in which models discriminate between one genuine user and the rest of the imposters (anomalies). In practice, complete imposter profiles are hardly available due to the time and monetary cost, while leveraging genuine data alone yields poor generalized models due to the lack of knowledge about imposters. To address this challenge, we recast continuous mobile authentication as a few-shot anomaly detection problem, aiming to enhance the inference robustness of unseen imposters by using partial knowledge of available imposter profiles. Specifically, we propose a novel deep learning-based model, namely Local Feature Pooling based Temporal Convolution Network (LFP-TCN), which directly models raw sequential mobile data, aggregating global and local feature information. In addition, we introduce a random pattern mixing augmentation to generate class-unconstrained imposter data for the training. The augmented pool enables characterizing various imposter patterns from limited imposter data. Finally, we demonstrate practical continuous authentication using score-level fusion, which prevents long-term dependency or increased model complexity due to extended re-authentication time. Experiments on two public benchmark datasets show the effectiveness of our method and its state-of-the-art performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0633.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Conditional temporal moments; Optimizable support vector machine (SVM); Gearbox fault diagnosis; Vibration analysis.
Online: 28 June 2021 (09:57:04 CEST)
Fault diagnosis of the gearbox is a decisive part of the modern industry to find the many gearbox defects like gear tooth crack, chipped or broken, etc. But sometimes, the nonstationary properties of vibration signal and low energy of minimal faults make this procedure very challenging. Previously, many types of techniques have been developed for gearbox condition monitoring. But most of the methods are dealing with conventional techniques of the gearbox condition monitoring, such as time-domain analysis or frequency domain analysis. Most of the conventional methods are not suitable for the nonstationary vibration signal. Thus, this paper presents a novel gearbox fault diagnosis technique using conditional temporal moments and an optimizable support vector machine (SVM). This work also presents an integrated features extraction technique based on the standard features, i.e., statistical and spectral features with the combinations of moment features. The impact of the four conditional temporal moments of each gearbox condition is also presented. This work shows that the proposed method successfully classifies and categorizes the gearbox faults at an early stage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0412.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: seismic swarm; relocated aftershocks; transition zone; b-value temporal variation; central Ionian Islands (Greece)
Online: 25 May 2020 (16:47:35 CEST)
A quite energetic seismic excitation consisting of one main and additional three distinctive earthquake clusters that occurred in the transition area between the Kefalonia Transform Fault Zone (KTFZ) and the continental collision between Adriatic and Aegean microplates, is thoroughly studied after high–precision aftershocks’ relocation. The activated fault segments are in an area where historical and instrumental data have never claimed the occurrence of a catastrophic (M>6.0) earthquake. The relocated seismicity initially defines an activated structure extending from the northern segment of the Lefkada branch of KTFZ with the same NNE–SSW orientation and dextral strike-slip faulting and then keeping the same sense of motion its strike becomes NE–SW and its dip direction NW. This provides unprecedented information on the link between the KTFZ and the Collision front and sheds more light on the regional geodynamics. The earthquake catalog, which is specially compiled for this study, starts one year before the occurrence of the Mw5.4 mainshock and adequately provides the proper data source for investigating the temporal variation of the b–value, which might be used for discriminating foreshock and aftershock behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0213.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: Temporal-order judgments; modeling; theory of visual attention; TVA; range of indecision; encoding reset
Online: 8 June 2018 (16:12:09 CEST)
Humans are incapable of judging the temporal order of visual events at brief temporal separations with perfect accuracy. Their performance---which is of much interest in visual cognition and attention research---can be measured with the temporal-order judgment task, which typically produces S-shaped psychometric functions. Occasionally, researchers reported plateaus within these functions, and some theories predict such deviation from the basic S shape. However, the centers of the psychometric functions result from the weakest performance at the most difficult presentations and therefore fluctuate strongly, leaving existence and exact shapes of plateaus unclear. This study set out to investigate whether plateaus disappear if the data accuracy is enhanced, or if we are ``stuck on a plateau'', or rather with it. For this purpose, highly accurate data were assessed by model-based analysis. The existence of plateaus is confidently confirmed and two plausible mechanisms derived from very different models are presented. Neither model, however, performs well in the presence of a strong attention manipulation, and model comparison remains unclear on the question which of the models describes the data best. Nevertheless, the present study includes the highest accuracy in visual TOJ data and the most explicit models of plateaus in TOJ studied so far.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0531.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: astrocyte; gap junction coupling; connexin 43; connexin 30; hippocampus, epilepsy; ep-ileptogenesis; temporal lobe epilepsy
Online: 30 January 2023 (02:07:39 CET)
The gap junction-coupled astroglial network plays a central role in the regulation of neuronal activity and synchronization, but its involvement in the pathogenesis of neuronal diseases is not yet understood. Here we present the current state of knowledge about the impact of impaired glial coupling in the development and progression of epilepsy and discuss whether astrocytes represent alternative therapeutic targets. We focus mainly on temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), which is the most common form of epilepsy in adults, characterized by high therapy resistance. Functional data from TLE patients and corresponding experimental models point to a complete loss of astrocytic coupling, but preservation of the gap junction forming proteins connexin43 (Cx43) and connexin30 (Cx30) in hippocampal sclerosis. Several studies further indicate that astrocyte uncoupling represents a causal event in the initiation of TLE, as it occurs very early in epileptogenesis, clearly preceding dysfunctional changes in neurons. However, more research is needed to fully understand the role of gap junction channels in epilepsy and to develop safe and effective therapeutic strategies targeting astrocytes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0017.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: frailty; muscle volume; nutritional status; prognostic factor; sarcopenia; skeletal muscle mass; stroke; temporal muscle thickness.
Online: 1 December 2021 (13:12:03 CET)
Background: Evaluating muscle mass and function among stroke patients is important. However, evaluating muscle volume and function is not easy due to the disturbance of consciousness and paresis. Temporal muscle thickness (TMT) has been introduced as a novel surrogate marker for muscle mass, function, and nutritional status. We herein performed a narrative literature review on temporal muscle and stroke to understand the current meaning of the TMT in the clinical stroke practice. Methods: The search was performed in PubMed, last updated in October 2021. Report on temporal muscle morphomics and stroke-related diseases or clinical entities were collected. Results: Four studies reported on TMT and subarachnoid hemorrhage, 2 intracerebral hemorrhage, 2 ischemic stroke, 2 standard TMT values, and 2 nutritional status. TMT was reported as a prognostic factor for several diseases, surrogate markers for skeletal muscle mass, and an indicator of nutritional status. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography were used to measure TMT. Conclusions: TMT is gradually used as a prognostic factor of stroke or surrogate marker for skeletal muscle mass and nutritional status. Establishing standard methods to measure TMT and large prospective studies to investigate the further relationship between TMT and diseases are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0065.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: sea surface pCO2; ocean color remote sensing; CatBoost algorithm; temporal and spatial distribution; influencing factors
Online: 2 April 2021 (13:58:50 CEST)
Sea surface partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) is a critical parameter in the quantification of air-sea CO2 flux, which plays an important role in calculating the global carbon budget and ocean acidification. In this study, we use chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla), sea surface temperature (SST), absorption due to dissolved and particulate detrital matter (Adg), diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance at 490nm (Kd) and mixed layer depth (MLD) as input data for retrieving the sea surface pCO2 in the North Atlantic based on a remote sensing empirical approach with the Categorical Boosting (CatBoost) algorithm. The results show that the root mean square error (RMSE) is 8.25μatm, the mean bias error (MAE) is 4.92μatm and the coefficient of determination (R2) can reach 0.946 in the validation set, which mean that the CatBoost model makes an improvement compared to other models in the published studies. In the further analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of the sea surface pCO2 in the North Atlantic, it can be found that the North Atlantic sea surface pCO2 has a clear trend with latitude variations and have strong seasonal changes. Furthermore, the sea surface pCO2 in this area is mainly affected by sea temperature and salinity, and influenced by biological activities in some sub-regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0612.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: geophysical signal processing; pattern recognition; temporal convolutional neural networks; seismology; deep learning; nuclear treaty monitoring
Online: 29 November 2018 (03:37:48 CET)
The detection of seismic events at regional and teleseismic distances is critical to Nuclear Treaty Monitoring. Traditionally, detecting regional and teleseismic events has required the use of an expensive multi-instrument seismic array; however in this work, we present DeepPick, a novel seismic detection algorithm capable of array-like performance from a single trace. We achieve this directly, by training our single-trace detector against labeled events from an array catalog, and by utilizing a deep temporal convolutional neural network. The training data consists of all arrivals in the International Seismological Centre Catalog for seven seismic arrays over a five year window from 1 Jan 2010 to 1 Jan 2015, yielding a total training set of 608,362 detections. The test set consists of the same seven arrays over a one year window from 1 Jan 2015 to 1 Jan 2016. We report our results by training the algorithm on six of the arrays and testing it on the seventh, so as to demonstrate the transportability and generalization of the technique to new stations. Detection performance against this test set is outstanding. Fixing a type-I error rate of 1%, the algorithm achieves an overall recall rate of 73% on the 141,095 array beam picks in the test set, yielding 102,394 correct detections. This is more than 4 times the 23,259 detections found in the analyst-reviewed single-trace catalogs over the same period, and represents an 8dB improvement in detector sensitivity over current methods. These results demonstrate the potential of our algorithm to significantly enhance the effectiveness of the global treaty monitoring network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0206.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: human psychophysics; apparent motion; temporal integration; cat; retina; neural coding; Hassenstein-Reichardt detector; model analysis
Online: 10 October 2018 (06:31:03 CEST)
Under optimal conditions, just 3–6 ms of visual stimulation suffices for humans to see motion. Motion perception on this time scale implies that the visual system under these conditions reliably encodes, transmits, and processes neural signals with near-millisecond precision. Motivated by in vitro evidence for high temporal precision of motion signals in the primate retina, we investigated how neuronal and perceptual limits of motion encoding relate. Specifically, we examined the correspondence between the time scale at which cat retinal ganglion cells in vivo represent motion information and temporal thresholds for human motion discrimination. The time scale for motion encoding by ganglion cells ranged from 4.6–91 ms, depended nonlinearly on temporal frequency but not on contrast. Human psychophysics revealed that minimal stimulus durations required for perceiving motion direction were similarly brief, 5.6–65 ms, similarly depended on temporal frequency but, above ~10%, not on contrast. Notably, physiological and psychophysical measurements corresponded closely throughout (r = 0.99), despite more than a 20-fold variation in both human thresholds and optimal time scales for motion encoding in the retina. These results demonstrate that neural circuits for motion vision in cortex can maintain and make use of the high temporal fidelity of the retinal output signals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0053.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: effective discharge; suspended sediment load; magnitude–frequency analysis; sub-bankfull flow; temporal variation; geomorphic threshold
Online: 4 September 2018 (04:54:01 CEST)
Effective discharge, which represents the flow, or range of flows, that transport the most sediment over long term, was determined based on the mean daily flow discharge and mean daily suspended sediment discharge recorded between 1994 and 2014 at four gauging stations along the Trotuș River. This study proposes an efficient method for the estimation of effective discharge based on observed values of the suspended sediment load. By employing this method the suspended sediment load is no longer either under- or overestimated as in the cases when the assessment is based on sediment rating curves. The assessment on effective discharge was performed at two distinct levels: for the entire data series during the investigated time spans and, subsequently, for flows less than the bankfull discharge. The effectiveness curves of the suspended sediment transport characteristics revealed highly multimodal characteristics with many peaks, indicating ample ranges for the effective discharges. The main effective discharge corresponded to large flood events, which are typical for the upper end of the discharge range, whereas the secondary effective discharges corresponded to sub-bankfull flows, which are more frequent. The changes that occurred in the channel bed are reflected by the temporal variations in the effective discharge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0477.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: High Throughput Plant Phenotyping; Deep Neural Network; Flower Detection; Temporal Phenotypes; Benchmark Dataset; Flower Status Report
Online: 31 October 2022 (10:00:24 CET)
A phenotype is the composite of an observable expression of a genome for traits in a given environment. The trajectories of phenotypes computed from an image sequence and timing of important events in a plant’s life cycle can be viewed as temporal phenotypes and indicative of the plant’s growth pattern and vigor. In this paper, we introduce a novel method called FlowerPhenoNet which uses deep neural networks for detecting flowers from multiview image sequences for high throughput temporal plant phenotyping analysis. Following flower detection, a set of novel flower-based phenotypes are computed, e.g., the day of emergence of the first flower in a plant’s life cycle, the total number of flowers present in the plant at a given time, the highest number of flowers bloomed in the plant, growth trajectory of a flower and the blooming trajectory of a plant. To develop a new algorithm and facilitate performance evaluation based on experimental analysis, a benchmark dataset is indispensable. Thus, we introduce a benchmark dataset called FlowerPheno which comprises image sequences of three flowering plant species, e.g., sunflower, coleus, and canna, captured by a visible light camera in a high throughput plant phenotyping platform from multiple view angles. The experimental analyses on the FlowerPheno dataset demonstrate the efficacy of the FlowerPhenoNet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0426.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: event-based vision; object detection and tracking; high-temporal resolution tracking; frame-based vision; hybrid approach
Online: 30 June 2022 (09:54:14 CEST)
Event-based vision is an emerging field of computer vision that offers unique properties such as asynchronous visual output, high temporal resolutions, and dependence on brightness changes to generate data. These properties can enable robust high-temporal-resolution object detection and tracking when combined with frame-based vision. In this paper, we present a hybrid, high-temporal-resolution, object detection and tracking approach, that combines learned and classical methods using synchronized images and event data. Off-the-shelf frame-based object detectors are used for initial object detection and classification. Then, event masks, generated per each detection, are used to enable inter-frame tracking at varying temporal resolutions using the event data. Detections are associated across time using a simple low-cost association metric. Moreover, we collect and label a traffic dataset using the hybrid sensor DAVIS 240c. This dataset is utilized for quantitative evaluation using state-of-the-art detection and tracking metrics. We provide ground truth bounding boxes and object IDs for each vehicle annotation. Further, we generate high-temporal-resolution ground truth data to analyze the tracking performance at different temporal rates. Our approach shows promising results with minimal performance deterioration at higher temporal resolutions (48 – 384 Hz) when compared with the baseline frame-based performance at 24 Hz.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0078.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: ESA CCI; soil moisture; EEMD; Mann-Kendall; temporal and spatial variation; Jiangsu water supply area (JWSA)
Online: 6 December 2021 (14:56:16 CET)
The South-to-North Water Transfer Jiangsu Water Supply Area (JWSA) is a mega inter-basin water transfer area (water source) that provides water resources from JiangHuai, combines drainage and flooding management, and regulates nearby rivers and lakes. Analyzing the spatiotemporal soil moisture dynamics in the area will inform agricultural drought and flood disaster assessment and early warning studies. Therefore, we evaluated the quality of European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative Soil moisture (ESA CCI_SM) data in the South-North Water Transfer JWSA. Then, we used ensemble empirical modal decomposition, Mann-Kendall tests, and regression analysis to study the spatiotemporal variation in soil moisture for the past 29 years. The CCI _SM data showed a high correlation with local soil measurements at nine sites. We then analyzed the CCI_SM data from three pumping stations (the Gaogang, Hongze, and Liushan stations) in the South-North Water Transfer JWSA. These stations had similar periodic characteristics of soil moisture, with significant periodic fluctuations around 3.1 d. The overall soil moisture at the three typical pumping stations showed an increasing trend. We then investigated whether there were abrupt soil moisture changes at each station. The spatial distribution of soil moisture in the South-North Water Transfer JWSA was characterized by “dry north and wet south”, with higher soil moisture in winter, followed by autumn, and low soil moisture in spring and summer. Although the linear trend of soil moisture in the South-North Water Transfer JWSA varied in significance, the overall soil moisture in the JWSA has increased over the past 29 years. The areas with significantly enhanced soil moisture are mainly distributed in the Yangzhou and Huai'an areas in the southeastern part of the study area. The areas with significantly decreased soil moisture are small in size and mainly located in northern Xuzhou.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0157.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Land use and land cover; Classification; Object-based change detection; Multi-temporal image analysis; Landsat; Tiaoxi
Online: 7 June 2021 (09:27:22 CEST)
The changing of land use and land cover (LULC) are both affected by climate and human activity and affect climate, biological diversity, and human well-being. Accurate and timely information about the LULC pattern and change is crucial for land management decision-making, ecosystem monitoring, and urban planning, especially in developing economies undergoing industrialization, urbanization, and globalization. Biodiversity degradation and urban expansion in eastern China are research hot-spots. However, the influence of LULC changes on the region remains largely unexplored. Here, an object-based and multi-temporal image analysis approach was developed to detect how LULC changes during 1985-2015 in the Tiaoxi watershed (Zhejiang province, eastern China) using Landsat TM and OLI data. The main objective of this study is to improve the accuracy of unsupervised change detection from object-based and multi-temporal images. To this end, a total of seven LULC maps are generated with multi-temporal images. A random stratified sample design was used for assessing change detection accuracy. The proposed method achieved an overall accuracy of 91.86%, 92.14%, 92.00%, and 93.86% for 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015, respectively. Nevertheless, the proposed method, in conjunction with object-oriented and multi-temporal satellite images, offers a robust and flexible approach to LULC changes mapping that helps with emergency response and government management. Urbanization and agriculture efficiency are the main reasons for LULC changes in the region. We anticipate that this freely available data will improve the modeling for surface forcing, provide evidence of changes in LULC, and inform water-management decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0438.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Life cycle assessment; circular economy; multiple product life cycles; temporal variability; life cycle inventory; emission intensity
Online: 16 November 2020 (17:24:26 CET)
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used frequently as a decision support tool for evaluating different design choices of products based on their environmental impacts. A life cycle usually comprises several phases of varying timespan. The amount of emissions generated from different life cycle phases of a product could be significantly different from one another. In conventional LCA, the emissions generated from the life cycle phases of a product are aggregated at the inventory analysis stage, which is then used as an input for life cycle impact assessment. However, when the emissions are aggregated, the temporal variability of inventory data is ignored, which may result in inaccurate environmental impact assessment. Besides, the conventional LCA does not consider the environmental impact of circular products with multiple use cycles. It poses difficulties in identifying the hotspots of emission-intensive activities with the potential to mislead conclusions and implications for both practice and policy. To address this issue and to analyse the embedded temporal variations in inventory data in a CE context, the paper proposes to calculate the emission intensity for each life cycle phase. It is argued that calculating and comparing emission intensity, based on the timespan and amount of emissions for individual life cycle phases, at the inventory analysis stage of LCA offers a complementary approach to the traditional aggregate emission-based LCA approach. In a circular scenario, it helps to identify significant issues during different life cycle phases and the relevant environmental performance improvement opportunities through product, business model and supply chain design.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0580.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: stroke; sarcopenia; computed tomography; ultrasound; bioelectrical impedance analysis; muscle; temporal muscle; rectus femoris muscle; diaphragm; calf circumference
Online: 28 January 2021 (12:31:09 CET)
Muscle mass at admission is important to survive stroke, and stroke-induced sarcopenia is a serious problem because of its poor prognosis. Muscle mass measurement and monitoring are essential for appropriate re-habilitation and nutrition management. Several methods are used to assess skeletal muscle mass in stroke, such as computed tomography (CT), ultrasonography, bioelectrical impedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, biomarkers, and anthropometrics. In stroke, a head CT is used to estimate muscle mass by measuring the temporal muscle. However, it is mostly retrospectively conducted due to radiation exposure. After stroke, limb muscle atrophy and diaphragm dysfunction are observed using ultrasound. However, ultrasound requires an understanding of the methods and skill. A bioelectrical impedance analysis can be used to assess muscle mass in patients after a stroke unless they have dynamic fluid changes. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is used for follow-up after hospital discharge. Urinary titin N-fragment and serum C-terminal agrin fragment reflect muscle atrophy after stroke. Anthropometrics may be useful with limited resources. We summarized the features of each measurement and proved the recent evidence to properly measure and monitor skeletal muscle mass after stroke.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0016.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: land cover; classification Spatial and temporal Analysis; forest cover; Google Earth Engine (GEE); MODIS; Landsat; NOAA AVHRR
Online: 2 September 2019 (04:51:15 CEST)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0257.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: impervious surface mapping; multi-temporal data; change detection; high-resolution imagery; LiDAR; object-based post-classification fusion
Online: 15 June 2018 (14:32:50 CEST)
Impervious surface mapping with high-resolution remote sensing imagery has attracted increasing interest as it can provide detailed information for urban structure and distribution. Previous studies have suggested that the combination of LiDAR data and high-resolution imagery for impervious surface mapping performs better than using only high-resolution imagery. However, due to the high cost of the acquisition of LiDAR data, it is difficult to obtain the multi-sensor remote sensing data acquired at the same acquisition time for impervious surface mapping. Consequently, real landscape changes between multi-sensor remote sensing data at different acquisition times would lead to the error of misclassification in impervious surface mapping. This issue has mostly been neglected in previous works. Furthermore, the observation differences generated from multi-sensor data, including the problems of misregistration, missing data in LiDAR data, and shadow in high-resolution images would also challenge the final mapping result in the fusion of LiDAR data and high-resolution images. In order to conquer these problems, we propose an improved impervious surface mapping method incorporating both LiDAR data and high-resolution imagery at different acquisition times in consideration of real landscape changes and observation differences. In the proposed method, a multi-sensor change detection by supervised multivariate alteration detection is employed to obtain changed areas and misregistration areas. The no-data areas in the LiDAR data and the shadow areas in the high-resolution imagery are extracted by independent classification yielded by its corresponding single sensor data. Finally, an object-based post-classification fusion is proposed to take advantage of independent classification results with single-sensor data and the joint classification result with stacked multi-sensor data. Experiments covering the study site in Buffalo, NY, USA demonstrate that our method can accurately detect landscape changes and obviously improve the performance of impervious surface mapping.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0224.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: multilabel; ensemble; incorporating multiple clustering centers; gated recurrent neural networks; temporal convolutional neural networks; long short-term memory
Online: 17 October 2022 (04:06:31 CEST)
Multilabel learning goes beyond standard supervised learning models by associating a sample with more than one class label. Among the many techniques developed in the last decade to handle multilabel learning best approaches are those harnessing the power of ensembles and deep learners. This work proposes merging both methods by combining a set of gated recurrent units, temporal convolutional neural networks, and long short-term memory networks trained with variants of the Adam optimization approach. We examine many Adam variants, each fundamentally based on the difference between present and past gradients, with step size adjusted for each parameter. We also combine Incorporating Multiple Clustering Centers and a bootstrap-aggregated decision trees ensemble, which is shown to further boost classification performance. In addition, we provide an ablation study for assessing the performance improvement that each module of our ensemble produces. Multiple experiments on a large set of datasets representing a wide variety of multilabel tasks demonstrate the robustness of our best ensemble, which is shown to outperform the state-of-the-art. The MATLAB code for generating the best ensembles in the experimental section will be made available at https://github.com/LorisNanni.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0365.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: surface urban heat island; racial disparity; thermal exposure; environmental justice; social justice; climate justice; Bayesian spatial temporal modelling
Online: 19 August 2022 (13:34:09 CEST)
Previous studies have shown, in the United States (U.S.), that non-White communities are exposed to significantly higher temperatures in urban environments than complementary White populations. Studies highlighting this disparity have usually been cross-sectional and are therefore “snapshots” in time. Using surface urban heat island (SUHI) intensity data, U.S. Census 2020 population counts, and a measure of residential segregation, this study performs a comparative analysis between census tracts identified as prevalent for White, Black, Hispanic and Asian populations and their thermal exposure from 2003 – 2018. The analysis concentrates on the top 200 most populous U.S. cities. SUHI intensity is shown to be increasing through time for all examined tracts. However, the increase is only statistically significant for White and Black prevalent zones. There is a 1.25K to ~2.00K higher degree of thermal exposure on average for non-White relative to White prevalent areas. When examined on an inter-city basis, White and Black prevalent tracts had the largest disparity, as measured by SUHI intensity, in New Orleans, LA, USA by < 6.00K. Hispanic (>7.00K) and Asian (<6.75K) prevalent tracts were greatest in intensity in San Jose, CA, USA. To further explore temporal patterns, two models were developed using a Bayesian hierarchical spatial temporal framework. One models the effect of varying the percentages of each population group relative to SUHI intensity within all examined tracts. Increases in percentages of Black, Hispanic, and Asian populations contributed to statistically significant increases in SUHI intensity. White increases in population percentage lowered SUHI temperature intensity. Throughout all modeled tracts, there is a statistically significant 0.01K per year average increase in SUHI intensity. A second model tests the effect of residential segregation on thermal inequity across all examined cities. Residential segregation, indeed, has a statistically significant positive association with SUHI intensity from this portion of the analysis. Similarly, there is a statistically significant 0.01K increase in average SUHI intensity per year for all cities. Results from this study can be used to guide and prioritize intervention strategies and furthers urgency related to social, climatic, and environmental justice concerns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0436.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: green innovation; new urbanization; coupling model; coupling coordination degree; temporal and spatial difference; Yangtze River Delta City Group
Online: 19 May 2021 (08:06:09 CEST)
Green innovation has become the mainstream of the era, and New Urbanization is an inevitable choice in the process of urbanization in China. Focusing on the topics of green innovation and new urbanization, much work has been done to find their factors respectively while the relationship between the two remains to be explored. Hence, in this article, representative indicators of new urbanization and green innovation are selected to study the Yangtze River Delta City Group from the perspective of both the entire urban agglomeration and a single city, in terms of time and space, using the entropy method and the coupling model. The results show that (1). Green innovation promotes the new urbanization development and there is a synergistic effect between the two systems. (2). The level of economic development is an important factor that affects the degree of coupling degree and coordination degree between the two interactions, and its influence is better than the spatial effect. (3). Green innovation and new urbanization have positive spatial autocorrelation and regional agglomeration (there are High-High, Low-Low, and High-Low collections).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0037.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: cover crop; spontaneous vegetation; vineyard; topsoil water content; soil erosion; runoff coefficient; sediment trap; temporal stability; Mediterranean region
Online: 3 July 2018 (11:20:06 CEST)
Soil erosion seriously affects vineyards. In this study, the influence of two plant covers on soil moisture and the effect of different physiographic conditions on runoff and sediment yields were evaluated in a rainfed vineyard formed by four fields (NE Spain) during 15 months. One field had spontaneous vegetation as plant cover and three fields had a cover crop of common sainfoin. The vineyards’ rows were dry and stable, whereas the inter-row areas were wet although very variable, and the corridors were wet and very stable. Soil moisture in the inter-row areas with Common sainfoin was much higher than in the rows (62% - 70%) whereas this difference was lower with spontaneous vegetation (40%). Two runoff and sediment traps (STs) were installed in two ephemeral gullies, and 26 time-integrated surveys (TIS) done. The mean and maximum runoff yields were 9.8 and 30.7 l TIS–1 in ST2 and 13.5 and 30.2 l TIS–1 in ST3. The mean turbidity was 333 and 19 g l–1, and the maximum sediment yields were 41,260 and 2,778 g TIS–1 in ST2 and ST3. Changes in the canopy covers (grapevines and plant covers) and rainfall parameters explained the runoff and sediment dynamics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0109.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: dyslexia; reading; magnocellular neurons; vision; hearing; phonology; sequencing; timing; temporal processing; transient; coloured filters; rhythm; music; omega 3s
Online: 12 January 2018 (07:15:33 CET)
Until the 1950s, developmental dyslexia was defined as a hereditary visual disability, selectively affecting reading without compromising oral or non-verbal reasoning skills. This changed radically after the development of the phonological theory of dyslexia; this not only ruled out any role for visual processing in its aetiology, but also cast doubt on the use of discrepancy between reading and reasoning skills as a criterion for diagnosing it. Here I argue that this theory is set at too high a cognitive level to be explanatory; we need to understand the pathophysiological visual and auditory mechanisms that cause children’s phonological problems. I discuss how the ‘magnocellular theory’ attempts to do this in terms of slowed and error prone temporal processing which leads to dyslexics’ defective visual and auditory sequencing when attempting to read. I attempt to deal with the criticisms of this theory and show how it leads to a number of successful ways of helping dyslexic children to overcome their reading difficulties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0415.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: epilepsy; hydrogen sulfide; corneal kindled mice, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, LC-MS/MS; temporal lobe epilepsy; neurological disorder; gasotransmitter
Online: 27 October 2021 (13:36:04 CEST)
Epilepsy is a heterogenous neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures, mitochondrial stress, and neurodegeneration. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gasotransmitter, promotes mitochondrial function and biogenesis, elicits neuromodulation and neuroprotection, and may acutely suppress seizures. A major gap in knowledge remains in understanding the role of mitochondrial dysfunction and progressive changes in H2S levels following acute seizures and during epileptogenesis. We thus sought to quantify changes in H2S and its methylated metabolite (MeSH) via LC-MS/MS subsequent to acute maximal electroshock and 6 Hz 44 mA seizures in mice, as well as in the corneal kindled mouse model of chronic seizures. Plasma H2S was acutely reduced after a maximal electroshock seizure. H2S or MeSH levels in whole brain homogenate and expression of related genes in corneal kindled mice were not altered. However, plasma H2S and MeSH levels were significantly lower during kindling, but not after established kindling. Morever, we demonstrated a time-dependent increase in expression of mitochondrial membrane integrity-related proteins, Opa1, Mfn2, Drp1, and Mff during kindling, which did not correlate with gene expression. Taken together, short-term reductions in plasma H2S could be a novel biomarker for seizures. Future studies should further define the role of H2S and mitochondrial stress in epilepsy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0001.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Giant cell arteritis; anterior ischemic optic neuropathy; clinical prediction rule; diagnostic algorithm; C-reactive protein; temporal compression sonography; ultrasound
Online: 1 February 2021 (08:44:33 CET)
Background: Risk tratification based on pre-test probability may improve the diagnostic accuracy of temporal artery high-resolution compression sonography (hrTCS) in the diagnostic workup of cranial giant cell arteriitis (cGCA). Methods: A logistic regression model with candidate items was derived from a cohort of patients with suspected cGCA (n = 87). The diagnostic accuracy of the model was tested in the derivation cohort and in an independent validation cohort (n = 114) by receiver operator characteristics (ROC)-analysis. The clinical items were composed to a clinical prediction rule, integrated into a stepwise diagnostic algorithm together with CRP-values and hrTCS-values. Results: The model consisted of 4 clinical variables (age > 70, headache, jaw claudication, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy). The diagnostic accuracy of the model for discrimination of patients with and without a final clinical diagnosis of cGCA was excellent in both cohorts (AUC 0.96 and AUC 0.92, respectively). The diagnostic algorithm improved the positive predictive value of hrCTS substantially. Within the algorithm, 32.8% of patients (derivation cohort) and 49.1% (validation cohort) would not have been tested by hrtCS. None of these patients had a final diagnosis of cGCA. Conclusion: A diagnostic algorithm based on a clinical prediction rule improves the diagnostic accuracy of hrTCS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0414.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: computing paradigm; technological computing; biological computing; information transfer speed; information storage; lifelong learning; redundancy; temporal behavior; machine learning; artificial intelligence
Online: 16 March 2021 (11:33:04 CET)
Information is commonly considered as a mathematical quantity that forms the basis of computing. In mathematics, information can propagate instantly, so its transfer speed is not the subject of information science. In all kinds of implementations of computing, whether technological or biological, some material carrier for the information exists, so the information’s propagation speed cannot exceed the speed of the carrier. Because of this limitation, for any implementation, one must consider the transfer time between computing units. We need a different mathematical method to take this limitation into account: classic mathematics can only describe infinitely fast and infinitely small computing system implementations. The difference between the mathematical handling methods leads to different descriptions of the behavior of the systems. The correct handling also explains why biological implementations can have lifelong learning and technological ones cannot. The conclusion about learning evidences matches others’ experimental evidence, both in technological and biological computing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0398.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Two-tiered mobile wireless sensor networks; Internet of Things; fine-grained spatial-temporal Top-k query; privacy preservation; completeness verification
Online: 17 February 2021 (14:24:16 CET)
To ensure the security of spatial-temporal Top-k query in two-tiered wireless sensor networks, many schemes have been proposed in the literature in the past decade. However, most of them only consider the scenario where sensor nodes are static, and cannot achieve the security goal for spatial-temporal Top-k query in mobile sensor networks, because the mobility of the sensor nodes will affect the spatial-temporal relationships of the sensory data items generated by the sensor nodes. Although we have proposed some schemes for two-tiered mobile wireless sensor networks (TMWSNs) in our previous work, there is still large room to improve their performances. In this paper, we proposed a novel scheme named STQ-TMWSN for secure fine-grained spatial-temporal Top-k query in TMWSNs based on the virtual-grid construction and the size-order encryption binding. Theoretic analysis shows that STQ-TMWSN can achieve low computation complexity and high security performance. Simulation results indicate that STQ-TMWSN brings much lower communication cost than the state-of-the-art schemes on securing Top-k query in TMWSNs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0178.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: consciousness; meta-causation; pre-reflective self-consciousness; physicalism; causal productivity; dynamism; laws of nature; laws of physics; temporal non-locality
Online: 27 August 2020 (08:27:28 CEST)
How, if at all, consciousness can be part of the physical universe remains a baffling problem. This article outlines a new, developing philosophical theory of how it could do so, and offers a preliminary mathematical formulation of a physical grounding for key aspects of the theory. Because the philosophical side has radical elements, so does the physical-theory side. The philosophical side is radical, first, in proposing that the productivity or dynamism in the universe that many believe to be responsible for its systematic regularities is actually itself a physical constituent of the universe, along with more familiar entities. Indeed, it proposes that instances of dynamism can themselves take part in physical interactions with other entities, this interaction then being “meta-dynamism” (a type of meta-causation). Secondly, the theory is radical, and unique, in arguing that consciousness is necessarily partly constituted of meta-dynamic auto-sensitivity, in other words it must react via meta-dynamism to its own dynamism, and also in conjecturing that some specific form of this sensitivity is sufficient for and indeed constitutive of consciousness. The article proposes a way for physical laws to be modified to accommodate meta-dynamism, via the radical step of including elements that explicitly refer to dynamism itself. Additionally, laws become, explicitly, temporally non-local in referring directly to quantity values holding at times prior to a given instant of application of the law. The approach therefore implicitly brings in considerations about what information determines states. Because of the temporal non-locality, and also because of the deep connections between dynamism and time-flow, the approach also implicitly connects to the topic of entropy insofar as this is related to time.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0050.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: competitive learning and memory functions; cognitive development; basal ganglia; medial temporal lobe; prefrontal cortex; model-based learning; model-free learning
Online: 5 June 2020 (14:10:15 CEST)
There has been a growing interest in incorporating psychological and neuroscientific knowledge about the development of cognitive functions in educational policies and academic practices. In this paper, we argue that the current knowledge about the interactions between these functions and their neurodevelopmental characteristics should also be considered in order to develop practices that could be better suited to pupils depending on their age. To facilitate this, we review current neuroscientific knowledge on the competitive interactions between two neural circuitry underlying distinct learning functions, their developmental trajectories and how they are linked to other functions such as cognitive control. The incorporation of this knowledge in education could help improve academic outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0566.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Air puff, CorvisST; ORA; Airflow pressure of NCT,; Physical dimension of jet stream; Temporal and spatial distribution of the air puff
Online: 27 January 2021 (16:02:22 CET)
(1) Aim of the study was to investigate the spatial and temporal characteristics of the airflow created by two commercially available non-contact tonometers, the CorvisST and the Ocular Re-sponse Analyser. (2) The airflow pressure was measured using a MEMS pressure sensor to inves-tigate the spatial and temporal distribution. The airflow from the CorvisST and Ocular Response Analyser were mapped to a 600µm and a 1mm resolution grid, respectively. (3) Central airflow pressure of the CorvisST (96.4 ± 1.4)mmHg was higher than the Ocular Response Analyser (91.7 ± 0.7)mmHg. The duration of the air-puffs also differed, with the CorvisST showing a shorter du-ration (21.483 ± 0.2881)ms than the ORA (23.061 ± 0.1872)ms. The rising edge of the CorvisST airflow pressure profile demonstrated a lower gradient (+8.94mmHg/ms) compared to the Oc-ular Response Analyser (+11.00mmHg/ms). Both had similar decay response edges; CorvisST -11.18mmHg/ms, Ocular Response Analyser -11.65mmHg/ms. (4) The study presents a valid method to investigate physical dimensions of the airflow pressure of non-contact tonometers. Novel findings relating to the magnitude, duration and spatial characteristics of the respective airflow pressures are reported. It is anticipated that this information will better inform clinical studies and theoretical models relating to ocular biomechanics.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0269.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: white hole; black hole; nuclear astrophysics; black hole seeds; quantum fluctuation; thermal fluctuation; temporal information; time curvatures; quantum forces; NGC 3034; NGC 3372
Online: 15 August 2022 (15:42:57 CEST)
The sources of dark matter and its spatial distribution is not in the typical standard model. The study thought to induct the physical causalities with empirical evidence on the theory of black hole and white hole juxtapose. The research applied a mixed method of data analysis and observational cosmology. With the cosmological observations on the traces of white holes, the research finds that the accretion phenomenon of black holes is largely contributed by its thermonuclear binding with the white hole. The antimatter saturated plasma of cold fusion and hot fission are key to the phenomenon of black hole and white hole juxtapose. The force between the black hole and the white hole is stronger than the strong force, and sheds new directions on cosmological and gravitation studies. The research concludes that black holes are white hole entropy. The higher order of the universe in matter forms can exist beyond the observed force. The thermal arrow of time is critical to future general relativity dependent instrumentation discoveries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0098.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: spatiotemporal analysis; high to ultra high spatial resolution; high to very high temporal resolution; NDVI; NIR; neural network modelling, Bay of Mont-Saint-Michel
Online: 4 November 2021 (09:35:50 CET)
The salt marshes, lying at the land-sea temperate interface, furnish a plethora of ecosystems services such as biodiversity niche support, ocean-climate change regulation, ornithology recreo-tourism or plant gathering by hand. They undergo significant worldwide losses due to their conversion into crop fields and to their spatial compression between the rising sea-level and the armoring shoreline. Their monitoring however requires to use a suite of remote sensing sensors to embrace the regional scale while capturing the plant details. This research innovatively adopts a multiscale approach using a cascading spaceborne and airborne process, from the 10-m Sentinel-2, through the 3-m Dove, to the 0.03-m unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) imageries. The high to very high temporal resolution of the Sentinel-2 and Dove enabled to cover twenties and tens of km2 over five and four years, respectively, in the form of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) classes, associated with microphytobenthos, low, medium and high salt marsh vegetation, including the opportunistic Elyma genus. The NDVI was then modelled at the UAV scale (a few km2) using a three-layered NN prediction, providing the final near-infrared (NIR), and the intermediate red, green and blue reflectance imageries, calibrated/validated/tested with the Dove reflectance imageries (R2NIR=0.98, R2red=0.88, R2green=0.84, and R2blue=0.90). The 100fold increase in pixel size allowed to detect the decimeter-scale objects of the tidal flats and salt marshes, to enlarge the NDVI class ranges, and hold great promise to model other spectral bands at the UAV scale for further deeply enhancing the salt marsh mapping.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0017.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Logic Keywords: neutrosophy; neutrosophic logic; neutrosophic alethic modalities; neutrosophic possibility; neutrosophic necessity; neutrosophic impossibility; neutrosophic temporal modalities; neutrosophic epistemic modalities; neutrosophic doxastic modalities; neutrosophic deontic modalities
Online: 5 February 2017 (09:41:31 CET)
I introduce now for the first time the neutrosophic modal logic. The Neutrosophic Modal Logic includes the neutrosophic operators that express the modalities. It is an extension of neutrosophic predicate logic, and of neutrosophic propositional logic. In order for the paper to be self-contained, I also recall the etymology and definition of neutrosophy and of neutrosophic logic. Several examples are presented as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0077.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: special relativity; efficient coding hypothesis; temporal order judgement; circular vection; vestibulo-ocular reflex; time perception; Lorentz transformation; accelerated reference frame; equivalence principle; optimization of perception
Online: 6 February 2020 (03:08:56 CET)
An event occurring within a stationary environment, in the direction toward which an observer self-rotates, is perceived to precede a simultaneous event, in the direction away from which she moves. When self-rotation results from angular acceleration in the dark, perception of space is also distorted, such that the subjective straight-ahead shifts in the opposite direction to motion and temporal event promotion. A reference frameshift theory, based on the special theory of relativity, is proposed to explain these findings. Here, a hyperbolic tangent transformation of objective angular velocity constrains subjective self-rotation velocity within finite bounds, consistent with it being a limited perceptual resource. Identifying this subjective variable with vestibular nystagmus slow-phase angular velocity, the asymptotic perceived self-rotation velocity is estimated at ~200 °⁄s. When included in the Lorentz transformations of the new formalism, this value predicts experimental simultaneity distortion. Hypothetically, the hyperbolic tangent objective-to-subjective transfer function would maximize the differential entropy of the percept, and thereby also the stimulus/percept mutual information, if angular velocities of body rotation encountered in naturalistic environmental interaction have a logistic probability density distribution of scale 100 °⁄s, a proposed experimental test of the scheme.