ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0176.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: root biomass; wheat; field crops; black-grass; high-throughput; variety trials
Online: 18 June 2019 (12:51:51 CEST)
Root research on field grown crops is hindered by the difficulty of estimating root biomass in soil. Root washing, the current standard method is laborious and expensive. Biochemical methods to quantify root biomass in soil, targeting species-specific DNA, have potential as a more efficient assay. We combined an efficient DNA extraction method, designed specifically to extract DNA from soil, with well-established quantitative PCR methods to estimate the root biomass of twenty-two wheat varieties grown in field trials over two seasons. We also developed an assay for estimating root biomass for black-grass, a common weed of wheat cultivation. Two robust qPCR assays were developed to estimate the quantity of plant root DNA in soil samples, one specific to wheat and barley, and a second specific to black-grass. The DNA qPCR method was comparable, with high correlations, with the results of root washing from soil cores taken from winter wheat field trials. The DNA qPCR assay showed both variety and depth as significant factors in the distribution of root biomass in replicated field trials. The results suggest that these DNA qPCR assays are a useful, high throughput tool for investigating the genetic basis of wheat root biomass distribution in field grown crops, and the impact of black-grass root systems on crop production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0287.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: grapevine; winter pruning; root distribution; root density; root growth; root/canopy ratio; root/yield ratio
Online: 12 August 2020 (13:31:36 CEST)
As in any other plant, in the grapevine roots play a vital role in terms of anchorage, uptake of water and nutrients, as well as storage and production of chemicals. Their behaviour and development depend on various factors, namely rootstock genetics, soil physical and chemical features, field agronomic practices. Canopy management, involving techniques such as defoliation and pruning, could greatly influence root growth. To date, most of the studies on grapevine winter pruning have focused on the effects on yield and quality of grapes, achievable by using different pruning systems and techniques, while the knowledge of root distribution, development, and growth in relation to winter pruning is still not well understood. In this contest, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of winter pruning on the root system of field-grown Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Gris grafted onto rootstock SO4. We compared two pruning treatments (pruning-P and no pruning-NP) and analysed the effect on root distribution and density, root index and on the root sugar reserves. Root data were analysed in relation to canopy growth and yield, to elucidate the effect of winter pruning on the root/yield ratio. Our data indicated that winter pruning stimulated the root growth and distribution without compromising canopy development, while no-pruning treatment produced less growth of roots but a larger canopy. Information regarding root growth and root canopy ratio is important as it gives us an understanding of the relationship between the aerial and subterranean parts of the plant, how they compete, and finally, offers us the possibility to ponder on cultural practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0144.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Deep root system; Photosynthetic rate; Root angle; Root length; Sorghum; Transpiration rate
Online: 8 November 2021 (13:27:53 CET)
Drought decreases grain yield of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], and understanding the mechanism(s) related to drought tolerance is critical for sustaining sorghum production. Variation in root and shoot traits associated with drought tolerance were analyzed to provide an integrated view of factors that underlie the drought tolerance of sorghum. The plants were grown in the root column up to the five-leaf stage, then exposed to either 0.9 fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW) or 0.4 FTSW for five days. In another experiment, at the five-leaf stage, stress was imposed for 14 days. Various root and shoot traits associated with drought tolerance were recorded. The seminal root angle of IS13540 was lower (24.4) than IS23143 (42.6). Drought stress increased the maximum root length (40%) and total root length (58%) of IS13540 than its irrigated control. In contrast, the maximum root length and total root length were decreased in IS23143. Similarly, across the lines, drought stress decreased stomatal conductance (37%), transpiration rate (42%), photosynthetic rate (40%), photosystem II quantum yield (20%), photochemical quenching (44%), and total dry matter production (34%) than irrigated control. An increased transpiration rate was observed in IS23143 than IS13540 under irrigated and drought stress. In IS23143, the reduction in photosynthetic rate under drought may be a combination of stomatal and non-stomatal factors. However, in IS13540, the reduction is especially by the stomatal factors. It is evident that IS13540 is a drought-tolerant line, and tolerance is related to a deep prolific root system and reduced tran-spiration rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0116.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Biomass partitioning; Digital root phenotyping; Image analysis; Rhizotron; Root architecture; Root phenes; RootSnap
Online: 5 August 2022 (04:23:44 CEST)
Citron watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) is an extremely drought-tolerant cucurbit crop widely grown in sub-Saharan Africa in arid and semi-arid environments characterized by drought. The species is a C3 xerophyte used for multiple purposes, including intercropping with maize and has a deep taproot system. The deep taproot system plays a key role in the species’ adaptation to dry conditions. Understanding root system development of this crop could be useful in identifying traits for breeding water-use efficient and drought-tolerant varieties. This study compared root system architecture of citron watermelon accessions under water-stress conditions. Nine selected and drought-tolerant citron watermelon accessions were grown under non-stress (NS) and water stress (WS) conditions using the root rhizotron procedure in a glasshouse. The following root system architecture (RSA) traits were measured, namely: root system width (RSW), root system depth (RSD), convex hull area (CHA), total root length (TRL), root branch count (RBC), total root volume (TRV), leaf area (LA), leaf number (LN), first seminal root length (FSRL), seminal root angle (SRA), root dry mass (RDM), shoot dry mass (SDM), root–shoot mass ratio (RSM), root mass ratio (RMR), shoot mass ratio (SMR) and root tissue density (RTD). The data collected on RSA traits were subjected to the analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlation and principal component analyses. ANOVA revealed a significant (p < 0.05) accession × water stress interaction effect for studied RSA traits. Under WS, RDM exhibited significant and positive correlations with RSM (r = 0.65), RMR (r = 0.66), RSD (r = 0.66), TRL (r = 0.60), RBC (r = 0.72), FSRL (r = 0.73) and LN (r = 0.70). Principal component analysis revealed high loading scores for the following RSA traits: RSW (0.89), RSD (0.97), TRL (0.99), TRV (0.90), TRL (0.99), RMR (0.96) and RDM (0.76). In conclusion, the study has shown that the identified RSA traits could be useful in crop improvement programmes for citron watermelon genotypes with enhanced drought adaptation for improved yield performance under drought-prone environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0108.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: aeroponics; soilless culture; root growth; root/shoot ratio
Online: 6 September 2018 (04:20:00 CEST)
Aeroponics is a relatively new soilless culture technology, which may produce food in space limited cities or non-arable land with high water use efficiency. The shoot and root growth, root characteristics, mineral contents of two lettuce cultivars were measured in aeroponics, as compared with hydroponics and substrate culture. The results showed that aeroponics remarkably improved the root growth with a significant greater root biomass, root/shoot ratio, and several times higher total root length, root area and root volume. However, the greater root growth did not lead to a better shoot growth compared with hydroponics, due to the limited availability of nutrients and water. It can be concluded that aeroponics systems may be better for high value true root crops production. Further research is necessary to figure out the suitable pressure, droplet size, and misting interval in order to improve the continuously availability of nutrients and water in aeroponics, if it is used to grow crops like lettuce for harvesting above-ground parts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0130.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: phytohormone; transcriptional regulation; apical hook; root elongation; lateral root development; root hair formation; mathematical modeling
Online: 11 December 2018 (13:50:45 CET)
Auxin and ethylene pathways cooperatively regulate a variety of developmental processes in plants. Growth responses to ethylene are largely dependent on auxin, the key regulator of plant morphogenesis. Auxin, in turn, is capable of inducing ethylene biosynthesis and signaling making the interaction of these hormones reciprocal. Recent studies discovered a bunch of molecular events underlying auxin-ethylene crosstalk. In this review, we summarize the results of fine-scale and large-scale experiments on interaction of auxin and ethylene pathways in Arabidopsis. We integrate the knowledge on the molecular crosstalk events, their tissue specificity and associated phenotypic responses to decipher the crosstalk mechanisms at a systems level. We also discuss the prospects of applying systems biology approaches to study the mechanisms of crosstalk between plant hormones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0212.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: carboxylate exudation; P efficiency; root exudate; root traits; rhizosphere
Online: 22 February 2019 (04:12:34 CET)
Alterations in root morphology and physiology are important strategies in plants to adapt to low-phosphorus (P) environments. Maize genotypes differed in nitrogen (N) efficiency may also respond differently to low P stress. This study aimed to investigate the responses of root morphological and physiological traits of these two maize cultivars to P deficit and how these traits were linked with the acquisition of soil P. Two maize cultivars, XY335 (N efficient) and ZD958 (N inefficient), were cultivated for 40 days in a calcareous loamy soil amended with (high P) or without (low P) P. Functional root traits were used to evaluate the morphological and physiological responses to low P supply. Two separate short-term experiments determined the correlation between P uptake rate and P supply intensity (hydroponic) or root hair length under two P treatments (rhizobox). Low P status significantly simulated biomass allocation to roots, specific root length and exudations of carboxylates, while decreased root diameter and rhizosphere pH in both maize cultivars. Two cultivars had different total root length and root surface area under low P stress: increased in ZD958 and decreased in XY335. Both genotypes developed longer root hair under P deficit. ZD958 (greater biomass and shoot P content) has a greater capability at accessing soil P than XY335. Rhizosphere exudation of citric acid was significantly higher in ZD958 than in XY335, while there was not significant genotypic difference in rhizosphere pH and exudation of malic acid and acid phosphatase activity. ZD958 had higher P uptake rate than XY335 when solution P was between 12.5 and 250 µM. This study identified ZD958 as a P-efficient genotype, which better adapted to low P stress by altering root physiological traits (exudation of citric acid and P uptake rate), rather than root morphological traits (total root length, root surface area, root hair length). Our results highlight the importance of analyzing root morphological and physiological traits to enhance our understanding of the physiological mechanisms of P acquisition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0362.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: combined stresses; drought stress; heat stress; maize; root morphology; root types
Online: 15 December 2020 (09:39:56 CET)
Plants are continually exposed to multiple stresses, which co-occur in nature and the net effects are frequently more non-additive (i.e., synergistic or antagonistic) suggesting ‘unique’ responses respect to that of the individual stress. Further, plant stress responses are not uniforms showing a high spatial and temporal variability among and along the different organs. In this respect, the present work investigated the morphological responses of different root types (seminal, seminal lateral, primary, primary lateral) of maize plants exposed to single (drought and heat) and combined stress (drought + heat). Data were evaluated by a specific root image analysis system (WinRHIZO) and analyzed by uni- and multi-variate statistical analysis. The results indicated that primary root and their laterals were the types more sensitive to the single and combined stresses while the seminal laterals specifically responded to the combined only. Further, antagonistic and synergistic effects were observed for the specific traits in the primary and their laterals and in the seminal lateral roots in response to the combined stress. These results suggested that maize root system modified specific root types and traits to face with different stressful environmental conditions highlighting that the adaptation strategy to the combined stress may be different from that of the individual ones. The knowledge of “unique or shared” responses of plant to multiple stress can be utilized to develop varieties with broad spectrum stress tolerance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0161.v1
Online: 16 September 2019 (10:51:10 CEST)
Among the different applicable irrigants for root canal disinfection, sodium hypochlorite 5.25% is one of the most attractive ones. The quality of root canal disinfection is dependent on some factors such as the employed approach, type of flow rate of irrigant and the size of needle. The majority of studies in the field of root canal disinfection are experimentally carried out. In the current article, Computation Fluid Dynamic (CFD) is used for modeling the antimicrobial liquid flow in the root canal and evaluate the effects of needle size and flow rate. Two needles, G28 and G30, are used for irrigation in three volumetric rates of flow including 0.10 mL⁄s , 0.20 mL⁄s and 0.30 mL⁄s. The results of numerical simulations revealed the improved quality of root canal disinfection by augmentation in the rate of flow and decrease in the inner diameter of the needle. According to the outcomes of the modeling, the highest average wall shear stress obtained in the case of using G28 needle and 30 mL⁄s flow rate, which was approximately 10.21 Pa.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0174.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Game theory; Plant behavioral ecology; Plant competition; Plant interaction mechanisms; Root foraging strategies; Root methods
Online: 14 February 2022 (11:29:43 CET)
Understanding how plants change their root foraging strategy in the presence of neighbors is of paramount importance for plant ecology and agriculture. The root tragedy of the common (RToC) is a plant behavior predicted by game theory models in which competing plants forage for soil resources inefficiently. The RToC is generally assumed to be induced by non-self root recognition, and researchers consider root overproliferation and reduced fitness with respect to a plant growing solo as the trace left by plants engaging in an RToC in experiments and model results. Herein, I first challenge both notions, and argue that the RToC is a suboptimal phenotypically plastic response of plants that is based in soil resource information exclusively. Second, I discuss how this new perspective carries important implications for the design of experiments investigating the physiological mechanisms underlying observable plant root responses. Finally, I discuss why placing the RToC theory in the context of more general root research is fundamental: The RToC represents a mechanistic foundation for understanding the belowground behavior of plants interacting with neighbors, and a spatially explicit approach to RToC may produce more comprehensive results.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0444.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Eggplant, Galls, Meloidogyne, Root-knot, Nematodes
Online: 16 April 2021 (11:50:41 CEST)
Eggplant is a functional food owing to its anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, and cardio-protective properties. Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are a threat to the successful production of eggplant. RKN infestation manifests as root damage, stunted development, and structural deformations of the plant. RKN infestation can be managed using a variety of management techniques like soil amendments and chemical treatments. Breeding for nematode tolerance is critical for high yields and stable results. As a result, breeding approaches are the most efficient and cost-effective nematode management methods. Furthermore, with advances in breeding technology and genomics assistance, it is becoming more feasible and straightforward. As a result, we've compiled a list of the most recent breeding developments for Meloidogyne spp. resistance in eggplant. We hope this information will serve as an important resource for the eggplant breeders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0232.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Sweet potato; Phosphorus fertilizer; Bacillus megaterium DSM2894; leaf and tuberous root nutrients contents; Tuberous root yield
Online: 14 December 2021 (12:15:41 CET)
Under Egyptian soil conditions, when phosphorus fertilizers were applied to the soil, it gets fixed and converts to unavailable form, leading to low solubility for the plant. This study were fulfilled on sweet potato (cv. Beauregard) under undesirable soil properties (CaCO3 10.8 vs 11.3%) using Bacillus megaterium DSM 2894 strain under different five mono calcium phosphate (CSP) levels [(69(CSP20); 138(CSP40); 207 (CSP60); 276 (CSP80) and 345 ((CSP100) kg ha-1 of calcium superphosphate (CSP)] to arise the potential efficiency of some nutrients uptake and decease the applied total amount of CSP in 2019 and 2020 seasons. The results mentioned that highest values were obtained by inoculated plants with DSM2894 strain under 20, 60 and 100% of CSP for all studied nutrients content in both seasons, except Mn content in the 2019. Also, inoculated plants with DSM2894 under previous treatments for all tuberous root nutrients content, except Fe and Zn contents in both seasons, in addition protein and anti-radical power and total yield. Statistically, leaf nutrients uptake and tuberous root content were highly significant affected by DSM and CSP combination. Appling of phosphorus fertilizer with DSM2894 mixture was gave the best values as compared with phosphorus fertilizer or DSM2894, individually.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0624.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: litter decomposition; root development and morphology; root-soil continuum; soil C/N; tea bags; telluric microorganisms
Online: 28 August 2020 (08:14:25 CEST)
Plants are affected by soil environments to the same extent they affect soil functioning through interactions between environmental and genetic factors. Here, five plant species (broad bean, pea, cabbage, fennel, and olive) grown under controlled pot conditions were tested for their ability to differently stimulate the degradation of standard litter. Litter, soil C and N contents and soil microbial abundance were measured. The architecture and morphological traits of roots systems were also evaluated by using specific open-source software (SmartRoot). Soil chemical and microbiological characteristics were significantly influenced by the plant species. Variations in soil C/N dynamics were correlated with the diversity of root traits among species. Early-stage decomposition of the standard litter changed on the basis of the plant species. The results indicated that key soil processes are governed by interactions between plant roots, soil C and N, and the microbial metabolism that stimulate decomposition reactions. This, in turn, can have marked effects on soil chemical and microbiological fertility, both fundamental for sustaining crops, and can promote the development of new approaches for optimizing soil C and N cycling, managing nutrient transport, and sustaining and improving net primary production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0046.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: AT-hook motif nuclear protein 18; AHL18; At3G60870; Arabidopsis; Lateral root development; Root apical meristem; Cell proliferation
Online: 4 March 2020 (04:40:34 CET)
The AT-HOOK MOTIF NUCLEAR LOCALIZED PROTEIN (AHL) gene family encodes embryophyte-specific nuclear proteins with DNA binding activity. They modulate gene expression and affect various developmental processes in plants. We identify AHL18 (At3G60870) as a developmental modulator of root system architecture and growth. AHL18 regulates the length of the proliferation domain and number of dividing cells in the root apical meristem and thereby, cell production. Both primary root growth and lateral root development respond according to AHL18 transcription level. The ahl18 knock-out plants show reduced root systems due to a shorter primary root and a lower number of lateral roots. This change results from a higher number of arrested and non-developing lateral root primordia (LRP) rather than from decreased initiation. Overexpression of AHL18 results in a more extensive root system, longer primary roots, and increased density of lateral root initiation events. Formation of lateral roots is affected during the initiation of LRP and later development. AHL18 regulate root apical meristem activity, lateral root initiation and emergence, which is in accord with localization of its expression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0072.v1
Online: 3 November 2022 (07:47:15 CET)
Artic root is a well-known plant adaptogen with multipotential pharmacological properties. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) – screening followed by diode-array high-performance liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy proved to be a reliable and convenient method for simultaneous determination of quality of various herbal raw materials and supplements. This combination allowed for comparing and differentiating arctic root samples as well as defining their authenticity. The study provided information on the chemical and biological properties of the seven chosen samples as well as qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the quality markers: rosavin, salidroside, and p-tyrosol. The absence of rosavin, salidroside, and p-tyrosol in three samples was detected using TLC-screening and confirmed by HPLC-DAD and NMR. The paper highlighted the importance of quality control and strict regulation for herbal medicine supplements and preparations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0174.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: halophyte; rhizobacteria; PGPR; root inoculation; osmotic stress
Online: 14 March 2022 (06:53:44 CET)
Rhizosphere bacteria have a decisive influence on plant ionic adjustment, as well as in ameliorating plant growth under an array of stress situations. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) colonize the rhizosphere of plants and promote plant growth through mechanisms such as solubilization of mineral phosphates, biological N2 fixation, production of siderophores and phytohormones, and can induce systemic resistance in the plant. This can be of extreme importance when considering the restoration of salinized grounds by halophytic species. This present work aims to evaluate the physiological fitness and phytoprotection improvement by salt marsh PGPR in Halimione portulacoides under mild and severe salt stress. Plants inoculated with PGPR-consortium showed higher photochemical performances, improved antioxidant response, and promotion of osmotic balance traits, that boosted the individual’s ability to cope with mild salt stress. All these changes are also in line with the differential elemental profiles (Na, K, and Ca) observed in the different plant tissues. Even under severe salt stress, some physiological traits were improved when compared to the non-inoculated individuals. The results developed under this work, point out an important role of bioaugmentation in promoting plant fitness and improving salt tolerance, with a great potential for applications in seawater agriculture, restoration, and bio-reclamation of salinized soils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0115.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: citrus; root rhizosphere; mancozeb; bacteria community; diversity
Online: 7 March 2020 (03:12:53 CET)
Mancozeb is extensively used fungicide to prevent citrus melanose in most Asian countries, especially in China. So far, however, there have been no reports of thet effect of Mancozeb on the citrus rhizosphere bacterial community. Therefore, this comparative experiment defined the genomic and functional related to community and soil health of 2-years old Citrus unshiu Marc. rhizosphere through amplicon sequencing and chemical analysis. This study evaluated the effect of mancozeb on the chemical properties of citrus-cultivated soil and the richness and diversity of rhizosphere bacterial community. We also investigated the abundance response of rhizosphere bacterial groups to 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 times application of 2 g mancozeb (active ingredient content, ai.) 600 times diluted with water. Our data revealed that the abundance of rhizosphere-associated bacterial species increased significantly after planting citrus. The relative abundance of Candidatus, Saccharibacteria, Parcubacteria, and Proteobacteria increased with the increase in mancozeb watering times. Meanwhile, the abundance of Nitrospirae decreased with the increase in mancozeb application times. The findings indicated that the chemical properties of the soil and the richness and diversity of rhizosphere bacterial community did not significantly differ across the mancozeb gradients in soil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0174.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: provenances, height, root-collar-diameter, survival, growth
Online: 18 January 2018 (16:39:53 CET)
The aims of the study were to evaluate seedling growth and survival of Prunus africana provenances in awi highland based on ecological requirement of the tree. We measured survival and growth of three P.africana provenances seedlings found in Ethiopia (provenances sources namely: Gedeo, Jibat and Munnessa). Design of experiment with randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Seedlings planted at 2m, 2.5m and 3m distance between plants, plot, and blocks respectively. A plot size of 10mx10m and 25 plants are found per plot (0.01ha). We used ANOVA to test differences in survival, and growth among provenances over time. Results concluded that, provenances have no significant variation among in establishment rate, plant height and collar diameter growth. Of these provenances, Jibat was the first in establishment (56%), second in height (1.97m) and diameter (2.89cm). Gedeo was stood first in height (2.30m) but second in establishment rate (52%) and thickness(3.45cm), but Munessa with very good growth in diameter(3.59cm) might be prefreed for bark extraction followed by Gedeo, last in height (1.75m),but established second (52%). Contrary to expectations, seedlings were still at substantial risk of mortality ≥3 years after planting. Probably the plants survival rate and growth probably affected by altitude, soil water potential, light exposure, and wild animal presence in the surrounding. In steep slope sites, canopy shade, existing weed vegetation as well as wild animals such as apes is unlikely to enhance seedling survival after planting. Our results suggest that seedling mean growth increased with 0.008mm thickness and 0.41mm per day while 2.8mm thickness and 146.8mm tall increment recorded in 2560meter elevated high land or injibara with mean value of 18.5°C and rain fall is 1300mm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0291.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Induced resistance; Watermelon; Fusarium; Root-knot nematode; Micronutrients
Online: 16 August 2022 (11:59:40 CEST)
The soil-borne pathogens, particularly Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON) and southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) are the major threat to watermelon production in the south-eastern United States. The role of soil micronutrients on induced resistance (IR) to plant diseases is well-documented in soil-based mediums. However, soil-based mediums limit the determination of the role(s) of individual micronutrients in IR. In this manuscript, we utilized hydroponics to assess the effect of controlled application of micronutrient, including iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) on the expression of some IR genes (PR1, PR5, and NPR1 from salicylic acid (SA) pathway, and VSP, PDF, and LOX genes from jasmonic acid (JA) pathway) in watermelon seedlings upon inoculation with either FON or RKN or both. Plants were treated with higher (3X) or lower (0.5X) concentrations of micronutrients in Steiner solution (X= standard dose of micronutrient) for 7 days in a hydroponics system under greenhouse conditions. A subset of micronutrient-treated plants was inoculated (on the 8th day of micronutrient application) with FON and RKN (single and mixed). The expression of the IR genes in treated and control samples were evaluated using qRT-PCR. Although, significant phenotypic differences were not observed with respect to the severity of wilt symptoms or RKN galling with any of the micro-nutrient treatments within the 30 day-experimental-period, differences in the induction of IR genes were observed. However, the level of gene expression varied with sampling period, type and concentration of micro-nutrients ap-plied, and pathogen-inoculation. In the absence of pathogens, no significant changes were observed in the expression level of IR genes on 7th day of micronutrient treatment. However, pathogen inoculation affected the expression levels of the IR genes at 3-day post-inoculation. In FON inoculated plants, PDF was upregulated in high Fe treatment, whereas in RKN inoculated plants, low Mn treatment resulted in up-regulation of VSP. In the case of mixed inoculation with FON and RKN, the plants with low Zn treatment resulted in the upregulation of PR1. These observations suggest that the type and concentration of micronutrients in watermelon may potentially induce systemic resistance against FON and RKN through SA and JA pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0065.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: betanin; natural red; pigment; betalain; Opuntia; beet root
Online: 10 November 2017 (04:56:22 CET)
Sourced so far mostly from beet root juice, betanin is a red-violet natural colorant increasingly used by the food, beverage and nutraceutical industries. We provide an updated bioeconomy perspective into a valued betacyanin whose supply and applications, we argue in this study, will rapidly expand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0088.v1
Online: 21 October 2016 (06:05:11 CEST)
Ecosystem physical structure, defined by the quantity and spatial distribution of biomass, influences a range of ecosystem functions. Remote sensing tools permit the non-destructive characterization of canopy and root features, potentially providing opportunities to link above- and belowground structure at fine spatial resolution in functionally meaningful ways. To test this possibility, we employed ground-based portable canopy lidar (PCL) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) along co-located transects in forested sites spanning multiple stages of ecosystem development and, consequently, of structural complexity. We examined canopy and root structural data for coherence at multiple spatial scales ≤ 10 m within each site using wavelet analysis. Forest sites varied substantially in vertical canopy and root structure, with leaf area index and root mass more evenly distributed by height and depth, respectively, as forests aged. In all sites, above- and belowground structure, characterized as mean maximum canopy height and root mass, exhibited significant coherence at a scale of 3.5-4 meters, and results suggest that the scale of coherence may increase with stand age. Our findings demonstrate that canopy and root structure are linked at characteristic spatial scales, which provides the basis to optimize scales of observation. Our study highlights the potential, and limitations, for fusing lidar and radar technologies to quantitatively couple above- and belowground ecosystem structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0462.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: Newton’s method; normal S-iteration; weak condition; simple root
Online: 31 October 2022 (02:23:04 CET)
In the present paper, we introduced a quadratically convergent Newton’s like normal S2 iteration method free from the second derivative for the solution of nonlinear equations permitting 3 f'(x) = 0 at some points in the neighborhood of the root. Our proposed method works well 4 when the Newton method fails. Numerically it has been verified that the Newton’s like normal 5 S-iteration method converges faster than Fang et al. method [A cubically convergent Newton-type 6 method under weak conditions, J. Compute. and Appl. Math., 220 (2008), 409-412]. We studied 7 different aspects of normal S-iteration method. Lastly, fractal patterns support the numerical 8 results and explain the convergence, divergence, and stability of method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0363.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: leguminous root crop; high quality protein; dry matter yield
Online: 19 November 2021 (14:45:52 CET)
Among the many neglected underutilized species, tuberous Andean root crops like the ahipas (Pachyrhizus ahipa) constitute a promising alternative for increasing diversity in nutrient sources and food security at a regional level. In this study, we present the content of some functional compounds in tuberous roots from several ahipa accessions and the progenies of the interspecific hybrid X207 (P. ahipa × P. tuberosus). A significant objective was to determine protein and free amino acids in the roots to evaluate their food quality as protein supply. The interspecific hybrids have been found to possess the root quality to provide the crop with a higher dry matter content. The high dry matter content of the P. tuberosus Chuin materials is retained in the root quality of the hybrids. Food functional components like carbohydrates, organic acids, and proteins were determined in several ahipa accessions and a stable (non-segregating) progeny of the interspecific hybrid, X207. The X207 roots showed a significantly higher dry matter content and a lower content in soluble sugars, but no significant differences were found in starch content or organic acids compared to the ahipa accessions. About the root mineral contents, Fe and Mn concentrations in X207 were significantly raised compared to the average of ahipa accessions. Among the ahipa and the hybrid, no prominent differences in protein content or protein amino acids were found, being both partially defective in providing sufficient daily intake of some essential amino acids. Root weight, a central component of root yield, was significantly higher in X207, but thorough field studies are required to substantiate the hybrid’s superior yield performance..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0004.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: root-lesion nematode; suppressive soil; antagonistic microbes; rhizosphere; cuticle
Online: 1 March 2021 (12:48:25 CET)
Plant-parasitic nematodes are a major constraint for agricultural production. They significantly impede crop yield. To complete their parasitism, they need to locate, disguise, and interact with plant signals exuded in the rhizosphere of the host plant. A specific subset of the soil microbiome can attach to the surface of nematodes in a specific manner. We hypothesized that host plants recruit species of microbes as helpers against attacking nematode species, and that these helpers differ among plant species. We investigated to what extend the attached microbial species are determined by plant species, their root exudates, and how these microbes affect nematodes. We conditioned the soil microbiome in the rhizosphere of different plant species, then employed culture-independent and culture-dependent methods to study the microbial attachment to the cuticle of the phytonematode Pratylenchus penetrans. Community fingerprints of nematode-attached fungi and bacteria showed that the plant species govern the microbiome associated with nematode cuticle. Bacteria isolated from the cuticle belonged to Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Sphingobacteria, and Firmicutes. The isolates Microbacterium sp. i.14, Lysobacter capsici i.17, and Alcaligenes sp. i.37 showed the highest attachment rates to the cuticle. The isolates Bacillus cereus i.24 and L. capsici i.17 significantly antagonized P. penetrans after attachment. Significantly more bacteria attached to P. penetrans in microbiome suspensions from bulk soil or oat rhizosphere compared to Ethiopian mustard rhizosphere. However, the latter caused a better suppression of the nematode. Conditioning the cuticle of P. penetrans with root exudates significantly decreased the number of Microbacterium sp. i.14 attaching to the cuticle, suggesting induced changes of the cuticle structure. These findings will lead to a more knowledge-driven exploitation of microbial antagonists of plant-parasitic nematodes for plant protection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0481.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Antibacterial activity; Endodontic irrigant; Enterococcus faecalis; Quercetin; Root canal
Online: 25 January 2021 (10:54:58 CET)
(1) Background: Bacterial reinfection and root fracture are the main culprits related to root canal treatment failure. This study aimed to assess the utility of quercetin solution as an adjunctive endodontic irrigant that strengthen root canal dentin with commitment anti-biofilm activity and bio-safety. (2) Methods: Based on a noninvasive dentin infection model, dentin tubules infected with Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) were irrigated with sterile water (control group), and 0, 1, 2, 4 wt% quercetin-containing ethanol solutions. The live and dead bacteria proportions within E. fae-calis biofilms were analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Elastic modulus and hydroxyproline release and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization was tested on irrigant-treated demineralized dentin to evaluate irrigants’ biostability. The cytotoxicity of irrigants was tested by CCK-8 assay. (3) Results: Quercetin increased the proportion of dead bacteria volumes within E. faecalis, and improved the flexural strength of dentin collagen com-pared to control group. The XPS characterization revealed an increase in C-O peak area under both C1s and O1s narrow-scan spectra. The CCK-8 assay confirmed no cytotoxicity of quercetin solutions. (4) Conclusions: Quercetin exhibited anti-biofilm activity, collagen-stabilizing effect as well as cytocompatibility, supporting quercetin as a potential candidate for endodontic irrigant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0406.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Rhizosphere; Fungal diversity; Community structure; Wheat root rot disease
Online: 31 December 2019 (10:20:33 CET)
Background: Wheat root rot disease due to soil-borne fungal pathogens leads to tremendous yield losses worth billions of dollars worldwide every year. It is very important to study the relationship between rhizosphere fungal diversity and wheat roots to understand the occurrence and development of wheat root rot disease. Results: A significant difference in fungal diversity was observed between the diseased and healthy groups in the heading stage, but the trend was the opposite in the filling stage. The abundance of most genera with high richness decreased significantly from the heading to the filling stage in the diseased groups; the richness of approximately one-third of all genera remained unchanged, and only a few low-richness genera, such as Fusarium and Ceratobasidium, had a very significant increase from the heading to the filling stage. In the healthy groups, the abundance of most genera increased significantly from the heading to the filling stage; the abundance of some genera did not change markedly, or the abundance of very few genera increased significantly. Physical and chemical soil indicators showed that low soil pH and density, increases in ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and total nitrogen contributed to the occurrence of wheat root rot disease. Conclusions: Our results revealed that in the early stages of disease, highly diverse rhizosphere fungi and a complex community structure can easily cause wheat root rot disease. The existence of pathogenic fungi is a necessary condition for wheat root rot disease, but the richness of pathogenic fungi is not necessarily important. The increases in ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and total nitrogen contributed to the occurrence of wheat root rot disease. Low soil pH and soil density are beneficial to the occurrence of wheat root rot disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0287.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: root length density; ratoon crop; Sacharum spp; varietal selection
Online: 24 December 2018 (15:31:02 CET)
The objective of this study was to determine the association of physiological responses and root distribution patterns on yield of the second ratoon cane and the relationships among these traits. Seventeen sugarcane genotypes were planted in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The second ratoon crop was evaluated for germination percentage, cane yield, SPAD chlorophyll meter reading (SCMR), chlorophyll fluorescence, relative water content (RWC), specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal conductance. Root length density (RLD) was evaluated by auger method. The root samples were divided into upper soil layer and lowers soil layers to study root distribution patterns. Sugarcane genotypes were significantly different for RLD, germination percentage and cane yield. Root distribution patterns were classified into three groups based on the RLD. High RLD between plants in the upper soil layers at 90 DAH was positively correlated with high germination, whereas high RLD between rows in the lower soil layers at 90 and 270 DAH was associated with high cane yield. RWC at 90 DAH and stomatal conductance at 180 DAH were closely related to germination percentage, whereas chlorophyll fluorescence and stomatal conductance at 180 DAH were closely related to cane yield.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0383.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Bipolaris sorokiniana; Bacillus halotolerans; common root rot; biocontrol agent; wheat
Online: 23 January 2023 (01:40:03 CET)
Common root rot caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana infestation of wheat is one of the main reasons of yield reduction in wheat crops worldwide. In current study, strain JK-25 was isolated from soil of wheat rhizosphere and identified as Bacillus halotolerans based on morphological, physiological, biochemical characteristics and molecular identification. The strain showed significant antagonism to B.sorokiniana and broad-spectrum resistance to Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium graminearum and Rhizoctonia zeae. Inhibition of Bipolaris sorokiniana mycelial dry weight and spore germination rate by JK-25 fermentation supernatant reached 60% and 88% respectively. The crude extract of JK-25 was found by MALDI-TOF-MS to contain the surfactin that exerted an inhibitory effect on B.sorokiniana. The disruption of mycelial cell membranes was observed under microscopy (LSCM) after treatment of B.sorokiniana mycelium with the crude extract. The antioxidant enzyme activity of B.sorokiniana was significantly reduced and the oxidation product MDA content increased after treatment with the crude extract. The incidence of root rot was significantly reduced in pot experiments with the addition of JK-25 culture ferment, which had a significant biological control effect of 72.06%. Its ability to produce siderophores may help to promote wheat growth, and the production of proteases and pectinases may also be part of the strain's role in suppressing pathogens. These results demonstrate the excellent antagonistic effect of JK-25 against B.sorokiniana and suggest that this strain has great potential as a resource for biological control of wheat root rot strains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0298.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: cellulase; evolution; gene duplication; intron; RNA interference; root-lesion nematode
Online: 12 February 2021 (11:03:57 CET)
Pratylenchus loosi is an important root-lesion nematode that cause damage to tea plantations in Iran and all over the world. The present study reports on the characterization and evolution of three ß-1,4-engoglucanase genes Pl-eng-2, Pl-eng-3 and Pl-eng-4. The gene structure of Pl-eng-2 was fully determined with the predicted signal peptide and devoid of the linker domain and carbohydrate-binding domain, while Pl-eng-3 and Pl-eng-4 were only partially sequenced. The transcription of Pl-eng-2 was localized in the secretory esophageal glands of all life stages, but it was upregulated in male and females stages. Exon/intron structures of Pl-eng-2, Pl-eng-3 and Pl-eng-4 confirmed that they resulted from gene duplication followed by sequence and gene structure diversification with loss of linker domain and carbohydrate-binding domain during evolution. Phylogenetic analysis further confirmed that nematode endoglucanases resulted from horizontal gene transfer of a bacterial gene as Pl-eng-3 showed sister relationships with CelB cellulase of Bacillus subtilis. Silencing Pl-eng-2 by in vitro RNA interference, produced a 60% decrease of the transcript level. The reproductive ability of silenced P. loosi showed a 35% reduction of eggs and larval stages compared to untreated nematodes suggesting that this gene is involved in the early steps of invasion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0042.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Fresh cassava root; Pellet product; Rumen fermentation; Cyanide concentration; Sulfur
Online: 1 December 2020 (18:22:42 CET)
The current work aimed to screen the ruminal cyanide-utilizing bacteria and evaluate the influence of fresh cassava root (FCR) and pellets containing high sulfur (PELFUR) on cyanide content, kinetics of gas, in vitro degradability, and ruminal fermentation. The experiment was conducted in a Completely randomized design (CRD) for a screening of cyanide-utilizing bacteria and the dietary treatments were the level of cyanide at 0, 150, 300, and 450 ppm. A 5 × 3 factorial arrangement in a Completely randomized design was used for in vitro study. Factor A was the level of FCR at 0, 260, 350, 440, and 530 g/kg of 0.5 g dry matter (DM) substrate, and factor B was the level of PELFUR at 0, 15, and 30 g/kg DM substrate. Adding different doses of cyanide significantly affected cyanide-utilizing rumen bacterial growth (p < 0.05). Increasing the concentration of cyanide from 0 to 150 and 150 to 300 ppm, resulted in an increase in cyanide-utilizing rumen bacteria of 38.2% and 15.0%, respectively. Increasing the FCR level to more than 260 g/kg of 0.5 g substrate could increase cumulative gas production (p < 0.05), whereas increasing doses of PELFUR from 15 to 30 g/kg increased the cumulative gas production when compared with that of 0 g/kg PELFUR (p < 0.05). Cyanide concentration in rumen fluid decreased with PELFUR (p < 0.05) supplementation. Degradability of in vitro dry matter and organic matter following incubation increased at 12 and 24 h due to PELFUR supplementation with FCR and increased additionally with 15 g/kg PELFUR (p < 0.05) in 440 g/kg FCR. Proportions of the total volatile fatty acids, acetic acid (C2), propionic acid (C3), and butyric acid, as well as the ratio of C2 to C3 among supplementations with FCR (p < 0.05) were significantly different. As the proportion of FCR increased to 530 g/kg of the substrate, the volume of C3 increased by 14.6%. This is the first finding of bacteria in the rumen capable of utilizing cyanide, and cyanide might function as a nitrogen source for bacterial cell synthesis. Inclusion of FCR of 530 g/kg with 30 g/kg PELFUR could increase the cumulative gas production, the bacterial population, the in vitro degradability, the proportion of C3, and the rate of the disappearance of cyanide.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0047.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: socket shield; dental Implants; root membrane; buccal shield; aesthetic zone
Online: 4 March 2020 (04:45:00 CET)
There are different treatment options in modern dentistry for the replacement of lost dentition. Of these the most upcoming and acceptable treatment option is Dental implants. The common problem usually with immediate implant placement in the anterior region is the post-operative soft tissue contour as a part of the bone modelling during healing. Hurzeler et al in 2010 introduced a new technique called the “socket shield technique”. This technique has been used as an alternative treatment modality for immediate implant placement in the aesthetic zone.This review articles provides a detailed information regarding the clinical concept of Root membrane technique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0128.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: ditches; grain yield; lodging resistance; root traits; wet-seeded rice
Online: 12 November 2019 (10:25:04 CET)
The mechanical hill wet-seeded rice machine is benefits to establish uniform seedling, and ditches were established by using this machine. However, little knowledge is known on the effect of the establishment of ditches on growth, lodging and yield, and their relationship with root traits. In this study, two field experiments were conducted during 2012 and 2013 with using two super rice varieties (i.e. hybrid rice ‘Peizataifeng’ and inbred rice ‘Yuxiangyouzhan’) grown under three ditches establishment treatments (i.e. T1: both water ditches and seed ditches were established by the machine, T2: seed ditches were established by the machine, T3: neither water nor seed ditches were established by the machine). The lodging index and lodging resistance traits, the grain yield and above-ground dry weight and the root traits were measured. The results showed that the lodging index was significantly affected by the treatments with ditches. The strongest lodging resistance was detected in mechanical hill wet-seeded rice with ditches treatment in both 2012 and 2013. The lodging resistance was strongly related to the breaking resistance, the root volume and root superficial area at the heading stage and maturity stage and the total root length at the heading stage. No significant difference was investigated in grain yield or dry weight of mechanical hill wet-seeded rice. Yuxiangyouzhan showed higher grain yield, dry weight and better lodging resistance but unfavorable root growth attributes than Peizataifeng. Therefore, the mechanical hill wet-seeded rice with ditches treatment increased rice lodging resistance is related to root traits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0328.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: epigenomics, hordeum vulgare, leaf, root, tissue-specific methylation, developmental epigenomics
Online: 25 April 2018 (16:53:56 CEST)
The barley (Hordeum vulgare) genome comprises over 32,000 genes, with differentiated cells expressing only a subset of genes; the remainder being silent. Mechanisms by which tissue-specific genes are regulated are not entirely understood, although DNA methylation is likely to be involved. DNA methylation patterns are not static during plant development, but it is still unclear whether different organs possess distinct methylation profiles. Methylation-sensitive GBS was used to generate DNA methylation profiles for roots, leaf-blades and leaf-sheaths from five barley varieties, using seedlings at the three-leaf stage. Differentially Methylated Markers (DMMs) were characterised by pairwise comparisons of roots, leaf-blades and leaf-sheaths of three different ages. While very many DMMs were found between roots and leaf parts, only a few existed between leaf-blades and leaf-sheaths, with differences decreasing with leaf rank. Organ-specific DMMs appeared to target mainly repeat regions, implying that organ differentiation partially relies on the spreading of DNA methylation from repeats to promoters of adjacent genes. Furthermore, the biological functions of differentially methylated genes in the different organs correlated with functional specialisation. Our results indicate that different organs do possess diagnostic methylation profiles and suggest that DNA methylation is important for both tissue development and differentiation and organ function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0110.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: capital structure; firm’s performance; panel data; unit root analysis; Bangladesh
Online: 22 November 2016 (09:36:36 CET)
Capital structure decision plays an imperative role in firm’s performance. Recognizing the importance, there has been many studies inspected the rapport of capital structure with performance of firms and findings of those studies are inconclusive. In addition, there is relative deficiency of empirical studies examining the link of capital structure with performance of banks in Bangladesh. This paper attempted to fill this gap. Using panel data of 22 banks for the period of 2005-2014, this study empirically examined the impacts of capital structure on the performance of Bangladeshi banks assessed by return on equity, return on assets and earnings per share. Results from pooled ordinary least square analysis show that there are inverse impacts of capital structure on bank’s performance. Empirical findings of this study is of greater significance for the developing countries like Bangladesh because it will call upon concentration of the bank management and policy makers to pursue such policies to reduce reliance on debt and to accomplish optimal level capital structure. This research also contributes to empirical literatures by reconfirming (or otherwise) findings of previous studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0121.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: cytokine; gene expression; osteoclast; root resorption; pediatric dentistry; protein expression
Online: 27 October 2016 (12:10:55 CEST)
The present study was performed to examine that transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in root-surrounding tissues on deciduous teeth during the physiological root resorption regulates the differentiation induction into odontoclast. We prepared root-surrounding tissues with (R) or without (N) physiological root resorption scraped off at three regions (R1-R3 or N1-N3) from the cervical area to the apical area of the tooth and measured both TGF-β and the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activities. The TGF-β activity level was increased in N1-N3, whereas the TRAP activity was increased in R2 and R3. In vitro experiments for RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation revealed that TGF-β in N1-N3 and R1-R3 enhanced the TRAP activity in RAW264 cells. A genetic study indicated that the mRNA level of TGF-β1 in N1 and N2 was significantly increased, and corresponded with that of osteoprotegerin (OPG). In contrast, the expression level of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) was increased in R2 and R3. Our findings suggest that TGF-β is closely related to the regulation of OPG induction and RANKL-mediated odontoclast differentiation depending on the timing of RANKL and OPG mRNA expression in the root-surrounding tissues of deciduous teeth during physiological root resorption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0122.v2
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: tomato; temperature; damage; seedling; plant; root; weight; photosynthesis; proline; electrical conductivity
Online: 20 May 2021 (09:45:18 CEST)
High temperature (HT) significantly affects the crop physiological traits and reduces the 12 productivity in plants. To increase yields as well as survival of crops under HT, developing heat13 tolerant plants is one of the main targets in crop breeding programs. The present study attempted 14 to investigate the linkage of the heat tolerance between the seedling and the reproductive growth 15 stages of tomato cultivars ’Dafnis‘ and ’Minichal’. This research was undertaken to evaluate heat 16 tolerance under two experimental designs such as screening at seedling stage and screening from 17 reproductive traits in greenhouses. Survival rate and physiological responses in seedlings of 18 tomatoes with 4-5 true leaf were estimated under HT (40 °C, RH 70%, day/night, respectively) and 19 under two control and HT greenhouse conditions (day time 28 °C and 40 °C, respectively). Heat 20 stress significantly affected physiological-chemical (photosynthesis, electrolyte conductivity, 21 proline) and vegetative parameters (plant height, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight) in all 22 tomatoes seedlings. The finding revealed that regardless of tomato cultivars the photosynthesis, 23 chlorophyll, total proline and electrical conductivity parameters were varied in seedlings during the 24 heat stress period. The heat tolerance rate of tomatoes in the seedling stage might not be associated 25 always with reproductive parameters. HT reduced the fruit parameters likeas fruit weight (31.9%), 26 fruit length (14.1%), fruit diameter (19.1%) and fruit hardness (9.1%) in compared to NT under HT 27 in heat susceptible tomato cultivar ‘Dafnis’, while in heat tolerant cultivar ‘Minichal’ fruit length 28 (7.1%) and fruit diameter (12.1%) was decreased by the affect of HT but on the contrary fruit weight 29 (3.6%) and fruit hardness (8.3%) were increased. In conclusion, screening and selection for tomatoes 30 should be evaluated at the vegetative and reproductive stages with consideration of reproductive 31 parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0186.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: stable water isotopes; deuterium; oxygen-18; soil water; fine root system
Online: 16 October 2019 (10:32:02 CEST)
Stable isotope concentrations in the soil, rain and ground water have been used to trace the water extraction zones of plants in different environments. The need to identify the plant water use by plants in afforestation programs to control desertification increases the importance of sap water partitioning of plants in sand dune areas. However, the introduction of new plant covers exerts pressure on the water resources and can affect the local soil water conditions. In this study, we analyzed the isotope concentrations in rain, soil, sap, and ground water after the summer of 2010. Two experimental plots established in the Hailiutu catchment (Shaanxi province, northwest China) were selected to gather the water samples between September and October 2010. One plot is dominated by Salix bushes (Salix psammophila C. Wang \& Chang Y. Yang) and the other by the tree species Willow (Salix matsudana Koidz.). The total precipitation at the experimental site was 401 mm/yr during 2010, while 88.7 mm was collected in total for the period September to October. Willow trees transpired 12.82 kg/d being almost three times larger than Salix shrubs (4.57 kg/d). Despite the transpiration rates of both plant species and the few rain events in the region, the soil water beneath the plant covers is not depleted. Stable isotope signature of soil water beneath both covers shows the fractionation front in Salix at 20 cm depth and at Willow at 40 cm depth. However, soil water signature is closer to the groundwater than the collected rain water.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0045.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: floating-point arithmetic; inverse square root; magic constant; Newton-Raphson method
Online: 5 August 2019 (05:09:06 CEST)
We present an improved algorithm for fast calculation of the inverse square root for single-precision floating-point numbers. The algorithm is much more accurate than the famous fast inverse square root algorithm and has a similar computational cost. The presented modification concern Newton-Raphson corrections and can be applied when the distribution of these corrections is not symmetric (for instance, in our case they are always negative).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0158.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: root selection method; unit hydrograph; Savitzky-Golay filter; Nash-Sutcliffe index
Online: 24 October 2017 (11:22:37 CEST)
As a procedure deriving UH (unit hydrograph), the root selection method necessitates only storm runoff data. However, this method must deal with the uncertainty related to the noise fluctuation of runoff ordinates and derive one optimal UH from many storms. This study proposes a procedure that applies the Savitzky-Golay filter to smooth the noise fluctuation of the runoff ordinates and uses the linear combination of UHs from individual storms to derive an optimal UH. The proposed method is applied to the storms of the Nenagh River basin in Ireland. The applicability of the Savitzky-Golay filter for smoothing the noise fluctuation of storm runoffs is examined by means of the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index. Furthermore, the root selection method is extended to also estimate IUHs. The results show that the adoption of the Savitzky-Golay filter improves the applicability of the root selection method and that the optimal UH predicts accurately the time-to-peak and peak discharge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0043.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Photobiomodulation; low level laser therapy; ectopic eye tooth; root resorption; treatment modalities.
Online: 5 January 2022 (13:15:17 CET)
The orthodontic treatment brings numerous benefits and, in most cases, the benefits outweigh the possible disadvantages. Root resorption (RR) is a common adverse phenomenon associated with orthodontic treatment. This study evaluates the role of low-level laser emission / Photobiomodu-lation (LE/P) in quantitative measurements of root resorption (QRR). The application of LE/P was done after each orthodontic activation with 4 types of treatment intervention (TI) on the RR after fixed orthodontic treatment (FOT) of the upper arch with ectopic eye tooth/teeth [EET]. 32 Orthodontic patients scheduled for FOT were selected and assigned to the 4 groups. These were LE/P+Self ligating bracket (SLB), LE/P+Conventional bracket (CB), Non-Photobiomodulation (non-LE/P)+SLB, and non-LE/P+CB. Standard management stages of FOT were followed in the maxilla. Each patient received a single application of LE/P labially/buccally and palatally, a total of 5 different points during each activation or appointment. The main outcome measure was QRR in maxillary anteriors before and after FOT assessed via cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) using 3D OnDemand software. Insignificant QRR was found between before and after FOT in SLB, CLB, and LE/P, non-LE/P groups (p > 0.05). QRR in the SLB vs CB and LE/P vs non-LE/P group was significantly different in 11, 13, and 23 (p < 0.05). QRR in the LE/P+SLB group (p < 0.05) was significantly different in 11, 13, and 23 than that in the other groups. The most severe QRR was found on the 13 (0.88 ± 0.28mm and 0.87±0.27mm) and 23 (1.19 ± 0.14 mm and 1.16±0.13mm) in the CB and non-LE/P group (p < 0.001). LE/P+SLB showed highly significant superior outcome (p < 0.001) in relation to non-LE/P+CB, the QRR of 23 were 0.813± 0.114mm and 1.156± 0.166mm respectively. Significantly higher amount of QRR found in EET patients after FOT treated with the CB, non-LE/P, and non-LE/P+CB system and warrants further investigation to explore potential specific causes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0129.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Plant behavior; root-to-shoot-signaling; plants movement; kinematics; climbing plants; circumnutation
Online: 8 November 2021 (11:53:30 CET)
Plants characterized by a soft or weak steam, such as climbing plants, need to find a potential support (e.g., wooden trunk) to reach greater light exposure. Since Darwin’s research on climbing plants, several studies on their searching and attachment behaviors have demonstrated their unique ability to process different support features to modulate their movements accordingly. Nevertheless, the strategies underlying this ability are yet to be uncovered. The present research tries to fill this gap by investigating how the interaction between above- (i.e., stem, tendril, …) and belowground (i.e., the root system) plant organs influence the kinematics of the approach-to-grasp movement. With three-dimensional (3D) kinematical analysis, we characterized the movement of pea plants (Pisum sativum L.) towards a support with different thicknesses above and belowground (i.e., thin below, thick aboveground, or the opposite). As a control condition, the plants were presented to supports with the same thickness below- and aboveground (i.e., either entirely thin or thick). The results suggest an integration between the information from below- and aboveground for driving the reach-to-grasp behavior of the aerial plant organs. Information about the support conveyed by the root system seems particularly important to fulfil the end-goal of the movement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0460.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Bacteria; community composition; growth stage; rhizosphere; root nodule; soybean; 16S rRNA gene
Online: 20 May 2021 (09:13:15 CEST)
Bacterial communities in rhizosphere and root nodules have significant contributions to the growth and productivity of the soybean (Glycine max L.). In this report, we analyzed the physiological properties and dynamics of bacterial community structure in rhizosphere and root nodules at different growth stages using BioLog EcoPlate and high-throughput sequencing technology, respectively. The BioLog assay found that the metabolic capability of rhizosphere is in increasing trend in the growth of soybeans as compared to the bulk soil. As a result of the Illumina sequencing analysis, the microbial community structure of rhizosphere and root nodules was found to be influenced by the variety and growth stage of the soybean. At the phylum level, Actinobacteria were the most abundant in rhizosphere at all growth stages, followed by Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria and the phylum Bacteroidetes showed the greatest change. But, in the root nodules Alphaproteobacteria were dominant. The results of the OTU analysis exhibited the dominance of Bradyrhizobium during the entire stage of growth, but the ratio of non-rhizobial bacteria showed an increasing trend as the soybean growth progressed. These findings revealed that bacterial community in the rhizosphere and root nodules changed according to both the variety and growth stages of soybean in the field.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Fragaria x ananassa; bare-root fresh plants; productive influence; precocity of production
Online: 21 December 2020 (11:36:01 CET)
In strawberry production, the combination of high productive performance and fruits with desirable physicochemical characteristics requires the use of plants of good quality and high initial vigor. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of plants with different crown diameters on the productive performance and fruit quality of strawberry plants of the cultivar 'Pircinque.' The study was conducted in two evaluation cycles (2016/2017 and 2017/2018). The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with four repetitions, and plots consisting of 20 plants. This study evaluated the crown diameters of plants of 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19 mm. The productivity and number of fruit values increased significantly with larger caliber plants, which also provided precocity of productivity. The use of more vigorous plants also favored the production of fruits with higher soluble solids / titratable acidity ratios and with epidermis coloration closer to intense red. For the cultivar 'Pircinque', the plant crown diameters between 15 and 17 mm are the most favorable because they condition the best productive performances in combination with precocity and good fruit quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0473.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: antioxidant enzymes; DNA methylation; epigenetics; plant resistance; root-knot nematodes; ROS; tomato
Online: 20 September 2020 (14:35:29 CEST)
Two wild-type field populations of root-knot nematodes (Mi-Vfield, Mj-TunC2field), and two isolates selected for virulence in laboratory on resistant tomato cultivars (SM2V, SM11C2), were used to induce a resistance reaction in tomato to the soil-borne parasites. Epigenetic and metabolic mechanisms of resistance were detected and compared with those occurring in partially or fully successful infections. The activated epigenetic mechanisms in plant resistance, as opposed to those activated in infected plants, were detected by analysing the methylated status of total DNA, by ELISA methods, and the expression level of key genes involved in the methylation pathway, by qRT-PCR. DNA hypo-methylation and down-regulation of two methyl-transferase genes (CMT2, DRM5), characterized the only true resistant reaction obtained by inoculating the Mi-1.2-carrying resistant tomato cv Rossol with the avirulent field population Mi-Vfield. On the contrary, in the roots into which nematodes were allowed to develop and reproduce, total DNA was generally found to be hyper-methylated and methyl-transferase genes up-loaded. DNA hypo-methylation was considered to be the upstream mechanism that triggers the general gene over-expression observed in plant resistance. Gene silencing induced by nematodes may be obtained through DNA hyper-methylation and methyl-transferase gene activation. Plant resistance is also characterized by an inhibition of the anti-oxidant enzyme system and activation of the defence enzyme chitinase, as opposed to the activation of such a system and inhibition of the defence enzyme glucanase in roots infested by nematodes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0019.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: biochar; phytoextraction; corn; uptake; mine soils; heavy metals; root biomass; shoot biomass
Online: 5 May 2019 (12:11:59 CEST)
Mining activities could produce a large volume of spoils, waste rocks, and tailings, which are usually deposited at the surface and become sources of metal pollution. Phytostabilization of the mine spoils could limit the spread of these heavy metals. Phytostabilization can be enhanced by using soil amendments like manure-based biochar capable of immobilizing metal(loid)s when combined with plant species that are tolerant of high levels of contaminants while simultaneously improving properties of mine soils. However, the use of manure-based biochar and other organic amendments for mine spoil remediation are still unclear. In this greenhouse study, we evaluated the interactive effect of biochar application and compost on shoots biomass yield (SBY), roots biomass yield (RBY), uptake, and bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Zn and Cd in corn (Zea mays L.) grown in mine soil. Biochar sources (BS) consisted of beef cattle manure (BCM); poultry litter (PL); and lodge pole pine (LPP) were applied at 0, 2.5, and 5.0% (w/w) in combination with different rates (0, 2.5, and 5.0%, w/w) of cattle manure compost (CMC), respectively. Shoots and roots uptake of Cd and Zn were significantly affected by BS, CMC, and the interaction of BS and CMC. Corn plants that received 2.5% PL and 2.5% BCM had the greatest Cd and Zn shoot uptake, respectively. Corn plants with 5% BCM had the greatest Cd and Zn root uptake. When averaged across BS, the greatest BCF for Cd in the shoot of 92.3 was from the application BCM and the least BCF was from the application of PL (72.8). Our results suggest that incorporation of biochar enhanced phytostabilization of Cd and Zn with concentrations of water-soluble Cd and Zn lowest in soils amended with both manure-based biochars while improving biomass productivity of corn. Overall, phytostabilization technique and biochar application have the potential to be combined in the remediation of heavy metals polluted soils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0016.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: olive tree, drought and re-watering, soil water balance, irrigation, root, neutron probe
Online: 3 November 2019 (15:28:25 CET)
This paper presents a study of a field trial experiment at olive orchard irrigated by runoff harvesting system under a dry climate which was carried out on 5-year-old olive trees (Olea europaea. L, cv. Barnea) in the middle of Negev desert, starting right after the floods, onwards during the summer growing season. The beginning of the experiment occurred after 2 years with little rain and no run-off events. The olive trees were under severe drought stress when we first initiated controlled flooding in 2017. In the second research year (2018), a massive natural flood had occurred at the end of April. Results show that the water distribution within the soil was highly inhomogeneous even under flood conditions. Soil water loss rate, due to transpiration was mainly correlated with the total amount of soil water and not atmospheric conditions. The relative root water uptake from shallow soil layers (0.3-1.5m) gradually reduced along the season, while the relative water uptake from the deeper layers (1.5-4m) became more pronounced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0570.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: bone resorption; butyric acid; HDAC inhibitor; osteoblasts; osteoprotegerin/RANKL; periodontal/root canal pathogens
Online: 24 October 2018 (11:21:42 CEST)
Butyric acid as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor was produced by a number of periodontal and root canal microorganisms (such as Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium etc.). Butyric acid may affect the biological activities of periodontal/periapical cells such as osteoblasts, periodontal ligament cells etc., and thus affect periodontal/periapical tissue destruction and healing. The purposes of this study were to study the toxic effects of butyrate on matrix and mineralization markers’ expression of MG-63 osteoblasts. Cell viability and proliferation were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cellular apoptosis and necrosis were analyzed by propidium iodide/Annexin V flow cytometry. Protein and mRNA expression of OPG, and RANKL were analyzed by western blotting and RT-PCR. OPG, soluble RANKL (sRANKL), 8-isoprostane, pro-collagen I, MMP-2, osteonectin (SPARC), osteocalcin and osteopontin secretion into culture medium were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Histone H3 acetylation levels were evaluated by immunofluorescent staining (IF) and western blot. We found that butyrate induced morphologic changes of growing MG-63 cells, with bigger and flattened in appearance. Butyrate activated histone H3 acetylation of MG-63 cells. Exposure of MG-63 cells to butyrate partly decreased cell number with no marked increase in apoptosis and necrosis. Butyrate stimulated RANKL protein expression, whereas it inhibited OPG protein expression. Butyrate also inhibited the secretion of OPG in MG-63 cells, whereas sRANKL level was below detection limit. Butyrate stimulated 8-isoprostane, MMP-2 and osteopontin secretion, but not procollagen I, osteonectin, osteocalcin in MG-63 cells. In conclusion, butyric acid generated by periodontal and root canal microorganisms may potentially induce bony destruction and impair bone repair by alteration of OPG/RANKL expression/secretion, 8-isoprostane, MMP-2, and osteopontin secretion, and affect cell proliferation. These effects are possibly related to increased histone acetylation. These events are important in the pathogenesis of periodontal and periapical destruction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0302.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Searaser; Flow-3D; Prediction; Long short term memory; deep neural network; Root mean error.
Online: 13 April 2021 (09:51:25 CEST)
Accurate forecasts of ocean waves energy can not only reduce costs for investment but it is also essential for management and operation of electrical power. This paper presents an innovative approach based on the Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) to predict the power generation of an economical wave energy converter named “Searaser”. The data for analyzing is provided by collecting the experimental data from another study and the exerted data from numerical simulation of searaser. The simulation is done with Flow-3D software which has high capability in analyzing the fluid solid interactions. The lack of relation between wind speed and output power in previous studies needs to be investigated in this field. Therefore, in this study the wind speed and output power are related with a LSTM method. Moreover, it can be inferred that the LSTM Network is able to predict power in terms of height more accurately and faster than the numerical solution in a field of predicting. The network output figures show a great agreement and the root mean square is 0.49 in the mean value related to the accuracy of LSTM method. Furthermore, the mathematical relation between the generated power and wave height was introduced by curve fitting of the power function to the result of LSTM method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0186.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Fine root; tropical rainforest; nutrients dynamics; litter bags; decay rate; nitrogen mineralization, Calcium, Magnesium.
Online: 20 February 2019 (09:09:06 CET)
Plants produce above- and below-ground biomass. However, our understanding of both production and decomposition of below-ground biomass is poor, largely because of the difficulties of accessing study materials. Below-ground organic matter decomposition studies are scanty and especially rare in the tropics. Here, we used a litter bag experiment to quantify the mass loss and nutrients dynamics of decomposing twigs and fine roots from an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal associated tree, Parashorea chinensis, in a tropical rain forest in Southwest China. Overall, twig litter decomposed 1.9 times faster than fine roots (decay rate (k) twig=0.255, root=0.134). The difference in decomposition rates can be explained by a difference in phosphorus (P) concentration, availability and use by decomposers or C quality. Both materials showed an increase in N concentration, with final measurements still higher than initial levels. This suggests N may not be available due to microbial immobilization. Both carbon and nitrogen dynamics were significantly predicted by mass loss and showed a negative and positive relationship, respectively. Our study results imply that fine roots carbon and nitrogen contribute more to soils organic matter and enlarge the resident time. Therefore, better understanding of carbon cycle requires better understanding of mechanisms governing below ground biomass decomposition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0456.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: brachypodium; neutral red; root; casparian bands; PEG-6000; osmotic stress; real time imaging; PDMS
Online: 19 November 2018 (11:05:36 CET)
To elucidate dynamic developmental processes in plants, live tissues and organs have to be visualized frequently and for long time periods. The development of roots is studied in depth at a cellular resolution not only to comprehend the basic processes fundamental to maintenance and pattern formation but also study stress tolerance adaptation in plants. Despite technological advancements, maintaining continuous access to samples and simultaneously preserving their morphological structures and physiological conditions without causing damage presents hindrances in the measurement, visualization and analyses of growing organs including plant roots. We propose a preliminary system which integrates the optical real-time visualization through light microscopy with a liquid culture which enables us to image at the tissue and cellular level horizontally growing Brachypodium roots every few minutes and up to 24 hours. We describe a simple setup which can be used to track the growth of the root as it grows including the root tip growth and osmotic stress dynamics. We demonstrate the system’s capability to scale down the PEG-mediated osmotic stress analysis and collected data on gene expression under osmotic stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0406.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: nonstationary processes; spectral measure; differential geometry; shape manifold; square root velocity function; Lie group
Online: 23 July 2018 (06:02:32 CEST)
We proposed in this work the introduction of a new vision of stochastic processes through geometry induced by dilation. The dilation matrices of a given process are obtained by a composition of rotation matrices built in with respect to partial correlation coefficients. Particularly interesting is the fact that the obtention of dilation matrices is regardless of the stationarity of the underlying process. When the process is stationary, only one dilation matrix is obtained and it corresponds therefore to Naimark dilation. When the process is nonstationary, a set of dilation matrices is obtained. They correspond to Kolmogorov decomposition. In this work, the nonstationary class of periodically correlated processes was of interest. The underlying periodicity of correlation coefficients is then transmitted to the set of dilation matrices. Because this set lives on the Lie group of rotation matrices, we can see them as points of a closed curve on the Lie group. Geometrical aspects can then be investigated through the shape of the obtained curves, and to give a complete insight into the space of curves, a metric and the derived geodesic equations are provided. The general results are adapted to the more specific case where the base manifold is the Lie group of rotation matrices, and because the metric in the space of curve naturally extends to the space of shapes, this enables a comparison between curves’ shapes and allows then the classification of processes’ measure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0237.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: AirMOSS; radar backscatter; P-band remote sensing; root zone; soil moisture profile; Richards’ equation
Online: 31 August 2016 (08:48:11 CEST)
P-band radar remote sensing applied during the Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS) mission has shown great potential for estimation of root zone soil moisture. When retrieving the soil moisture profile (SMP) from P-band radar, a mathematical function describing the vertical moisture distribution is required. Because only a limited number of observations are available, the number of free parameters of the mathematical model must not exceed the number of observed data. For example, a second order polynomial that contains 3 free parameters was presumed based on in-situ SMP data. The polynomial is currently parameterized based on 3 backscatter observations provided by AirMOSS (i.e. one frequency at three polarizations of HH, VV and HV). In this paper, a more realistic, physically-based SMP model containing 3 free parameters is derived based on a solution to Richards’ equation for unsaturated flow in soils. Evaluation of the new SMP model based on both numerical simulations and measured data revealed that it exhibits greater flexibility for fitting measured and simulated SMPs than the currently applied polynomial. It is also demonstrated that the new SMP model can be reduced to a second order polynomial at the expense of fitting accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0566.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: the square root of 2 ,the decimal point; jump; change in direction; the infinitely great
Online: 30 November 2022 (06:18:32 CET)
The calculation of the exact value of the square root of 2 is requested. In order to obtain its infinite value, A new concept is proposed where the accumulations of the infinitely many of finity is indicated by the change in direction which means that there is a jump from finity to infinity .The meaningless for an infinite number with a decimal point is indicated by this jump because any decimal number only have meanings within a finite range values and there is only an infinite integer quantity that can not be operated by algorithms like operations of multiplication，division,addition, and subtraction . The final result of the change in direction is two quantity where the second quantity and the first quantity extend in parallel line and never intersect and the second quantity represent the size of the first quantity. The first quantity is the infinitely great that can't be talked about anything outside of it and can compress any quantities outside of it to nothing and it is the exact value of the square root of 2 .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0094.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Linear analysis; Non-linear analysis; Detrended fluctuation analysis; Entropy; Recurrence plot; Root mean square; Fractals
Online: 4 August 2022 (03:32:16 CEST)
This study aimed to apply different complexity-based methods to surface electromyography (EMG) in order to detect neuromuscular changes after realistic warm-up and stretching procedures. Sixteen volunteers conducted two experimental sessions. They were tested before, after a standardized warm-up, and after a stretching exercise (static or neuromuscular nerve gliding technique). Tests included measurements of the knee flexion torque and EMG of biceps femoris (BF) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles. EMG was analyzed using the root mean square (RMS), sample entropy (SampEn), percentage of recurrence and determinism following a recurrence quantification analysis (%Rec and %Det) and a scaling parameter from a detrended fluctuation analysis. Torque was significantly greater after warm-up as compared to baseline and after stretching. RMS was not affected by the experimental procedure. In contrast, SampEn was significantly greater after warm-up and stretching as compared to baseline values. %Rec was not modified but %Det for BF muscle was significantly greater after stretching as compared to baseline. The a scaling parameter was significantly lower after warm-up as compared to baseline for ST muscle. From the present results, complexity-based methods applied to the EMG give additional information than linear-based methods. They appeared sensitive to detect EMG complexity increases following warm-up.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0422.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Fresh cassava root; pellet containing high sulfur; ruminal characteristics; blood thiocyanate; Thai native beef cattle
Online: 17 December 2020 (09:16:26 CET)
The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of feeding pellet containing high sulfur (PELFUR) diet and fresh cassava root (FCR) to Thai native beef cattle on feed use efficiency, ruminal characteristics, and blood metabolites. Four male Thai native beef cattle (150 ± 15.0 kg of body weight (BW)) were allocated with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Factor A was FCR supplementation at 15 and 20 g/kg of BW. Factor B was the sulfur level in the PELFUR ration at 15 and 30 g/kg of dry matter (DM). No interaction effect was found among FCR supplementation and PELFUR in terms of feed intake and nutrient intake (p > 0.05). Cyanide intake was significantly increased based on FCR supplementation (p < 0.05), whereas sulfur intake was increased by level addition of PELFUR levels (p < 0.05). There were interaction effects among FCR supplementation and PELFUR on digestibility coeﬃcients of DM and organic matter (OM) (p < 0.05). FCR supplementation at 20 g/kg BW with PELFUR 30 g/kg demonstrated the highest digestibility of DM and OM. Moreover, interactions were observed between FCR and PELFUR for bacterial populations (p < 0.01). The populations of bacteria were highest in FCR supplementation at 20 g/kg BW with PELFUR 30 g/kg at various feeding times. An interaction effects from among feeding FCR with PELFUR was found on blood thiocyanate concentrations at various feeding times (p < 0.01). The highest mean values of blood thiocyanate were observed when feeding FCR at 20 g/kg BW with PELFUR at 30 g/kg. No interaction effect was found between FCR and PELFUR on total volatile fatty acids (VFA) and their profiles (p >0.05). However, the proportions of the total VFA at 0 and 4 h post-feeding were increased when FCR at 20 g/kg BW was supplemented (p < 0.01). FCR at 20 g/kg BW could enhance propionate (C3) at 4 h post-feeding when compared with FCR at 15 g/kg BW (p < 0.01). Moreover, supplementation of PELFUR at 30 g/kg increased the total VFA at 0 and 4 h post-feeding, whereas the concentration of C3 at 4 h post-feeding was enhanced (p < 0.05). However, no significant changes were found for any parameters among treatments and between the main effect of FCR and PELFUR supplementation (p > 0.05). In conclusion, feeding of two combinations (FCR 20 g/kg BW with PELFUR 30 g/kg) could promote the nutrient digestibility, the bacterial populations, and the rate of disappearance of cyanide without having any adverse effect on rumen fermentation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0197.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: periodontitis; Pelargonium sidoides DC root extract; proanthocyanidins; bacteriotoxicity; inflammatory cytokines; gene expression; fibroblasts; macrophages; leukocytes
Online: 18 September 2019 (04:07:50 CEST)
The study explores antibacterial, antiinflammatory and cytoprotective capacity of Pelargonium sidoides DC root extract (PSRE) and proanthocyanidin fraction from PSRE (PACN) under conditions characteristic for periodontal disease. Following previous finding that PACN exerts stronger suppression of Porphyromonas gingivalis compared to the effect on commensal Streptococcus salivarius, the current work continues antibacterial investigation on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Escherichia coli. PSRE and PACN are also studied for their ability to prevent gingival fibroblast cell death in the presence of bacteria or bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), to block LPS- or LPS+IFNγ-induced release of inflammatory mediators, gene expression and surface antigen presentation. Both PSRE and PACN were more efficient in suppressing Staphylococcus and Aggregatibacter compared to Escherichia, prevented A. actinomycetemcomitans- and LPS induced death of fibroblasts, decreased LPS-induced release of interleukin 8 and prostaglandin E2 from fibroblasts and IL-6 from leukocytes, blocked expression of IL-1β, iNOS, and surface presentation of CD80 and CD86 in LPS+IFNγ-treated macrophages, and IL-1β and COX-2 expression in LPS-treated leukocytes. None of the investigated substances affected either the level of secretion or expression of TNFα. In conclusion, PSRE, and especially PACN, possess strong antibacterial, antiinflammatory and gingival tissue protecting properties under periodontitis mimicking conditions and are suggestable candidates for treatment of the disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0222.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Lithium ion battery pack; state of charge; square root; unscented Kalman filter; adaptive covariance matching
Online: 10 October 2018 (14:45:10 CEST)
The state of charge estimation is an important part of the battery management system, the estimation accuracy of which seriously affects the working performance of the lithium ion battery pack. The unscented Kalman filter algorithm has been developed and applied to the iterative calculation process. When it is used to estimate the SOC value, there is a rounding error in the numerical calculation. When the sigma point is sampled in the next round, an imaginary number appears, resulting in the estimation failure. In order to improve the estimation accuracy, an improved adaptive square root - unscented Kalman filter method is introduced which combines the QR decomposition in the calculation process. Meanwhile, an adaptive noise covariance matching method is implied. Experiments show that the proposed method can guarantee the semi-positive and numerical stability of the state covariance, and the estimation accuracy can reach the third-order precision. The error remains about 1.60% under the condition of drastic voltage and current changes. The conclusion of this experiment can provide a theoretical basis of the state of charge estimation in the battery management of the lithium ion battery pack.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0286.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: sustainable energy; renewable energies; energy transitions; transformation to sustainability; policy analysis; grass-root movements; indigenous communities
Online: 10 June 2021 (09:37:36 CEST)
The energy sector plays an important role in Mexico’s development trajectory. Mexico makes an interesting case study, because it shows how difficult it is to reduce fossil energy dependence despite geographic and climatic conditions that favour renewable energy deployment and use. Resolving path dependencies and the related carbon lock-in are key to Mexico’s sustainable energy transition. This case study aims to identify and discuss how carbon lock-in affects Mexico’s sustainable energy transition. Mexico’s carbon lock-in involves oil and oil-run power plants that are costly to build but relatively inexpensive to operate. This case study identifies potential entry points for transitioning towards sustainable energy in Mexico – resources that can promote the use of clean energy despite carbon lock-in. For example, focusing on electrification – particularly of the carbon-intensive sectors – can help Mexico transit towards sustainable energy despite institutional constraints. Complementing this case study is a teaching guide with recommendations for using Mexico’s energy transition in courses on sustainability. It introduces a “learning activation framework” to identify emerging opportunities that can advance sustainable energy transitions in different cases of carbon lock-in. Finally, the framework also gives students a chance to help dismantle or cope with carbon lock-ins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0292.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: monoglyceride colloidal liquid crystals; release profile; mathematical models; drug delivery systems; release kinetic; square root laws
Online: 17 September 2018 (09:33:52 CEST)
The manuscript studies the release kinetic of fluorescein from colloidal liquid crystals made up from monoglyceride and different non-ionic surfactants. The release experiments were carried out under sink conditions, and mathematical models were described as extrapolations from solutions of diffusion equation in different initial and boundary conditions imposed by pharmaceutical formulations. The diffusion equation was solved, using Laplace and Fourier transformed functions for the release kinetic from infinite reservoirs in a semi-infinite medium. Solutions represents a general square root law and can be applied for the release kinetic of fluorescein from monoglyceride colloidal liquid crystals. Akaike, Schwartz and Imbimbo criteria were used to establish the appropriate mathematical model and the hierarchy of performances of different models applied to the release experiments. The Fisher statistic test was applied to perform significance of differences among mathematical models. Differences evaluated by mathematical criteria demonstrated that small or no significant statistic differences were carried out between various applied models and colloidal formulations. Phenomenological models were preferred over to empirical and semi-empirical ones. The general square root model shows that the diffusion-controlled release of fluorescein is the mathematical models extrapolated for monoglyceride colloidal liquids, in the first part of the process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0103.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: reduced sigma set Square-Root Unscented Kalman Filter; pseudo-satellite; UAV; GPS/INS tightly-coupled system
Online: 16 October 2017 (06:35:24 CEST)
In this paper, firstly, some questionable formulas and conceptual oversights of previous reduced sigma set unscented transformation (UT) methods are revised through theoretical analysis. Then the revised UT methods based Kalman filters are used in a GPS/INS tightly-coupled system. The Kalman filter flows are the kind of square-root, since the square-root unscented Kalman filters (SRUKFs) can guarantee the stability of the system. By using the reduced sigma set SRUKFs (which contain simplex sigma set square-root unscented Kalman filter (S-SRUKF), spherical simplex sigma set square-root unscented Kalman filter (SS-SRUKF) and minimum sigma set square-root unscented Kalman filter (M-SRUKF)), the computation cost is greatly saved compared with the standard SRUKF, while the accuracy of the GPS/INS tightly-coupled system still maintained. The structure of the GPS/INS tightly-coupled system is in the form of error state, and the time updates of the state and the state covariance of SRUKFs are directly estimated without using UT, thus the computational time is also greatly saved. The pseudo-satellite is introduced to aid the system when the observation information is deficient, for example, when the GPS signal is deficient in the maneuver environment. By using the pseudo-satellite, the optimal performance of the system is guaranteed. Experiment of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) showed that the pseudo-satellite aided mechanism worked well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0021.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: Solvency capital requirements capital, standard formula, near unit root, spurious correlation, VaR—implied correlations, tail dependence
Online: 12 July 2016 (09:38:23 CEST)
The Solvency II regulatory framework specifies procedures and parameters for determining solvency capital requirements (SCRs) for insurance companies. The proposed standard SCR calculations involve two steps. The Value–at–Risk (VaR) of each risk driver is measured and, in a second step, all components are aggregated to the company’s overall SCR, using the Standard Formula. This formula has two inputs: the VaRs of the individual risk drivers and their correlations. The appropriate calibration of these input parameters has been the purpose of various Quantitative Impact Studies that have been conducted during recent years. This paper demonstrates that the parameter calibration for the equity–risk module—overall, with about 25%, the most significant risk component—is seriously flawed, giving rise to spurious and highly erratic parameter values. As a consequence, an implementation of the Standard Formula with the currently proposed calibration settings for equity–risk is likely to produce inaccurate, biased and, over time, highly erratic capital requirements.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: histamine; histamine H1 receptor; histamine H4 receptor; itch; TRPV1; TRPA1; dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG); Ca2+-imaging
Online: 15 July 2021 (10:12:01 CEST)
Two histamine receptor subtypes (HR), namely H1R and H4R, as key components, are involved in the transmission of histamine-induced itch. Although exact downstream signaling mechanisms are still elusive, transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels play important roles in the sensation of histaminergic and non-histaminergic itch. Aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels in the transmission of histaminergic itch. The potential of TRPV1 and TRPA1 inhibitors to modulate H1R- and H4R-induced signal transmission was tested in a scratching assay in mice in vivo and in vitro via Ca2+ imaging of murine sensory dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. The TRPV1 inhibition led to a reduction of H1R- and H4R- induced itch and reduced Ca2+ influx into the neurons. The TRPA1 inhibitor reduced H4R-induced itch and both H1R- and H4R-induced Ca2+ influx. In conclusion, these results indicate that both channels, TRPV1 and TRPA1 are involved in the transmission of histamine-induced pruritus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0528.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: DNA strands, complementary replication, DNA alphabets, binary opposition, binary numbers, dyadic groups, matrices, algebras, split-quaternions, root-complementarity.
Online: 20 December 2022 (01:29:16 CET)
This article is devoted to results of in-depth analysis of the system of binary-oppositional structures in DNA n-plet alphabets and their algebraic-matrix representations. These results show that the molecular complementary replication of DNA strands is accompanied by the presence of an algebraic version of the principle "like begets like" in matrix representations of DNA alphabets having internal structures. This algebraic version is based on binary-oppositional structures in the genetic molecular system, which can be represented by bynary numbers and corresponding matrices of DNA alphabets. The received results allow thinking that the phenomenon "like begets like" (or a complementary replication in a wide sense) is a systemic in the genetic organization and is connected with algebraic features of biological organization. Correspondingly, the biological principle "like begets like" can be additionally modeled by algebraic-matrix methods and approaches. Such algebraic-matrix modeling of the genetic coding system gives new ways for studying and understanding a key role of the named principle in genetic and other inherited physiological complexes. The author believes that further study of the algebraic relationships of the genetic system and inherited physiological complexes will be increasingly revealing the key biological role of the ancient principle "like begets like" at different levels of biological organization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0158.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: ANFIS; artificial neural network; brushless DC motor; FPA; maximum power point tracking; photovoltaic system; root mean square error
Online: 19 March 2018 (11:04:32 CET)
In this research paper, a hybrid Artificial Neural Network (ANN)-Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) tuned Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA) as a Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) is employed to emend root mean square error (RMSE) of photovoltaic (PV) modeling. Moreover, Gaussian membership functions have been considered for fuzzy controller design. This paper interprets Luo converter occupied brushless DC motor (BLDC) directed PV water pump application. Experimental responses certify the effectiveness of the suggested motor-pump system supporting diverse operating states. Luo converter is newly developed dc-dc converter has high power density, better voltage gain transfer and superior output waveform and able to track optimal power from PV modules. For BLDC speed controlling there is no extra circuitry and phase current sensors are enforced for this scheme. The recentness of this attempt is adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS)-FPA operated BLDC directed PV pump with advanced Luo converter has not been formerly conferred.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0150.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: black pepper; Bacillus veleznesis; root-knot nematodes; antinematodes compounds; organic wastes; microbial fermentation; thymine; hexahydropyrrolo [1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:30:28 CEST)
Bacillus veleznesis RB.EK7 was recently found as a potent rhizobacterial strain for effective management of black pepper root-knot nematodes. This work aimed to produce, purify, and elucidate the chemical structures of antinematode compounds (ANCs). Concerning cost-effectiveness and environmental issues, this study used organic wastes for the bioproduction of ANCs. Among various substrates, shrimp shells powder was the most suitable carbon/nitrogen source to produce ANCs. The fermentation process for enhancement of antinematode activity was investigated. The targeting ANCs were purified from the fermented culture broth, and their structures were elucidated. Two active compounds were thymine (1) and hexahydropyrrolo [1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione (2). Notably, for the first time, these purified compounds showed potential and moderate anti- J2 nematodes and anti-eggs hatching, respectively. The docking study results indicated that the potent antinematode effect of these compounds may be possibly due to the inhibition of the targeting enzyme acetylcholinesterase. The data of this work suggest that organic waste SSP can be potentially reused for the production of thymine and hexahydropyrrolo [1,2-a] pyrazine-1,4-dione with promising use for the management of black pepper nematodes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0098.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Campenot, neurons, superior cervical ganglia, dorsal root ganglia, virus, alphaherpesvirus, herpes simplex virus, pseudorabies virus, fluorescence microscopy, cryo electron tomography
Online: 6 May 2021 (15:08:12 CEST)
The development of compartmentalized neuron culture systems has been invaluable in the study of neuroinvasive viruses, including the alpha herpesviruses Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) and Pseudorabies Virus (PRV). This chapter provides updated protocols for assembling and culturing rodent embryonic superior cervical ganglion (SCG) and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in Campenot trichamber cultures. In addition, we provide several illustrative examples of the types of experiments that are enabled by Campenot cultures: 1. Using fluorescence microscopy to investigate axonal outgrowth/extension through the chambers, and alpha herpesvirus infection, intracellular trafficking, and cell-cell spread via axons. 2. Using correlative fluorescence microscopy and cryo electron tomography to investigate the ultrastructure of virus particles trafficking in axons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0312.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Bayesian Network; Root Cause Analysis; Failure Mode and Effect Analysis; Lithium-Ion 15 Battery Cell; Failure Propagation; Multi-Stage Production; Manufacturing Process; Process Optimization; Scrap Rate
Online: 14 December 2020 (09:31:30 CET)
The production of lithium-ion battery cells is characterized by a high degree of complexit due to numerous cause-effect relationships between process characteristics. Knowledge about the multi-stage production is spread among several experts, rendering tasks such as failure analysis challenging. In this paper, a method is presented, which includes expert knowledge acquisition in production ramp-up by combining Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) with a Bayesian Network. We show the effectiveness of this holistic method by building up a large scale, cross-process Bayesian Failure Network in lithium-ion battery production. Using this model, we are able to conduct root cause analyses as well as analyses of failure propagation. The former support operators in identifying root causes once a cell possesses a specific failure by calculating most-probable explanations matched to the individual battery cell data. The latter enable us to analyze propagation of failures and deviations in the production chain and thus provide support for placement of quality gates, leading to a significant reduction in scrap rate. Moreover, it gives an insight into which process steps are key drivers for which final product characteristics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0311.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: fossil; morphology; evo-devo; paleobotany; evolution; development; macroevolution; modularity; hierarchy; structural fingerprint; regulatory module; auxin; polar auxin transport; embryophyte evolution; sporophyte evolution; polysporangiophyte; leaf evolution; secondary growth; secondary xylem; vascular cambium; strobilus; Sphenophyta; Equisetum; Lycophyta; root evolution; Lepidodendrales
Online: 14 July 2020 (13:34:20 CEST)
Fossils constitute the principal repository of data that allow for independent tests of hypotheses of biological evolution derived from observations of the extant biota. Traditionally, transformational series of structure, consisting of sequences of fossils of the same lineage through time, have been employed to reconstruct and interpret morphological evolution. More recently, a move toward an updated paradigm was fueled by the deliberate integration of developmental thinking in the inclusion of fossils in reconstruction of morphological evolution. The vehicle for this is provided by structural fingerprints – recognizable morphological and anatomical structures generated by (and reflective of) the deployment of specific genes and regulatory pathways during development. Furthermore, because the regulation of plant development is both modular and hierarchical in nature, combining structural fingerprints recognized in the fossil record with our understanding of the developmental regulation of those structures produces a powerful tool for understanding plant evolution. This is particularly true when the systematic distribution of specific developmental regulatory mechanisms and modules is viewed within an evolutionary (paleo-evo-devo) framework. Here, we discuss several advances in understanding the processes and patterns of evolution, achieved by tracking structural fingerprints with their underlying regulatory modules across lineages, living and fossil: the role of polar auxin regulation in the cellular patterning of secondary xylem and the parallel evolution of arborescence in lycophytes and seed plants; the morphology and life history of early polysporangiophytes and tracheophytes; the role of modularity in the parallel evolution of leaves in euphyllophytes; leaf meristematic activity and the parallel evolution of venation patterns among euphyllophytes; mosaic deployment of regulatory modules and the diverse modes of secondary growth of euphyllophytes; modularity and hierarchy in developmental regulation and the evolution of equisetophyte reproductive morphology. More generally, inclusion of plant fossils in the evo-devo paradigm has informed discussions on the evolution of growth patterns and growth responses, sporophyte body plans and their homology, sequences of character evolution, and the evolution of reproductive systems.