Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Particle as a Statistical Ensemble of Events in Stueckelberg-Horwitz-Piron Electrodynamics

This paper is an extended version of our paper published in Proceedings of the 3rd Int. Electron. Conf. Entropy Appl., 1–10 November 2016; Sciforum Electronic Conference Series, Vol. 3, 2016 , A002; doi:10.3390/ecea-3-A002
Version 1 : Received: 8 March 2017 / Approved: 8 March 2017 / Online: 8 March 2017 (09:06:25 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Land, M. The Particle as a Statistical Ensemble of Events in Stueckelberg–Horwitz–Piron Electrodynamics . Entropy 2017, 19, 234. Land, M. The Particle as a Statistical Ensemble of Events in Stueckelberg–Horwitz–Piron Electrodynamics . Entropy 2017, 19, 234.


Stueckelberg-Horwitz-Piron (SHP) electrodynamics formalizes the distinction between coordinate time (measured by laboratory clocks) and chronology (temporal ordering) by defining 4D spacetime events xμ as functions of an external evolution parameter τ. Classical spacetime events xμ (τ) evolve as τ grows monotonically, tracing out particle worldlines dynamically and inducing the five U(1) gauge potentials through which events interact. Since Lorentz invariance imposes time reversal symmetry on x0 but not τ, the formalism resolves grandfather paradoxes and related problems of irreversibility. The action involves standard first order field derivatives but includes a higher order τ derivative that while preserving gauge and Lorentz invariance removes certain singularities and makes the related QFT super-renormalizable. The resulting field equations are Maxwell-like but τ-dependent and sourced by a current that represents a statistical ensemble of instantaneous events distributed along the worldline. The width λ of this distribution defines a correlation time for the interactions and a mass spectrum for the photons that carry the interaction. As λ becomes very large, the photon mass goes to zero and the field equations become τ-independent Maxwell’s equations. Maxwell theory thus emerges as an equilibrium limit of SHP, in which λ is larger than any other relevant time scale. Particles and fields are not constrained to mass shells in SHP theory, and by exchanging mass may produce pair creation/annihilation processes at the classical level. On-shell evolution with fixed particle masses is restored through a self-interaction associated with the 5D wave equation.


classical gauge theory; pair creation/annihilation; temporal paradoxes


Physical Sciences, Particle and Field Physics

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